Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

4

CHAPTER 4

Linear Modulation

4.1 Introduction
We use the word modulation to mean the systematic alteration of one waveform, called the carrier, according to the characteristic of another waveform, the modulating signal or the message. In Continuous Wave (CW) modulation schemes, the carrier is a sinusoid. We use c ( t ) and m ( t ) , to denote the carrier and the message waveforms respectively. The three parameters of a sinusoidal carrier that can be varied are: amplitude, phase and frequency. A given modulation scheme can result in the variation of one or more of these parameters. Before we look into the details of various linear modulation schemes, let us understand the need for modulation. Three basic blocks in any communication system are: 1) transmitter 2) Channel and 3) Receiver (Fig. 4.1).

Fig. 4.1: A basic communication system The transmitter puts the information from the source (meant for the receiver) onto the channel. The channel is the medium connecting the transmitter and the receiver and the transmitted information travels on this channel until it reaches the destination. Channels can be of two types: i) wired channels or ii) wireless channels. Examples of the first type include: twisted pair telephone

4.1
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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

channels, coaxial cables, fiber optic cable etc. Under the wireless category, we have the following examples: earth’s atmosphere (enabling the propagation of ground wave and sky wave), satellite channel, sea water etc. The main disadvantage of wired channels is that they require a man-made medium to be present between the transmitter and the receiver. Though wired channels have been put to extensive use, wireless channels are equally (if not more) important and have found a large number of applications. In order to make use of the wireless channels, the information is to be converted into a suitable form, say electromagnetic waves. This is accomplished with the help of a transmitting antenna. The antenna at the receiver (called the receiving antenna) converts the received electromagnetic energy to an electrical signal which is processed by the receiver. The question is: can we radiate the baseband1 information bearing signal directly on to the channel? For efficient radiation, the size of the antenna should be λ 10 or more (preferably around λ 4 ), where λ is the wavelength of the signal to be radiated. Take the case of audio, which has spectral components almost from DC upto 20 kHz. Assume that we are designing the antenna for the mid frequency; that is,10 kHz. Then the length of the antenna that is required, even for the λ 10 situation is,

3 × 108 c = = 3 × 103 meters, c being the velocity of light. 4 10 ⋅ f 10 × 10

1

Baseband signals have significant spectral content around DC. Some of the baseband signals

that are of interest to us are: a) Speech b) music and c) video (TV signals). Approximate spectral widths of these signals are: Speech: 5 kHz, Audio : 20 kHz, Video : 5 MHz

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Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Even an antenna of the size of 3 km, will not be able to take care of the entire spectrum of the signal because for the frequency components around 1 kHz, the length of the antenna would be λ 100 . Hence, what is required from the point of view of efficient radiation is the conversion of the baseband signal into a narrowband, bandpass signal. Modulation process helps us to accomplish this; besides, modulation gives rise to some other features which can be exploited for the purpose of efficient communication. We describe below the advantages of modulation.

1. Modulation for ease of radiation

Consider again transmission of good quality audio. Assume we choose the carrier frequency to be 1 MHz. The linear modulation schemes that would be discussed shortly give rise to a maximum frequency spread (of the modulated signal) of 40 kHz, the spectrum of the modulated signal extending from (1000 20) = 980 kHz to (1000 + 20) = 1020 kHz. If the antenna is designed for 1000 kHz, it can easily take care of the entire range of frequencies involved because modulation process has rendered the signal into a NBBP signal.

2. Modulation for efficient transmission

Quite a few wireless channels have their own appropriate passbands. For efficient transmission, it would be necessary to shift the message spectrum into the passband of the channel intended. Ground wave propagation (from the lower atmosphere) is possible only up to about 2 MHz. Long distance ionospheric propagation is possible for frequencies in the range 2 to 30 MHz. Beyond 30 MHz, the propagation is line of sight. Preferred frequencies for satellite communication are around 3 to 6 GHz. By choosing an appropriate carrier frequency and modulation technique, it is possible for us to translate the baseband message spectrum into a suitable slot in the passband of the channel intended. That is, modulation results in frequency translation.

4.3
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The passband of the channel used to 550 kHz to 1650 kHz. Each station can be assigned a suitable carrier so that the corresponding program material can be received by tuning to the station desired. by assigning to each message signal an appropriate slot in the passband of the channel. Modulation to improve the signal-to-noise ratio Certain modulation schemes (notably frequency modulation and phase modulation) have the feature that they will permit improved signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver output. Take the example of AM broadcast. then it is possible for us to multiplex. Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC) Double SideBand. If the required transmission bandwidth is taken as 10 kHz. let us assume that each one of the message signals is being broadcast by a different station.Principles of Communication Prof. provided we are willing to pay the price in terms of increased transmission bandwidth (Note that the transmitted power need not be increased). 110 distinct message signals on the channel and still be able to separate them individually as and when we desire because the identity of each message is preserved in the frequency domain. the width of the passband of the channel that is being used is 1100 kHz. 4. This feature can be taken advantage of when the quality of the receiver output is very important. Venkata Rao 3. used for voice and medium quality music broadcast. let us now get into the details of various linear modulation schemes. 5. Having understood the need and the potential benefits due to modulation. The four important types of linear modulation schemes are 1) 2) Double SideBand.4 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Large Carrier (DSB-LC) (also called conventional AM or simply AM) 4. Modulation for frequency assignment Continuing on the broadcast situation. Modulation for multiplexing Several message signals can be transmitted on a given channel. That is. atleast theoretically. V.

usually with fc >> W . s ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) (4.2 Fig. 4. s ( t ) = g m m ( t ) ( Ac cos ( ωc t ) ) For convenience. Venkata Rao 3) 4) Single SideBand (SSB) Vestigial SideBand (VSB) We shall begin our discussion with DSB-SC. V.1b) 4.2 DSB-SC Modulation 4. c ( t ) is a high frequency carrier.Principles of Communication Prof. with the units per volt (we assume that m ( t ) and Ac are in volts). let g m = 1 . Then the modulator output s ( t ) is. Consider the scheme shown in Fig.2: DSB-SC modulation scheme m ( t ) is a baseband message signal with M (f ) = 0 for f > W . Let g m denotes the amplitude sensitivity (or gain constant) of the modulator.5 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1a) (4. Modulation The DSB-SC is the simplest of the four linear modulation schemes listed above (simplest in terms of the mathematical description of modulation and demodulation operations). 4. Then.1. DSB-SC modulator is basically a multiplier.2. 4.

3: Product Modulation scheme The time domain behavior of the DSB-SC signal (with Ac = 1 ) is shown in Fig.6 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao As DSB-SC modulation involves just the multiplication of the message signal and the carrier.4(a). Fig. this scheme is also known as product modulation and can be shown as in Fig. V. 4.3. 4. for the m ( t ) shown in Fig. 4.4(b). 4.

4.5.4: (a) The message signal (b) The DSB-SC signal Note that the carrier undergoes a 180ο phase reversal at the zero crossings of m ( t ) . 4. between the points ‘a’ and ‘b’. shown in Fig. This is brought out more clearly in the oscillograms.Principles of Communication Prof.6 is an expanded version of the central part of the waveforms in Fig. Venkata Rao Fig. the carrier in the DSB-SC signal and the actual carrier (bottom picture) are in phase whereas between the points ‘b’ and ‘c’. 4. Here. Fig.5 and Fig. 4. 4. we can 4. 4. With reference to Fig.5. where m ( t ) is a sinusoidal signal. they are 1800 out of phase.6. V.7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

modulating tone signal and at the bottom. Venkata Rao very clearly observe that to the left of ‘b’. 4. both the carriers are in phase whereas to the right.7. 4.Principles of Communication Prof. they are 1800 out of phase.5: (top) DSB-SC signal with tone modulation (bottom) The carrier Fig. the corresponding DSB-SC. which can be explained as follows.8 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . What do we observe on the oscilloscope. 4. 4. if we feed the X-plates the tone signal and the Y-plates. V. Fig. We have on the top.6: Expanded versions of a part of the waveforms in Fig. the DSB-SC signal? The result is shown in Fig.5 Consider waveforms shown in Fig. 4.8. 4.

hence the maximum value reached by the DSB-SC signal during each carrier cycle keeps decreasing. 4. the tone amplitude varies from the most negative value to the most positive value. As the X-plates are being fed with the same tone signal. Point ‘a’ in Fig. Fig. 4. this decrease will be linear and this corresponds to segment ‘a’ to ‘b’ in Fig. 4.7.7. 4. the tone amplitude decreases (reaching the value zero at point b). Venkata Rao At the point ‘a’ in Fig. 4.7. Between the points ‘c’ and ‘e’ in Fig.8. Between the points ‘a’ and ‘b’ in Fig.7.Principles of Communication Prof.7: (top) modulating signal (bottom) DSB-SC signal 4. 4. In the time interval between ‘b’ and ‘c’ of Fig. V.9 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .8. 4. 4. (Note that DSB-SC signal is zero at point b). the display on the oscilloscope will follow the trace c → d → e shown in Fig. the DSB signal increases and this increase is seen as a straight line between the points ‘b’ and ‘c’ in Fig. Correspondingly. 4. 4.7.8 corresponds to the point ‘a’ in Fig. the modulating tone is at its maximum and hence the DSB-SC signal has the maximum value.8.

2).9(b).2) If we ignore the constant Ac on the R. we have S ( f ) as shown in 2 4. Venkata Rao Fig.10 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As the frequency translation of a given spectrum occurs quite often in the study of modulation and demodulation operations.S of Eq. 4. i) Let m ( t ) be a real signal with the spectrum M ( f ) shown below (Fig. Ac = 1 . we have S (f ) = Ac ⎡M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc ) ⎤ ⎦ 2 ⎣ (4.1(b).H.Principles of Communication Prof. V. 4.8 Display on the oscilloscope with the following inputs: X-plates: Tone signal Y-plates: DSB-SC signal Taking the Fourier transform of Eq. 4. Let fc be 100 kHz. (4. 4.9(a)). we see that the 2 modulation process has simply shifted the message spectrum by ± fc . Assuming Fig. let us take a closer look at this.

10(a).Principles of Communication Prof. 4.10(b) 4.11 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V.9 ii) Let m ( t ) be a complex signal with M ( f ) as shown in Fig. 4. Note that S ( f ) = M ( 2 kHz ) + M ( 202 kHz ) f = 102 kHz = 1+ 0= 1 and is the point ‘a’ in Fig.9: Frequency translation (a) baseband spectrum (real signal) (b) Shifted spectrum. Venkata Rao Fig. 4. The corresponding shifted spectrum (with fc = 100 kHz) is shown in Fig. 4.

In figures 4. The ideal HPF has the cutoff frequency at 10 kHz. As we shall see later. V. Venkata Rao Fig. the part that is hatched in red is called the Upper Sideband (USB) and the one hatched in blue is called the Lower Sideband (LSB). Any one of these two sidebands has the complete information about the message signal.11(a).12 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .10: Frequency translation (a) Baseband spectrum (complex signal) (b) Shifted spectrum.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. 4. 4. SSB modulation conserves the bandwidth by transmitting only one sideband and recovering the m ( t ) with appropriate demodulation. Given that f1 = 10 kHz and f2 = 15 kHz.9(b) and 4.10(b).1 Consider the scheme shown in Fig. let us sketch Y ( f ) for the X ( f ) given at (b). Example 4.

12(a).13 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1 (b) The input spectrum. Y ( f ) = W ( f − f2 ) + W ( f + f2 ) . Hence W ( f ) is as shown in Fig. 4. 4. Venkata Rao Fig.11: (a) The scheme of example 4. X ( f ) We have V ( f ) = X ( f − f1 ) + X ( f + f1 ) . 4. V. 4. which is as shown in Fig.12(c). The HPF eliminates the spectral components for f ≤ 10 kHz. 4. This is shown in Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.12(b).

the received signal r ( t ) = s ( t ) . 4. 4. That is.Principles of Communication Prof.2. at least theoretically. Venkata Rao Fig.14 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2.12: Spectra at various points in the scheme of Fig. is quite simple. V. Also. Let us assume that the transmitted signal s ( t ) has been received without any kind of distortion and is one of the inputs to the demodulator as shown in Fig. 4. 4.11  4. 4.13) which is the other input to the carrier (denoted cr ( t ) = Ac ( c ) demodulator. Coherent demodulation The process of demodulation of a DSB-SC signal.13. let us assume that we are able to generate at the receiving end a replica of the transmitted ' cos ω t in Fig.

called the detector gain constant. Hence v 0 ( t ) . 4.13 is the desired quantity. we have ' cos ω t v ( t ) = dg ( Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) ) Ac ( c) ( ) where d g is the gain constant of the multiplier.14(a). namely. the output of the demodulation scheme of Fig. in the context of demodulation. Venkata Rao Fig. let us take d g = 1 ' m t cos2 ω t v ( t ) = Ac Ac () ( c ) 1 + cos ( 2 ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ 'm t ⎡ = Ac Ac ()⎣ 2 ' = 2 we have Assuming that Ac Ac v ( t ) = m ( t ) + m ( t ) cos ( 4 π fc t ) (4.13: Coherent demodulation of DSB-SC The demodulation process consists of multiplying these two inputs and lowpass filtering the product quantity v ( t ) .15 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4. Let 4. Let us illustrate the operation of the detector in the frequency domain.S of Eq. 4. 4. m (t ) . V.3) The second term on the R. 4.Principles of Communication Prof.H. For convenience. From Fig.3 has the spectrum centered at ± 2 fc and would be eliminated by the lowpass filter following v ( t ) . Let m (t ) be real with the spectrum shown in Fig.13.

Venkata Rao r ( t ) = s ( t ) = 2 m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . 4. frequency part in blue).13 with Ac then V ( f ) = 1 1 1 ⎡ S ( f − fc ) + S ( f + fc ) ⎤ . 4. Assuming v ( t ) = s ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) (Fig. shown in Fig.14(b). 4.14: Spectra at various points in the demodulation scheme of Fig. 4.13 (Note that the positive frequency part of S ( f ) is shown in red and the negative ' = 1 ).Principles of Communication Prof. V. Then S ( f ) = M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc ) . S ( f − fc ) and S ( f + fc ) are shown in ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 2 4. Fig.16 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

we have available at the receiver. In the scheme of Fig. it appears that demodulation of DSB-SC is quite simple.14(c) and (d) respectively. In practice. not collocated. 4.14(c) and (d) which is the desired message spectrum. it is not. the carrier source at the receiver is different from that used at the transmitter and it is almost impossible to synchronize two independent sources. Venkata Rao Fig. 4.17 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Fairly sophisticated circuitry has to be used at the receiver in order to generate the coherent carrier signal. from an r ( t ) that has no carrier component in it. let us look at the degradation caused to the demodulated message due to a local carrier that has phase and frequency differences with the transmitted one. From the discussion of the demodulation process so far. ' can be treated as 1) Ac and Ac v ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) cos ( ωc t + ϕ ) = m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) cos ϕ − sin ( ωc t ) sin ϕ ⎤ ⎦ 2 ⎤ = m (t ) ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) cos ϕ − sin ( ωc t ) cos ( ωc t ) sin ϕ ⎦ ⎡1 + cos ( 2 ωc t ) ⎤ m ( t ) sin ( 2 ωc t ) sin ϕ = m (t ) ⎢ ⎥ cos ϕ − 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 4. Before we discuss at the generation of the coherent carrier at the receiver. V0 ( f ) is the sum of the outputs of the lowpass filters shown in Fig. a carrier term that is coherent (of the same frequency and phase) with the carrier used to generate the DSB-SC signal at the transmitter. Hence this demodulation scheme is known as coherent (or synchronous) demodulation. M (f ) .13. V. Case i): Constant phase difference between c ( t ) and cr ( t ) Let c ( t ) = cos ( 2 π fc t ) and cr ( t ) = cos [ 2 π fc t + ϕ] (the amplitude quantities. 4. we have assumed that. As the receiver and the transmitter are.Principles of Communication Prof. in general.

this gives rise to two spectral components. For convenience.4a) Let us look in some detail the implications of Eq. ( ) 4. it goes through zero twice in a cycle of the beat frequency. That is. one at 900 Hz and the other at 1100 Hz. we will have only the term m ( t ) cos ϕ 2 . As long as ϕ remains a constant. Then. is proportional to m ( t ) cos ϕ . v ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ( 2 π fc t ) cos ⎡ ⎣ 2 π ( fc + ∆ f ) t ⎤ ⎦ By carrying out the analysis similar to case (i) above.4b) Assume ∆ f = 100 Hz and consider the spectral component at 1 kHz in M ( f ) . the output of the demodulator. 4.18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . When ϕ = π 2 we have zero output from the demodulator.Principles of Communication Prof. v 0 ( t ) . This is called the quadrature null effect of the coherent detector. But values of ϕ close to π 2 will force the output to near about zero.15. because ⎡cos 2 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎡cos ( 2 π × 100 t ) ⎤ = 1 ⎡cos ( 2 π × 1100 t ) + cos ( 2 π × 900 t ) ⎤ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ 2⎣ The behavior of the sum of these two components is shown in Fig. Also. 4. Case ii): Constant frequency difference between c ( t ) and cr ( t ) Let c ( t ) = cos ( 2 π fc t ) and cr ( t ) = cos ⎡ ⎣2 π ( fc + ∆ f ) t ⎤ ⎦ . the envelope of sum signal (broken red line) attains the peak value twice in a cycle of the beat frequency ∆ f . the demodulator output is a scaled version of the actual message signal. V. let v 0 ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ⎡ ⎣2 π ( ∆ f ) t ⎤ ⎦ (4. After demodulation. we find that v 0 ( t ) α m ( t ) cos ⎡ ⎣2 π ( ∆ f ) t ⎤ ⎦ (4. As can be seen from this figure.4(a). Venkata Rao At the output of the LPF.

4.Principles of Communication Prof. Introduction Output 1 Output 2 Output 3 Output 4 4.16(a). Assume ∆ f = 300 Hz.19 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao Fig.16(a) and (d).16(d). V0 ( f ) = 1 ⎡M ( f − ∆ f ) + M ( f + ∆ f ) ⎤ ⎦ will be as shown in Fig. Let M ( f ) be as shown in Fig. Comparing Fig. V.15: Time-domain behavior of cos 2 π × 103 t cos ( 2 π × 100 t ) ( ) Let us examine the effect of frequency offset in the frequency domain. A qualitative feeling for this distortion can be obtained by listening to the speech files that follow. 4. 4. we are tempted to surmise that the output of the demodulator is a fairly distorted version of the actual message signal. 4. which is 2⎣ one-half the sum of the spectra shown at (b) and (c). Then.

Venkata Rao Fig.16: The effect of frequency offset in the demodulation of DSB-SC: (a) Typical message spectrum. V. M ( f ) (b) M ( f + 300 ) (c) M ( f − 300 ) (d) 1 ⎡M ( f + 300 ) + M ( f − 300 ) ⎤ ⎦ 2⎣ 4.20 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4.Principles of Communication Prof.

a) As cos ( 2 π fc t ) = s (t ) xp (t ) = 1 ⎡ j 2 π fc t + e− e ⎣ 2 j 2 π fc t ⎤ ⎦ . We will show that if x1 ≠ 0 . we have Ac m ( t ) ⎡ j ( n + 1) ωc t + ⎢ ∑ xn e 2 ⎣n ∑ xn e ( n j n − 1) ωc t ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ j ( n − 1) ωc t ⎥ ⎡ Ac m ( t ) ⎢ = ⎢ x− 1 + 2 ⎢ ⎣ n. n ≠ 1 ∑ xn e as x− 1 + x1 2 = Re [ x1] . Venkata Rao Example 4. This component could be due to the fundamental or some harmonic of the fundamental. Re [ x1] Ac m ( t ) . the output.21 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . n ≠ −1 ∑ xn e j ( n + 1) ωc t ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ + x1 + n. b) ' = NT .Principles of Communication Prof. We will Let y p ( t ) be another periodic signal with the period T0 0 show that. V. appropriate filtering of the product s ( t ) y p ( t ) . the carrier frequency. That is. then it is possible to extract m ( t ) from the product s ( t ) x p ( t ) . after lowpass filtering would be. fc n = −∞ ∑ ∞ xn e j 2 π n fc t where xn is the nth Fourier coefficient. Consider the product s ( t ) x p ( t ) where x p ( t ) is any periodic signal with the period T0 = xp (t ) = 1 . will result in m ( t ) . (We assume that the LPF will reject all the other spectral components) b) The product s ( t ) y p ( t ) can be written as 4. a) Let s ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) .2 In this example. we will show that the DSB-SC signal can be demodulated with the help of any periodic function p ( t ) . as long as p ( t ) has a spectral component at fc .

5 kHz < f ≤ 101.5 kHz G (f ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0 . Then. 4. etc. We assume that the LPF will extract the lobe at f = 0 N N and reject others).17. n ≠ N ∑ yn ⎫ ⎛n ⎞ j 2 π ⎜ − 1⎟ fc t ⎪ N ⎝ ⎠ e ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ We assume that y N ≠ 0 . Venkata Rao ⎛n ⎧ j 2π⎜ Ac m ( t ) ⎪ ⎝N s (t ) y p (t ) = ⎨∑ y n e 2 ⎪ ⎩n ⎞ + 1⎟ fc t ⎠ + ∑ yn n ⎛n ⎞ j 2 π ⎜ − 1⎟ fc t ⎫ ⎪ N ⎝ ⎠ e ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Ac m ( t ) ⎪ = ⎨y − N + 2 ⎪ ⎩ n.3 Consider the scheme shown in Fig. s ( t ) is the DSB-SC signal m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) with ⎧1 . V.  Example 4. 99 kHz ≤ f ≤ 101 kHz ⎪ S (f ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0 . We will show that it would not be possible to recover m ( t ) from v ( t ) if ⎧ ⎪1 . outside 4. ± c . n ≠ −N ∑ yn ⎛n ⎞ j 2 π ⎜ + 1⎟ fc t N ⎝ ⎠ e + yN + n.Principles of Communication Prof. the output of the LPF would be Re [ y N ] Ac m ( t ) . ± (Note that y p (t ) s (t ) has spectral lobes at fc 2f . 98. outside a) b) We will show that the output y ( t ) α m ( t ) . 98 kHz ≤ f ≤ 102 kHz G (f ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0 . outside Let g ( t ) be another bandpass signal with ⎧ ⎪1 . 0.22 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

we see that ⎧ ⎪2 .3) a) Let g ( t ) = m1 ( t ) cos ( 2 πfc t ) where fc = 100 kHz and ⎧2 . outside M1 ( f ) ∗ M ( f ) will be flat only for f ≤ 0. Venkata Rao Fig. V.5 kHz . f ≤ 1 kHz M (f ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0 .  4.5 kHz M1 ( f ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0 .Principles of Communication Prof. Hence m ( t ) cannot be recovered. outside We have. m ( t ) m1 ( t ) 2 ←⎯ → M ( f ) ∗ M1 ( f ) 2 M ( f ) ∗ M1 ( f ) will have a flat spectrum for f ≤ 1 kHz .17: Scheme of DSB-SC demodulation (example 4. we can recover m ( t ) from v ( t ) . v ( t ) = m ( t ) m1 ( t ) cos2 ( ωc t ) ⎡1 + cos ( 2 ωc t ) ⎤ = m ( t ) m1 ( t ) ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ = m ( t ) m1 ( t ) 2 + m ( t ) m1 ( t ) 2 cos ( 2 ωc t ) We will assume that the LPF rejects the spectrum around ± 2 fc . 4. b) For this case M1 ( f ) would be ⎧ ⎪2 . f ≤ 2 kHz ⎪ M1 ( f ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0 . By using an ILPF with cutoff at 1 kHz. outside From S ( f ) . f ≤ 1.23 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

18(a) is generated using the signals m1 ( t ) and m2 ( t ) . 4.24 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. M1 ( f ) and M2 ( f ) are shown at (b) and (c) respectively in Fig. A part of this receiver is shown in Fig.18. a) b) Suggest a scheme to obtain m ( t ) from m1 ( t ) and m2 ( t ) .18: Proposed receiver structure for the exercise 4. Venkata Rao Exercise 4.1 A signal m ( t ) whose spectrum is shown in Fig. 4. 4. V.Principles of Communication Prof. Complete ( ) is the receiver structure by indicating the operations to be performed by the boxes with the question mark inside.18(d). The signal s ( t ) = 2 m ( t ) cos 105 π t transmitted on the channel. m1 ( t ) and m2 ( t ) are to be recovered from the received signal r ( t ) = s ( t ) . 4.1 4.

3 Carrier recovery for coherent demodulation As explained in detail in sec. 4. Had there been a carrier component in the transmitted signal. Venkata Rao 4.25 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The output frequency fo of the VCO when ec ( t ) = 0 is called the free running frequency of the VCO. coherent demodulation requires a carrier at the receiving end that is phase coherent with the transmitted carrier. V.19. we shall assume that the VCO output is sinusoidal.2. The frequency put out by the VCO at any instant depends on the sign and magnitude of the control voltage. 4.2. But the DSB-SC signal has no such component and other methods have to be devised to generate a coherent carrier at the receiver. it would have been possible to extract it at the receiving end and use it for demodulation. 4.Principles of Communication Prof. namely (a) Costas loop and (b) squaring loop. a) Costas loop: This scheme is shown in Fig. Fig.2. 4. ec ( t ) . Two methods are in common use for the carrier recovery (and hence demodulation) from the suppressed carrier modulation schemes. 1 Here.19: Costas loop The VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) is a source that produces a periodic waveform1 whose frequency is controlled by the input voltage ec ( t ) .

Similar analysis shows v 4 (t ) = 0 Now suppose that VCO develops a small phase offset of ϕ radians. 4. V. Because of this. Hence ec ( t ) = C0 sin2 ϕ where C0 is the DC value of 2 1 ⎡ .Principles of Communication Prof. that is. b) Squaring loop The operation of the squaring loop can be explained with the help of Fig. This DC control voltage ensures Ac A0 m ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 8 that the VCO output is coherent with the carrier used for modulation. Then. Venkata Rao To understand the loop operation. then the Q channel output is proportional to − sin ϕ ). which has very narrow passband (Note that LPF1 and LPF2 should have a bandwidth of at least W Hz). e ( t ) is a non-zero quantity given by e (t ) = v2 (t ) v4 (t ) = = 2 1 ⎡ Ac A0 m ( t ) ⎤ cos ϕ sin ϕ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 1 ⎡ Ac A0 m ( t ) ⎤ sin 2 ϕ ⎣ ⎦ 8 e ( t ) is input to LPF3. let us assume that the frequency and phase of the VCO output are the same as that of the incoming carrier.26 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .20. v 2 ( t ) α m ( t ) . 4. v1 ( t ) = ( Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) ) ( A0 cos ( ωc t ) ) = A0 Ac m ( t ) cos2 ( ωc t ) ⎡1 + 2cos ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ = A0 Ac m ( t ) ⎣ 2 The output of the LPF1 is v2 (t ) = A0 Ac m ( t ) 2 . The Ichannel output will remain essentially unchanged but a small voltage will develop at the output of the Q-channel which will be proportional to sin ϕ (If the phase shift is − ϕ rad. the desired signal.

4.Principles of Communication Prof. yielding a coherent carrier at its output. V. Because of this. with the centre frequency 2 fc . an 1800 phase ambiguity.27 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Both the Costas loop and squaring loop have one disadvantage. Note that LPF2 must have adequate bandwidth to pass the highest frequency component present in m ( t ) . (The dotted box enclosing a multiplier. v (t ) = r 2 (t ) = 2 Ac m2 ( t ) ⎡ ⎣1 + cos ( 2 ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ 2 m 2 ( t ) will have nonzero DC value which implies its spectrum has an impulse at f = 0 . The VCO output goes through a factor of two frequency divider.20: Demodulation of DSB-SC using a squaring loop Let r ( t ) = s ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . it is possible to make the VCO to lock on to the discrete component at 2 fc . namely. V ( f ) will have a discrete spectral component at 2 fc . present in w ( t ) . This carrier is used to demodulate the DSB-SC signal. LPF and a VCO. By making the bandwidth of LPF1 very narrow. v ( t ) is the input to a very narrowband bandpass filter. Consider the Costas loop. Then. Venkata Rao Fig. connected in the feedback configuration shown is called the Phase Locked Loop (PLL)). if the input to the loop were 4.

the cost may not be a major factor. Though DSB-SC modulation schemes place the entire transmitted power into the useful sidebands. As will seen later.Principles of Communication Prof. the modulated carrier should carry m ( t ) in its envelope. Let s ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) Pre-envelope of s ( t ) = ⎡s ( t ) pe ⎤ = Ac m ( t ) ei ωc t ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ Complex envelope of s ( t ) = ⎡ ⎣s ( t )ce ⎦ = Ac m ( t ) Hence the envelope of DSB-SC = s ( t ) pe = s ( t )ce α m (t ) 4. DSB-SC does not satisfy this property as explained below. V. e ( t ) would be the 2 same as in the case discussed earlier. If only a few receivers are to be built for a specific communication need. this will not cause any problem for audio transmission because m ( t ) and − m ( t ) . for the squaring loop. the demodulation has to be coherent. However. there would be a large number of receivers tuned to a given station and in that scenario. But in a broadcast situation. Venkata Rao to be − Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . Similarly.28 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . would sound the same to our ears. Hence the demodulated output could be either m ( t ) or − m ( t ) . Evidently. if required. output of the LPF1 would be − that of LPF2 would be − 1 Ac A0 m ( t ) cos ϕ and 2 1 Ac A0 m ( t ) sin ϕ with the result that. v (t ) would be the same whether r ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) or − Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . The circuit required to generate a coherent carrier increases the cost of the receiver. But to make use of ED. it is better make the receiver fairly cheap and push the cost up of the transmitter. the Envelope Detector(ED) is fairly cheap to implement as compared to a coherent detector.

By choosing the carrier component properly.29 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Let g m m ( t ) be such that g m m ( t ) ≤ 1 for all t. which.5) In this section. 4. Fig. we will have DSB-LC.3 DSB-LC Modulation (or AM) By adding a large carrier component to the DSB-SC signal. 4. V. We shall assume that m(t ) has no DC component and ( m ( t ) )max = − ( m ( t ) )min .21. Consider the scheme shown in Fig. we use s(t ) in place of [s(t )]AM . Then.21: Generation of an AM signal from a DSB-SC signal Let v ( t ) = Ac g m m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . 4. it is possible for us to generate the AM signal such that it preserves m ( t ) in its envelope.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao We shall now describe a modulation scheme that has m ( t ) as its envelope which can easily be extracted. for convenience. we shall call simply as AM. ⎡s ( t ) ⎦ ⎤ = Ac cos ( ωc t ) + v ( t ) ⎣ AM = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) (4. Then ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ≥ 0 and ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ AM preserves m ( t ) in its envelope because j ωc t ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ pe = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦e ⎡s ( t ) ⎦ ⎤ = Ac ⎣ ⎡1 + g m m ( t ) ⎦ ⎤ ⎣ ce 4. unless there is confusion.

4. Fig.22: (a) An arbitrary message waveform m ( t ) (b) Corresponding AM waveform 4. This would be illustrated later with a few time domain waveforms of the AM signal.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao As ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ≥ 0 . If ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ is not nonnegative for all t .30 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we have Envelope of s(t ) = s(t )ce = Ac [1 + g m m(t )] The quantity after the DC block is proportional to m ( t ) . then the envelope would be different from m ( t ) . 4. Fig.22(b) illustrates the AM waveform for the case ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ≥ 0 for all t . V.

the envelope of s ( t ) follows m ( t ) in a one-to-one fashion. Maximum value of the envelope (shown in red broken line) occurs when m ( t ) has the maximum positive value. carrier level would be Ac which we have assumed to be 1. V. Similarly. Then s ( t ) is said to have (100x) percentage max modulation. This will be illustrated in the context of tone modulation.23.31 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .23: Baseband signal for the exercise 4. At the time instants when m ( t ) = 0 .Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao A few time instants have been marked in both the figures (a) and (b).2 4. As can be seen from the figure. If g m m ( t ) max > 1 . discussed next.2 For the waveform m ( t ) shown in Fig. Exercise 4. sketch the AM signal with the percentage modulation of 40. 4. the envelope will reach its minimum value when m ( t ) is the most negative. For the case of 100% modulation. 4. Let g m m ( t ) = x ≤ 1. ⎡ ⎣gm m ( t )⎤ ⎦ max = − ⎡ ⎣gm m ( t )⎤ ⎦min = 1. Assume Ac = 1 (the figure has to be shown with reference to m ( t ) ) Fig. then we have over modulation which results in the envelope distortion.

7) µ is called the modulation index or modulation factor. 4. we have ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦max = Ac [1 + µ ] ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦min = Ac [1 − µ ] ⎡ 1+ µ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦max = 1− µ ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦ min or µ = ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦ max − ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦ min ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦max + ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦min Fig. we require. 1 and 1. Then for tone modulation. Venkata Rao 4.24 to 4.26 illustrate the experimentally generated AM waveforms for µ = 0.32 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . that is. m ( t ) = Am cos ( 2 π fm t ) where fm << fc .3. Then Eq.1. we have overmodulation).6a) (4. V.5.6b) Let g m Am = µ . As A ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ . s ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) (4. 4. To avoid envelope distortion.Principles of Communication Prof. Tone Modulation Let m ( t ) to be a tone signal. µ × 100 is the percentage modulation. 4. µ ≤ 1.5 respectively (with µ > 1 .5 becomes s ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + g m Am cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) = A ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) (4.

4.24: AM with tone modulation ( µ = 0.25: AM with tone modulation ( µ = 1) 4. Venkata Rao Fig.33 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .5 ) Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. V.

V. Note that.27: Envelope of the AM signal of Fig.5 ) Fig. 4. the envelope (shown with a red broken line) is one-to-one related to the message sinusoid. corresponding to the time-instant when the sinusoid is going through the negative peak. This can be more clearly seen in Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.26: AM with tone modulation ( µ = 1. 4. for µ = 1.26 As can be seen from 4.24 and 4. 4. Venkata Rao Fig. when µ > 1. 4.27 which shows the output of the envelope detector when the input 4. the one-to-one relationship between the envelope of the modulated carrier and the modulating tone is no longer maintained. However. the carrier amplitude (and hence the envelope) goes to zero.34 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .25.

in other words. 4.26 is getting inverted.26. the output of the ED is proportional to (1 + µ cos ωmt ) which is not equal to (1 + µ cos ωm t ) . 4.35 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .28: Oscillogram when the CRO inputs are: X-plates: tone signal Y-plates: AM signal with µ = 1 2 Fig. Notice that the tone signal between ( t1 .29: Oscillogram when the CRO inputs are: X-plates: tone signal Y-plates: AM signal with ( µ = 1) 4.Principles of Communication Prof. Fig. t2 ) and to the right of t3 of Fig. when µ > 1. 4. Venkata Rao is the modulated carrier of Fig. V. 4.

4. Spectra of AM signals Taking the Fourier transform of Eq. Ac Ac ⎡ ⎣S ( f ) ⎤ ⎦ AM = 2 ⎡ ⎣δ ( f − fc ) + δ ( f + fc ) ⎤ ⎦ + 2 gm ⎡ ⎣M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc ) ⎤ ⎦ (4. 4.29. 4. A = 2 Ac [1 − µ ] ) where as B is the peak-to-peak value of the carrier at its maximum (that is.3 Picture the oscillogram when the X-plates of the CRO are fed with the modulating tone and the Y-plates with the AM signal with µ = 1.5. 4. 4.5 . B = 2 Ac [1 + µ ] ).28 and Fig.5 and µ = 1 respectively.28. 4.Principles of Communication Prof. as A = 0 we have µ = 1 Exercise 4.2.29 illustrate the oscillograms when the X-plates of the CRO are fed with the modulating tone and the Y-plates with the AM signal with µ = 0. A represents the peak-to-peak value of the carrier at its minimum (that is.8) The plot of [S(f )]AM is given in Fig.3. V.36 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4. Venkata Rao Fig.30. In Fig. 4. Hence µ can be calculated as µ = B−A B+A In Fig.

we make the following observations: 1) The spectrum has two sidebands. required for the AM signal is 2 W . 4. That is.Principles of Communication Prof. and ( − fc − W ) to − fc . 2) If the baseband signal has bandwidth W . V. 3) Spectrum has discrete components at f = ± fc . Venkata Rao Fig. the transmission bandwidth BT . indicated by impulses of area 4) Ac 2 S ( f ) . then the AM signal has bandwidth 2 W .30: (a) Baseband message spectrum M ( f ) (b) Spectrum of the AM signal Based on Fig. 4.37 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . so that s ( t ) is a narrowband In order to avoid the overlap between the positive part and the negative part of signal) 4. hatched in red] and the LSB ( fc − W to fc and − fc to ( − fc + W ) . hatched in blue). fc > W (In practice. fc >> W . the USB [between fc to fc + W .30.

let us find η = function of modulation index µ .38 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Let us illustrate this taking the example of tone modulation. we have 4. V. we have s ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) Carrier term = Ac cos ( ωc t ) Carrier Power = USB term = 2 Ac 2 Ac µ cos ( ωc + ωm ) t 2 2 2 2 Ac µ 8 ⎛ Ac µ ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎠ Power in USB = ⎝ 2 = Power in LSB = Power in USB Total sideband Power = 2 × 2 Ac 2 2 Ac µ µ2 = 8 4 2 2 2 2 2 Ac 2 + µ2 ⎛ Ac Ac Ac µ µ2 ⎞ Total Power= + = ⎜1 + ⎟ = 2 4 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 2 2 Ac µ Hence. Venkata Rao The discrete components at f = ± fc .4 For AM with tone modulation. η = 2 4 2 Ac 2 + µ ( ) ( ) = µ2 2 + µ2  4 Calculating the value of η for a few value of µ . do not carry any information and as such AM does not make efficient use of the transmitted power.Principles of Communication Prof. Total sideband power . Example 4. as a Total power For tone modulation.

only 1/3 of the total power is in the sidebands (or side frequencies).33 As can be seen from the above tabulation.0 0. The term of Ac µ j ωm t e 2 can be represented as a rotating vector with a magnitude rev/sec. 4. using the carrier quantity as the reference. Venkata Rao µ η 0.50 0. however.75 0. s ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) A µ ⎧ j ω = Re ⎨ Ac e j ωc t + c ⎡e ( c 2 ⎣ ⎩ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ce = Ac + + ωm ) t j ω +e( c − ωm t ) ⎤ ⎫ ⎬ ⎦⎭ Ac µ j ωm t Ac µ − e e + 2 2 j ωm t (4. From this example. The complex envelope behavior of s ( t ) for tone modulation is quite illustrative.03 0.39 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .22 1. η increases as µ → 1. V. the remaining 2/3 being in the carrier. rotating counterclockwise at the rate of fm 2 j ωm t Ac µ − e 2 can be shown as a vector with clockwise rotational speed of fm rev/sec.Principles of Communication Prof.25 0. Ac µ .11 0. Similarly. even at µ = 1. in terms of the utilization of the transmitted power.9) Let us draw a ‘phasor’ diagram. we see that AM is not an efficient modulation scheme.

we find that the complex envelope is real and is given by Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ .31 are helpful in the study of unequal attenuation of the sideband components.9.40 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . µ = 1 and let the upper sideband be attenuated by a factor of 2 2. Example 4. 4. 4.5 Let Ac = 1 . The length of the in-phase component of ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ce depends on the sign of the resultant of the sideband phasors. Let us find the expression for the resulting envelope. We shall illustrate this with an example.31 depicts the behavior of all the quantities on the RHS of Eq.9.31 this varies between the limits Ac [1 − µ 1. A ( t ) . 4. From Eq.4.31: Phasor diagram for AM with tone modulation Fig. the quadrature components of the sideband phasors cancel out where as the in-phase components add up. 4. the resultant of the sideband components is collinear with the carrier. This can also be seen from the phasor diagram. As can be seen from Fig. Venkata Rao Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. Ac [1 − µ ] to Ac [1 + µ ] . because at any given time. V. 4. If the modulation index µ is less than ] > 0 and envelope of s ( t ) is ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ce = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t )⎤ ⎦ = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ Phasor diagrams such as the one shown in Fig.

Venkata Rao The phasor diagram for this case is shown in Fig. y (t ) = x (t ) ∗ h (t ) Y (f ) = X (f ) H (f ) That is. an LTI system cannot generate at its output frequency components that are not present in X ( f ) .32. 1 1 ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ce = 1 + 8 ( cos ( ωm t ) + j sin ( ωm t ) ) + 4 ( cos ( ωm t ) − j sin ( ωm t ) ) = 1+ 3 1 cos ( ωm t ) − j sin ( ωm t ) 8 8 1 2 2 ⎡⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎤2 A ( t ) = ⎢⎜ 1 + cos ( ωm t ) ⎟ + ⎜ sin ( ωm t ) ⎟ ⎥ 8 ⎠ ⎝8 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣⎝ ⎦ Evidently. Then. the resultant of the sidebands is no longer collinear with the carrier. an LTI system can only alter a frequency component (either boost or attenuate).  4. V.Principles of Communication Prof. In other words. 4.41 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .32: Phasor diagram for an AM signal with unequal sidebands As can be seen from the figure. We have already seen that the spectrum of a DSB or AM signal is 4. Fig. that is present in the input signal. it is not possible for us to recover the message from the above A ( t ) .4 Generation of AM and DSB-SC signals Let x ( t ) be the input to an LTI system with the impulse response h ( t ) and let y ( t ) be the output. 4.

Venkata Rao different from that of the carrier and the baseband signal. Fig. 4. we have to make use of nonlinear or time-varying systems.4. 4.28(a) A semiconductor diode. to generate a DSB signal or an AM signal.42 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4.1 Generation of AM We shall discuss two methods of generating AM signals. when properly biased has a v − i characteristic that nonlinear.33(a).33(b). 4. That is. one using a nonlinear element and the other using an element with time-varying characteristic. a) Square law modulator Consider the scheme shown in Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. V. 4.33 (a): A circuit with a nonlinear element (b): v − i characteristic of the diode in Fig. 4. as shown in Fig.

Principles of Communication Prof. 4.11 4. ' cos 2 π f t + m t .34 illustrates these spectra (quantities marked A to E) for the M ( f ) of Fig. The time domain quantities corresponding to A to E are listed below.11) The first term (on the RHS of Eq.14(a). 4. 4. Let v1 ( t ) = Ac ( c ) () ' ⎡1 + 2 α 2 m t ⎤ cos 2 π f t + α m(t ) + α m 2 t + α A' 2 cos2 2 π f t v 2 ( t ) = α1 Ac ( )⎥ ( c ) 1 () 2 c ( c ) 2 ⎢ α1 ⎣ ⎦ (4. Venkata Rao For fairly small variations of v around a suitable operating point. Ac = α1 Ac m α1 Now the question is: can we extract ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ AM from the sum of terms on the RHS of Eq.10) where α1 and α 2 are constants. 4.43 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .11) is ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ AM . 4. with the carrier amplitude ' and g = 2 α 2 . Fig. V. 4. Fig.34: Spectra of the components of v 2 ( t ) of Eq. v 2 ( t ) can be written as 2 v 2 ( t ) = α1 v1 ( t ) + α 2 v1 (t ) (4. Then.11? This can be answered by looking at the spectra of the various terms constituting v 2 (t ) .

V. As such. This is possible by placing a BPF with centre at fc and bandwidth 2W provided ( fc − W ) > 2W or fc > 3 W . generating the desired AM signals when it is used in the circuit configuration shown in Fig. 4. i) The required square-law nonlinearity of a given device would be available only over a small part of the (v − i ) characteristic. However. (iv) and (v). then we require a BPF with very sharp cut off characteristics. Hence.44 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Usually.35. we have made use of the nonlinearity of a diode. it is possible to generate only low levels of the desired output. diode will be used as a switching element. this scheme suffers from a few disadvantages.Principles of Communication Prof. b) Switching modulator In the first method of generation of the AM signals. this is not a very stringent requirement. In the second method discussed below. ii) If fc is of the order of 3W. 4. then the required AM signal would be available at the output of the filter. it acts as a device with time-varying characteristic. Venkata Rao Component Spectrum indicated by (i) Ac cos ( 2 π fc t ) ' m t cos 2 π f t (ii) 2 α 2 Ac () ( c ) A B C D E (iii) α1 m ( t ) (iv) α 2 m 2 ( t ) ' (v) α 2 Ac ( ) 2 cos2 (2 π fc t ) ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ AM consists of the components (i) and (ii) of the above list. If it is possible for us to filter out the components (iii).

V. This is explained as follows.1. xp (t ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩0 . when forward biased. 4. v1 ( t ) = c ( t ) + m ( t ) = Ac cos ( 2 π fc t ) + m ( t ) If we assume that m ( t ) << Ac . the diode offers infinite impedance when reverse biased and has zero impedance. 4.45 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao Fig. then the behavior of the diode is governed by max c ( t ) and can be approximated as v2 (t ) ⎧ ⎪v1 ( t ) .12) where x p ( t ) is the periodic rectangular pulse train of example 1. if if c ( t ) > 0 ( positivehalf cycleof c ( t ) ) c ( t ) < 0 ( negativehalf cycleof c ( t ) ) But from example 1. ⎧ ⎪1 . 4. c ( t ) > 0 ⎨ . We have. The (ideal) transfer characteristics of the diode-load combination is shown at (b) in Fig.35. That is.35: (a) Switching modulator (b) Switching characteristic of the diode-load combination.Principles of Communication Prof. Hence.1 ( with f0 = fc ). whether v1 ( t ) is switched to the output or not depends on the carrier cycle) We can express v 2 ( t ) as v 2 ( t ) = v1 ( t ) x p ( t ) (4. c (t ) ≤ 0 ⎪ ⎩0 (That is.

± 4 etc. a) b) The desired quantity: Ac 2 ⎡ ⎤ 4 m ( t ) ⎥ cos ( 2 π fc t ) ⎢1 + π Ac ⎣ ⎦ The undesired terms with i) ii) Impulses in spectra at f = 0.Principles of Communication Prof. namely.13(a). Filtering requirements are less stringent because we can separate the desired AM signal if fc > 2W . ± 5 fc etc.13b) From Eq. the disadvantage of the method is that percentage modulation has to be low in order that the switching characteristics of the diode are controlled only by the carrier. ± 3 fc . 4. centered at 0. we see that v 2 ( t ) is composed of two components. However. V.13a) From Eq.46 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As compared to the square law modulator. we obtain the trigonometric Fourier series. for n = ± 2. Combining the terms x− n and xn . ± 4 fc etc. we find that xn = 0 . namely. 1 2 xp (t ) = + cos ( 2 π fc t ) + 2 π n = 2 ∑ ∞ ( − 1)n − 1 cos ⎡2 π 2n − 1 ⎣ ( 2 n − 1) fc t ⎤ ⎦ (4.13(b). 4. 4. Venkata Rao xp (t ) = n = −∞ ∑ ∞ xn e j 2 π n fc t where xn = 1 ⎛n⎞ sin c ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝2⎠ (4. Spectral lobes (same in shape as M(f)) of width 2W.12 and 4. ± 2 fc . switching modulator has the following advantages: a) b) Generated AM signals can have larger power levels.

Consider the carrier cycle where the 4.47 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the carrier frequencies that can be used will depend on the IC used. We assume that the carrier Fig. The details can be obtained from the respective manuals. Generally.4. V.36. Generation of DSB-SC a) Product modulator Generation of a DSB-SC signal involves the multiplication of m ( t ) with Ac cos ( ωc t ) .36: Ring modulator signal c ( t ) is much larger than m ( t ) .2. b) Ring modulator Consider the scheme shown in Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. Some of them are: National: Motorola: Analog Devices: Signetics: LM 1496 MC 1496 AD 486. 4. only low power levels are possible and that too over a limited carrier frequency range. AD 632 etc 5596 The power levels that can be generated. Thus c ( t ) controls the behavior of diodes which would be acting as ON-OFF devices. any of the commercially available multipliers can be used. To generate this signal in the laboratory. Venkata Rao 4.

In other words. As a consequence. As a result. D2 and D3 are forward biased where as D1 and D4 are reverse biased. T1 is an audio frequency transformer which is essentially an open circuit at the frequencies near about the carrier. 4.37. during the negative half cycle. say the positive half cycle of c ( t ) . D3 are reverse biased.14) where x p ( t ) is square wave as shown in Fig. the voltage at point ‘a’ gets switched to a' and voltage at point ‘b’ to b' .37: x p ( t ) of Eq. V. During the other half cycle of c ( t ) . This implies.Principles of Communication Prof. − m ( t ) is switched. m ( t ) is switched to the output where as.48 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao terminal 1 is positive and terminal 2 is negative. 4. D1.14 4. where as D2. v ( t ) can be taken as v (t ) = m (t ) xp (t ) (4. Fig. during. 4. the voltage at ‘a’ gets transferred to b' and that at point ‘b’ to a' . D4 are forward biased. With the polarities assumed for c ( t ) .

for the m ( t ) shown in Fig. The non-linear device has the input-output characteristic given by y ( t ) = a0 x ( t ) + a1 x 3 ( t ) 4. namely. ..38(b) illustrates the product quantity m ( t ) x p ( t ) . π Example 4.. Venkata Rao Fig. The Fourier series expansion of x p ( t ) can be written as 4 xp (t ) = π n = 1. 3. ∑ ( − 1) n −1 2 n cos ( n ωc t ) .Principles of Communication Prof. s ( t ) = 4 m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . 5. 4.38: (a) A message waveform m ( t ) (b) v ( t ) of the ring modulator Fig. 4. When v ( t ) is passed through a BPF tuned to fc .39. 4. 4.6: Generation of DSB-SC Consider the scheme shown in Fig.38(a). the output is the desired DSBSC signal.49 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V.

Then. let us find the value of f1 .39: The scheme for the example 4. V. y ( t ) = a0 ⎡ ⎣ A cos ( 2 π f1 t ) + m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ + a1 ⎡ ⎣ A cos ( 2 π f1 t ) + m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 ⎤ 2 = a1 ⎡ ⎣ A cos ( 2 π f1 t ) + m ( t ) + 3 A cos ( 2 π f1 t ) m ( t ) + 3 A cos ( 2 π f1 t ) m ( t ) ⎦ In the equation for the quantity 2 above.6 Let x ( t ) = A cos ( 2 π f1 t ) + m ( t ) where m ( t ) is the message signal. 3 a1 A2 m ( t ) cos2 ( 2 π f1 t ) = 3 a1 A2 m ( t ) {1 + cos ⎡ ⎣ 2 π ( 2 f1 ) t ⎤ ⎦} 2 Assume that the BPF will pass only the components centered around 2 f1 . 4. we will have s ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( 2 π fc t ) where Ac = 3 a1 A2 and fc = 1 MHz.50 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the only term on the RHS that can give rise to the DSB-SC signal is 3 a1 A2 m ( t ) cos2 ( 2 π f1 t ) . If the required output s ( t ) is a DSB-SC signal with a carrier frequency of 1 MHz.  4.Principles of Communication Prof. assuming that a suitable BPF is available. choosing f1 = 500 kHz. Venkata Rao Fig.

4.40. Show that the output thereby establishing that BM is essentially a multiplier. s(t ) is a DSB-SC signal. Fig. 4.4 Consider the circuit configuration (called Cowan modulator) shown in Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.41. V.5: Balanced Modulator (BM) Consider the scheme shown in Fig. 4.40: Cowan modulator Exercise 4.41: Balanced modulator (BM) 4. This configuration is usually called a balanced modulator. Venkata Rao Exercise 4. Show that the circuit can produce at its output the DSB-SC signal. Fig.51 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . T1 is the audio frequency transformer where as T2 and T3 are designed to operate around the carrier frequency. 4.

4.42. we shall explain this operation with the help of Fig. making the capacitor C charge through the source resistance Rs . As the operation of the detector circuit depends on the charge and discharge of the capacitor C . 4. V. Fig. A good approximation to the ideal envelope detector can be realized with a fairly simple electronic circuit. 4. the AM signal. This makes the receiver for AM somewhat simple. which is to be found in almost all the AM receivers.Principles of Communication Prof. When it is forward biased. it acts as an open circuit and C discharges through the load resistance RL .43. Venkata Rao 4.5 Envelope Detector As mentioned earlier.42: The envelope detector circuit We assume the diode D to be ideal. When D is reverse biased. there by making AM suitable for broadcast applications. it acts as a short circuit and thereby. 4. We shall briefly discuss the operation of the envelope detector. when not over modulated allows the recovery of m(t ) from its envelope. Consider the circuit shown in Fig.52 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

4. It will discharge a little during the next off cycle of the diode. at the carrier frequency could be present on v out ( t ) . as fc is generally much higher than the upper limit of the audio frequency range).43(b). (Note that a small high frequency ripple. V. For audio transmission.Principles of Communication Prof.43: Envelope detector waveforms (a) v1 ( t ) (before DC block) (b) v out ( t ) (after DC block) If the time constants Rs C and RL C are properly chosen. v1 ( t ) follows the envelope of s ( t ) fairly closely. C quickly charges to the peak value of the carrier at that time instant. During the conduction cycle of D . Venkata Rao Fig. The time constants of the circuit will control the ripple about the actual envelope. as shown in Fig. this would not cause any problem. CB is a blocking capacitor and the final v out ( t ) will be proportional to m ( t ) .53 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4. 4.

Venkata Rao How do we choose the time constants? Rs .54 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . x ( t ) is a tone signal given by x ( t ) = cos ⎡ 2 π × 104 t ⎤ and c ( t ) = cos ( 2 π fc t ) with fc = 10 MHz. with cutoff at 10 MHz. That is. This maximum rate depends on W. ( ) 4. That is 1 1 << RL C << fc W (4. V.15b) Too small a value for RL C will make V1 ( t ) somewhat ragged (sort of saw tooth ripple on the top) where as. We shall find the expression for y ( t ) . we want the capacitor to charge to the peak value of the carrier in as short a time as possible.Principles of Communication Prof. Rs C << 1 fc (4. the output of the Balanced Modulator (BM). v ( t ) . the output of an ideal envelope detector. though not under our control can be assumed to be fairly small.7 Consider the scheme shown in Fig. with too large value for RL C . ED fails to follow the envelope during the periods when m ( t ) is decreasing.44. During the charging cycle. Example 4. A more accurate analysis of the behavior of ED with m ( t ) as a tone signal is given in appendix A4. c ( t ) is the ⎣ ⎦ HT of c ( t ) . the highest frequency in M(f). Values for RL and C can be assigned by us.1. is applied as input to an ideal HPF.15a) Discharge time constant should be large enough so that C does not discharge too much between the positive peaks of the carrier but small enough to be able follow the maximum rate of change of m(t). 4.

Hence. 4. V. ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎩2 ⎭ 2 2 ⎧ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡2 π ( ∆ f ) t ⎦ ⎤ + ⎢ sin ⎣ ⎡2 π ( ∆ f ) t ⎦ ⎤ − 1⎥ ⎬ y ( t ) = ⎨ cos2 ⎣ ⎣2 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪4 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎧5 ⎫2 = ⎨ − sin ⎡ 2 π × 104 t ⎤ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩4 ( ) 1  Example 4. ⎣ ⎦ 2 1 ⎡cos ⎡ ⎣2 π ( ∆ f ) t ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) − sin ⎡ ⎣2 π ( ∆ f ) t ⎤ ⎦ sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ 2⎣ z ( t ) = w ( t ) + sin ⎡ ⎣( 2 π fc ) t ⎤ ⎦ .8 Consider the scheme shown in Fig.45: The scheme for the example 4.45. Fig. Venkata Rao Fig.8 Let us find the output y ( t ) when.Principles of Communication Prof. we have z (t ) = 1 ⎡1 ⎤ − 1⎥ sin ( ωc t ) cos ⎡ 2 π(∆ f )t ⎤ cos ( ωc t ) − ⎢ sin ⎡ 2 π(∆ f )t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎣2 ⎦ a narrowband signal with the in phase component z (t ) represents 1 ⎧1 ⎫ cos ⎡ 2 π(∆ f )t ⎤ and the quadrature component ⎨ sin ⎡ 2 π(∆ f )t ⎤ − 1⎬ .4. That is. 4. 4.55 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .44: The scheme for the example 4.7 It is not too difficult to see that w (t ) = w (t ) = As 1 cos ⎡2 π (10 + ∆ f ) 106 t ⎤ where ∆ f = 0.01 Hz.

we have ⎡1 + cos ( 2 ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ v ( t ) = m 2 ( t ) cos2 ( ωc t ) = m 2 ( t ) ⎣ 2 The output of the LPF would be w (t ) = m2 ( t ) 2 As the squaring operation removes the information about the sign of the signal. the output of y ( t ) is y (t ) = m (t ) 2  4.Principles of Communication Prof. g m m ( t ) < 1 and m ( t ) is band-limited to W Hz and the LPF has a bandwidth of 2W . V. ⎡1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ . y (t ) = ⎣ 2 2 2 2 b) When x ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . Assume that fc >> 2W . b) x ( t ) is a DSB-SC signal. Hence.56 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . that is x ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . As ⎡1 + g m t ⎤ ≥ 0 . Venkata Rao a) x (t ) = ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) . a) 2 v (t ) = x 2 (t ) = ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) 2 2 ⎡ ⎣1 + cos ( 2 ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ ⎤ = ⎡ + 1 g m t ( ) m ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎡1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ + ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos 2 ω t . = ⎣ ( c ) 2 2 The second term on the RHS will be eliminated by the LPF. we have w (t ) = ⎣ ( )⎦ m ⎣ 2 ⎡1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦.

say. Sketch the output of an ideal envelope detector when the input to the detector is the DSB-SC signal.46.6 4. 4.57 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .47. Fig. V. 4.Principles of Communication Prof. Let v (t ) = ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦USB × cos ( 2 π fc t ) 1⎡ ' ' ⎤ If S ' ( f ) = ⎡ ⎣S ( f ) ⎤ ⎦USB . Venkata Rao Exercise 4. the LSB. The resulting spectrum ⎡ ⎣S ( f ) ⎤ ⎦USB will be as shown in Fig.46: m ( t ) for the exercise 4. Let ⎡ ⎣S ( f ) ⎤ ⎦ DSB = 2 ⎡ ⎣M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc ) ⎤ ⎦ where M ( f ) is as shown in Fig. we have completely suppressed one Ac of the sidebands. Can we get back m ( t ) from the above signal? The answer is YES. 4.6 Theory of Single-Sideband Assume that from a DSB-SC signal.6 Consider the waveform m ( t ) shown in Fig.30(a). 4. A DSB-SC is generated using m ( t ) and a suitable high frequency carrier. then V ( f ) = 2 ⎣ ⎢S ( f − fc ) + S ( f + fc ) ⎥ ⎦ 4.

f < fc ⎪ ⎩0 Hence That is. Let us start with the two-sided spectrum and then eliminate the unwanted sideband. f > fc ⎪ sgn ( f − fc ) M ( f − fc ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩− M ( f − fc ) . We shall retain the upper sideband and try to eliminate the lower sideband. we see that it is 1 Ac M ( f ) . it is possible for us to recover the message signal either from USB or LSB and the transmission of both the sidebands is not a must.Principles of Communication Prof. V. with coherent demodulation. the lower sideband has been eliminated from the positive part of the spectrum. f < fc ⎧ Ac ⎪ A M ( f − fc ) . Consider Ac ⎡M ( f − fc ) + sgn ( f − fc ) M ( f − fc ) ⎤ ⎦ 2 ⎣ But ⎧ M ( f − fc ) . A similar analysis will show that it is possible to extract 2 m ( t ) from ⎡ ⎣S ( f ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB . provided we are willing to go for the appropriate demodulation.58 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Hence it is possible for us to conserve transmission bandwidth. In other words. Venkata Rao Fig 4. M ( f − fc ) ←⎯ → m ( t ) e j 2 π fc t 4. f > fc ⎡1 + sgn ( f − fc ) ⎦ ⎤ = ⎨ c M ( f − fc ) ⎣ 2 .47: Spectrum of the upper sideband signal By plotting the spectrum of v ( t ) and extracting the spectrum for f ≤ W . Let us now derive the time domain equation for an SSB signal.

Venkata Rao → − sgn ( f − fc ) M ( f − fc ) ←⎯ where m ( t ) is the HT of m ( t ) .19a) (4. We shall make use of both Eq. 4. by filtering out the LSB part. 1 m ( t ) e j 2 π fc t .19b) An SSB signal.16b) Combining Eq.18) A few authors take Eq. That is. The result would be ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB = Ac ⎣ m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) + m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎦ Ac ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB = 2 ⎣m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) + m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎦ or (4.16(a) and Eq. ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦USB = Ac ⎣m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) − m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎦ Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . namely. 4. we have the time domain equation for (4. Eq. 4.Principles of Communication Prof. Similarly 4. f < − fc 1 ⎪ ⎡1 − sgn ( f + fc ) ⎦ ⎤ = ⎨ M ( f + fc ) ⎣ 2 . Ac A A M ( f + fc ) ⎡ 1 − sgn ( f + fc ) ⎤ ←⎯ → c m ( t ) e − j 2 π fc t + c m ( t ) e − j 2 π fc t ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 2j the upper single sideband signal. is also a narrowband bandpass signal. 4. V. Ac ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦USB = 2 ⎣m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) − m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎦ (4. By a procedure similar to that outlined above.18 as representative of the SSB signal. f > − fc ⎪ ⎩0 (4. 4. Eq.16a) Similarly. (4. 4.17) Assume that the USSB signal is obtained from the DSB-SC signal. whether upper or lower. 4. Then.18 in our further studies.18 has the feature that the average power of the SSB signal is one-half the average power of corresponding DSB signal. we can derive a time domain expression for the LSB signal.18 can be treated as the canonical representation of USB signal with m ( t ) as the in-phase component and m ( t ) as the quadrature component.16(b). j Ac A ⎡ ⎤ 1 M ( f − fc ) ⎡ 1 + sgn ( f − fc ) ⎤ ←⎯ → c ⎢m ( t ) − m ( t ) ⎥ e j 2 π fc t ⎣ ⎦ j 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎧M ( f + fc ) .17 and Eq.59 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

4. 4. (AM and DSB-SC signals have only the amplitude of the carrier being changed by the message signal.23 indicates that an SSB signal has both amplitude and phase variations. Venkata Rao Eq. Taking the USB signal.20a) Similarly for the phase ϕ ( t ) . we have ⎡ m (t ) ⎤ ϕ ( t ) = arc tan ⎢ ⎥ m (t ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (4. 4. V.Principles of Communication Prof. ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦SSB = A ( t ) cos ( ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ) where ϕ ( t ) is given either by Eq. 4.21 but with ϕ ( t ) given by ⎡ m (t ) ⎤ ϕ ( t ) = arc tan ⎢ − ⎥ m (t ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (4. Hence the envelope A ( t ) of the USB 2 ( ) (t ) (4. Note that AM or DSB-SC signals do not have quadrature components. we have ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦USB = A ( t ) ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ (4.20(a) and 4.22.21) where A ( t ) and ϕ ( t ) are given by Eqs. 4. SSB signals belong to the category of hybrid amplitude and phase modulation.60 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4. 4.) As such.20(b) or Eq.19 provides the canonical representation of the LSB signal where m ( t ) is the in-phase component and − m ( t ) is the quadrature component.22) (4.20b) Expressing the USB signal with the envelope-phase form.23) That is. We have already seen that a narrowband signal can also be expressed in the envelope and phase form. The expression for ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB is identical to Eq. we have for the complex envelope the quantity signal is Ac ⎡ ⎣ A ( t )⎤ ⎦USB = 2 m2 ( t ) + m 2 Ac m ( t ) + j m ( t ) .20(b) respectively. Eq.

4. m ( t ) = cos ( ωm t ) ⇒ m ( t ) = sin ( ωm t ) .19.Principles of Communication Prof. Therefore. Let us find the SSB signals. then Ac ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB = 2 cos ⎡ ⎣( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎦  Example 4.61 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ DSB −SC = Ac cos ( ωm t ) cos ( ωc t ) = Ac ⎡cos ( ωc + ωm ) t + cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎦ 2 ⎣ Extracting the USB. 4.18 and 4.9: SSB with tone modulation As a simple application of the Eqs. Venkata Rao Example 4. Let us develop the expression for the SSB signal. V.48. An LSB signal is generated using m ( t ) as the message signal.10 Let m ( t ) = x ( t ) y ( t ) where X ( f ) and Y ( f ) are as shown in Fig. let m ( t ) be cos ( ωm t ) . we have Ac ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦USB = 2 cos ⎡ ⎣( ωc + ωm ) t ⎤ ⎦ If we eliminate the USB. Ac ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦USB = 2 ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωm t ) cos ( ωc t ) − sin ( ωm t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Ac ⎡cos ( ωc + ωm ) t ⎤ ⎦ 2 ⎣ Ac ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB = 2 ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωm t ) cos ( ωc t ) + sin ( ωm t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Ac ⎡cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎦ 2 ⎣ Alternatively. 4.

25 in Eq. Venkata Rao Fig. V.25) But y ( t ) . 4.Principles of Communication Prof. Hence m ( t ) = x ( t ) y ( t ) .24) ( ) ( ) (4.24. ( ) ( ) (4. from the result of example 1. 4. after example 1. 4. ( ) m ( t ) = 2 × 106 sin c ⎡ 2 × 103 t ⎤ sin c 2 ( 500 t ) sin ⎡ 4 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB is obtained by using Eq. (See the note. is y ( t ) = 103 sin c 2 ( 500 t ) sin ⎡ 4 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ That is.25a) What is required is m ( t ) . m ( t ) is the product of a lowpass and a bandpass signal.62 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .10 Let us take the SSB signal as ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ LSB = m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) + m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) We have x ( t ) = 2 × 103 sin c ⎡ 2 × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ y ( t ) = 103 sin c 2 ( 500 t ) cos ⎡ 4 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ m (t ) = x (t ) y (t ) (4. the HT of m ( t ) .48: X ( f ) and Y ( f ) of example 4.25.25b)  4.

Develop the expression for the following: a) b) USB signal. a) b) c) Sketch the spectrum of (i) s ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) and (ii) s ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) Show that sum of the spectra of part (a) is proportional to M ( f ) Sketch the spectrum of s ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) − s ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) . An upper sideband signal is generated using the signal with this M ( f ) . in the envelope and phase form ⎡ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎤ ⎛t⎞ Ans. Venkata Rao Exercise 4. V. 4.9 Let s ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) − m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) where M ( f ) is as shown in Fig.7 Exercise 4. Fig. in the canonical form.Principles of Communication Prof.63 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .7 Let M ( f ) be as shown in Fig.49: Baseband spectrum for the Exercise 4. Compute and sketch the spectrum of the quadrature component of the SSB signal. 4. Let W = 5 kHz and M ( 0 ) = 1. 4.49. USB signal. 4.8 Let m ( t ) = sin c ( t ) . (b): sin c ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎢ 2 π ⎜ fc + ⎟ t ⎥ 4⎠ ⎦ ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎝ Exercise 4.49. Is this related to M ( f ) ? Explain.

This method is depicted in Fig. (i) frequency discrimination method and (ii) phase discrimination method. a practical BPF will have the magnitude characteristic H ( f ) . Venkata Rao 4. As we have already looked at the generation of DSB-SC signals. BPFs with abrupt pass and stopbands cannot be built. 4. during which the filter transits from passband to stopband. First generate a DSB signal and then filter out the unwanted sideband. Fig. 4. it is a very simple scheme. It is a common practice to define the passband as the frequency interval between the 3-dB 4. let us now look at the filtering problems involved in SSB generation. namely.64 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .51. 4.50: Frequency discrimination method of SSB generation v ( t ) is the DSB-SC signal generated by the product modulator.7 Generation of SSB Signals We shall consider two broad categories of SSB generation. The former is based on the frequency domain description of SSB. The BPF is designed to suppress the unwanted sideband in V ( f ) . thereby producing the desired SSB signal.Principles of Communication Prof. ( H ( f ) is shown only for positive frequencies) a practical filter. whereas the latter in based on the time-domain description of an SSB signal. 4. (The edges of the PB and SB depend on the attenuation levels used to define these bands. V. besides the PassBand (PB) and StopBand (SB). also has a TransitionBand (TB).1 Frequency discrimination method Conceptually. As can be seen from the figure.50. as shown in Fig.7. Hence.

51: Magnitude characteristic of a practical BPF. Minimum attenuation for the SB might be in the range 30 to 50 dB.4 kHz. the transitionband is about 0. V. it is possible to design a filter if the permitted transitionband is not less than 1% of center frequency of a bandpass filter.11 Telephone quality speech signal has a spectrum in the range 0.3 to 3.01 percent of the carrier 4. quite a few signals have a spectral null around DC and if it is possible for us to fit in the transitionband into this gap. 4. In order to accomplish this. As a rule of the thumb. Centre frequency = f0 Because of TB (where the attenuation is not to the desired level). When a DSB signal is generated. That is. We will suggest a scheme to generate upper sideband signal with a carrier frequency of 5 MHz.Principles of Communication Prof. Attenuation requirements for the SB depend on the application. a part of the undesired sideband may get through the filter. providing an attenuation of more than 40 dB in a TB of width 0.01 f0 . it might become necessary to perform the modulation in more than one stage. Example 4. then the desired SSB signal could be generated. Assume that bandpass filters are available. where f0 is the centre frequency of the BPF. We shall illustrate this with the help of an example. it will have a spectral null of 600 Hz centered at 5 MHz. Venkata Rao points. Let us look at the generation of the SSB signal in one stage using a carrier of 5 MHz.) Fig. Fortunately.65 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

is ( f0 )1 = ( fc1 + 300 ) + ( fc1 + 3400 ) 2 = ( fc1 + 1850 ) width of the spectral null around fc1 = 600 Hz. Let M ( f ) be as shown in Fig. Fig. Then the centre frequency of BPF1. Venkata Rao and hence it would not be possible to design such a sideband filter. 4. 4.52: Two stage generation of SSB signal v1 ( t ) is a DSB-SC signal with the USB occupying the (positive frequency) range ( fc1 + 300 ) ( fc1 − 3400 ) Hz to ( fc1 + 3400 ) Hz.Principles of Communication Prof. However. Let us extract the upper sideband from v1 ( t ) with the help of BPF1.52. Consider the scheme shown in Fig. Then V2 ( f ) will be as shown in Fig.000 − 1850 ≤ 58. ( f0 )1 . it would be possible to generate the desired SSB signal using two stages of modulation.53(b).1 kHz Let us take fc1 as 50 kHz. 4. Hence or fc1 + 1850 ≤ 600 100 fc1 ≤ 60. 4. The frequency range of the LSB is Hz to ( fc1 − 300 ) Hz.66 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. 4.53(a).

Fig. In this figure. v 2 ( t ) being the modulating signal.53: (a) Message spectrum (b) The spectrum of the USB signal with fc1 = 50 kHz v 3 ( t ) is a DSB-SC signal with the carrier fc 2 .Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao Fig. V.54: Spectrum of v 3 ( t ) of Fig.67 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4.52 f1 = ( fc 2 − 53. 4. Then V3 ( f ) will be as shown in Fig.400 ) Hz 4.400 ) Hz f2 = ( fc 2 − 50. 4.300 ) Hz f3 = ( fc 2 + 50.54. 4.300 ) Hz f4 = ( fc 2 + 53.

With respect to this frequency. 4.95 MHz then we will have the upper sideband occupying frequency range (4. One of the phase shifter 2 π phase shift for all the 2 is actually a Hilbert transformer (HT).7. provided the product modulators (multipliers) can work at these frequencies. two π phase shifters and an adder.68 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we can choose centre frequency of BPF2 less than or equal to 10.0534) = 5. This scheme requires two product modulators.  4. Venkata Rao Hence the transition band available to design the sideband filter is ( f3 − f2 ) = 100. Assuming it is possible to build the HT.0034 MHz. it is possible to choose for fc1 a value lower than 50 kHz. If we choose fc 2 as 4.2 Phase discrimination method This method implements Eq.6 = × 100 = 2.19(a). Hence.0503) = 5. 4. Consider the scheme shown in Fig. to generate the SSB signal.00185. 4.01 percent centre freq.0003 MHz to 5. With this TB.0034 MHz. we have TB width 100.Principles of Communication Prof.17 or Eq. 4. it should provide a components in M ( f ) .55. This is not such an easy circuit to realize. 5001.95 + 0. theoretical centre frequency of the BPF2 is 5. the SSB can be generated for any fc . Note: As the spectral occupancy of the USB signal is from 5.0003 MHz to (4. This is exactly what would have happened if the modulation scheme was attempted in one step with 5 MHz as the carrier.6 kHz.85 which is about twice the permitted ratio.95 + 0.06 MHz. V.

Let H1 ( f ) = e H2 ( f ) = e j θ2 ( f ) j θ1( f ) and π ⎡ θ1 ( f ) − θ2 ( f ) ⎦ ⎤ = . PSN1 and PSN2 maintain a constant difference of π .69 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . it is possible to have an SSB generator with two Phase Shifting Networks.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao Fig. 4. 4. Fig.55: SSB generation: Phase discrimination method Instead of a single wide band phase shifter acting as the HT. one in each branch as shown in Fig. 2 4. 4. That is.56. (PSN). θ1 ( f ) and θ2 ( f ) are such that ⎣ for the 2 frequency range of interest.56: An alternate configuration for the phase discrimination scheme H1 ( f ) and H2 ( f ) are the phase shifting networks. V.

V. m ( t ) = Am cos ( ωm t ) . We shall assume that the additional phase shift θ1 which is actually frequency dependent will not cause any problem after demodulation. 2 f = fm = θ2 where θ2 = θ1 + v1 ( t ) = Am cos ( ωm t + θ1 ) and v 2 ( t ) = Am cos ( ωm t + θ2 ) . 4. As it is not too difficult to design a Hilbert transformer using digital filter design techniques.70 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . v 3 ( t ) = Am Ac cos ( ωm t + θ1 ) cos ( ωc t ) v 4 ( t ) = Am Ac cos ( ωm t + θ2 ) sin ( ωc t ) π⎞ ⎛ = Am Ac cos ⎜ ωm t + θ1 + ⎟ sin ( ωc t ) 2⎠ ⎝ = − Am Ac sin ( ωm t + θ1 ) sin ( ωc t ) v 3 ( t ) + v 4 ( t ) = Am Ac cos ⎡ ⎣( ωc + ωm ) t + θ1 ⎤ ⎦ After coherent demodulation. Then. phase shift method of SSB generation is better suited for digital implementation. we will have cos ( ωm t + θ1 ) . 4. Venkata Rao Let us explain the operation of the scheme shown in Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.56 by taking m ( t ) to be a tone signal. For a brief discussion on SSB generation using digital signal processing. that is. Let θ1 ( f ) f = fm = θ1 and θ2 ( f ) π . the reader is referred to [1].

Assume that f2 >> fc 0 .57: Weaver’s method of SSB generation Let M ( f ) be non-zero only in the interval fl ≤ f ≤ fu . 4. and let f1 = fl + fu . show that s ( t ) is an SSB signal. What is the actual carrier frequency with respect to which.58. This scheme is shown in Fig. 4. 4. 4. By sketching the spectra at 2 various points in the above scheme.57.71 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . known as Weaver’s method. Venkata Rao Exercise 4. Fig. s ( t ) would be an SSB signal? 4.Principles of Communication Prof.8 Demodulation of SSB SSB signals can be demodulated using coherent demodulation as shown in Fig. 2 The lowpass filters in the I and Q channels are identical and have a cutoff frequency of fc 0 = fu − fl .10 There is a third method of generating the SSB signal. V.

From Fig. Hence v 0 ( t ) = m ( t ) . 4. From Eq. 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ As m ( t ) cos ( 2 ωc t ) has the spectrum centered at ∓ 2 fc . Let us look at the squaring loop.Principles of Communication Prof. That is. V. 4. 4. The first term of Eq. Can we use a squaring loop or Costas loop to recover the carrier from ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦SSB ? The answer is NO. we obtain. 4 v0 (t ) α m (t ) The difficulty in demodulation is to have a coherent carrier at the receiver. we have ' v (t ) = ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦SSB × Ac cos ( ωc t ) = Ac ⎡ ' cos ω t m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) ± m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ × Ac ( c ) ⎣ ⎦ 2 = ' Ac Ac ⎡m ( t ) cos2 ( ωc t ) ± m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ 2 ⎣ (4. ' ⎡ 1 + cos 2 ( ω t ) ⎤ Ac Ac c ⎢ ⎥ m (t ) . ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦SSB = s ( t ) = A ( t ) cos ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ After squaring.23. Venkata Rao Fig.58.26) The second term on the RHS of Eq.26 has the spectrum centered at ± 2 fc which will be eliminated by the LPF following v ( t ) .72 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .26 can be written as. even this will be ' Ac Ac eliminated by the LPF. 4. 4.58: Coherent demodulation of SSB The received SSB signal is multiplied by the local carrier which is of the same frequency and phase as the carrier used at the transmitter. 4.

It is left as an exercise to show that Costas loop will not be able to put out m ( t ) when the input to the loop is the SSB signal.58) be Ac )⎦ ⎣ (c 1 Ac ⎡m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) − m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 Then. With these values.28 becomes v 0 ( t ) = cos 2 π × 103 t cos ( 2 π × 100 t ) + sin 2 π × 103 t sin ( 2 π × 100 t ) ( ) ( ) e j 2 π × 900 t + e − = cos ( 2 π × 900 t ) = 2 j 2 π × 900 t (4.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. Let the carrier term at the receiver be ' cos ⎡2 π f + ∆ f t ⎤ . namely. v ( t ) = 1 ' ⎡ m t cos ω t − m t sin ω t ⎤ cos ω + ∆ ω t Ac Ac ( c ) ( ) ( c )⎦ ( c ) ⎣ ( ) 2 v 0 ( t ) . If this scheme does not work (especially.29) 4. the output of the LPF would be v0 (t ) α 1 ' ⎡m t cos 2 π ∆ f t + m t sin 2 π ∆ f t ⎤ Ac Ac ( ) () ( )⎦ ⎣ ( ) 4 (4.28) Consider a special case. we do not have a discrete component at f = 2 fc and hence. a frequency component at f = 1 kHz in M ( f ) and ∆ f = 100 Hz. at very high frequencies) a small pilot carrier can be sent along with the SSB signal. when SSB is used in a communication system.73 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . highly stable crystal oscillators are used both at the transmitter and receiver. Let us now look at the effects of frequency and phase offset in the carrier used for demodulation. Venkata Rao s 2 ( t ) = A2 ( t ) cos2 ⎡ ⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ ⎤ = A2 ( t ) 1 + cos2 ⎡ ⎣2 ( ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ) ⎦ { } As ϕ ( t ) is a function of time. carrier acquisition is not possible. Hence. Let the received input to the demodulator (Fig. This pilot carrier is recovered at the receiver and is used for demodulation. Eq.27) Assume that v 0 ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ( 2 π ∆ f t ) + m ( t ) sin ( 2 π ∆ f t ) (4. V. 4.

we have the result that when ∆ f is positive and the input is a USB signal. after demodulation. V.74 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . there is an inward shift of M ( f ) by ∆ f . would be as shown in Fig. we have four cases to be taken into account and the effects of non-zero ∆ f on the resulting output after demodulation are summarized below. the spectrum of the demodulated output. In all. Venkata Rao As this is true of every frequency component in M ( f ) . e j 2 π × 1000 t is converted to e j 2 π × 900 t and e− j 2 π × 1000 t is converted to e − j 2 π × 900 t . That is. 4.28. we can easily see that if ∆ f is negative and the input is a USB signal.) By a similar analysis. Then. Case i) ∆ f > 0 and the input signal is USB: Spectral components in M ( f ) will undergo an inward shift by ∆ f Case ii) ∆ f > 0 and the input signal is LSB: Spectral components in M ( f ) will undergo an outward shift by ∆ f Case iii) ∆ f < 0 and the input signal is USB: Spectral components in M ( f ) will undergo an outward shift by ∆ f Case iv) ∆ f < 0 and the input signal is LSB: Spectral components in M ( f ) will undergo an inward shift by ∆ f Let M ( f ) be as shown in Fig.59(a). if the input is a USB signal. 4. Let ∆ f = 300 Hz. 4. both the spectral components have been shifted inward by 100 Hz.Principles of Communication Prof. (We see from Eq. V0 ( f ) .59(b). then. 4. the spectral components in M ( f ) would undergo an outward shift by ∆ f .

59: (a) Baseband message spectrum (b) Inward spectral shift (after demodulation) of a 1 USB signal. Frequency offset.75 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ∆ f = 300 Hz 4. Venkata Rao Fig. V.Principles of Communication Prof. 4.

An upper sideband signal is generated using this m ( t ) . Let s ( t ) = ⎡m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) + m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ . Let us find the frequencies of the spectral components after demodulation. V.Principles of Communication Prof. The carrier used for demodulation had a positive offset of 150 Hz. 4.12 Let m ( t ) = A1 cos ( 200 π t ) + A2 cos (1100 π t ) + A3 cos ( 4000 π t ) . 4. Show that v 0 ( t ) has phase distortion (when compared to m ( t ) ) by establishing V0 ( f ) jθ ⎧ . Venkata Rao Exercise 4. f > 0 ⎪M ( f ) e = ⎨ − jθ .61(a). The carrier used to demodulate has ⎣ ⎦ a phase difference of θ with respect to the carrier used for modulation. 4. As the received signal is USB and ∆ f > 0 .60: SSB demodulation with carrier phase difference Hint: Show that v 0 ( t ) α ⎡m ( t ) cos θ + m ( t ) sin θ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Example 4. 4. there would be an inward shift of the frequency components by 150 Hz.11: Effect of phase error on SSB Consider the scheme shown in Fig.60. f < 0 ⎪ ⎩M ( f ) e Fig. Spectral components in M ( f ) are shown in Fig.76 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Venkata Rao Fig. 350 Hz and 1850 Hz. Input to the demodulator is a USB signal.61: (a) message spectrum (b) Spectrum after demodulation with frequency error Note that the negative frequency components have been shown with a broken line.Principles of Communication Prof. Introduction Output 1 Output 2a Output 2b Output 2c 4. V. 4. After demodulation. Let m ( t ) be the demodulated output.61(b).77 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . there would be an inward shift by 150 Hz and this is shown in Fig. we see that m' ( t ) is consisting of components at 50 Hz. 4.  The speech files that follow provide a qualitative measure of the distortion caused by the frequency offset of the local carrier in the demodulation of SSB signals. From this spectrum.

one gets the feeling that. Even in SSB.78 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . voice tends to become somewhat shrill. Venkata Rao Output 3a Output 3b Output 3c Output 4a Output 4b Output 4c After listening to these speech outputs. SSB performs better than the DSB. 4. is expected.Principles of Communication Prof. outward frequency shift of the original message spectrum ( ∆ f negative for USB) has better clarity than the corresponding inward shift. for a given frequency offset. of course. V. Of course. which.

At the receiver.79 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . (QCM is also referred to as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) or simply quadrature modulation. a) b) Show that m1 ( t ) and m2 ( t ) will be recovered by the receiver shown. QAM is used in color TV for multiplexing the chrominance signals. instead of 2 cos ( 2 π fc t ) . v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) respectively. 4. Let the local carrier have some frequency and phase offset.) Fig. otherwise m1 ( t ) will interfere with m2 ( t ) and vice versa. coherent demodulation is used to recover the two messages m1 ( t ) and m2 ( t ) .Principles of Communication Prof. let it be 2 cos ⎡ ⎣2 π ( fc + ∆ f ) t + ϕ⎤ ⎦ . we are able to achieve the BW efficiency of SSB modulation.62. Venkata Rao Exercise 4. 4. that is. as shown in Fig. V. Using QAM.62: Quadrature carrier multiplexing scheme Two message signals m1 ( t ) and m2 ( t ) are used to generate two DSB-SC signals. The carriers used in generating v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) are in phase quadrature. by using a scheme called QCM.12: Quadrature Carrier Multiplexing (QCM) It is possible to transmit two DSB-SC signals with in a bandwidth of 2 W . 4. The transmitted signal s ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) . Then show that the output of the upper branch is ⎡2 π ( ∆ f ) t + ϕ⎦ ⎤ − m2 ( t ) sin ⎣ ⎡2 π ( ∆ f ) t + ϕ⎦ ⎤ Ac m1 ( t ) cos ⎣ where as the output of the lower branch is Ac m2 ( t ) cos ⎡ ⎣2 π ( ∆ f ) t + ϕ⎤ ⎦ + m1 ( t ) sin ⎡ ⎣2 π ( ∆ f ) t + ϕ⎤ ⎦ { { } } Note: We see from the above result that the carrier phase and frequency have to be fairly accurate to have proper demodulation. This is called cochannel interference.

The video signal has the characteristic that it has a fairly wide bandwidth (about 5 MHz) with almost no spectral hole around DC. a vestige (or a trace) of the unwanted sideband is added to the wanted sideband. Hv ( f ) . we require very sharp cutoff filters.9. To make use of the frequency discrimination method. π phase shifter over a 5 2 With analog circuitry it is very difficult to build the MHz bandwidth. Such filters have a highly non-linear phase characteristic at the band edges and spectral components around the cut-off frequencies suffer from phase distortion (also called group delay distortion). DSB modulation. which is applied as input to a Sideband Filter (SBF). in addition. V. 4. is extremely difficult to generate. Venkata Rao 4. the quality of the picture would not be acceptable. In this figure. though somewhat easy to generate. requires too much bandwidth (about 10 MHz) where SSB.Principles of Communication Prof. though bandwidth efficient. v ( t ) is a DSC-SC signal. 4. as explained below. This vestige of the wanted sideband makes it possible to come up with a sideband filter that can be implemented in practice.1 Frequency domain description of VSB Figure 4.80 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The human eye (unlike the ear) being fairly sensitive to phase distortion.9 Vestigial SideBand (VSB) Modulation One of the widespread applications of VSB has been in the transmission of picture signals (video signals) in TV broadcast. VSB refers to a modulation scheme where in the wanted sideband (either USB or LSB) is retained almost completely. as such phase shift discrimination method is not feasible. This composite signal is used for transmitting the information. that shapes V ( f ) so that s ( t ) is a VSB signal.63 depicts the scheme of VSB generation.

In other words. Consider the Hv ( f ) = Hv ( f ) e j θv ( f ) (− W to W ) . We assume the phase characteristic θv ( f ) to be linear over the frequency range fl ≤ f ≤ fc + W with θv ( fc ) = − θv ( − fc ) = − 2 π m .64. using this method. M ( f ) is undistorted for f ≤ W . V. In such a situation.Principles of Communication Prof. If a DSB signal is given as input to the above Hv ( f ) . it is not too difficult to think of one such Hv ( f ) . 4.81 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The demodulation scheme is the same as shown in Fig. is 4. we expect some overlap (in the baseband) of the shifted spectra. 4. let us try to demodulate the VSB signal as well. Because of the vestige of the unwanted sideband. where m is an integer. V0 ( f ) . with the input to the detector being the VSB signal.63: Generation of VSB using the filtering method Now the questions that arise are: what is the shape of the SBF and how do we demodulate such a signal. it will partially suppress USB (in the frequency range fc ≤ f ≤ fu ) and allow the vestige of the LSB (from fl ≤ f ≤ fc ). the FT of the output of the detector. As coherent demodulation is fairly general. we shift the modulated carrier spectrum (bandpass spectrum) up and down by fc and then extract the relevant baseband.13. Venkata Rao Fig. Assume that we are retaining the USB almost completely and permitting the vestige of the LSB. In the process of demodulation. Hv ( f − fc ) + Hv ( f + fc ) should result in a filter with a rectangular passband within the frequency range With a little intuition. shown in Fig. 4. overlap should be such that.

is the width of the vestige in LSB. v ( f ) e = Hv ( f − fc ) . v ( f ) Let H1.Principles of Communication Prof. For the Hv ( f ) shown in Fig. 4.64. j θ1. − W ≤ f ≤ fv where fv = fc − fl .65. 4. for f ≤ W . 4. Fig. where K1 is the constant of proportionality. v ( f ) is as shown in Fig. v ( f ) = H1.82 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. 4. where K = K1 K 2 . Venkata Rao V0 ( f ) = K1 M ( f ) ⎡ ⎣Hv ( f − fc ) + Hv ( f + fc ) ⎤ ⎦ . f ≤ W. H1.64: An example of a SBF generating VSB − If ⎡ ⎣Hv ( f − fc ) + Hv ( f + fc ) ⎤ ⎦ = K2 e j 2 π f td . then v 0 ( t ) = K m ( t − td ) . where td determines the slope of the phase characteristic and K 2 is a constant.

4.65: Hv ( f − fc ) for f ≤ W (a) magnitude characteristics (b) phase characteristics Let H2. H2.83 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . v ( f ) = H2.66. j θ2. Venkata Rao Fig. V. v ( f ) e shown in figure 4. v ( f ) is 4.Principles of Communication Prof. v ( f ) = Hv ( f + fc ) for − fv ≤ f ≤ W .

Let us take a closer look at the sideband filter for VSB. Venkata Rao Fig.64(a) can be taken as the sum of Hv ( ) v ( ) 4. f ≤ W (4. v ( f ) = 0 for fv ≤ f ≤ W and e ± j 2 π m = 1.30b) . Hv ( f + fc ) = H2. 4. f ≤ W (4.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. we have the ideal LPF with unity gain for f ≤ W. v ( f ) .84 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we can write Hv ( f − fc ) = H1.30a) j 2 π f td . v ( f ) e − Therefore. f ≤ W (4.30c) Summing H1. v ( f ) and H2. The magnitude (1) f + H ( 2 ) f characteristic shown in Fig. V. v ( f ) e − By a similar reasoning. v ( f ) + H2.66: Hv ( f + fc ) for f ≤ W (a) magnitude characteristics (b) phase characteristics As H1. Hv ( f − fc ) + Hv ( f + fc ) = ⎡ H1. v ( f ) ⎤ e − ⎣ ⎦ j 2 π f td j 2 π f td .

Two more such characteristics have been shown in fig. It is the addition of Hv ( ) v ( ) ( 2 ) f consists of two straight line segments. for f > 0 . What is required is that Hv ( ) symmetry about ± fc . one between the Consider f > 0 .68.67(a) and (b) respectively. 4.Principles of Communication Prof. d ) . where Hv ( ) v ( ) Fig. SSB signal. 4. Venkata Rao (1) f and H ( 2 ) f are shown in Fig. 4. 4. 4. Now the question is: should Hv ( ) ( 2 ) f exhibit odd segments? The answer is NO. Hv ( ) points ( a .64 (1) f alone for the sideband filter.85 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V.67: Decomposition of the Hv ( f ) of Fig. Similar is the case for ( 2 ) f consist of only straight line f < 0 . we would have generated the Note that with Hv ( ) ( 2 ) f to H (1) f that gives rise to VSB output. b ) and the other between the points ( c .

4. we have a great deal of flexibility in designing Hv ( f ) . For convenience. Then.9.Principles of Communication Prof.86 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . let Ac = 1. we have ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦VSB = s ( t ) = ∞ −∞ ∫ hv ( τ ) v ( t − τ ) d τ But v ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) .) These features facilitate the design and implementation of a practical sideband filter. the width of the vestige. 4. (Subject to some upper limit. there could be choice in fixing fv . Hv ( f ) .2 Time domain description of VSB Let hv ( t ) denote the impulse response of the sideband filter. Venkata Rao ( 2) f Fig. s ( t ) = ∞ −∞ ∫ hv ( τ ) m ( t − τ ) cos ⎡ ⎣ωc ( t − τ ) ⎤ ⎦ dτ 4. 4.68: Two more examples of Hv ( ) As such. V. From Fig.63.

34a) (4.33) Then.33 is the canonical representation of the VSB signal. 4. Then. V. Let mc ( t ) denote the in-phase component of s ( t ) and ms ( t ) . Then. Let hi ( t ) = hv ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) mc ( t ) = m ( t ) ∗ hi ( t ) and hq ( t ) = − hv ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) .32b) (4.31 is in the canonical form for the representation of narrowband signal.34.31) Eq.87 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦VSB = mc ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) − ms sin ( ωc t ) Eq.35a) 4. we have Mc ( f ) = M ( f ) H i ( f ) and Ms ( f ) = M ( f ) Hq ( f ) If M ( f ) = 0 for f > W . Venkata Rao ∞ = −∞ ∫ hv ( τ ) m ( t − τ ) ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) cos ( ωc τ ) + sin ( ωc t ) sin ( ωc τ ) ⎤ ⎦ dτ ⎡∞ ⎤ = ⎢ ∫ hv ( τ ) m ( t − τ ) cos ( ωc τ ) d τ ⎥ cos ( ωc t ) ⎢− ∞ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ∞ ⎤ − ⎢ − ∫ hv ( τ ) m ( t − τ ) sin ( ωc τ ) d τ ⎥ sin ( ωc t ) ⎢ −∞ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( 4.32a) and ⎡ ms ( t ) = ⎢ − ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ τ − τ ω τ τ h m t sin d ( ) ( ) ( ) c ∫ v ⎥ −∞ ⎦ ∞ (4. Hi ( f ) = Hv ( f − fc ) + Hv ( f + fc ) 2 (4. This implies that mc ( t ) and ms ( t ) are lowpass signals. As hi ( t ) = hv ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) we have. the quadrature component. (4. as required. then Mc ( f ) and Ms ( f ) are bandlimited to atmost W . mc ( t ) = ∞ −∞ ∫ hv ( τ ) m ( t − τ ) cos ( ωc τ ) d τ (4.34b) ms ( t ) = m ( t ) ∗ hq ( t ) Taking the FT of Eq.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. 4.

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Similarly, Hq ( f ) =

Hv ( f + fc ) − Hv ( f − fc ) 2j

(4.35b) m (t ) . 2

But ⎡ ⎣Hv ( f − fc ) + Hv ( f + fc ) ⎤ ⎦ = 1, for f ≤ W . Hence, mc ( t ) = Let us look at Hq ( f ) . From Eq. 4.35(b), 2 Hq ( f ) j = Hv ( f − fc ) − Hv ( f + fc )

Let Hv ( f ) be as shown in Fig. 4.69.

Fig. 4.69: Hv ( f ) with vestige in LSB

Fig. 4.70:

2 Hq ( f ) j

(solid line) for the Hv ( f ) of Fig. 4.69

Then,

2 Hq ( f ) j

for f ≤ W will be as shown in Fig. 4.70.

4.88
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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Based on Eq. 4.33, we have another implementation for the generation of the VSB signal called the phase discrimination method of generating VSB. This scheme is shown in Fig. 4.71. Plus sign at the last summer will result in a VSB signal with a vestige in LSB whereas the minus sign will result in a VSB signal with the vestige in USB for the Hq ( f ) shown in Fig. 4.70.

Fig. 4.71: Phase discrimination method of VSB generation Comparing the scheme shown in Fig. 4.71 with that shown in Fig. 4.55 for the generation of SSB, we find a close resemblance between them. When hq ( t ) is a HT (with the magnitude response equal to 1/2), we have ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦VSB = ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦SSB . If hq ( t ) = 0 , we have ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦VSB = ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ DSB . In other terms, DSB and SSB can be treated as special cases of VSB. Transmission bandwidth of VSB is,

[BT ]VSB

= W + fv

With fv = 0 , we have the SSB situation where as, fv = W leads to DSB.

Example 4.13

A VSB signal is generated from the DSB-SC signal, 2 m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) .
M ( f ) is as shown in Fig. 4.72(a). If the vestige is as shown in Fig. 4.72(b), let’s

4.89
Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

find the values of all spectral components in the VSB signal for f > fc , assuming that demodulation in done by multiplying the received VSB signal with
2cos ( ωc t ) . M ( f ) is to be restored to its original values.

Fig. 4.72: (a) Baseband message spectrum used to generate the VSB (b) Spectral components in the vestige in LSB Let α i be the magnitude of the spectral component at fc + fi , i = 1, 2, ..., 5 in the VSB spectrum. When the VSB spectrum is shifted to the left by fc , we have the spectrum shown in Fig. 4.73(a). Similarly, when the VSB spectrum is shifted to the right by fc , we have the spectrum shown in Fig. 4.73(b).

4.90
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That is α1 = 0. That is α 2 = 0.73(a) and (b).2 = 0.1 = 0.74.2 α 2 + 0.4 Hence the VSB spectrum for f > 0 is shown in Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.6 α3 = 1. 4.91 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4. 4. Venkata Rao Fig. V. we have α1 + 0.8 . 4. α 4 = 0.3 .73: Shifted VSB spectra: (a) left shift (b) right shift From the spectral plots in Fig.65 and α5 = 0.

V. that is.74: VSB spectrum of example 4. However. We shall now look into this. 4. VSB+C. Hence direct envelope detection of a VSB signal would be of no use. if there is a carrier component along with the VSB signal. It is given that the magnitude of the filter at the vestige frequency is spectrum of the VSB signal.10 Envelope Detection of VSB+C As mentioned earlier. Venkata Rao Fig.13  Exercise 4. 1 . As a large number of receivers are involved.Principles of Communication Prof. then ED might work. Specify the frequency response of a VSB filter that passes the LSB almost completely and leaves a vestige of the first frequency component in USB.92 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sketch the 8 4.13 Let m ( t ) = 2 + 4 cos ( 200 π t ) + 6 cos ( 300 π t ) + 5 cos ( 400 π t ) . 4. The envelope of a VSB signal is not one-to-one related to the message m ( t ) . it is preferable to make the detector circuit fairly simple and inexpensive. one important application of VSB has been in TV broadcast.

the distortion component is not too bothersome. V.Principles of Communication Prof. namely. Ac cos ( ωc t ) + ⎡m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) ± m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎧ ⎡ ⎤ then. ms ( t ) = 0 . we will have the DSB signal. Then A ( t ) . the output of the ED is A ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + β m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ + ( β ms ( t ) ) 2 { 1 2 2 } ⎧ ⎤ 1 = Ac ⎡ + β m t ( )⎦ ⎪ ⎨1 + ⎣ ⎪ ⎩ ⎡ β ms ( t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣1 + β m ( t ) ⎥ ⎦ 1 2 ⎫2 ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (4. fv is about 75 kHz which is about 1/6 of the width of a full sideband which is about 5 MHz. which. Venkata Rao Let the input to the ED be Ac cos ( ωc t ) + Ac ⎡ ⎣β m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) ± β ms ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ where β is an adjustable scale factor. It would be instructive to compare the envelope detection of SSB+C with that of VSB+C. Let the input to the ED be SSC+C. after the DC block. This level of the distortion component can be reduced by i) increasing fv . will provide the message output. A ( t ) = ⎨ ⎡ ⎣ Ac + m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ + ⎣m ( t )⎦ ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 2 1 2 ⎫2 4. It has been found that with a vestige of about 75 kHz. Note that as fv → W . In commercial TV broadcast.36) If the distortion component β ms ( t ) << 1 for all t . that is.93 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . then the output of the ED 1 + β m (t ) will be Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + β m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ . ii) decreasing the value of β .

then ⎢ ⎥ can ⎥ and ⎢ A A ⎢ ⎣ c ⎦ ⎣ c ⎥ ⎦ be dropped from Eq. most of the time. Example 4.37.Principles of Communication Prof. 4. In contrast. s ( t ) = Ac cos ( ωc t ) + m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) + m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) where m ( t ) = 1 1 + t2 .94 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ED of AM is reasonably efficient as the requirement to avoid envelope distortion is m (t ) max ≤ Ac . We will show that. if we ensure m (t ) Ac can be neglected in comparison with unity. 4. Venkata Rao 2 ⎫2 ⎧ m2 ( t ) 2 m ( t ) ⎤ ⎡ m ( t ) ⎤ ⎪ ⎪⎡ = Ac ⎨ ⎢1 + + ⎥ ⎬ ⎥+⎢ 2 A A A ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ c c ⎪⎢ c ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪ ⎩⎣ ⎭ 1 (4.37) 2 If m (t ) Ac and m (t ) Ac 2 ⎡ m (t ) ⎤ ⎡ m (t ) ⎤ are very much less than unity. V. if Ac >> 1 . it is obvious that ED of SSB+C results in excessive wastage of the transmitted power. This may be adequate to make m (t ) Ac much smaller than unity. then the output of the ED can be taken as Ac + m ( t ) . then Of course. A (t ) ⎡ m (t ) ⎤ Ac ⎢1 + ⎥ = Ac + m ( t ) Ac ⎦ ⎣ m ( t )max = m ( t )min << Ac . giving us A (t ) ⎡ 2 m (t ) ⎤ 2 Ac ⎢1 + ⎥ Ac ⎦ ⎣ 1 Retaining only first order term of the binomial expansion.14 Consider the SSB+C signal. In any case.

Hence A ( t ) . Venkata Rao As m ( t ) = s ( t ) is. 1 1 + t2 . V.  4. we have m ( t ) = t 1 + t2 .Principles of Communication Prof. we have A (t ) ⎡ 1 2 Ac ⎢1 + ⎢ 2 Ac 1 + t 2 ⎣ ( ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Ac + 1 1 + t2 which is the desired result.95 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the envelope of 2 2 ⎡⎛ ⎛ t ⎞ ⎤2 1 ⎞ ⎢ ⎥ +⎜ A (t ) = ⎜ Ac + 2⎟ 2⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ 1+ t ⎠ ⎝1 + t ⎠ ⎥ ⎣⎝ ⎦ 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 2 = ⎢ Ac + 1 + t2 ⎢ ⎣ ( ) 2 + 2 Ac 1 + t2 1 + t2 (1 + t ) 2 ⎤2 ⎥ 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎡ 2 2 Ac ⎤ 2 1 = ⎢ Ac + + ⎥ 1 + t2 1 + t2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎧ 2 1 ⎪ = Ac ⎨1 + + 2 2 Ac 1 + t Ac 1 + t 2 ⎪ ⎩ ( ) ( ) ⎫2 ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ 1 Neglecting the term Ac 2 1 + t 2 ( 1 ) . we have 1 A (t ) ⎡ 2 Ac ⎢1 + ⎢ Ac 1 + t 2 ⎣ ( ) ⎤2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Using the binomial expansion upto the second term.

we imply that the schemes obey the superposition property. the ratio. a) Construct the phasor diagram and develop the expression for the envelope A ( t ) .Principles of Communication Prof.14 Consider SSB+C with tone modulation. m ≥ 3 can be neglected. 4. V. SSB and VSB: Having discussed these modulation schemes.96 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Then the modulated carrier is Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣α1 m1 ( t ) + α 2 m2 ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) . DSB-SC. b) Let β be such that terms involving βm . that is. This can be easily verified in the case of DSB-SC. By linearity. the resulting modulated waveforms are Ac m1 ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) and Ac m2 ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . percent. is less than five A note on the linearity of AM. Let m ( t ) = α1 m1 ( t ) + α 2 m2 ( t ) where α1 and α 2 are constants. Venkata Rao Exercise 4. SSB and VSB. When message signals m1 ( t ) and m2 ( t ) are applied separately. let us look at the linearity aspect of these schemes. Show that A (t ) ⎡ ⎤ β2 β2 Ac ⎢1 + cos ( 2 ωm t ) ⎥ + β cos ( ωm t ) − 4 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Amplitude of the second harmonic in A ( t ) Amplitude of the fundamental in A ( t ) c) Find the value of β so that second harmonic envelope distortion. Consider DSB-SC. Let s ( t ) = Ac ⎡ ⎣cos ( ωc t ) + β cos ( ωc + ωm ) t ⎤ ⎦ Assume that fc >> fm and β < 1.

Tuning becomes important especially in a broadcast situation because there is more than one station broadcasting at the same time and the receiver must pick the required station and reject the inputs from the other (unwanted) stations. all the four modulation types are put under the category of linear modulation. most of the receivers also incorporate certain other features such as frequency conversion. the output is Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + g m m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎦ = Ac 1 + g m ⎡ ⎣α1 m1 ( t ) + α 2 m2 ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) { } and this is not equal to Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + g m α1 m1 ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) + Ac ⎡ ⎣1 + g m α 2 m2 ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( ωc t ) That is. Similarly. Venkata Rao which establishes the linearity property. SSB and VSB can be shown to be linear. Two of the demodulation methods which we have already discussed are coherent or synchronous detection and envelope detection. 4. the received signal is quite weak and without sufficient amplification. it is used to demodulate only suppressed carrier 4. Coherent detection can be used to demodulate any linear modulation scheme: DSB-SC.97 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .11 Superheterodyne Receiver The important function of a receiver is demodulation. SSB or VSB. DSB-LC. superposition does not apply to the carrier component. Besides these operations. most often. automatic gain control etc. to recover the message signal from the received modulated waveform. The other functions which become necessary for the proper reception of a signal are: amplification and tuning or selective filtering. Amplification becomes necessary because. because if m ( t ) is applied as input to an AM modulator. it may not even be able to drive the receiver circuitry. that is. AM is not linear in its strict sense. tuning also ensures that out of band noise components do not affect the receiver's performance. V. In practice. As this is only a minor deviation.Principles of Communication Prof.

where fIF denotes the Intermediate Frequency (IF).75. The RF section is tuned to fc .Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao signals. This is shown schematically in the Fig. fLO tracks the carrier frequency fc . The local oscillator frequency. The next stage in the receiver is the frequency conversion stage consisting of a mixer and a local oscillator. We shall now describe the receiver used in AM broadcast. 4. a few adjacent signals are also passed by it. is a tuned amplifier. is approximately equal to the transmission bandwidth. 4. among others. The mixer output consists of. The receiver for the broadcast AM is of the superheterodyne (or superhet) variety . called the IF stage. The following stage. of Some of the other applications of superhet are: reception of FM and TV broadcast signals and RADAR 1 4. is relatively broad. along with other signals and noise. the carrier frequency of the desired signal s ( t ) . BT . hence along with s ( t ) . the frequency components at 2 fc + fIF and fIF . V. 1 Fig. The bandwidth of the RF stage. Envelope detection is mainly used in the demodulation of DSB-LC and VSB+C signals. (with the help of a ganged capacitor) and is usually ( fc + fIF ) . BIF .75: Superheterodyne Receiver The wanted signal s ( t ) . is input to the Radio Frequency (RF) stage of the receiver. The bandwidth of the IF stage.98 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . BRF . which rejects all the other components and produces an output that is centered at fIF .

It is a fixed frequency amplifier (it could consist of one or more stages of amplification) and provides most of the gain of the superhet. For example.99 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .76 and 4.76: Typical spectrum at the input to the RF stage of a superhet Fig. we have the detector or demodulation stage which removes the IF carrier and produces the baseband message signal at its output. then BIF ≈ 2W The IF stage constitutes a very important stage in a superheterodyne receiver. the demodulator output goes through a baseband amplification stage (audio or video.Principles of Communication Prof. depending upon the type of the signal) before being applied to the final transducer (speaker. Venkata Rao the modulation scheme under consideration. it also rejects the adjacent channels (carrier frequency spacing ensures this). Finally.77: Spectrum at the input of the IF stage of a stage of a superhet 4. 4.77 help clarify the action of a superhet receiver. if the input signal is of the double sideband variety. 4. picture-tube etc. as BIF = BT . V. Next to IF. 4. We shall assume the input to the receiver is a signal with symmetric sidebands. Fig. Also.) The spectral drawings shown in Fig.

Principles of Communication Prof. 1 4. then it will also give rise to an output at the IF stage which would interfere with the wanted signal. the IF filter takes care of adjacent channel rejection. Venkata Rao Fig. V. plus a few adjacent channels and possibly a signal with the carrier frequency fc' = fc + 2 fIF = fLO + fIF ⋅ fc' is called the image frequency corresponding to fc . namely. As can be seen. Fig. As seen from this figure. BRF is such that BT < BRF < 2 f1F then. HRF ( f ) . fIF is so selected so that BIF fIF results in a reasonable fractional bandwidth (for The word superheterodyne refers to the operation of the receiver. 4. it has the desired signal. ii) Separation between fc and fIF eliminates potential instability due to stray feedback from the amplified output to the receiver's input.76 shows the spectrum of the input signal to the RF stage. the incoming signal at the carrier frequency is heterodyned or mixed with the LO signal whose frequency is higher than fc ( fLO = fc + fIF ) . The superheterodyne1 structure results in several practical benefits: i) Tuning takes place entirely in the front end (RF and mixer stage) so that the rest of the circuitry (IF stage.77 depicts the frequency response characteristic of the IF stage. iii) Most of the gain and selectivity is concentrated in the fixed IF stage. detector and the final power amplifier stage) requires no adjustments to changes in fc . should be able to provide sufficient attenuation at the image frequency. If the 3-dB bandwidth. If fc' is allowed to pass through the RF stage. namely the signal whose carrier frequency is fc .100 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 4. Hence the main task of the RF section is to pass the frequency components in the range fc ± B T 2 while rejecting the signal with the spectrum centered at fc' (image frequency rejection).

this is possible even if fLO = fc − fIF . V. image frequency rejection would become poorer. Venkata Rao AM broadcast various frequency parameters are given in table 4.101 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1).1 Parameters of AM radio Carrier frequency range Carrier spacing Intermediate frequency IF bandwidth Audio bandwidth 540-1600 kHz 10 kHz 455 kHz 6-10 kHz 3-5 kHz An IF of 455 kHz has been arrived at by taking the following points into consideration. If we have to obtain the fIF component after mixing. This signal. We had mentioned earlier. 1) IF must not fall within the tuning range of the receiver. Consider the AM situation. With the required bandwidth of less than 10 kHz. which would push up the cost of the receiver. It has been possible to build superhets with about 70 dB gain at the IF stage itself. could directly be picked off by the IF stage (every piece of wire can act as an antenna). Assume that IF was selected to be 2 MHz.Principles of Communication Prof. 2) Too high an IF would result in poor selectivity which implies poor adjacent channel rejection. Table 4. thereby a part of the sidebands could be lost. But this causes the following practical difficulty. that fLO = fc + fIF . we require very sharp cutoff filters. If we select fLO = fc − fIF . Assume that there is a station broadcasting with the carrier frequency equal to fIF . Also. then the required range of variation of fLO so as to cover the 4. selectivity of the IF stage may increase. Interference would then result between the desired station and the station broadcasting at fc = fIF . 3) As IF is lowered.

We shall now look at the image frequency problem of a receiver with two mixer stages. capacitors and potentiometers. then 1: 2 .455) = 1145 kHz. Hence. If fLO = fc + fIF . 4. 4. Venkata Rao entire AM band of 540-1600 kHz is (540 . let us find the possible image frequencies of the incoming signal.78. to achieve good image frequency rejection and selectivity using a single mixer stage is quite difficult.78: Block diagram of a double conversion receiver In the scheme shown. We assume that none of the filters in the cascade are ideal. 4. Hence the tuning ratio required is 85 : 1145 the tuning ratio required is 995 : 2055 1: 13 .300 MHz) range and meant for receiving fairly narrowband signals (say telemetry signals). receivers have been developed with more than one frequency conversion stage and more than one IF. usually called double or dual conversion receiver. Example 4. Consider the scheme shown in Fig. its output being 30 MHz below the incoming signal frequency. With the exception of tuning coils.455) = 85 kHz to (1600 . all the circuitry required for proper reception of AM signals is available in IC chips (for example. the first mixer stage has a tunable LO. Fig.102 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. This is much easier to obtain than the ratio 1:13.15: Double conversion superhet receiver In receivers operating in the VHF (30 . The second mixer stage has an LO producing a fixed frequency output at 40 MHz. If the RF stage is tuned to 200 MHz.Principles of Communication Prof. BEL 700).

103 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 140 MHz and 120 MHz. Hence if a frequency component at (170 ± 50 ) = 220 or 120 MHz get through the RF stage. Hence (170 . the image frequencies are at 220 MHz.  4.t the first IF. In other words.30) = 140 MHz will be an image frequency for the incoming signal w.30) = 170 MHz.r. it would interfere with the reception of the wanted carrier at 200 MHz. a component at 50 MHz would be an image of 30 MHz. V. As the second IF is 10 MHz.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao First local oscillator frequency = (200 .

Venkata Rao Exercise 4.Principles of Communication Prof. H ( f ) = H (f ) = V0 ( f ) I (f ) is. 4.104 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .79. 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ R ⎟ + j ⎜ 2πf C − 2πf L ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 1 + j R ω2 LC − 1 ( R ) ω1L 1 2 π LC and Q-factor of Let f0 be the resonant frequency. V.79: A tuned circuit with L. C and R Show that H (f ) = V0 ( f ) I (f ) = R ⎡ f2 − f2 0 1+ jQ ⎢ ⎢ f f0 ⎣ ( ⎤ )⎥ ⎥ ⎦ = R ⎛f f ⎞ 1 + jQ⎜ − 0 ⎟ f ⎠ ⎝ f0 and hence H (f ) = R 1 + Q 2 β2 ( f ) ⎛f f ⎞ where β ( f ) = ⎜ − 0 ⎟ f ⎠ ⎝ f0 4.15 a) For the tuned circuit shown in Fig. 4. then f0 = filter is Q = R C L Fig.

0 MHz and (ii) 20. 4. λ = 1 + Q 2 β2 fc' .81. 4. Assume Q of the resonant circuit TC1 to be 100. 4.00 MHz.105 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. Fig. For this purpose. Calculate the value of λ when the receiver () is tuned to (i) 1.17 Fig. Venkata Rao b) Let the RF stage in a superhet consist of a simple tuned circuit (TC1) whose output is input to the mixer stage as shown in Fig. V.6 (ii) λ = 70. where λ = H ( fc ) H fc' () .80.81: Superhet with RF amplifier 4. fc' being the image frequency of fc . Calculate the required Q of the tuned circuit. That is.80: Superhet without RF amplifier Let λ denote the image frequency rejection. the RF stage has been modified to include a tuned amplifier stage as shown in Fig.00 MHz. 4.: (i) λ = 138. (Ans. TC2 Answer: Q of TC2 = 5.6 ) c) It is required to have the value of λ at 20 MHz the same as at λ = 1.

A4. Fig.106 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. A ( t0 ) = ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t0 ) ⎤ ⎦ 4.1: Analysis of ED with Tone Modulation Consider ED circuit shown in Fig. We shall derive on upper bound on µ in terms of RL C and ωm so that the detector is able to follow the envelope for all t . 4. A4.1. A ( t ) = ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ . Consider the waveform v1 ( t ) shown in Fig. the envelope quantity is. The value of the envelope A ( t ) at t = t0 .Principles of Communication Prof. Then. A4.42 which is redrawn in Fig.2. Venkata Rao Appendix A4.1: Envelope detector Let ⎡ ⎣s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ AM = ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( 2 π fm t ) ⎤ ⎦ cos ( 2 π fc t ) We assume µ < 1 so that ⎡ ⎣1 + µ cos ( 2 π fm t ) ⎤ ⎦ is positive for all t .

2: Waveforms of ED of Fig. 4. − ⎛ 1⎞ v1 ⎜ t 0 + ⎟ = v 1 ( t 0 ) e fc ⎠ ⎝ 1 1 RL C fc From Eq. Note that v1 ( t0 ) is the voltage across the capacitor at t = t0 .107 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Assuming that the capacitor discharges until the next positive peak in the carrier cycle.Principles of Communication Prof. A4. V. Hence ⎛ 1⎞ v1 ⎜ t 0 + ⎟ fc ⎠ ⎝ (1 + µ cos ( ωm t0 ) ) ⎢1 − R ⎣ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎥ L C fc ⎦ ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ ⎛ 1⎞ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ≤ A ⎜ t0 + ⎟ = ⎨1 + µ cos ⎢ωm ⎜ t0 + ⎟ ⎥ ⎬ fc ⎠ fc ⎠ ⎦ ⎢ ⎥⎭ ⎝ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎩ ⎡ ⎛ω ⎞ ⎛ ω ⎞⎤ ≤ 1 + µ ⎢cos ( ωm t0 ) cos ⎜ m ⎟ − sin ( ωm t0 ) sin ⎜ m ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ fc ⎠ ⎝ fc ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Assuming fm << fc . we have. 4. Venkata Rao Fig. (1 + µ cos ( ωm t0 ) ) ⎢1 − R ⎣ ⎡ µ ωm 1 ⎤ sin ( ωm t0 ) ⎥ ≤ 1 + µ cos ( ωm t0 ) − fc L C fc ⎦ That is. A4.15(b).1 Let v1 ( t0 ) = A ( t0 ) . we have RL C fc >> 1. we approximate ⎡ f ⎤ cos ⎢2 π m ⎥ fc ⎦ ⎣ 1 and ⎡ f ⎤ sin ⎢ 2 π m ⎥ fc ⎦ ⎣ 2 π fm fc Hence.

sin ϕ = ω2 m 1 RL C ⎛ 1 ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RL C ⎠ 2 The inequality A4. That is.1(b).Principles of Communication Prof. we have ⎛ ⎞ µ 1 cos ( ωm t0 ) ⎟ ≤ ⎜ µ ωm sin ( ωm t0 ) − RL C RL C ⎝ ⎠ (A4. Venkata Rao RL C ≤ 1 + µ cos ( ωm t0 ) µ ωm sin ( ωm t0 ) (A4. RL C µ D sin ( ωm t0 − ϕ ) ≤ 1 (A4.3) The inequality should hold even when sin ( ωm t0 − ϕ ) = 1. That is.1b) Rearranging Eq.108 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. cos ϕ = and. A4. RL C µ D ≤ 1 µ ≤ 1 = RL C D 1 ωm 1 1 + ( ωm RL C ) 1 − µ2 µ2 2 or ( RL C ) ≤ 4.2 can be written as µ D cos ϕ sin ( ωm t0 ) − µ D sin ϕ cos ( ωm t0 ) ≤ where D = 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ω2 ⎟ m + ⎜ ⎝ RL C ⎠ 2 1 RL C .1a) or µ ωm sin ( ωm t0 ) 1 ≥ 1 + µ cos ( ωm t0 ) RL C (A4.2) Let ϕ = tan− 1 1 as shown ωm RL C ωm ω2 m ⎛ 1 ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RL C ⎠ 2 Then.

we will not be able to demodulate. A4.) Fig. Venkata Rao Evidently.109 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .4 is the ED output (top waveform) when the time constant is too large. Fig. As can be seen from the figure. (These waveforms are from Shreya’s experimentor kit. Fig. using the ED circuit. resulting in the clipping of a part of their cycle. A4.Principles of Communication Prof. ED is not able to follow the negative half cycle of the tone fully.3 4.3 displays the experimentally generated demodulator output (top waveform) when the time constant RL C is of proper value so as to follow the envelope for all t (modulating tone is shown at the bottom). A4. V. a tone modulated AM signal with µ = 1.

Sketch the voltage across the capacitor C for the following cases: i) ii) RL C = 25 µ sec RL C = 2 m sec 4.Principles of Communication Prof. The parameters of the carrier are: Ac = 1 volt and fc = 1 MHz. amplitude modulates a carrier to a depth of 50 %. V.1.1 A 1 kHz square wave. a) b) Sketch the resulting AM signal. A4. A4. Venkata Rao Fig. switching between the levels ± 1 V. Let the signal of (a) be the input of the ED of Fig.4 Exercise A4.110 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

(3rd ed. Proakis and Masoud Salehi. Mc Graw Hill international edition. Rutledge. Tata McGraw Hill.). 1998 John G. V. 2002 B. Prentice Hall international edition. P. 2005 Some suggested references 1) 2) 3) A.Principles of Communication Prof. Communication systems (4th ed. 1994 4. Bruce Carlson. Communication Systems Engineering. Lathi. Digital Signal Processing: a hands on approach. Venkata Rao References 1) Charles Schuler and Mahesh Chugani.111 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Paul B. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems.) Oxford University press. Crilly and Janet C.

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