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Simplified selection procedure
For a detailed Selection Guide, please refer to ABB publications PTHVP/A 2300E and PTHVP/A 2310E. The catalogues list the available standard arresters from ABB of porcelain-housed arresters type EXLIM and silicone polymer-housed arresters, type PEXLIM. The selection is carried out in two major steps: • Matching the electrical characteristics of the arresters to the system’s electrical demands • Matching the mechanical characteristics of the arresters to the system’s mechanical and environmental requirements. The final selection is reflected in the arrester type designation.
Um Uc Ur
Maximum system voltage Continuous operating voltage Rated voltage
k Ups Upl Uws Uwl
Earth fault factor Switching impulse protective level Lightning impulse protective level Switching impulse withstand level Lightning impulse withstand level
TOV Temporary overvoltage T TOV strength factor
ABB Surge Arresters — Buyer’s Guide
Edition 4, 2003-10
2003-10 ABB Surge Arresters — Buyer’s Guide .Selection of arrester Flowchart for simplified selection of surge arresters C-2 Edition 4.
8 12 10. Its amplitude is determined by the system earthing conditions and its duration by the faultclearance time. Energy capability of ABB arresters: The normal application range is only a guide.4 or less. If the earth-fault factor. the selection of Ur is only a function of the applied temporary overvoltages.550 kV 362 . For 10 and 20 kA arresters. generated by system events. follow the procedure hereunder: • Consider each TOV separately. Arresters for higher class may be required depending on the specific parameters.0 5. TOV are long-duration. value of Ur for withstanding this TOV. The ”class” figure roughly gives the expected energy absorbed in kJ/kV (Ur) per impulse. Rated Voltage. (k) = Utov/Uca.1 7.5 15.Selection of arrester Matching the electrical characteristics Arrester rated voltage (Ur) For each system voltage. The arresters must withstand the heat energy generated by them.4 15. Most commonly. with or without harmonics.8 10.73 For effectively earthed systems.800 kV 420 . All other forms of earthing via an impedance or a non-earthing of the neutral is considered as non-effective with k = 1. ABB Surge Arresters — Buyer’s Guide Edition 4. System Earthing Effective Effective Non-effective Fault Duration ≤1s ≤1s ≤ 10 s System Voltage Um (kV) ≤ 100 ≥ 123 ≤ 170 Min. a single or two-phase earth fault leads to a TOV in the healthy phase(s) and also in the neutral of Yconnected transformers. the tables ”Guaranteed protective data” show a range of Ur and maximum continuous operating voltages Uc.93 x Um (EXLIM T) ≥ 1. • Utov/T gives the min.25 x Um Non-effective Non-effective ≤2h >2h ≤ 170 ≤ 170 Table 1.8 7. the faultclearance time is generally under 1 s but it can vary widely among different systems. • The final choice of Ur will be the highest of the Ur values obtained from the above calculations for each TOV. (Utov). mostly powerfrequency (p. the ABB arresters are tested for a much higher energy absorption capability.91 x Um ≥ 0. Energy capability & line discharge class IEC classifies arresters by their nominal discharge current. Choose the next higher standard rating. • From the TOV curves. 2003-10 C-3 . read off the TOV strength factor (T) for the time corresponding to the fault-clearance time. they are also classified by energy capability expressed as line discharge class (2 to 5) verified in a long duration current test and a switching surge operating duty test.11 x Um ≥ 1. all of which are capable of withstanding the actual continuous operating voltage (Uca) with sufficient margin. Note: Do not select a lower value of Ur than obtained as above unless the parameters are known more exactly.f.72 x Um ≥ 0.550 kV 362 . choose the next higher standard rating as given in the catalogue. the arrester is subjected to two impulses of a given amplitude and duration after which it must be thermally stable against Uc. The table gives a minimum value of the arrester rated voltage (Ur).420 kV 170 . As seen in Table 2.4 Normal application range (Um) ≤ 170 kV ≤ 170 kV 170 . taking into account their amplitudes and duration. otherwise the arrester may be overstressed by TOV. the system is considered to be effectively earthed. is 1.8 x Um ≥ 0.f.800 kV Table 2. Hence. this implies a solid connection of the neutral to the earth grid. TOV. voltages. Generally.420 kV 362 .550 kV 420 . For other durations or for specific TOV conditions.) or nearly p. In the latter. Arrester Type EXLIM R PEXLIM R EXLIM Q PEXLIM Q EXLIM P PEXLIM P HS PEXLIM P EXLIM T HS PEXLIM T Line discharge class 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 Energy capability (2 impulses) kJ/kV (Ur) 5. Ur (kV) ≥ 0. In each case. The catalogues list the values of TOV capability for 1 and 10 s duration after a prior energy stress (as a conservative approach).
the normal range of application as above applies even for ANSI systems.0 kAp 2.981 at 1. For more detailed information regarding this.590 2.275 2. However.350 2. Note! Do NOT use a lower-than selected (Ur) to attempt improve the margins.020 at 2.5 2. publication PTHVP/A 2312en.0 kAp Table 3.5 kAp 2. Ups and also that most equipment at present have a high Uwl and Uws.4 2. Note! The ”distance effect” reduction does not apply to Ups margin since the front-time of a switching surge impulse is longer. the selection should be changed to an arrester of a higher line discharge class.0 kAp 2. As an additional assistance in selection. Similarly. please refer to publications PTHVP/A 2310E and PTHVP/A 2120en. Protection levels (Upl and Ups) For insulation co-ordination purposes. they must be rounded upwards. e. Margins are normally excellent due to the low Upl.060 at 0.5 2.020 at 2. The flexible erection alternatives for PEXLIM arresters may be of benefit in reducing the distance effects. For specific and special cases.0kAp 1.275 2.976 at 2. 2003-10 ABB Surge Arresters — Buyer’s Guide .5 2. It is recommended that the protection margins (after taking into account the ”distance effect”) should be of the order of 20% or more to account for uncertainties and possible reduction in the withstand values of the protected equipment with age. Additional line-entrance arresters may help too. Upl and Ups ratios for ABB arresters Protection margins Protection margins (in %). the Upl margin is reduced and thus arresters fail to protect equipment that is not in the close vicinity of the arresters (i. Arrester Type Nom. In the latter case.5 kAp 1.g.200 2.590 2.e. e. Should the selected arrester type not give the desired protection margins.5 kA (for Um ≤ 170 kV) to 2 kA (for Um ≥ 362 kV). where Uwl is the external insulation withstand of the equipment against lightning impulses.0 kAp 1.g. capacitor banks. • Margin for switching impulses = ((Uws/ Ups)-1) x 100 where Uws is the external insulation withstand of the equipment for switching impulses. consider the lightning impulse protection level (Upl) at 10 kA for Um ≤ 362 kV and at 20 kA for higher voltages.350 2. Note! ANSI standards refer to Uwl as BIL and Uws as BSL. which automatically leads to lower Upl. The values can be read-off from the catalogue tables or easily computed from Table 3. within their protection zone).275 2. C-4 Edition 4. depending on the electrical distance between the arrester and the protected equipment. the switching impulse protection levels (Ups) for co-ordination purposes range from 0.060 at 0. as this may lead to unacceptably low TOV capability. it may be necessary to calculate the energy capability as shown in the IEC 60099-5 and other guides. calculated at co-ordinating impulse currents as per Table 3. please refer to the simplified flow chart at the beginning of this chapter.981 at 1.020 at 2. Discharge current (In) Upl/Ur at 10 kAp Upl/Ur at 20 kAp Ups/Ur EXLIM R PEXLIM R EXLIM Q PEXLIM Q EXLIM P PEXLIM P HS PEXLIM P EXLIM T 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 2.0 kAp 2. are defined as follows: • Margin for lightning impulses = ((Uwl/Upl)-1) x 100.Selection of arrester Matching the electrical characteristics Though the energy capability is mentioned in a different manner in ANSI.
a.a. If the creepage demand exceeds 31 mm/kV. Select the housing to give the desired creepage . are better suited for extremely polluted areas than EXLIM arresters and a lower creepage may be justified in many cases. DPSSL n.Selection of arrester Matching the mechanical characteristics The varistor column must be suitably housed to withstand long-term effects of the system loading and the environmental stresses. n. n. the lower mechanical strength of PEXLIM arresters can be compensated by using suspended or under-hung erection or by special bracing for upright erection. 2003-10 C-5 . n.a. 1 000 2 500 2 500 19 000 19 000 MPDSL . For details. External creepage distance IEC 60815 defines the minimum creepage distances for different environmental conditions. For short arresters. to reduce the static loading.a.a. Mechanical test of silicone-housed arrester PEXLIM P.Maximum permissible dynamic service load. Since arresters do not carry any large continuous current. n. n. For longer arresters.a.the same as for the other equipment in the same location. PSSL . they should be provided with lighter leads and clamps Table 4. Suspending PEXLIM arresters further reduces the static terminal loading and allows PEXLIM arresters to also be chosen for higher voltages without mechanical problems. please refer to ABB for a special design. the mechanical strength of PEXLIM approximately equals that for EXLIM.Declared permissible static service load. DPSSL . n.Permissible static service load (for PEXLIM arresters this is a declared value based on cyclic loading). n. having a highly hydrophobic housing.a. n.a. PEXLIM arresters. Arrester type EXLIM R-C EXLIM Q-D EXLIM Q-E EXLIM P-G EXLIM T-B PEXLIM R-Y PEXLIM Q-X PEXLIM P-X HS PEXLIM P HS PEXLIM T Cantilever strength (Nm) MPDSL 7 500 18 000 7 500 18 000 18 000 1 600 4 000 4 000 28 000 28 000 PSSL 3 000 7 200 3 000 7 200 7 200 n.a. Mechanical strength The maximum useable static and permissible cantilever loading is shown in the relevant catalogues and summarised in Table 4.a. Permissible strength loading for ABB arresters ABB Surge Arresters — Buyer’s Guide Edition 4. refer to publication PTHVP/A 2120en.
See the figure below. at a minimum. overhead lines. Neutral-ground arresters have an ”N” here. Block-type Ur Internal code PEXLIM Q192-XV245 (H) (L) Arrester family Pollution level according to IEC 60815. For other angular erection. Ordering data for arresters The following information. traction systems.Selection of arrester Simplified selection procedure Neutral-ground arresters For neutral-ground arresters the recommended rated voltage is approximately the maximum system voltage divided by √3. if any. For resonantearthed systems with long radial lines special considerations must be taken. HVDC etc. One base is required for each arrester). The electrical characteristics are identical to standard catalogue arresters with the corresponding rated voltage. rotating machines. the type designation is completed by letter ”H” after system voltage (Um). or for non-standard arrester ratings. The recommended neutral-ground arresters in the relevant sections are calculated for unearthed systems with relatively long fault duration. 3 pcs. C-6 Edition 4. (Insulating base is required if surge counter and/or leakage current measurements are desired. Note! We recommend that the order form. For such arresters. A higher rated voltage (20% to 40%) than listed may be necessary. the type designation will have additional letters for example: E M P Non-standard electrical data Non-standard mechanical data Parallel metal-oxide columns For under-hung arresters. Type designation Ordering example Below is a typical example of an order with three PEXLIM arresters and its accessories. in section T-1. Um Special applications Please consult your nearest ABB representative for help in selection of arresters for special applications such as protection of shunt or series capacitor banks. For transmission line surge arresters. For non-standard arresters. when desired. cables and cable-aerial junctions. if any • Type of insulating base. 3 pcs. be filled-in and attached to your order to ensure inclusion of all the important parameters and commercial conditions. For under-hung erection. The type designation itself gives detailed information of the arrester and its application. letter ”L” to be added here. As standard. Uc is zero and they are not subject to any voltage stress during normal service conditions. is required with your order: • Quantity and type designation • Rated voltage • Type of line terminal • Type of earth terminal • Type of surge counter. The neutral-ground arresters should preferably be of the same type as the phase-ground arresters. the arresters are meant for upright vertical erection. PEXLIM Q192-XV245 Rated voltage 192 kV Line terminal type 1HSA 410 000-L Earth terminal type 1HSA 420 000-A Insulating base type 1HSA 430 000-A Surge counter type EXCOUNT-A 3 pcs. please inform us at order. letter ”H” to be added here. 2003-10 ABB Surge Arresters — Buyer’s Guide .
e. Upl of 280 kVpeak at 10 kA (according to table 3).59. YH145 (XH145 for PEXLIM Q) housing should be selected.e. a common choice selection for 145 kVrms would be a line discharge class 2 arrester. 108 kVrms.72x145 = 104.g. i.Selection of arrester Simple selection example Substation data: Maximum system voltage: Arrester location: System earthing: System fault clearance time: Creepage distance: 145 kV Phase-ground Effective 1s 3 000 mm 1 Ur0 = 0. the margin is reduced to only 10% to 15% after taking distance effect into account and depending on the chosen impulse steepness and amplitude. PEXLIM R.e. e. 2003-10 C-7 . With a Uwl of 550 kVpeak this would give a protective margin of (550/280-1)x100 = 96 %.72xUm (according to table 1) = 0. i. it is very important that the arrester is installed as close as possible to the protected object. 5 With a required creepage distance of 3 000 mm. This arrester has a Upl/Ur of 2. 20. 3 This margin appears to be excellent but it must be noted that depending on distance effect and possible insulation ageing. i. Select the next higher standard Ur (see ”Guaranteed protective data”). Thus. choose a class 3 arrester. 2 According to table 2.e.7 mm/kV. 4 If the margin is considered insufficient.4 kVrms. i. PEXLIM Q with the same rated voltage 108 kV. 6 The type designation of the selected arrester will then be: PEXLIM R108-YH145 (or PEXLIM Q108-XH145) ABB Surge Arresters — Buyer’s Guide Edition 4.