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Motor Control and Protection

Motor Control and Protection

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Published by: Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju on Jul 10, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/30/2013

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•DC
•AC
AC Motor
•Induction motor
•Synchronous motor
•Wound rotor motor
Operate based on Speed (S)= 120f/p
•F-Frequency
•P-Number of poles

6

Control

What you want to control     =     what you can control

For DC
motors:

speed

voltage

N

S

N

S

V

ω

V

e

back
emf

R

windings’
resistance

eis a voltage generated by the
rotor windings cutting the
magnetic field
emf: electromagnetic force

Control: getting motors to do what you want
them to

Needs for Motor Control

1.Induction motor – drawn 5-8x full-load current
(FLC) when starting
2.Due to maximum flux cutting rate (s = 100%)
in rotor- creating large induced rotor currents
3.Supply power factor very low i.e. 0.2 lagging at
starting, 0.5 lagging on no-load & 0.85 lagging
on full-load
4.This starting surge current reduces as motor
accelerates up to rated speed
5.Operating at light loads with low power factor -
inefficient as supply current higher causing
higher I²R (copper) losses
6.To improve - reduce supply voltage for light
loads motor
7.Achieved with electronic voltage controller i.e.
soft-starter and/or energy manager - match
supply voltage to start-up & load conditions

8. This will maintain operating power factor as
high as possible - minimise supply current &
power losses
9. Most induction motors have Direct-on-Line
(DOL) - inexpensive & simple to operate &
maintain provided current surge not cause
heating damage to motor
10. When larger motors started by DOL – can cause
voltage dip due to large starting current
11. May result in malfunction of others - lighting dip
& flickering effects
12. To limit, motors started at reduced voltage- full
supply reconnected when accelerated close to
rated speed - star-delta, auto transformer &
electronic "soft" starter

1000

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

10

100

1000

1

Time in

Seconds

Current in Amperes

Motor
Characteristics

Inrush Current

Normal Operating Current

Motor Inrush Curve

3
0
0
%
O
v
e
r
lo
a
d

1000

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

10

100

1000

1

Time in

Seconds

Current in Amperes

S
h
o
r
t
C
ir
c
u
it

1000

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

10

100

1000

1

Time in

Seconds

Current in Amperes

0
10
0

20
0

40
0

60
0

Current %

0

Slip
%

Auto transformer
on 60%

STAR
DELTA
STARTING

AUTO
TRANSFORMER
STARTING

DIRECT ON
LINE
STARTING

COMPARISON OF STARTERS

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