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Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation by Hitarth Mihs-IsTAR

Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation by Hitarth Mihs-IsTAR

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Published by HM04
the effects of non ionizing radiation & types of non ionising radiation with their frequencies is described here. plz comment on that.
the effects of non ionizing radiation & types of non ionising radiation with their frequencies is described here. plz comment on that.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: HM04 on Jul 10, 2009
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05/11/2014

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CAUTION: Radioactive Material

Effects of Non-ionizing radiation & its control measures

Prepared by : -HITARTH MEHTA MIHS DEPT.08IH06 ISTAR-BVM

Outline
Types of Radiation Definition of Non-ionizing radiation Ionizing vs. Nonionizing Radiation Classes of non-ir Effects of non-ir Its control measures

RADIATION S
ULTRAVIOLET
VISIBLE

INFRARED

FREQUENCY ( Hz )

1 1 24 0 COSMIC 022

1 020

1 1 18 016 0
VUV UV

1 014

1 012

1 010

10
8

10
6

10
4

10
2

1

GAMMA RAYS HARD-XRAYS-SOFT INFRARED RADAR

BROADCAST

FM TV SW POWERTRANS 1KM

1 X-UNIT

1 ANG

1UM

1CM

1M

1016

1014

1012

1010

108

106

104

102

1

2 4 6 WAVE LENGTH IN METRE

10

10

10

10
8

Types of Radiation

difference Ionizing radiation
Higher energy electromagnetic waves High enough energy to pull electron from orbit Alpha particles, Beta particles, Neutrons , Gamma radiation , Xradiation

Non-Ionizing radiation
Lower energy electromagnetic waves Not enough energy to pull electron from orbit, but can excite the electron Visible light , Microwaves, Video Display Terminals, Power lines ,Radiofrequency, Lasers

difference

NON IONIZING RADIATION
“The electromagnetic rays that do not have sufficient energy to dislodge electrons in the body.” includes all kinds of electromagnetic radiations with frequencies <1015Hz and wavelengths λ = 10-8 -104 m. It does transmit energy to the atoms which give rise to health effect. The shorter wavelength have higher energies than larger wave length.

Radiation Sources

ULTRAVIOLET
vDivided into three regions:
vNear400 - 300 nm ( UV-A ) [90%] vFar 300 - 200 nm ( UV-B ) [10%] vVacuum 200 -100 nm (UV-C )

vHealth Effects
vUV-A : Pigmentation of skin vUV-B : Biological active & Potentially harmful vUV-C : Bactericidal ; Germicidal

Ozon e Hole- Dep letio n of S tr at osp heri c O 3

Ef fec ts o f UV Ra diati on on H um an Bo dy

Skin: Erythema- „early red coloured skin Erythema
inflam3 hours) Tanning because it starts after expomation“(appears after 2(delyed pigmentation, production of melanine.( approx. 24- 48 hours

sure) Vitamine D production Skin Aging (Wrinkles, Dry skin, Skin cancermelanoma)

CONTROL MEASURES
Basic Protection Measures are associated with : Ø(1) Time exposure by 1/2 = Dose by half Ø(2) Distance - 2x ( distance) = 1/4 amount Ø(3) Shielding - Thickness = Radiation

INF RAR ED
IR region : Visible red light ( 750nm ) to 0.3-cm wavelength of microwaves. q Health Effects: Increase tissue temperature upon exposure IR - A : 780 - 1400nm : absorbed through skin/cornea IR - B : 1400 -3000nm : Absorbed in cornea/cataract IR - C : 3000 - 1mm : Damage to skin/eyes Short w/length : Injured cornea, iris, retina and

MICROWAVES/RADIOWAVES
Within broadspectrum of Radio frequencies ( approx: 10-300,000 MHz ) HEALTH EFFECTS:
Thermal effects < 3000 MHz can penetrate skin and absorb by underlying tissues. Serious damage can occur when underlying tissues such as eyes are exposed.

CONTR OL MEASUR ES
Radiofrequency
Maximum 10 mW/cm2 Power Density (most systems) Controlled Areas Inventory Read Technical Manuals!!! Hazard Criteria SOP

LASER
Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation
* Coherent; Highly direction & low divergence

HEALTH EFFECTS
Permanent eye damage and skin bruises can result from exposure to powerful lasers Permanent Eye Injuries Cataracts and temporary blinding Skin damage

CONTR OL MEASUR ES
Do not look into lasers. Avoid reflective surfaces. Medical SOP Read Technical Manuals Hazard Criteria

R A D I AT I O N M O N I TO R I N G
vL A S E R : To check - installation is safe To suggest ways to improve To enable safe working procedure To check amount of radiation received To monitor consequence of changes

PERSONAL MONITORING
PURPOSE:
Radiation dose received Contamination and ingestion Film Badge - chest

Gas ionisation Device - pocket Scintillation Counter - ingested / surface

ENVIRONMENT MONITORING
Ionisation Chamber Scintillation Phosphors Geiger Counter Wipe test

Biological Effects : 1.Cell Damage
Synergism:- cells exposed to both ionizing radiation and 60 Hz magnetic fields demonstrated an enhanced frequency of near tetraploid chromosome complements, a feature not observed following exposure to only ionizing radiation.

2. Cancers : 3.CNS alterations : 4.Teratogenicity : by either of ULF,VLF,LF,MF,HF,VHF,etc.

Only control measure

References
Radiation protection division AR 40-46, Control of Health Hazards from Lasers and other High Intensity Optical Sources Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 6055.11, “Protection of DoD Personnel from Exposure to Electormagnetic Fields (EMF) at Radio Frequencies (RF) from 3 kHz to 300 GHz”

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