WHAT IS CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS?

CARRIZO, Noelia CHAIN, Andrea FAERMAN, Sandra GORDILLO, Eugenia

The place of CA in Linguistics
LINGUISTICS:  It is the scientific study of language.  The study of the nature, structure, and variation of language, including Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Sociolinguistics, and Pragmatics.

His or her studies may be devoted to different fields such as:  Teaching one or more languages  Translation and Interpretation  Language Families or Language History  Philosophy As LINGUISTS we can find polyglots (multilingual). anthropologists. among others.A LINGUIST is a person whose main aim is the professional study of a language. historians. philologers. . teachers. philosophers.

.  Project  Organization LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE is the relationship between language and the different scientific fields with which Linguists are concerned.LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE:  A systematic purposeful activity.

They tend to be anthropologists or philologers.LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS: 1)Two different approaches to Linguistics:  GENERALIST: Linguists consider the general phenomenon of human language. They can be philosophers. .  PARTICULARIST: Linguists treat individual languages.

development. . it is a combination of literary studies.LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS  PHILOLOGY is the study of language in written historical sources. especially its origins. customs and beliefs.  ANTHROPOLOGY is the study of the human race. history and linguistics.  PHILOSOPHY is the study of the nature and meaning of the universe and human life.

 Comparativist shares the assumption that languages are unique but they also say that languages share similar features which can be compared and classified into types. .  Someone who studies a language in isolation deals with the inherent parts of the particular language that makes it unique and different from others.LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS 2) Linguists study language either in isolation or in a comparative way.

"I wonder if I should run around (aimlessly)" .escribiendomelo  Finish: juoksentelisinkohan. For example:  English: antidisestablishmentarianism  Spanish: antidesestructurante.LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS Linguistic Typology: Synthetic  It is a language in which the greatest number of ideas is comprised in the least number of words.

LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS Analytic  These languages have free morphemes considered to be independent words. talkED) . It uses very few bound morphemes such as English prefixes and suffixes (Refill. talkING.slowLY) and in the inflexions of English nouns and verbs (boxES.

grammatical relationships are expressed by changing the internal structure of the words through inflections.wrote-written  Number: child-children  Gender: actor-actress .LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS Inflectional  In these languages. Suffixes express several grammatical meanings. For example in English:  Tense: write.

agglutination is the morphological process of adding affixes to the base of a word. from oto+hito. For example Japanese expresses fusion in otōto (弟 younger brother). .LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS Agglutinating  In linguistics.

 There are many languages in which the tone can determine meaning of the word. we find the following: High level: ¯bεη (“uncle”) Low level: _bεη (“greedy”) ¯ma (“mother”) ¯buu (“horn”) _buu (“to be cross”) \ma (“scold”)  In Mandarin Chinese for example: /ma (“hemp”) . different tones will change the meaning of the words. For example:  In Kono.LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS Tone  In a tone language. a language of west Africa. and changing from one tone to another can completely change the meaning. even if the pronunciation of the word is the same.

e. i. It has five main concerns:  to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages  to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and determine their relatedness. grouping them into language families  to develop general theories about how and why language changes  to describe the history of speech communities  to study the history of words.LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS 3) we can distinguish “two sciences of language”: DIACHRONIC: The study of language change. etymology .

without reference to the history of the language or comparison with other languages.  For example: linguistic typology .LINGUISTIC ENTERPRISE DIMENSIONS SYNCHRONIC:  The study of the grammar. . classification. and arrangement of the features of a language at a given time.

CA seems to be a hybrid linguistic enterprise.  It is not synchronic.  Interested in both the nature of the language and its comparison with other languages. * CA is a linguistic enterprise aimed at producing contrastive language systems and founded on the assumption that languages can be compared.  It doesn’t consider classifications.WHAT IS CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS? The nature of contrastive analysis as a linguistic enterprise  Neither generalist nor particularist. .

language in general. This does not simply mean pronunciation changes. based on a number of circumstances. It consist of a variety of branches which are concentrated on parts of whole languages. spelling and other factors. For example: . but can also mean differences in word choice.CA AS INTERLANGUAGE STUDY  Linguistics has as its object of study any human   Phonetics: it is concerned with human noises by which the message is given audible shape  Dialectology: Dialectology is a study of language that focuses on understanding dialects. When dialectologists study language they are principally concerned with identifying how the same language can vary.

 HISTORICAL  GEOGRAPHICAL  SOCIAL .CA AS INTERLANGUAGE STUDY  3 Kinds of DIALECTS can be distinguished.

.HISTORICAL DIALECTS The letter /k/ and /tʃ/ were represented by /c/ Examples: cyssan “to kiss” cinn “chin”  ge (plural) pu (singular) today we use “you” in both cases.

e.  The study of dialects with regard to their geographic distribution.g.GEOGRAPHICAL DIALECTS  Also called a regional dialect. the spread of a particular dialect being halted at a mountain range.. etc. . body of water. forest belt. as opposed to a dialect that appears primarily in an ethnic group or social caste. A dialect that appears primarily in a geographic area. as well as how their distribution may be affected by geography.

SOCIAL DIALECTS  /r/ that comes before a vowel as in car or  star People of high social class have the tendency to omit this sound. Suffix.ing In words like swimming and sleeping there are two types of pronunciation: /in/ and /iɳ/ Higher social classes use more /in/ compared to /iɳ/.    .

CA AS INTERLANGUAGE STUDY Interlanguage study:  A linguistic system that results from a second language learner attempt to produce the target language. . It is considered to be a separate linguistic system from the native language and target language.

It looks at the errors made by learners while they are learning and asks questions about them.CA AS INTERLANGUAGE STUDY  Within the interlingual study there are three branches:  Translation theory: the study of how texts from one language are transformed into comparable texts in another language. For example: the student who may change “sat” to “seated” or “sated” because the past tense “ed” has just been internalized. Error analysis looks at such errors positively and considers them necessary to the development of language.  Contrastive Analysis: it considers L1 to be mainly an interference to the mastery of L2 . be it first or second.  Error analysis: in error analysis learning develops in different stages as learners interact with the environment.

.  The language which appears in this intermediate state is called INTERLINGUA according to translation theory.CA as Interlanguage study INTERLANGUAGE STUDIES  We have to take into account the two languages concerned (SL/NL and FL/TL).  It is a system which includes the analysis characteristics of the source language and the synthesis characteristics of target language.  The focus of attention is on the intermediate space between these languages.

CA AS “PURE” OR “APPLIED” LINGUISTICS  APPLIED LINGUISTICS  An interdisciplinary field of study that identifies. . anthropology and sociology. and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education. psychology. investigates.

but lie in the universals of language. contrastive. their interests are not comparative.CA AS “PURE” OR “APPLIED” LINGUISTICS  PURE LINGUISTIC  Pure or general linguistics aims to study general properties of language independently from other disciplines. . In addition.   It is important to mention that pure linguists have been practicing something very similar to CA. not for application purposes. it studies linguistic properties primarily for its own sake. or typological.

. While “pure” CA is not relevant in “pure” linguistics. it is the major concern of applied linguistics.CA AS “PURE” OR “APPLIED” LINGUISTICS  CA analysis is a form of both “pure” and “applied” linguistics.

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