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CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Nonlinear Analysis

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 1


Review

Discretize matter t LCA


m1 X KVL, KCL, i-v
any
m2 X Composition rules
circuit
m3 X Node method
m4 X Superposition linear
m5 X Thévenin, Norton circuits

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 2


Review

Discretize value t Digital abstraction


X Subcircuits for given “switch”
setting are linear! So, all 5
methods (m1 – m5) can be
applied
VS VS
A =1
RL B =1 RL
C C
A B RON RON

SR MOSFET Model

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 3


Today
Nonlinear Analysis

X Analytical method
based on m1, m2, m3

X Graphical method

X Introduction to incremental analysis

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 4


How do we analyze nonlinear
circuits, for example:

iD Hypothetical
+ nonlinear
V + vD D

- device
(Expo Dweeb ☺)

+ vD -
D
iD
iD = aebvD
iD

a
vD
0,0
(Curiously, the device supplies power when vD is negative)
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 5
Method 1: Analytical Method
Using the node method,
(remember the node method applies for linear or
nonlinear circuits)

vD − V
+ iD = 0 1
R

iD = aebvD 2

2 unknowns 2 equations

Solve the equation by


trial and error
numerical methods

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 6


Method 2: Graphical Method
Notice: the solution satisfies equations
1 and 2

iD

2 iD = aebvD
a
vD

V vD
iD 1 iD = −
R R
V 1
R slope = −
R

vD
V

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 7


Combine the two constraints

iD

V called “loadline”
1
R for reasons you
~ 0 .4 will see later
a
¼ vD
~ 0.5 V
1

e.g. V =1 vD = 0.5V
R =1 iD = 0.4 A
1
a=
4
b =1

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 8


Method 3: Incremental Analysis
Motivation: music over a light beam
Can we pull this off?

iD iR
+
vI (t ) +
– vD LED AMP
-
light
intensity iR ∝ I R
I D ∝ iD
light intensity IR
vI music signal in photoreceiver

t LED: Light
Emitting
expoDweep ☺

vI (t ) iD (t ) light iR (t ) sound

nonlinear
linear
problem! will result in distortion
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 9
Problem:
The LED is nonlinear distortion
iD
iD

vD
t vD = vI

vD
t

iD
vD
t

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 10


If only it were linear …
iD
iD

vD

vD
t

it would’ve been ok.

What do we do?
Zen is the answer
… next lecture!
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 6 11