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MOTION:

Units of measurement are: time (second, minute etc) distance (m, km etc) speed (ms-1, kmhr-1 etc)

Speed is the distance travelled per unit of time (v = d/t) (units: m/s or ms-1) Distance time graphs: d The gradient of a distance/time graph is the speed (as gradient = rise/run = d/t = v) Speed time graphs v

Deceleration Constant speed Stopped Constant speed Acceleration Deceleration

t

Stopped

The gradient of the speed/time graph is the acceleration (as gradient = rise/run = v/t = a)

Acceleration

Acceleration is the change in speed per unit of time (a = v/t) (units m/s/s or ms-2) Distance travelled is the area under a speed/time graph

FORCES:

Weight is a force, depends on gravity, changes depending on position, measured in Newtons. Mass is the amount of matter in an object, constant regardless of position, measured in kg. Forces are pushes or pulls. They usually come in pairs. They can be: balanced constant motion (or stationary) unbalanced causes object to change direction, speed or shape. Forces can be Thrust, Friction (or drag), Gravity and Support (or reaction) Force diagrams show force pairs, balanced and unbalanced (arrow size represents force size if no numbers are available) If forces are unbalanced (there is a net force) then the object will accelerate (Fnet = ma) if the NET FORCE is POSITIVE (i.e. in the direction of motion) and the object is already moving. If the NET FORCE is NEGATIVE, (i.e. in the direction of friction or the opposite direction to movement) and the object is already moving the object will DECELERATE (slow down). The larger the mass the slower an object will accelerate

Friction is a contact force that opposes motion, it causes heat, damage, wear and slowing If the car IS moving: - If thrust > friction the car ACCELERATES - If thrust < friction the car DECELERATES - If thrust = friction the car remains at a CONSTANT SPEED If the car is STOPPED: - If thrust > friction the car ACCELERATES

PRESSURE:

The pressure exerted by a force depends on its area (P = F/A), e.g. a high heel vs. flat shoes, or flat tyre vs. fully inflated. Pressure is measured in Pascals (Pa). The greater the area (if force remains equal i.e. same weight of a person), the lower the pressure is. This is why people can walk on snow in skis and snowshoes but not in normal shoes so easily. It is also why high heels sink into grass more than Dr Martens boots, and why you are safer lying on a bed of nails than on a single nail!

ENERGY/WORK/POWER:

Work is done when a force moves a distance (W = Fd) measured in Joules (J) Power is work done per unit of time P = W / t, measured in Watts (W) or J/s Recap on energy transformations: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted form one from to another. Kinetic energy: EK = mv2 where m = mass, v = velocity (speed) Gravitational potential energy: Ep = mgh where m = mass, h = height, g = acceleration due to the force of gravity (10ms -2) So if an object falls, the gravitational potential energy (Ep) will be converted (conserved) to kinetic energy (Ek). - if energy is conserved Ek = Ep so mgh = mv2. However, in reality energy is lost (usually by friction and converted into heat, or by the working of muscles and converted to heat). Use formulae to calculate the amount of energy transfer

Using triangles: If you struggle with manipulation of formulae, you can use a triangle to help you. If you have a = v/t v a If there was nothing on the top: F = ma F m a t

The thing by itself goes on top (its the only way that m and a can be side by side). So: Now to calculate: e.g. 1 1. Cover the thing you want to work out (F) 2. Write what you have left (m by a) 3. Calculate it (m x a) e.g. 2 1. Cover the thing you want to work out (m) 2. Write what you have left (F over a) 3. Calculate it (F a)

v d t EK 1 2 a v t

Fnet ma

F A

E p mg h

mv

W Fd

g 10 NKg

W t

Velocity (speed)

ms-1 ms-2 kg

m/s

Acceleration Mass

m/s/s

a m

Force

Weight (force) Pressure Area Power Work Gravitational energy Kinetic energy Gravity Height

Used in equations: v=d/t W=Fd v=d/t a=v/t P=W/t v=d/t a=v/t EK = mv2 a=v/t Fnet=ma Fnet=ma Ep = mgh EK = mv2 Fnet=ma P=F/A W=Fd as above P=F/A P=F/A P=W/t W=Fd P=W/t Ep = mgh EK = mv2 Ep = mgh Ep = mgh

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