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169211, March 6, 2013 Facts: From 1990-1991, Paper City applied for and was granted four (4) loans and credit accommodations by Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation (RCBC), now substituted by Star Two (SPV-AMC), Inc by virtue of Republic Act No. 9182. The loans were secured by four (4) Deeds of Continuing Chattel Mortgages on its machineries and equipments found inside its paper plants. However, RCBC eventually executed a unilateral Cancellation of Deed of Contining Chattel Mortgage. In 1992, RCBC, as the trustee bank, together with Metrobank and Union Bank, entered into a Mortgage Trust Indenture (MTI), with Paper City. In the said MTI, Paper City acquired additional loans secured by five (5) Deed of Real Estate Mortgage, plus real and personal properties in an annex to the MTI, which covered the machineries and equipment of Paper City. The MTI was later on amended and supplemented three (3) times, wherein the loan was increased and included the same mortgages with an additional building and other improvements inthe plant site. Paper City was able to comply with the loans but only until 1997 due to an economic crisis. RCBC filed a petition for extra-judicial foreclosure against the real estate executed by Paper City including all the improvements because of payment default. The property was foreclosed and subjected to public acution. The three banks and the highest bidder were issued a Certificate of Sale. Paper City filed a complaint alleging that the sale was null and void due to lack of prior notice. During the pendency of the complaint, Paper City filed a motion to remove machinery out of the foreclosed land and building, that the same were not included in the foreclosure of the real estate mortgage. The trial court denied the motion, ruling that the machineries and equipment were included. Thereafter, Paper City's Motion for Reconsideration, the trial court granted the same and justified the reversal by finding that the machineries and equipment are chattels by agreement thru the four Deeds of Continuing Chattel Mortgages; and that the deed of cancellation executed by RCBC of said mortgage was not valid because it was one unilaterally. RCBC's Motion for Reconsideration was denied. The case was petitioned at CA that 1. That Paper City gave its consent to consider the disputedmachineries and equipment as real properties when they signed the MTI's and all its amendments; 2. That the machineries and equipment are the same as inthe MTI's, hence treated by agreement of the parties as real properties. The CA affirmed the orders of the trial court because it relied on the plain language of the MTI's stating that nowhere from any of the MTIs executed by the parties can we find the alleged "express" agreement adverted to by petitioner. There is no provision in any of the parties’ MTI, which expressly states to the effect that the parties shall treat the equipments and machineries as real property. On the contrary, the plain and unambiguous language of the aforecited MTIs, which described the same as personal properties, contradicts petitioner’s claims. Issue: Whether the subsequent contracts of the parties such as Mortgage Trust Indenture as well as the subsequent supplementary amendments included in its coverage of mortgaged properties the subject machineries and equipment; and Whether or not the subject machineries and equipment were considered real properties and should therefore be included in the extra-judicial foreclosure which in turn were sold to the banks.
49 the rule in this jurisdiction is that the contracting parties may establish any agreement. and which tend directly to meet the needs of the said industry or works. the real estate mortgages superseded the earlier chattel mortgages. the Extra-Judicial Foreclosure of Mortgage includes the machineries and equipments of respondent. 2. the parties stipulated that the properties mortgaged by Paper City to RCBC are various parcels of land including the buildings and existing improvements thereon as well as the machineries and equipments. and condition they may deem advisable. Contrary to the finding of the CA." Significantly. 1. instruments or implements intended by the owner of the tenement for an industry or works which may be carried on in a building or on a piece of land. the real and personal properties listed in Annexes ‘A’ and ‘B’ x x x of which the Paper City is the lawful and registered owner. provided they are not contrary to law. The right to enter into lawful contracts constitutes one of the liberties guaranteed by the Constitution. are "more particularly described and listed that is to say. which as stated in the granting clause of the original mortgage. xxxx (5) Machinery.Ruling: Petition was granted. The real estate mortgage over the machineries and equipments is even in full accord with the classification of such properties by the Civil Code of the Philippines as immovable property. As held in Gateway Electronics Corp. buildings. such machineries and equipments are surely part of the foreclosure of the "real estate properties. v. The real estate mortgages which specifically included the machineries and equipments were subsequent to the chattel mortgages. including all improvements thereon" as prayed for in the petition. The following are immovable property: (1) Land. term. roads and constructions of all kinds adhered to the soil. Repeatedly. Considering that the Indenture which is the instrument of the mortgage that was foreclosed exactly states through the Deed of Amendment that the machineries and equipments listed in Annexes "A" and "B" form part of the improvements listed and located on the parcels of land subject of the mortgage. receptacles. Land Bank of the Philippines. Annexes "A" and "B" are itemized listings of the buildings. morals or public policy. Without doubt. . Thus: Article 415. machineries and equipments typed single spaced in twenty-seven pages of the document made part of the records.
To repay the loan to Bacoor Bank and secure the release of the mortgage. when it purchased the property. respondent Renato. He is charged with notice only of such burdens and claims as are annotated on the title. in 1967. the defendants maintained that the MeTC did not have jurisdiction over the action because the land was classified as agricultural. Jr. and Leonardo. 6386 in the name of Laura. In due course. that is.R. Wherefore. the respondent admitted in his complaint that the registration of the land in the name of Laura alone had been with the knowledge and upon the agreement of the entire Lara-Mateo family. the respondent’s maternal grandfather. Registration of land under the Torrens System. that they had been in continuous and open possession of the land even before World War II and had presumed themselves entitled to a government grant of the land. Cesar. Felicidad died intestate. Las Piñas City from China Bank. and the other occupants of the property. and consolidated its ownership of the property in 1985 after Pe failed to redeem.. namely: (a) the incontrovertibility of the title of Laura. Ruling: The land in question has been covered by a Torrens certificate of title (OCT No. solely upon the face of the certificate of title in the name of China Bank. however. . but only has to rely on the certificate of title.Casimiro Development Corporation vs. a deed of sale covering the property was executed in favor of Laura. and Leonardo. Laura recovered the property by repaying the obligation with the proceeds of another loan obtained from Rodolfo Pe (Pe). The first loan was obtained from Bacoor Rural Bank (Bacoor Bank). namely: Cesar. 99527 was a clean title. and that the CA did not rule on matters that fortified its title in the property. Mateo G. also renders the title immune from collateral attack. aside from perfecting the title and rendering it indefeasible after the lapse of the period allowed by law. the name of Casimiro Development Corporation valid and subsisting. who. July 17. considering that China Bank’s TCT No. more or less. Candido. In fact. namely: Laura. CDC brought an action for unlawful detainer in the Metropolitan Trial Court (MeTC) in Las Piñas City against the respondent’s siblings. 2011 FACTS: Casimiro Development Corporation (CDC) purchased a parcel of land (property) with an area of 6. fully aware of the exclusive registration in her sister Laura’s name. In all that time. China Bank foreclosed the mortgage. required that the title be meanwhile transferred to his name. On February 28. considering that the land had been registered before its being declared alienable. (b) the action being barred by laches and res judicata. that the jurisdiction belonged to the Department of Agrarian Reform Adjudication Board (DARAB). therefore. and that CDC’s title was invalid. Jr. CDC had the right to rely. Candido. No. Upon the death of Isaias Lara in 1930. In short. it was free from any lien or encumbrance. located in Barrio Pulang Lupa. One who deals with property registered under the Torrens system need not go beyond the certificate of title. Laura borrowed funds from Parmenas Perez. the property passed on to his children. The subject property was originally owned by Isaias Lara. She later executed a deed of sale in favor of Pe. neither the respondent nor his siblings opposed the transactions causing the various transfers. TCT No. Subsequently. and (c) the property having been conveyed to third parties who had then claimed adverse title. Thus. allowed more than 20 years to pass before asserting his claim of ownership for the first time through this case in mid-1994. who. Felicidad Lara-Mateo had five children. who in turn constituted a mortgage on the property in favor of China Banking Corporation (China Bank) as security for a loan. ISSUE: CDC argues that it was a buyer in good faith. applied for land registration. the property was used as collateral to secure a succession of loans. With the agreement of the entire Lara-Mateo family. Therein. which later effected the transfer of the full and exclusive ownership to Felicidad Lara-Mateo by the co-heirs under an agreement. and its derivative certificates) before CDC became the registered owner by purchase from China Bank. On June 6. In the end. Renato L. 1991. that the respondent.693 square meters. It is unthinkable. 175485. (99527) T-11749-A was issued in the name of China Bank. Making it worse for him is that he did so only after CDC had commenced the ejectment case against his own siblings. 1991.
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