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Binu Mammen Noah Berhanu Souvik Bhattacharya Vishal Raj Karunala
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control provides a generic and efficient solution to real world control problems
Presents remedies for problems involving the integral and derivative terms. PID design objectives,methods, and future directions are discussed.
What is PID
PID stands for Proportional, Integral, Derivative. Controllers are designed to eliminate the need for continuous operator attention. Cruise control in a car and a house thermostat are common examples Error is defined as the difference between set-point and measurement. (error) = (set-point) - (measurement) The output of PID controller will change in response to the error
What IS PID
With proportional band, the controller output is proportional to the error or a change in measurement. (controller output) = (error)*100/(proportional band)
Drawbacks -With a proportional controller offset is present.
Increasing the controller gain will make the loop go unstable. Integral action was included in controllers to eliminate this offset
Controller Output = (1/INTEGRAL) (Integral of)e(t)d(t) Integral action gives the controller a large gain at low frequencies .What IS PID Integral With integral action. the controller output is proportional to the amount of time the error is present. Integral action eliminates offset.
dm/dt .What IS PID Derivative The controller output is proportional to the rate of change of the measurement or error CONTROLLER OUTPUT = DERIVATIVE .
+1/T1s + TDs)….F-: GPID(s) =U(s)/E(s) = KP(1 U(s) is the control signal E(s)=Error signal. . constant..STANDARD STRUCTURES OF PID CONTROLLERS Parallel Structure and Three-Term Functionality T.(1) Control Signal can be expressed in three terms as U(s) = KPE(s) + KI1/sE(s) + KDsE(s) U(s) = UP(s) + UI(s) + UD(s). TD =Derivative time constant TI =Integral time constant S =Argument of the Laplace transform.
The derivative term improves transient response through High-frequency compensation. The integral term reduces steady-state errors through low-frequency compensation. The three-term functionalities include: The proportional term provides an overall control action proportional to the error signal through the all pass gain factor. .STANDARD STRUCTURES OF PID CONTROLLERS Parallel Structure and Three-Term Functionality Where KI = KP/TI is the integral gain and KD = KPTD is the derivative gain.
PI-Phase lag.STANDARD STRUCTURES OF PID CONTROLLERS A PID controller is a phase lead-lag compensator with one pole at the origin and the other at infinity. PD-Phase-lead compensators. Optimum perfomance can be achieved Kp KI Kd are tuned together .
Effect of Independent P.I and D closed response .
STANDARD STRUCTURES OF PID CONTROLLERS Series Structure GPID(s) = (α + TDs) KP (1 +1/αT1s)…………..(3) GPID(s)=GPD(s)GPI(s) GPD(s)GPI(s) are the factored PD and PI parts .
Integral Term Destabilizing Effect of the Integral Term Adding an integral term to a pure proportional term increases the gain by a factor. Increases the phase-lag Gain margin (GM) and phase margin (PM) are reduced. and the closed-loop system becomes more oscillatory and potentially unstable .
and future correction is ignored until the actuator desaturates . and the saturations are neglected in a linear control design. the integrator may suffer from windup.Integrator Windup If the actuator realizes the control action has saturated range limits. this causes low-frequency oscillations and leads to instability Windup is due to the controller states becoming inconsistent with the saturated control signal.
Another Solution to antiwindup is to reduce the possibilities for saturation by reducing the control signal. as in linear quadratic optimal control schemes that minimize the tracking error and control signal through a weighted objective function.Integrator Windup Remedies Antiwindup can be achieved implicitly through automatic reset. . Explicit Antiwindup implemented explicitly through internal negative feedback.
Integral Term Destabilizing Effect of the Integral Term UI(s) =1/TIs (KPE(s) −U(s) −Ucap(s)/ r(gamma). .
Derivative Term .
Contents General form and uses Drawbacks Remedies .
General form PD = ( 1 + Tds ) Frequency response = ( 1 + jwTd) Gain = | 1 + jwTd| .
Uses Improved Fast damping ratio recovery from disturbance signal for error signal Strong .
Drawbacks an example G = (Ke-Ls) / ( 1 + T s ) | G (jw)Gpd(jw) | > 1 for all w if Kp > 1/K and Td > T / K Kp tan -1 ( wTd) tan-1 (Tw) – Lw phase angle < -180 Unstable system .
Remedies Involves use of filters Linear low pass filter Velocity Feedback SetPoint Filter Nonlinear median filter .
16 ] Cascaded to the PD only or to the whole PID controller ( slow transient response) .Linear low pass filter Second order Butterworth filter Gd (s) = KpTd s / ( 1 + Td/ bs ) Value of b [ 8.
) dt . ) + G(s) Y - - Kd d( .Velocity feedback Known as PI-D or Type B controller PD placed in the feedback + e Kp (.) + Ki ∫ (.
) dt . ) Kp + + + G(s) y r Kd d ( .Set point filter Known also as P-ID or Type C controller Similar to Type B Gives good overshot performance for a good choice of b b + e Ki ∫ ( .
Median filter Often used in DIP Setting the current value to the median values of nearby data points spikes Removes drawback Excessive smoothness for under damped system .
DESIGN OBJECTIVES AND METHODS .
Matters concerning commission and maintenance(such as pre. .DESIGN OBJECTIVES AND EXISTING METHODS 1. usually measured in the frequency domain. transient response. including rise time. 2. Controller parameters are tuned so that so that the closed loop system meets the following five objectives: stability and stability robustness.and post-processing as well as fault tolerance) also need to be considered in a complete PID design.
CONTD 4. . usually measured in the frequency domain. disturbance attenuation and robustness against environmental uncertainty.. robustness against plant modeling uncertainty. Most methods target one objective or a weighted composite of the objectives listed above.……. often at steady state 5.
neural networks. Heuristic search involves expert systems. often with a tradeoff among design objectives. Heuristic methods evolve from empirical tuning (such as the ZN tuning rule). fuzzy logic. and evolutionary computation Heuristic Methods .
are used to synthesize PID controllers offline. For real-time applications. localizationbased methods such as wavelets. PM. . frequency-domain measurements require time-frequency. such as GM. and sensitivities.Frequency Response Methods Frequency-domain constraints.
parameters can be derived analytically using algebraic relations between a plant model and a targeted closed-loop transfer function with an indirect performance objective. such as pole placement.Analytical Methods Because of the simplicity of PID control. IMC. or lambda tuning .
a self-learning evolutionary algorithm (EA) can also be used to search for both the parameters and their associated structure or to meet multiple design objectives in both the time and frequency domains These designs are suitable for adaptive tuning as some of the designs can be computerized . Optimization-based methods can be regarded as a special type of optimal control. PID parameters are obtained by numerical optimization for a weighted objective in the time domain.so that are automatically performed online Numerical Optimization Methods .
PIDeasy is a software package that uses automatic simulations to search globally for controllers that meet all five design objectives in both the time and frequency domains.Computerized Simulation Approach By using a computerized approach. multiple design methods can be combined within a single software or firmware package to support various plant types and PID structures. .
. no overshoot. PIDeasy’s multiobjective goals provide frequency-domain margins in the range of 9–11 dB and 65–66 degrees. To assess the robustness of design using PIDeasy.and zero steady-state error are accommodated by timedomain criteria. GMs and PMs resulting from designs for plants with various L/T ratios are shown in the figure.First-Order Delayed Plants While requirements of fast transient response.
V = reactor volume (l). u(t) = flow rate of the feed stream (l/h).SETPOINT-SCHEDULED PID NETWORK Consider the constant-temperature reaction process where y(t) = concentration in the outlet stream (mol/l). d = concentration in the inlet stream (mol/l). K = rate of reaction (l/mol-h). .
The set point.49 using the maximum distance from the nonlinear trajectory to the linear projection linking the starting and ending points of the operating . or steady-state operating trajectory of the plant is governed by Placement at y=0. equilibrium.
without linearization. Obtaining the individual PID controllers by using PIDeasy or other PID software or jointly by an evolutionary algorithm. .
Formation of a pseudo-linear controller network comprised of three PIDs to be interweighted by scheduling functions S1(y). S2(y). Addition of two more controllers at nodes or setpoints 1 and 3. and S3(y). .
. Similar to gain scheduling. these functions are often asymmetric. linear interpolation meets the requirements for setpoint scheduling. Due to nonlinearity.
The resulting PID network is given by where p denotes the derivative operator. .
Performance of the pseudo-linear PID network applied to the nonlinear process example. .
10% load disturbance occurring during [3. The A . controller network tracks this setpoint change accurately without oscillation.is rejected confirming load disturbance rejection at steady state. To validate tracking performance. 3.5] h. another setpoint r = 0.53 mol/l is used to test the control system.
What is Tuning? Tuning is nothing but the individual adjustment of the proportional. The Controller provides the excitation for the plant. . It can also be referred to as the “Tuner”. position) desired.SUMMARY What is PID? PID Controller stands for Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller. temperature. integral and derivative terms. What exactly does it do? It helps to achieve the output (velocity. Why should we use the PID controller? 1. and with little error. with minimal overshoot. Designed to control the overall system behavior. 2. in a short time. It is a type of feedback controller.
Derivative Gain EXAMPLES: A motor driving a gear train A thermal system . PID equation Kp – Proportional Gain Ki – Integral Gain Kd. .A Heater Mechanical Devices.
and damper-position readjustment and this nearly continuous repositioning shortens actuator life. and makes control stability a question.DRAWBACKS: PID control can be costly to implement and support. adds to maintenance costs. It requires frequent valve. .
The NEWPORT MICRO-INFINITY® is a full function “Auto tune” (or self-tuning) PID controller which combines proportional control with two additional adjustments. integral and derivative. which help the unit automatically compensate to changes in the system.ENHANCEMENT: NEWPORT MICRO-INFINITY®: Most sophisticated form of discrete control available today. . These adjustments. are expressed in time-based units.
.CONCLUSIONS: Cost effectiveness: Division of self-contained standalone instructional units around standard PID structures. Automation by including system identification techniques and modular code blocks can be made available for timely application and adaptation in real-time.
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