NURSING PARADIGM

Kusman Ibrahim, Ph.D.

Faculty of Nursing, Padjadjaran University

Definition (wikipedia)
• It comes from Greek "παράδειγμα" (paradeigma), "pattern, example, sample“ from the verb "παραδείκνυμι" (paradeiknumi), "exhibit, represent, expose" and that from "παρά" (para), "beside, by"+ "δείκνυμι" (deiknumi), "to show, to point out" • a dynamic field or "world" of concepts — such that it represents a union between intelligent inquiry and some particular kind of world view

Nursing) in a clear. 1997: 463). explicit term that can be communicated to others” (Kelly 2003:194) .Definition of paradigm • “a way of looking at natural phenomena that encompasses a set of philosophical assumptions and that guides one's approach to inquiry" (Polit & Hungler. • “ a world view or general perspective for viewing some complexity of the real world that becomes embedded in the orientation of those who subscribe to the paradigm” (Chaska. 1990:167) • “Ways of looking at (Conceptualizing a Discipline (ex.

• The most abstract component in the structural hierarchy of contemporary nursing knowledge: identify the phenomena of interest of a discipline and describe the relationships among the phenomena (Khun.Mataparadigm in nursing • "is a statement or group of statements identifying its relevant phenomena" (Fawcett. 1984. and NURSING . HEALTH. ENVIRONMENT. pg. 84). 1977) • The phenomena of interest to the discipline of nursing is represented by four concepts: PERSON.

COMPONENTS OF NURSING KNOWLEDGE COMPONENTS LEVEL OF ABSTRACTION METAPARADIGM PHILOSOPHIES MOST ABSTRACT CONCEPTUAL MODELS THEORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS MOST CONCRETE .

Function of the metaparadigm • Provide the general parameters of the field and give scientists a broad orientation to work • Summarize the intellectual and social missions of a discipline and place a boundary on the subject matter of the discipline • Distinguish a discipline from others .

recognizing that humans are in continuous interaction with environments (Donaldson & Crowley.Example • Nursing focus on “the wholeness or health of humans. 1978) • Medicine focus on “diagnosis and treatment of diseases” .

Τhe meta-paradigm concepts Health Person Nursing Environment .

Metaparadigm Concepts PERSON ENVIRONMENT NURSING HEALTH .

SOCIETY/ENVIRONMENT Person NURSING HEALTH INTERRELATIONSHIP OF CONCEPTS NURSING THEORY .

and other groups. . families.Person The recipient of nursing. communities. including individuals.

as well as to the setting in which nursing occursperson’s home-clinical agencies.Environment The person’s significant others and physical surroundings. .society.

and worldwide cultural. and economic conditions that are associated with the person’s health. national. . regional. social.Environment All the local. political.

Health The person’s state of well being high-level wellness to terminal illness .

the actions taken by nurses on behalf of or in conjunction with the person. and the goal or outcomes of nursing actions. Nursing actions: systematic process of assessment. planning.Nursing The definition of nursing. labeling. intervention. and evaluation .

Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring: Metaparadigm By: Sheldon Hubert .

• Has distinct human needs. not objective. cared for. which are biophysical. respected. • Is to be valued. psychophysical. nurtured. understood and assisted. • Is directly influenced by their external environment. .THE PERSON (PATIENT) • Is subjective and unique. there is no division among the mind. • Is a functioning whole. psychosocial and interpersonal. body and spirit (George/2002). predictable and calculating.

color. physical. spiritual. supportive environments). • Contains “noise. emotional. 2004). • Affects both patients and nurses within a caringhealing model. • Is usually designed as a home-like environment but these “systems still fall short as healing spaces” (Watson/1999).THE ENVIRONMENT • Is crucial to the holistic healing (mental. . light. social. privacy. access to nature. (Bernick. which is conducive to a patients health and wellbeing. space and smells that can have an impact on the caring-healing process” (Watson/1999). protective. developmental.

mental and spiritual self. . aesthetic and moral realms. as the unity between the physical. with all parts working together in harmony and functioning to their full capacity. social. not just their behaviour and physiology (George/2002).HEALTH • Is viewed holistically. • Entirely includes a individuals physical. • Is a perceived by the patient and is influenced by their own unique life experiences (Bernick/2004). social.

professional and thoughtful interactions to restore and promote holistic health and to prevent illness. • Is a holistic practice that is complementary to medicine.NURSING • Is a caring. • Is providing caring. . meaningful and harmonic connective bond that is shared between the nurse and the patient (George/2002).

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