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Tingting Chen Department of Computer Science Fall 2013
Schedule for Today
• Syllabus of this course • Introduction of wireless networks • Physical Layer (if time allows)
Goals of this Course
• Understand fundamental principles and mechanisms in wireless networks at different layers
– E.g., radio propagation and wireless medium access
• Learn how different types of wireless networks work
– E.g., cellular networks, wireless local area networks
• Get experience in working with wireless networks
– Implement and measure wireless protocols
• Get some view of the ongoing research in the area of the wireless networks
• • • • • • • Introduction Radio propagation – Physical layer Wireless medium access – MAC Layer Cellular networks WLAN -- 802.11 Series WPANs Routing in MANET, Wireless Mesh Networks, and Sensor Networks • Wireless Network Security
2005.Administrative stuff • Prerequisites: CS 4283 or ECEN 4283 – Basic networking and programming knowledge • Recommended Textbook: “William Stallings.okstate. Wireless Communications & Networks”. Prentice Hall. – Will not cover all the material in the book – Not all material is in the book – Lecture slides may be from various sources • Course materials will be posted in D2L system.edu . • Office hours – Thursday 9:30 am – 11:30 am – 212 MSCS – tingting@cs. 2nd edition.
okstate.edu • Course timeline . firstname.lastname@example.org – Jiyoung Shin.okstate. jiyouns@cs.Grading • Grade distribution – Paper Presentation : 30% – Exams (midterm and final): 30% – Project: 30% • Based on simulators or testbed • At most 3 people in a team – Class participation: 10% • TAs for this course – Shiyu Ji.
to desktop • standard applications 8 . power • Small battery RFID tag • A few thousands of logical gates • Responds only to the RFID reader requests (no battery) Mobile phones • voice. data • web access • location based services Laptop • functionally eq.Wireless Devices Wireless sensors • Limited proc.
5 MHz 30 satellites currently Orbit altitude: approx.200 km Frequency: 1575.42 MHz Bit-rate: 50 bps Iridium 9505A Satellite Phone Iridium Satellite • Global Positioning System (GPS) BTCC-45 Bluetooth GPS receiver . 20. 780 km Frequency band: 1616-1626.Satellites • Launched in 1960s • Iridium satellites – – – – – – – – 66 active satellites Supports 1100 concurrent phone calls Orbit altitude: approx.
Mobile phones • 2-way 2-party communication using digital transmission technology • In 2002 the number of mobile phones exceeded that of land lines • Currently. more than 1 billion mobile phones! • Applications – – – – SMS text messaging Voice Web access Location based services .
• Data rates: 9.4Kbps .6Kbps to 14.Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) • GSM was developed in Europe in 1980s and became an international standard 13 years later • Mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate neighborhood. • Uses TDMA framework • Over 250 GSM Networks are presently operating in 110 countries • Most 3G networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band.
11 standards – 802.Wi-Fi • Connect end devices to internet through access points/hotspots. • Wi-Fi devices: – Smartphone. • An access point has a range of about 20 meters indoors. video game console.11 b: limited to 11 mbps . personal computer. • City-wide wifi • Campus-wide wifi • IEEE 802. etc.
WiMax • Wireless “Last-mile” • Enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL • Maximum range of 50 km. Australia – Cell edge typically 1-4 Mbps • IEEE 802. with higher bitrates when reducing the range • A city-wide deployment of WiMAX in Perth.16 wireless-networks standard • WiMAX PA3500 directional antenna – Frequency band: 3200-3800 MHz .
Peer-to-peer communications. Routing can be multihop.Ad Hoc Networks • • • • • No backbone infrastructure. Applications – Military networks – Appliances and entertainment units at home . Topology is dynamic.
• Data is centralized and sent to the drivers to warn them of traffic conditions ahead.Vehicle to Vehicle Communications • The vehicles form an ad hoc WLAN • The system continuously monitors the position. • Drivers can view information on a display. . and receive safety warnings through advanced interfaces. speed. distance and direction of surrounding road users.
and consumer electronics companies • Few applications beyond cable replacement . extendable to 100m) • 2.4 GHz band (crowded) • 1 Data (700 Kbps) and 3 voice channels • Widely supported by telecommunications. PC.Bluetooth • Cable replacement RF technology (low cost) • Short range (10m.
Radio-frequency identification • Data transfer from an electronic tag (RFID tag) to a reader. using radio waves. to identify or track the object.g.56 MHz) Operating distance: 1cm Communication speed: up to 848 Kbit/s SDI 010 RFID Reader RFID tag . • Applications – Attached to cars. computer equipment. mobile phones – E. financial institutions use RFID to track key assets ISO14443-A and B (13. books..
Wireless Technologies .
. WLAN) • Restrictive regulations of frequencies – Usage of frequencies has to be coordinated. useful frequencies are almost all occupied (or at least reserved) • Lower security (higher vulnerability) – Shared radio links – Unknown variable points . engines. other wireless networks. micro-wave ovens • Lower transmission rates – From a few kbit/s (e.g. lightning. GSM) to a few 100s of Mbit/s (e.g.Difference between wireless networks and fixed networks • Higher data loss-rates due notably to interferences – Emissions of e..g.
Recommended books • In addition to the textbook – L. Buttyan and JP Hubaux: Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Cambridge University Press. 2008 – A. Cambridge University Press. 2005 . Viswanath: Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. Cambridge University Press. Tse and P. Goldsmith: Wireless Communications. 2005 – D.
Physical Layer • Radio frequency introduction • Channel capacity • Modulation and multiplexing .
• Radio frequency ranges 3KHz to 300 GHz. • Can also be expressed as a function of frequency . • Electromagnetic Signal is essentially a function of time.Electromagnetic Signal • Electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light.1cm. • Wavelength ranges 100 km to 0.
analog or digital signal pattern that repeats over time – • Aperiodic signal .signal intensity varies in a smooth fashion over time • Digital signal .Time-Domain View • Analog signal .signal intensity maintains a constant level for some period of time and then changes to another constant level – No breaks or discontinuities in the signal • Periodic signal .analog or digital signal pattern that doesn't repeat over time • where T is the period of the signal s(t +T ) = s(t ) .
the intensity of the signal varies as a function of distance from the source .Simple example: Sine Wave • RF signal travels at the speed of light • Can look at a point in space: signal amplitude will change in time according to a sine function • Can take a snapshot in time: signal will “look” like a sine function in space – At a particular instant of time.
maximum value or strength of the signal over time.distance occupied by a single cycle of the signal – Or.Parameters of Periodic Signal • Peak amplitude (A) .amount of time it takes for one repetition of the signal • Phase () . in cycles per second. or Hertz (Hz) • Period (T ) .measure of the relative position in time within a single period of a signal • Wavelength () . the distance between two points of corresponding phase of two consecutive cycles – T = 1/f . typically measured in volts • Frequency (f ) – Rate at which the signal repeats.
f = 2. thus T = 1s (b) Reduced peak amplitude.5 (c) Increased frequency. thus T = ½ (d) Phase shift. f = 1 Hz.Sine Wave Parameters • General sine wave – s(t ) = A sin(2ft + ) • The following figure shows the effect of varying each of the three parameters: A. A=0. – – – – (a) A = 1. = 0. f. = /4 radians (45 degrees) • note: 2 radians = 360° = 1 period .
Sine Wave Parameters .
with different amplitudes and phases • The period of the total signal is equal to the period of the fundamental frequency – All other frequencies are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. .Frequency-Domain Concepts • Any electromagnetic signal can be shown to consist of a collection of sine waves at different frequencies .
The Frequency Domain • A signal can be viewed as a sum of sine waves of different strengths. – Corresponds to energy at a certain frequency .
The Frequency Domain • Signal = sum of sine waves .
when all frequency components of a signal are integer multiples of one frequency.width of the spectrum of a signal • Effective bandwidth (or just bandwidth) .Frequency-Domain Concepts • Fundamental frequency . it’s referred to as the fundamental frequency • Spectrum .range of frequencies that a signal contains • Absolute bandwidth .narrow band of frequencies that most of the signal’s energy is contained in .
Modulation and Multiplexing .
Analog Signals • Analog Signals: continuously varying. depending on frequency • Examples of media: – Copper wire media – Fiber optical cable – Wireless: Atmosphere or space propagation • Cannot recover from distortion or noise . may be propagated over a variety of media.
Digital Signals • Digital Signals: A sequence of voltage pulses that may be transmitted over a copper wire medium – Generally cheaper than analog signaling – Less susceptible to noise interference – Can regenerate digital signal along the path (repeater vs amplifier) .
• Frequency (FM) and phase modulation (PM): change the frequency or phase of the signal • Can also combine modulation types. . • Amplitude modulation (AM): change the strength of the carrier based on the information to be sent. typically between on and off.Modulation • Modulation: Sender changes the nature of the signal in a way that the receiver can recognize.
Amplitude and Frequency Modulation .
optical • Carrier modulation: use the signal (information to be sent) to modulate a higher frequency signal (carrier).g.g. e. – E.. some media only transmit higher frequencies. • Baseband modulation has limited use – E. – Can be viewed as the product of the two signals – Corresponds to a shift in the frequency domain • Same idea applies to frequency and phase modulation. change frequency of the carrier instead of its amplitude .Baseband vs Carrier Modulation • Baseband modulation: send the “bare” signal.g.
Amplitude Carrier Modulation Amplitude Signal Carrier Frequency Amplitude Modulated Carrier .
Multiple Channels Determines Bandwidth of Link Amplitude Frequency Determines Bandwidth of Channel Different Carrier Frequencies .
Multiplexing • Capacity of transmission medium usually exceeds capacity required for transmission of a single signal • Multiplexing .carrying multiple signals on a single medium – More efficient use of transmission medium .
Multiplexing Techniques • Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) – Useful when bandwidth exceeds the required bandwidth of a given signal – Divide the capacity in the frequency domain • Time-division multiplexing (TDM) – Divide the capacity in the time domain – Fixed or variable length time slices .
Frequency-division Multiplexing .
Time-division Multiplexing .
• The two solutions can be combined . – Hardware is slightly more expensive • Time-division multiplexing: – Different users send at different times – Each user can send at full speed at some of the time – There is some transition time between time slots.Frequency-division vs Time-division • Frequency-division multiplexing: – Different users use different parts of the frequency spectrum – Each user can send all the time at reduced rate.
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