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CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Filters

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 1


Review
R

+
vI + C vC

ZR

+
Vi +
– ZC Vc

ZC
Vc = ⋅ Vi
ZC + Z R
1
Vc j ωC 1
= =
+ R 1 + jωRC
Vi 1
j ωC

Reading: Section 14.5, 14.6, 15.3 from A & L.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 2


A Filter
ZR

+
Vi +
– ZC Vc

ZC 1
Vc = ⋅ Vi =
ZC + Z R 1 + jωRC

Vc
H (ω ) =
Vi
1 “Low Pass Filter”

ω
Demo
with audio

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 3


Quick Review of Impedances-
Just as

A
I ab +

R1 Vab
Vab RAB = = R1 + R2
I ab
R2

B

A
I ab +

R1 Vab
Vab Z AB = = R1 + jωL
I ab
j ωL

B

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 4


Quick Review of Impedances
Similarly

A
Z AB = R1 + Z C || R2 + Z L
R1
Z C R2
= R1 + + ZL
C R2 Z C + R2
R2
L = R1 + + jωL
1 + jωCR2
B

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 5


We can build other filters by
combining impedances

Z (ω )
L
Z R

C
ω

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 6


We can build other filters by
combining impedances
Z (ω)
L
Z R

C ω

H (ω )

+ HPF
– High Pass Filter
ω

H (ω )

+ LPF
– Low Pass Filter
ω

H (ω )

+ HPF

ω

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 7


Check out:
L C

+
Vi +
– R Vr

Intuitively:
Vr
1
Vi
q
w fre L bloc
ks hig
k s lo h freq
bloc
C ω
1
ωo =
LC
Vr R
Vi
=
1 At resonance,
jω L + +R ω = ωo
jω C
j ω RC and
= ZL + ZC = 0,
1 − ω 2 LC + j ω RC
so Vi sees
Vr ω RC
= only R!
Vi (1 − ω 2
LC ) + (ω RC )
2 2
More later…
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 8
What about:
+ Vlc –

L C
Vi +
– R

Vlc
Vi Band Stop Filter
1 C open L open

Check out Vl and Vc in the lab.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 9


Another example:

R
+
Vi +
– L C Vo

Vo
Vi BPF

Cs
s hort ho
rt
L
ωo ω

Application: see AM radio coming up shortly

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 10


AM Radio Receiver

antenna

demodulator
Vi +
– L C
amplifier

Thévenin
antenna
model

crystal radio demo

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 11


AM Receiver
R

demodulator
Vi +
– L C
amplifier

signal filter
strength WBZ
10 KHz News
Radio

f
540 …1000 1010 1020 1030 … 1600 KHz

“Selectivity” important —
relates to a parameter “Q” for the filter. Next…

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 12


Selectivity:
Look at series RLC in more detail
L C

+
Vi +
– R Vr

Vr R
Recall, =
Vi R + jω L + 1
jω C
Vr
Vi
1
higher Q
1
2 Δω
bandwidth

ωo ω
ωo
Define Q = quality factor
Δω
high Q ⇒ more selective

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 13


Quality Factor Q
ωo
Q=
Δω

ωο:

Vr R 1
= =
Vi R + jω L + 1 ⎛ L 1 ⎞
1 + j⎜ ω − ⎟
jω C ⎝ R ω CR ⎠

at ωο =0
1
ωo =
LC

Δω ?

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 14


Quality Factor Q
ωo
Q=
Δω
Δω :
1
Note that abs magnitude is
2
Vr 1 1
when = =
Vi ⎛ L 1 ⎞ 1 ± j1
1 + j⎜ ω − ⎟
⎝ R ω CR ⎠
ωL 1
i.e. when − = ±1
R ω CR
ωR 1
ω2 m − =0
L LC
Looking at the roots of both equations,
R 1 R2 4 R 1 R2 4
ω1 = + + ω2 = − + +
2 L 2 L2 LC 2L 2 L2 LC

R
Δω = ω1 − ω2 =
L

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 15


Quality Factor Q

ωo
Q=
Δω
ωo ωo L ωo =
1
Q= =
R R LC
L

The lower the R (for series R),


the sharper the peak

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 16


Quality Factor Q

Another way of looking at Q :

energy stored
Q = 2π
energy lost per cycle
1 2
L Ir
= 2π 2
1 2 2π
Ir R
2 ω0
ωo L
Q=
R

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 18 17