This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

Lectures on Quantum Field Theory- Ashok Das5.0

|Views: 6,335|Likes: 128Published by sunandoraja

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/17248586/Lectures-on-Quantum-Field-Theory-Ashok-Das

11/01/2014

text

original

The Dirac equation, written in the Hamiltonian form, is given by

i ∂ψ

∂t = Hψ =

−iα·∇+βm

ψ.

(2.72)

Taking the Hermitian conjugate of this equation, we obtain

−i ∂ψ*†
*

∂t = ψ** †** iα·←−∇+βm),

(2.73)

where the gradient is assumed to act on ψ** †**. Multiplying (2.72) with

ψ** †** on the left and (2.73) with ψ on the right and subtracting the

second from the ﬁrst, we obtain

iψ** †** ∂ψ

∂t +i ∂ψ*†
*

∂t ψ =−i

ψ** †**α·∇ψ + (∇ψ

,

or, i ∂

∂t (ψ** †**ψ) =−i∇·

ψ** †**αψ

,

or, ∂

∂t (ψ** †**ψ) =−∇·

ψ** †**αψ

.

(2.74)

This is the continuity equation for the probability current density

associated with the Dirac equation and we note that we can identify

2.4 Continuity equation

45

ρ = ψ** †**ψ = probability density,

J = ψ** †**αψ = probability current density,

(2.75)

to write the continuity equation as

∂ρ

∂t =−∇·J.

(2.76)

This suggests that we can write the current four vector as

Jµ

= (ρ,J) = (ψ** †**ψ,ψ

(2.77)

so that the continuity equation can be written in the manifestly co-

variant form

∂µJµ

= 0.

(2.78)

This, in fact, shows that the probability density, ρ, is the time com-

ponent of jµ

(see (2.77)) and, therefore, must transform like the time

coordinate under a Lorentz transformation. (We are, of course, yet

to show that jµ

transforms like a four vector which we will do in the

next chapter.) On the other hand, the total probability

P =

d3

xρ =

d3

xψ** †**ψ,

(2.79)

is a constant independent of any particular Lorentz frame. It is worth

recalling that we have already used this Lorentz transformation prop-

erty of ρ in deﬁning the normalization of the wave function.

An alternative and more covariant way of deriving the continuity

equation is to start with the covariant Dirac equation

iγµ

∂µ−m

ψ = 0,

(2.80)

and note that the Hermitian conjugate of ψ satisﬁes

46

2 Solutions of the Dirac equation

ψ** †** −i(γµ

)** †**←−

∂µ−m

= 0.

(2.81)

Multiplying this equation with γ0

on the right and using the fact

that (γ0

)2

=½ , we obtain

ψ

−iγ0

(γµ

)** †**γ0←−

∂µ−m) = 0,

or, ψ

−iγµ←−

∂µ−m

= 0,

(2.82)

where we have used the property of the gamma matrices that (for

µ = 0,1,2,3)

γ0

γµ

γ0

= (γµ

)** †**,

γ0

(γµ

)** †**γ0

= γµ

.

(2.83)

Multiplying (2.80) with ψ on the left and (2.82) with ψ on the right

and subtracting the second from the ﬁrst, we obtain

i

ψγµ

∂µψ +ψγµ←−

∂µψ

= 0,

or, i∂µ

ψγµ

ψ

= 0,

or, ∂µ

ψγµ

ψ

= 0.

(2.84)

This is, in fact, the covariant continuity equation and we can identify

Jµ

= ψγµ

ψ.

(2.85)

Note from the deﬁnition in (2.85) that

J0

= ψγ0

ψ = ψ** †**γ0

γ0

ψ = ψ** †**ψ = ρ,

J = ψγψ = ψ** †**γ0

γψ = ψ** †**αψ,

(2.86)

which is what we had derived earlier in (2.77).

2.5 Dirac’s hole theory

47

Let me conclude this discussion by noting that although the Dirac

equation has both positive and negative energy solutions, because it

is a ﬁrst order equation (particularly in the time derivative), the

probability density is independent of time derivative much like the

Schr¨odinger equation. Consequently, the probability density, as we

have seen explicitly in (2.38) and (2.40), can be deﬁned to be positive

deﬁnite even in the presence of negative energy solutions. This is

rather diﬀerent from the case of the Klein-Gordon equation that we

have studied in chapter 1.

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

Peskin QFT Solutions

Field Quantization (W. Greiner J. Reinhardt).pdf

Ryder L.H. Quantum field theory (2ed).pdf

Schwartz - QFT and the Standard Model

Weinberg the Quantum Theory of Fields Vol 1 Foundations

Unsolved Problems Relativity

Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model, Matthew D. Schwartz

Peskin M., Schroeder D. an Introduction to Quantum Field Theory (Perseus, 1995)(ISBN 0201503972)(KA)(600dpi)(T)(865s)_PQft

Lahiri and Pal-A-First Book of Quantum Field Theory-2nd Ed

Gravitation by Paddy

Relativity Gravitation and Cosmology

38516215 Differential Geometry and Physics Tqw Darksiderg

Quarks and Leptons An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics~tqw~_darksiderg

A New Perspective on Relativity

1604132949_Relativity

Ray d´Inverno - Introducing Einstein's Relativity.pdf

Ryder L.H Quantum Field Theory

Bosons After Symmetry Breaking in Quantum Field Theory-A5

Relativity an Introduction to Special and General Relativity

Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Field Theory

Path.Integrals.in.Physics.Volume.I.Stochastic.Processes.and.Quantum.Mechanics.ISBN075030801X

Introduction to Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics

The Concept of Probability in Statistical Physics~tqw~_darksiderg

Albert Einstein - Relativity：the Special and General Theory

Lectures Differential Geometry

Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Carroll, S. - Spacetime and Geometry_ an Introduction to General Relativity

Introduction to Spacetime.pdf

LandauLifshitz-QuantumMechanics

Relativity

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->