You are on page 1of 8



      !!#"#$%


&' ( *)+, -./#102" -3)45"602$#4  )78$9!:<;=#+,(> ? )@
A !5
B?CEDD#FHG 0I"8 -3)# 8;J)7A !K
L?"8" FD#DD
M !8NPO

QHR SUTWVXYTJZ-[A\^]_[A`2aVb2T=cEa\edATfXYZ-VghTJZ`e_ i3cEjATWjlkmTWSU_ npo?Vajqgrcs`tgrSUTu\edTJaVbvT=_w6]_[A`I`eTWgrcs\eVx\ecU_a


cEaXY\Y`t[gh\Y_`yVa-jz\edATp\ecsbvT{_w.]_[A``eTWgrcU\eVx\ecU_a|
QHR SUTWVXYTpiTr`}cUw~]J\edVx\y\edTr`eTpVx`eT1XecU=Z`e_k SUTWbvX6csaf]_[A`€Th5Vbz|
QH._\edT‚Th3\YTWa7\uZm_XeXtcUk-SUTo!j_VSsSƒ_w„]_[A`un>_`e…H_a†\edT‚Z-Vx‡TWXugh_a7\eVcsaATWjPn€cU\edcEaq\ed-csX2ThAVbz|9ˆ‰a
Z Vx`e\ecsgr[SsVx`o\Y`e]2\Y_IjA_1]_[` n>_`e…2wŠ_` TWVg}dJ‹3[ATWXY\ecs_avn€cU\ed-csa2\edATk*_[-ajVx`tcUTWX_w\edATŒ‹3[ATWXY\ecs_ao_`>_a
\edTk-Vgt…=XecEjAT€_w\edTŒZ Vx‡TZ`tTWghTWjcsaA‡^\edAT{‹7[ATWXe\ecU_a|??5\Y`tV^Z-Vx‡TWX6Vx`eT„VSsXY_IVWixVcsSsVxk-SUTŒVx\ƒ\edATTWa-j=_w
]_[`€ThAVbz|
QqŽ_[bvVW]z[XeT{_aAT1jA_[Ak SUTh8XecsjATWjJZ-Vx‡T1_waA_\YTWX€n€dcsSsTŒ\eVx…5csaA‡2\ed-csXƒTh5Vb‚|
Q†‘„_7_5j‚Ss[gt… ’

“/” •– —
˜W™.šr›œx#ž› Ÿ-œ7—   TWa\e[A`}csV   [XeXebuVa
¤¥ •q– — ¦ §r¨ §r¢¡ ¨ csSsXY_§a § §
R § Vx`e…Tr§W` © £ŒVx‡TW§WSs© XY\YTWcEa © ª
«pœŸ-¬
­Š–3• ® ¯ ®5°l«ŒŸ ¥ ™*›š
± XecsaA‡\edAT  5²´³'µp 5¶ !¢b2_5jATWS n€cU\ed=\edAT{grcU`tgr[cU\>Z-Vx`tVbvTr\YTr`tXƒXedA_naJcEa=\edT· ‡[A`eTo3Z-SU_\>¸¹qiTr`tXt[X>¸xº}»
wŠ_` ¨=¼ ¸ ºt» ¼´½¾ |y¿6SUTWVx`tSU]fbvVx`e…z\edAT^iVSE[ATWXy_w
¸ ºt» Vaj‚¸ ¹ Vx\ŒTWVgtdÀZm_csa7\ycsa‚\edTp‡`tVxZ-dn€dATr`eT1\edATr`eT
csX6Vvg}dVaA‡T^_wXeSs_Z*T|
VS =5V

ÂR =1k
RL=10k

1 νO

Á ÂR =1k
νΙΝ +
− 2 ÂVR =1V
T

ON =1k

Ãν
Ä5
O

Å4
Æ3
2

Ç0 È1 É2 Æ3 Å4 Ä5 νΙΝ
«pœŸ-¬
­Š–3•ËÊ ¯ ®5°l«ŒŸ ¥ ™*›š
± XecsaA‡„\edATyaA_5jAT6b2Tr\edA_5jojATriTWSs_ZvV{XYTr\_w Xtcsb^[-SU\eVaATr_[X
TW‹3[Vx\ecU_aX
wŠ_`?\edATyaATr\4n _`t…Xed_n€a2csaI\edTƒ·-‡[A`eT
\edVx\€grVa/kmT„[-XYTWjz\Y_uXY_SsiTpw~_`€\edATp[aA…5aA_nazaA_3jT{i_SU\eVx‡TWXr| 3Z-`eTWXeX6\edATWXeTpTW‹7[-Vx\ecU_aXycsaf\edT{w~_`tb
Ì1ÍÎÐÏ
n€dATr`tT Ì csXI\edATzgh_aj[gh\eVa-ghT/bvVx\Y`tcÑmo Í csXIVÒiTWgh\Y_`u_w„[aA…5aA_n€aHaA_5jATfi_SU\eVx‡TWXro6Vaj Ï cEXVÒiTWgh\Y_`
csa7i_SUi5csaA‡I\edATpXY_[A`}ghTWXr|
1
Õ2
+
Ô A Ó+
O 6 8
Ö4 VO

-
«pœŸ-¬
­Š–3•Ø× ¯ Ê-Ù«ŒŸ ¥ ™*›š
6 n>_/aATr\4n _`e…5XÚÛVa-jlÜÝgh_b2Zm_XYTWj_aSU]À_w>`tTWXecsXY\Y_`tX1VajlXY_[A`}ghTWX^Vx`eT=gh_aaATWgh\YTWjq\Y_‡Tr\edATr`VXXedA_ n€a
kmTWSU_n1o
+ i
A ν B
-

Vaj\edAT1i_Ss\eVx‡TIVa-jgr[A`t`eTWa\ŒcsajcEgrVx\YTWj/Vx`eT^w~_[a-j‚\Y_Jk*T ¸ Î §¾Þ9ß Î x¨ à‚á €| ¡¢dATWa/\edTgh_aaTWgh\ecU_a


csXƒ`eTriTr`}XYTWjo-VXXedA_nazkmTWSU_npo
â+
A ν i B
-

\edAT‚i_Ss\eVx‡TVaj†gr[`e`eTWa7\2k*TWgh_bvT ¸ Î ¨5ãä½¾Þåß Î ¨5ãä½à‚á |,æŒTr\YTr`tbvcsaAT/\edAT‚ydATriTWacEaHTW‹7[csiVSUTWa7\


aATr\4n _`e…5XywŠ_`y\edAT^aATr\8n>_`e…5X€ÚçVaj‚ÜŒ|
«pœŸ-¬
­Š–3•éè ¯ ®5°l«ŒŸ ¥ ™*›š
Ž{cU…TWX€ˆ‰agx|6VaaA_[-aghTWX€\ed-Vx\cU\€d-VXjcEXegh_iTr`eTWjÀVa/ڌêŒæ݇Vx\YTk-[csSU\6_w?`tTWXecsXY\Y_`tXVSU_aAT1VXŒXedA_ n€a‚kmTWSU_ np|
ÚçVaj‚Ü¢Vx`eTp\edATpcEaAZ-[A\eXro5Vaj¿,cEXƒ\edATp_[A\YZ-[\r|ydATr]fgrSsVcsbë\edVx\6\edATWcs`€ÚêŒæ‡Vx\YT^grcU`}gr[cU\6XeVx\ecsX‰· TWX6\edAT
XY\eVx\ecsg1jcsXegrcUZ SscsaATywŠ_`€\edT{w~_SsSs_n€csa‡i_Ss\eVx‡T1\edA`eTWXtdA_SsjXrì
¾ ¹í Î ½¾ o ¾ ¹î Î ª¾ o ¾ ºtí Î,ï ãä½¾ o-Vaj ¾ ºeî Î ª3ãä½¾ |
Úðgh_b2ZmTr\ecU\Y_`/SU_3_…5csaA‡Hw~_`Va´Th3ZmTr`e¶ \zncU\ed´V†ñ3| ¨¨© k-Vgt…7‡`t_[ajÐdcs`eTWXf]_[ÐVX/Vògh_a-Xe[SU\eVa7\z\Y_
jATr\YTr`tbucsaAT„n€dATr\edATr`€\edATWcU`ygrSsVcsbcEXƒ\Y`t[AT| csajfVvXeTr\y_w.ixVSscsjfcsaZ-[A\eX>w~_`€n€dcsg}df\edATpgrcU`tgr[cs\>Z-`e_3j-[ghTWX6Va
csa7iVSEcsjJ_[A\YZ-[A\rogrSUTWVx`}SU]=Th5Z-SsVcEacsaA‡n€d7]=\edAT{_[\YZ-[A\ycsXycEaixVSscsjo3_`€Xed_nÐ\edVx\aA_uXe[g}d‚grVXYTpThAcsXY\eXW|
óA
R

õR C

ôB
«pœŸ-¬
­Š–3•Ë° ¯ Ê-Ù«ŒŸ ¥ ™*›š
öe÷/ø ڌXeXe[bvcEaA‡\ed-Vx\2\edAT‚grcU`tgr[cs\IXtdA_n€aHkmTWSU_ nùXeVx\ecsX‰· TWXI\edAT‚XY\eVx\ecsgzjcEXegrcUZ-SscEaATo?jATr\YTr`tbvcsaTJ\edTfSs_‡csgrVS
ix¶ VÎ Ss[A§TWÞ X_Îw úݨ o*ûoüVaj'ýç‡cUiTWa\edVx\Œ\edATIcsaAZ-[A\eX€Vx`eTXeTr\ŒVXŒwŠ_SsSU_nXrì6Ú Î §xÞ Ü Î ¨AÞ ¿ Î ¨5Þ æ Î §Þ  Î ¨ o
‘ |
VS VS VS VS=5V VS
   
RL RL RL RL
W 
Z
þA 
Y
X

ÿB C D

E

F G
ö =ø ± XecsaA‡I\edAT  5² b2_5jATWSmwŠ_`y\edAT ³'µp 5¶ !€Xƒn€cU\edf_az`eTWXtcsXY\eVaghT ¹» ojATr\YTr`tbvcsaT{\edATpSU_n>TWXY\yi_Ss\eVx‡T

Zm_XeXecUk SUTŒVx\„ýp|

«pœŸ-¬
­Š–3•
¯ ®5°l«ŒŸ ¥ ™*›š
_ cEX ܃Vï XeX>µ csX>dA_7_…5csaA‡^[AZ=¶ dATr`ƒdcÑ·JXY]3Xe\YTWbz|£€Tr`6Vb2Z SscÑ·-Tr`!grVa=Z-[bvZ §r¨¨ ¡lVx\Y\eXƒ_w#csaXY\eVa7\eVaATr_[X Zm_n>Tr`
csa7\Y_zV d-b XeZ*TWVx…Tr`| `e_b \edATIZm_csa7\_w i3csTrnç¨ _§^w µ\edAT2XYZmTWVx…Tr`Wo\edAT2Vb2Z-SEcÑ·-Tr`„grVaÒk*TIb2_5jATWSUTWjÀVXpV
ydATriTWa-csazXY_[A`tghT1n€cU\edzVa‚csa7\YTr`taVSm`tTWXecsXY\eVaghT{_w | dbz|
öe÷/ø ¡¢dVx\€csXƒ\edT1bvVAcsb^[-bë_Z*TWaA8grcU`tgr[cU\ƒi_SU\eVx‡T^\edVx\y\edATpVbvZ-SscÑ·-Tr`6grVajATWSscUiTr` 

ö =ø _csX>k-[]3X>V`e_SsS _w § ñxÚ.¡9‘ XYZmTWVx…Tr`ƒn€cU`eT„Vx\ ² Vjcs_£ŒVge…*|   dAT„aATrTWjX>\Y_I`t[a ©½ wŠTrTr\>_w#n€cU`eT ½x¨


wŠï TrTrµ \!`e_[a-jI\Y`tcU§rZ ¨.¨\Y¨ _^\edAT€XYZmTWVx…Tr`!wŠ`e_b<dATr`!Vb2Z-SEcÑ·-Tr`W|ydATy`eTWXtcsXY\eVaghTy_w § ñxÚ.¡9‘ gh_ZZmTr`n€cU`tTycsXVxkm_[A\
  

d-bvX{ZmTr` w~TrTr\r|fˆ w _csXp[XeTWXp\edATvncU`eTvXedATuk*_[‡d\{\Y_Àgh_aaATWgh\1\edT=Vb2Z-SEcÑ·-Tr`„\Y_/\edATJXYZmTWVx…Tr`Wo


 

\edATWafn€dTWa=dATr`yVbvZ-SscÑ·-Tr`>csX>Z-[A\Y\ecsa‡^_[A\ § _SU\yVx\ƒ\edAT{Vb2Z-SEcÑ·-Tr`>\YTr`tbvcsaVSEXro7ndVx\6csX!\edT{i_SU\eVx‡TpVx\6\edAT


XYZmTWVx…Tr`€\YTr`}bvcsaVSsX


Rate