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Introduction
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Guided missiles, automatic gain control in radio receivers, satellite tracking antenna 2. Yes - power gain, remote control, parameter conversion; No - Expense, complexity 3. Motor, low pass filter, inertia supported between two bearings 4. Closed-loop systems compensate for disturbances by measuring the response, comparing it to the input response (the desired output), and then correcting the output response. 5. Under the condition that the feedback element is other than unity 6. Actuating signal 7. Multiple subsystems can time share the controller. Any adjustments to the controller can be implemented with simply software changes. 8. Stability, transient response, and steady-state error 9. Steady-state, transient 10. It follows a growing transient response until the steady-state response is no longer visible. The system will either destroy itself, reach an equilibrium state because of saturation in driving amplifiers, or hit limit stops. 11. Transient response 12. True 13. Transfer function, state-space, differential equations 14. Transfer function - the Laplace transform of the differential equation State-space - representation of an nth order differential equation as n simultaneous first-order differential equations Differential equation - Modeling a system with its differential equation

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
1. Five turns yields 50 v. Therefore K =

50 volts = 1.59 5 x 2π rad

Input voltage Desired power Transducer Power Error voltage Amplifier Rod position + - Motor and drive system Actual power Reactor Voltage proportional to actual power Sensor & transducer . Desired temperature Temperature difference Voltage difference Fuel flow Actual temperature Heater + Thermostat Amplifier and valves - 3. Desired roll angle Input voltage Error voltage Aileron position control Aileron position Aircraft dynamics Roll rate Integrate Roll angle Pilot controls + - Gyro voltage Gyro 4.2 Chapter 1: Introduction 2. Desired speed transducer Input voltage + - Speed Error voltage Amplifier Motor and drive system Dancer dynamics Actual speed Voltage proportional to actual speed Dancer position sensor 5.

Solutions to Problems 3 6. Graduating and drop-out rate Actual student rate Admissions Desired student population Population error Desired student rate Administration + Net rate of influx Integrate Actual student population + - 7. Voltage proportional to desired volume Voltage representing actual volume Volume control circuit Radio Desired volume Transducer + Volume error Actual volume Effective volume + Voltage proportional to speed Transducer Speed .

Fluid input Valve Actuator Power amplifier +V Differential amplifier + +V -V R Desired level R Float Tank -V Drain b.4 Chapter 1: Introduction 8. Desired level Potentiometer voltage in + Amplifiers Flow rate in + Integrate Actual level Actuator and valve Drain Flow rate out Displacement Potentiometer Float voltage out . a.

Commanded blood pressure + Vaporizer - Isoflurane concentration Patient Actual blood pressure 11.Solutions to Problems 5 9. L di + Ri = u(t) dt . Desired position Coil voltage + Transducer - Coil circuit Coil current Solenoid coil & actuator Force Armature & spool dynamics Depth LVDT 13. Desired depth + - Controller & motor Force Grinder Feed rate Integrator Depth 12. Desired force Transducer + Amplifier - Current Valve Displacement Actuator and load Displacement Tire Actual force Load cell 10. a.

t sin dt v (0) 1 di Using i (0) = 0. Substituting this into the differential equation yields RB = 1.A + 29 B e -t cos 29 t . Thus. from which M = . + 30i = 0 2 +2 dt dt 2 Writing the characteristic equation and factoring. The final solution is i(t) = -= (1 − e e ). Assume a steady-state solution iss = B.29 A + B e. R R R R from which B = c. a. M + 2 M + 30 = M + 1 + 29 i M + 1 The general form of the solution and its derivative is 29 i . Thus. i = e cos -t 29 t A + B sin 29 t e -t di = . (0) = L = =2 L L dt i 0 = A =0 29 t di (0) = − A + 29 B =2 dt 2 . Differentiating and substituting values. Ri + L di 1 idt + vC (0) = v(t ) + dt C ∫ d 2i di b.6 Chapter 1: Introduction b. 14. Thus. 1 R . Solving for the arbitrary constants. A = R R 1 1 1 -(R/L)t 1 −( R / L) t . Writing the loop equation. A = 0 and B = 29 The solution is .. i(0) = A + = 0. the total R L 1 1 solution is i(t) = Ae-(R/L)t + . The characteristic equation is LM + R = 0.

x(0) = A +53 = 0. The final solution is b. a. 35 From which. Assume a particular solution of Substitute into the differential equation and obtain Equating like coefficients. The characteristic polynomial is Thus.53 . Assume a particular solution of xp = Asin3t + Bcos3t . A = . C = 53 10 and D = 53 . Therefore. 2 29 29 e sin -t 29 t i t 15.Solutions to Problems 7 i= c. the total solution is 35 35 Solving for the arbitrary constants.

the total solution is 2 x= 2 -4t +e B sin 3 t + C cos 3 t 5 Solving for the arbitrary constants. the derivative of the solution is dx -4t dt = 3 B -4 C cos 3 t .3 cos 3 t + 54 sin 3 t -4t -2t . The characteristic polynomial is M + 8 M + 25 = M + 4 + 3 i M + 4 . Also. or A = 2/5.4 B + 3 C sin 3 t e . Therefore. Assume a particular solution of xp = A Substitute into the differential equation and obtain 25A = 10. Solving for the arbitrary constants. C = -2/5. the derivative of the solution is dx = . 18A – B = 0 and –(A + 18B) = 5.8 Chapter 1: Introduction Substitute into the differential equation and obtain (18A − B)cos(3t) − (A + 18B)sin(3t) = 5sin(3t) Therefore. or C = − and D = 65 10 26 The final solution is x =- 18 3 .3 i Thus.4 t 15 .2 t 1 e e + sin 3 t cos 3 t 26 65 10 65 c. 65 x =C e -4t + De -2t + - Also.4 C e -2 D e dt 65 65 . the total solution is 2 18 1 cos 3 t sin 3 t 65 65 18 Solving for the arbitrary constants. 15 3 3 . x(0) = C + 2/5 = 0. x(0) − − 4C − 2 D = 0 . x (0) = C + D − =0. Solving for A and B we obtain xp = (-1/65)sin3t + (-18/65)cos3t The characteristic polynomial is M +6 M+ 8 = M+ 4 M+ 2 Thus.

Solving for the arbitrary constants. x(0) = 3B – 4C = 0. The characteristic polynomial is Thus. Assume a particular solution of Substitute into the differential equation and obtain Equating like coefficients. x(0) = .10 . Assume a particular solution of xp = Ce-2t + Dt + E Substitute into the differential equation and obtain .2 = -3. the derivative of the 5 solution is dx dt .5 = 2.Solutions to Problems 9 . 2 2 ⎛8 − e −4 t sin(3 t ) + cos(3t )⎞ ⎝ 15 ⎠ 5 5 a.5 1 and D = . C = . 3 Solving for the arbitrary constants. Also. Therefore.A + B . 1 From which.0. Therefore. Therefore. x(0) = A . B = − . The final solution 5 is 1 1 3 −t ⎛ 11 x (t ) = − cos(2t ) − sin(2 t ) + e cos( t ) − sin(t )⎞ ⎝5 ⎠ 5 10 5 b. The final solution is x (t ) = 16. B = -8/15. the total solution is 11 1 Solving for the arbitrary constants. A = .

B = 9. x(0) = 2B = 2. the total solution is 9 1 Solving for the arbitrary constants. 1 1 From which.8 = 1 Therefore. Solving for the arbitrary constants. Solving for the arbitrary constants. Also. A = 8 . A = -1. and 2D + E = 0. the total solution is Solving for the arbitrary constants. x(0) = A . and E = . C = 4 . Therefore.10 Chapter 1: Introduction Equating like coefficients. C = 4 . B = 1. C = 5. D = 0.8 = 1. Assume a particular solution of xp = Ct2 + Dt + E Substitute into the differential equation and obtain 1 Equating like coefficients. the derivative of the solution is dx dt . and 2C + 4E = 0.2. Also. The final solution is c. D = 1.2 = 2 Therefore. D = 0. x(0) = A + 5 . The characteristic polynomial is Thus. C = 5. The characteristic polynomial is Thus.8 . x(0) = B . The final solution is . D = 1. From which. and E = . Therefore. the derivative of the solution is dx = ( − A + B )e − t − Bte −t − 10e −2 t + 1 dt .

Solutions to Problems 11 17. Spring displacement Desired force Input voltage + Input transducer F up Controller Actuator Pantograph dynamics F out Spring - Sensor .

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