P. 1
A Code Mixing

A Code Mixing

2.0

|Views: 6,448|Likes:
Published by dhanu_tmn9899

More info:

Published by: dhanu_tmn9899 on Jul 10, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/17/2013

pdf

text

original

A CODE MIXING: THE USING OF ENGLISH WORDS AND PHRASES IN INDONESIAN LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY STUDENTS AT BRAWIJAYA UNIVERSITY

By: LAKASIANUS TAMNAU 05410014

GAJAYANA UNIVERSITY OF MALANG FACULTY OF LETTER 2009

1.1 Background of the Study Language has an important part in human life because it is a means of communication. People need to communicate with others. Language is a mediator used by people to transfer what they have in their mind to others. They use language to avoid misunderstanding and miscommunication. This is related to Wardhaugh’s definition of language as a system of arbitrary vocal symbol used for human communication (Waldhaugh, 1972:3, in brown, 1987:4). Indonesian societies are bilinguals and multilingual. When they communicate or interact with the other, they may use code mixing or code switching. According to Kunjana, a bilingual is an individual who knows or understand at least two languages and multilingual is an individual who knows and understand many languages. In bilingual and multilingual societies people may produce certain codes. They may use code mixing or code switching in their conversation. Thelender (In Suwito, 1985:76) differentiates code switching code mixing. If an utterance is switched from one language to another language supporting a distinctive function, it is called code switching. Conversely, if an utterance, either phrase or clause, consist of a clause or phrase does not support a distinctive function it is called code mixing. In the era of a free trade, the use of English as a global language in Indonesia especially in big cities has not only become a must for the settlers but also is getting more and more in frequency. English has penetrated Indonesia Language and it seems there is no stopping it, not a day passes in big cities in which English is not heard, although it might not be spoken correctly”. They further pointed out that Indonesian people starting from the president of Indonesia to business executives, celebrities, housewives, and teenagers are adopting English words or phrases in their daily linguistic interactions. English language, although its using is informal considered, it has became a language that influenced the Universities students in Malang. Its use as young language in daily conversation is the phenomenon that could found easily. Therefore, the link of the language between English language and Indonesian Language is the use of many borrowing English words by young Indonesian in their daily conversation.

Nevertheless, the main questions are: what factors caused they used English-Indonesian code mixing in their conversation and what caused it is spread fast? Such a phenomenon as Indonesia-English which can be defined as the involvement of some English expressions in Indonesian discourses (oral and written). Although such a term may be associated with other related terms such as Chinglish (Chinese-English), Singlish (Singaporean- English), etc. but it is not an English variation at all, giving a similar term like American English, British English, Bostonian English, New Zealand English, Australian English, Indian English, etc.. Rather, it is simply something to do with code-switching or in a softer term, code-mixing. (Abdul Hakim, INDOLISH … 236). Such a phenomenon has been the logical consequence of a multilingual society, including Indonesia, where many languages are spoken by the society. As a result, they are subject to employ more than one code in their social interaction and even they might juxtapose two different language segments like words, phrases, and clauses within a sentence which is well-known as code-mixing. However, the tendency for the settlers to alternate from one code to another is unavoidable and as such has become an unmarked and a natural way of communication (see also Hymes, 1974; Gumperz, 1982). This is an explorative study, which is mainly aimed at finding out some factors cause the using of Indonesian-English code mixing toward Brawijaya University students in Malang, in terms of their words categories especially the pattern of intra sentential code mixing. The patterns of intra sentential code mixing found are often rather different from one another. Much of the confusion in the field appears to arise from the fact that several distinct processes are at work: insertion, alternation, congruent lexicalization. It is hopefully that this study, as an explorative study will invent types of Indonesian-English code mixing used by Brawijaya University Students in Malang, which will eventually enrich related previous publications. Moreover, the findings will become a base for other sociolinguists to conduct a more comprehensive study on Indonesian-English bilingual discourses.

1.2 Statement of the Problem  What are patterns of intra-sentential code mixing found in young Indonesian language?  What factors caused the Brawijaya Universities students used English-Indonesian code mixing in their conversation  What factors caused the using of English words by Brawijaya Universities Students? 1.3 Purpose of Study  To finding out the patterns of intra-sentential code mixing found in Brawijaya University Students  To finding out the types of Indonesian-English code -mixing found in Brawijaya University Students  To finding out factors caused the using of English words by Brawijaya Universities Students? 1.4. Assumption  The researcher assumed that most of Brawijaya Universities Students using Indonesian-English code mixing in daily conversation. 1.5. Significant of the Study It is expected that this research will eventually enrich related previous publications. Moreover, the findings will become a base for other sociolinguists to conduct a more comprehensive study on Indonesian-English bilingual discourses. 1.6. Scope of Study  The population of this research is Brawijaya Universities Students youth in Malang and it is limited only students in Brawijaya University. 1.7. Limitation of Study Because of limited time and to make the research directed, so the study has some limitation as follows:  This research does not analyze Indonesia- English Code Mixing of Youth in Malang Generally but only for University students especially in Brawijaya University

 This research only analyze oral language that is always spoken by youth in Malang especially Brawijaya University students. 1.8. Theoretical Framework Warrdhough (1986:103) state “code mixing occurs when conversant use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance”. Wardhough (1986:98) State “a bilingual or multilingual situation can produce still other effects on one or more of the language involved “. Weinreich (1953:73) thought, “Intra-sentential code - mixing was a sign of a lack of bilingual proficiency and interference”. 1.9. Definition of key term  Code 1986 : 86)  Code Mixing : It occurs when conversant use both language to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance.  Bilingualism : It is the ability to use two languages equally well by a speaker as a native speaker mastering his language (Bloomfield, 1988 : 1)  Multilingualism: Is the ability to speak three or more languages (Pateda, 1990 : 57)  Insertion is similar to (spontaneous) lexical borrowing, which is limited to one lexical unit. 1.10. Research Design This research is qualitative research. It can be called as non experimental research because it only attempts to describe phenomena that happen in college students where they using English noun and phrases in their conversation. So the methods used in this research are descriptive and field method. The researcher tries to observe, to hear, and record the youth speaking directly. The populations of this research are students from Brawijaya University. 1.11. Data Collection The researcher collects data using purposive sampling from the population mentioned above. There are some kinds of collecting data: : It rever to a language or variety of language (Wardrough,

   

Using questioner Interview method (Personal note) Tape recording Observation (The situation in which the dialogues happen is observed)

BAB II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this research, the researcher expects some theories used as foundation to overcome the research problems. They are theories of language, Multilingualism, Codemixing. 2.1 Language Everybody knows that human being has two roles in life, namely: human being as individual creature and as social one. As a social creature, of course he needs a tool or a device for communication or even for interaction. That’s why He creates a language for interacting and communicating with others. Shortly He uses a language as a device to do these things. In relation to this, Wardhaugh defines a language as “a system of arbitrary vocal symbol used for human communication” (Wardhaugh, 1972:3 in Brown, 1987:4). Wardhaugh’s definition seems to focus on human communication possessed by animals. Meanwhile, Pei also focuses his definition on human communication. He says: “a language is a system of communication by sound, operating through organ of speech and meaning among members of given community and using vocal symbol processing arbitrary conventional meaning” (Pei, 1966:14 in Brown, 1987:4). 2.1 Multilingualism A person who has ability to speak three or more languages is called multilingual (Pateda, 1990:57). In many parts if the world it is quite normal that people can speak several languages. Meanwhile, in Indonesia as a part of the world, we of course found many multilingual. These multilingual are divided into two kinds: those who speak a native language, Indonesian and other regional languages; and those who speak Indonesian and other foreign languages such as Arabic, Dutch. French, English, etc. 2.3 Code-mixing Code-mixing is the use of two or more languages or dialect in non formal situation among the intimate people (Subyakto and nababan, 1992:106). In this informal situation, we can mix the code freely; especially if there are terms which can not be expressed in other language. Code-mixing occurs in either bilingual or multilingual societies. It happens because the conversant tend to use more than one language.

Code-mixing according to wardhaugh (1986:104) provides the following examples of conversational code-mixing among Spanish-english bilinguals:  No van a bring it up in the meeting (They are not going to bring it up in the meeting)   Todos los Mexicanos were riled up (All the Mexicans were riled up) Estaba training para pelear ( He was training to fight) Furthermore, conversational code-mixing is often used by bilinguals or even multilingual primarily as a solidarity marker.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METODOLOGY Some methods are needed to achieve the aim of the research. The methods are also important to make research director and easier. By using them, the research will be able to produce scientific contribution to the readers. In this chapter, it will be discussed research design, data population, the technique of collecting data and procedure of data analysis. 3.1 Research Design This study is a descriptive or qualitative research. It can be called as non experimental research because it only attempts to describe phenomena that happen in human life. Moreover, the researcher has to observe the phenomena directly from the field area in which they happen, to get some information and data that are needed in this research, so he can get the conclusion. Based on the explanation above, the methods used in this research are descriptive and field method. The former is used to achieve the purpose, that is, to obtain knowledge about the using of English words and phrases in Indonesia language spoken by Brawijaya students as a code-mixing. Meanwhile, the latter gives the researcher a chance to observe, to hear, and to record English words and phrases in Indonesia language spoken by Brawijaya students. 3.2 Data Population The population of this research is the students of Brawijaya University. Data are corpus in the form of dialogues made by Brawijaya students. 3.3 The Technique of Collecting Data In collecting data, recording, personal note and observation are used.

Umur : Jenis kelamin:Laki-laki/Perempuan : Jurusan/Semester :

:

1. Menurut pendapatmu, bahasa Inggris Anda bagimana? o Sangat baik o baik o kurang baik o tidak baik 2. Apakah Anda pernah menggunakan kata-kata atau frasa bahasa Inggris dalam percakapan? o Ya o Tidak Frasa/ kata-kata apa yang Anda gunakan? Mohon dituliskan yang Anda ingat. (Contoh kata atau frasa: next time deh, thanks ya, thanks ya. Bye, love u...dll.) ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ...................................... 3. Sering pakai frasa/kata-kata Inggris atau jarang? (Tandai yang paling cocok) o Sangat sering o –Lebih 10 kaliper hari o Sering –Lebih 5 kali perhari o Lumayan sering –Satu sampai limakali perhari o Jarang –Kira2 satu kaliper minggu o Sangat jarang –Kira2 satu kaliper bulan 4. Mengapa menggunakannya? Apa alasan Anda? ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... .................................................... 5. Dalam situasi apa lebih sering menggunakan frasa/kata-kata bahasa Inggris? Kapan dan dimana? ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ................... 6. Dari mana kamu mendapat frasa itu? (Tandai semua yang cocok) o Teman-teman Indonesia o Teman-teman asing o TV Majalah o Surat kabar Internet Yg lain:(mohon

ditulis)............................................................ 7. Menurut pendapat Anda bagaimana penggunaannya dianggap oleh orang Indonesia lain?.................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ................................... 8. Bagaimana pendapat Anda sendiri terhadap penggunaan bahasa Inggris dalam bahasa Indonesia?.......................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................ Terima kasih atas bantuannya!

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->