INTRODUCTION TO MINITAB VERSION 13

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 1

Minitab Training Agenda
•Worksheet Conventions and Menu Structures •Minitab Interoperability •Graphic Capabilities •Pareto •Histogram •Box Plot •Scatter Plot •Statistical Capabilities •Capability Analysis •Hypothesis Test •Contingency Tables •ANOVA •Design of Experiments (DOE)
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Worksheet Format and Structure

Menu Bar Session Window Tool Bar

Worksheet Data Window

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Data Window Column Conventions Text Column C1-T (Designated by -T) Date Column C2-D (Designated by -D) Numeric Column C3 (No Additional Designation) ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 4 .

Count & Amount Entered Data for Data Rows 1 through 4 ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Other Data Window Conventions Data Entry Arrow Column Names (Type. Date.8 • 5 Data Rows .

Menu Conventions Hot Key Available (Ctrl-S) Submenu Available (… at the end of selection) ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 6 .Menu Bar .

8 • 7 .Menu Bar .File Menu Key Functions •Worksheet File Management Save Print Data Import ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Menu Bar .Edit Menu Key Functions •Worksheet File Edits Select Delete Copy Paste Dynamic Links ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 8 .

Manip Menu Key Functions •Data Manipulation Subset/Split Sort Rank Row Data Manipulation Column Data Manipulation ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Menu Bar .8 • 9 .

Calc Menu Key Functions •Calculation Capabilities Column Calculations Column/Row Statistics Data Standardization Data Extraction Data Generation ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 10 .Menu Bar .

Menu Bar .8 • 11 .Stat Menu Key Functions •Advanced Statistical Tools and Graphs Hypothesis Tests Regression Design of Experiments Control Charts Reliability Testing ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Menu Bar - Graph Menu
Key Functions
•Data Plotting Capabilities Scatter Plot Trend Plot Box Plot Contour/3 D plotting Dot Plots Probability Plots Stem & Leaf Plots

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Menu Bar - Data Window Editor Menu
Key Functions
•Advanced Edit and Display Options Data Brushing Column Settings Column Insertion/Moves Cell Insertion Worksheet Settings
Note: The Editor Selection is Context Sensitive. Menu selections will vary for: •Data Window •Graph •Session Window Depending on which is selected.
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Menu Bar - Session Window Editor Menu
Key Functions
•Advanced Edit and Display Options Font Connectivity Settings

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Menu Bar .Graph Window Editor Menu Key Functions •Advanced Edit and Display Options Brushing Graph Manipulation Colors Orientation Font ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 15 .

Menu Bar .Window Menu Key Functions •Advanced Window Display Options Window Management/Display Toolbar Manipulation/Display ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 16 .

Help Menu Key Functions •Help and Tutorials Subject Searches Statguide Multiple Tutorials Minitab on the Web ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 17 .Menu Bar .

8 • 18 .MINITAB INTEROPERABILITY ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

8 • 19 .Minitab Interoperability Minitab Excel PowerPoint ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

. Load file “Sample 1” in Excel….Starting with Excel. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 20 ..

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..Starting with Excel. The data is now loaded into Excel….8 • 21 ..

. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Starting with Excel.. Highlight and Copy the Data….8 • 22 .

. Open Minitab and select the column you want to paste the data into…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..Move to Minitab.8 • 23 .

.Move to Minitab.8 • 24 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. Select Paste from the menu and the data will be inserted into the Minitab Worksheet….

8 • 25 .. Lets say that we would like to test correlation between the Predicted Workload and the actual workload….Use Minitab to do the Analysis... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Select Stat… Regression…. Fitted Line Plot….

•Select “Actual Workload” and hit the select button….8 • 26 . •This will enter the “Actual Workload” data in the Response (Y) data field. •Click in the box for “Response (Y): Note that our options now appear in this box.Use Minitab to do the Analysis. Minitab is now asking for us to identify the columns with the appropriate date…...... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Then click on “Predicted Workload” and hit the select button… This will fill in the “Predictor (X):” data field. •Both data fields should now be filled…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. •Now click in the Predictor (X): box….. •Select OK.8 • 27 .Use Minitab to do the Analysis.....

.Use Minitab to do the Analysis.. •Minitab now does the analysis and presents the results.. •Note that in this case there is a graph and an analysis summary in the Session Window… •Let’s say we want to use both in our PowerPoint presentation…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 28 ..

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..8 • 29 ...Transferring the Analysis. Copy Graph.. •Go to Edit…. •Let’s take care of the graph first….

Paste Special.. •Go to Edit…...Transferring the Analysis. •Open PowerPoint and select a blank slide….8 • 30 .. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

.Transferring the Analysis. •Select “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)… This will give you the best graphics with the least amount of trouble.8 • 31 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..

8 • 32 . •Our Minitab graph is now pasted into the powerpoint presentation…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Transferring the Analysis.. We can now size and position it accordingly…..

. Copy…...Transferring the Analysis. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Select Edit….8 • 33 . •Highlight the text you want to copy…... •Now we can copy the analysis from the Session window….

•Select Edit…. Paste…... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Transferring the Analysis.. •Now go back to your powerpoint presentation….8 • 34 ...

Transferring the Analysis. •Reduce the font to 12 and we should be ok…. •Well we got our data.. but it is a bit large….. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..8 • 35 ..

. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v... •Now all we need to do is tune the presentation…. •Here we position the graph and summary and put in the appropriate takeaway.8 • 36 .. •Then we are ready to present…...Presenting the results.

Graphic Capabilities

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Pareto Chart....
•Let’s generate a Pareto Chart from a set of data…. •Go to File… Open Project…. Load the file Pareto.mpj…. •Now let’s generate the Pareto Chart...

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Pareto Chart....
•Go to: •Stat… •Quality Tools… •Pareto Chart….

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.Pareto Chart. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Fill out the screen as follows: •Our data is already summarized so we will use the Chart Defects table..8 • 40 .... •Add title and hit OK.. •Labels in “Category”… •Frequencies in “Quantity”….

Pareto Chart. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Minitab now completes our pareto for us ready to be copied and pasted into your PowerPoint presentation….8 • 41 ....

. Load the file 2_Correlation..mpj…. •Let’s generate a Histogram from a set of data….Histogram... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 42 .. •Go to File… Open Project…. •Now let’s generate the Histogram of the GPA results.

Histogram.8 • 43 .. •Go to: •Graph… •Histogram… ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v...

Histogram. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..8 • 44 .. Fill out the screen as follows: •Select GPA for our X value Graph Variable •Hit OK…...

.. Minitab now completes our histogram for us ready to be copied and pasted into your PowerPoint presentation…. Let’s use Minitab to test this distribution for normality…..8 • 45 . This data does not look like it is very normal….. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Histogram..

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v... •Go to: •Stat… •Basic Statistics… •Display Descriptive Statistics…..Histogram.8 • 46 .

8 • 47 .. •Select Graphs…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.... Fill out the screen as follows: •Select GPA for our Variable….Histogram.

... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Select Graphical Summary….8 • 48 ... •Select OK again on the next screen..Histogram. •Select OK….

Note that now we not only have our Histogram but a number of other descriptive statistics as well…...Histogram. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. So. note that our P value of . This is a great summary slide..8 • 49 .05). we conclude with 95% confidence that the data is not normal…...038 rejects the null hypothesis (P<.. As for the normality question.

mpj….. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. •Let’s look at another “Histogram” tool we can use to evaluate and present data….. Load the file overfill.Histogram.8 • 50 . •Go to File… Open Project….

.Histogram..8 • 51 .. •Go to: •Graph… •Marginal Plot… ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

.. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. Fill out the screen as follows: •Select filler 1 for the Y Variable….Histogram..8 • 52 . •Select head for the X Variable •Select OK….

.... Note that head number 6 seems to be the source of the high readings….. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Histogram. Note that now we not only have our Histogram but a dot plot of each head data as well. This type of Histogram is called a “Marginal Plot”.8 • 53 ...

.8 • 54 ... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Boxplot. •Let’s look at the same data using a Boxplot….

. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Go to: •Stat… •Basic Statistics… •Display Descriptive Statistics.....Boxplot.8 • 55 .

.8 • 56 .Boxplot... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. Fill out the screen as follows: •Select “filler 1” for our Variable…. •Select Graphs….

8 • 57 ... •Select OK again on the next screen....Boxplot.. •Select Boxplot of data…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Select OK….

.Boxplot. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v...8 • 58 .. We now have our Boxplot of the data..

.. •Go to: •Graph… •Boxplot.Boxplot.. •There is another way we can use Boxplots to view the data.8 • 59 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.....

Boxplot....
Fill out the screen as follows: •Select “filler 1” for our Y Variable….

•Select “head” for our X Variable…. •Select OK…..

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Boxplot....

Note that now we now have a box plot broken out by each of the various heads.. Note that head number 6 again seems to be the source of the high readings…..

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 61

Scatter plot....
•Let’s look at data using a Scatterplot…. •Go to File… Open Project…. Load the file 2_Correlation.mpj…. •Now let’s generate the Scatterplot of the GPA results against our Math and Verbal scores...

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.8 • 63 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. •Go to: •Graph… •Plot...Scatter plot..

8 • 64 . Fill out the screen as follows: •Select GPA for our Y Variable…. •Select Math and Verbal for our X Variables….. •Select OK when done.... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..Scatter Plot..

. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. We now have two Scatter plots of the data stacked on top of each other… We can display this better by tiling the graphs…..Scatter plot.8 • 65 .

.. To do this: •Go to Window… •Tile..Scatter plot. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..8 • 66 ..

Now we can see both Scatter plots of the data… ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v....Scatter plot.8 • 67 .

.. •Go to: •Graph… •Matrix Plot.Scatter plot. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..8 • 68 . •There is another way we can generate these scatter plots…...

.... Fill out the screen as follows: •Click in the “Graph variables” block •Highlight all three available data sets… •Click on the “Select” button. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v...Scatter Plot.8 • 69 . •Select OK when done..

.. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..Scatter plot.8 • 70 . We now have a series of Scatter plots. each one corresponding to a combination of the data sets available… Note that there appears to be a strong correlation between Verbal and both Math and GPA data….

Minitab Statistical Tools ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 71 .

8 • 72 .PROCESS CAPABILITY ANALYSIS ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Let’s do a process capability study….8 • 73 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Open Minitab and load the file Capability.mpj….

SETTING UP THE TEST…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 74 . Capability Analysis (Weibull)…. Go to Stat… Quality Tools….

Enter a lower spec of 10 and an upper spec of 30.. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Select “Torque” for our single data column.. Then select “OK”….8 • 75 .SETTING UP THE TEST….

This equates to a Z value of 3*0.INTERPRETING THE DATA…. Note that the data does not fit the normal curve very well. Note that the Long Term capability (Ppk) is 0..43=1. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.29 standard deviations or sigma values. This equates to an expected defect rate PPM of 147..43.8 • 76 .055.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 77 .

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 78 ..Setting up the test in Minitab •Load the file normality.mpj….

Normality Test….. Basic Statistics..Checking the Data for Normality…. •Go to STAT…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 79 . •It’s important that we check for normality of data samples. •Let’s see how this works….

Set up the Test •We will test the “Before” column of data….8 • 80 . •Check AndersonDarling •Click OK ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Analyzing the Results •Since the P value is greater than .) ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 81 .05 we can assume the “Before” data is normal •Now repeat the test for the “After” Data (this is left to the student as a learning exercise..

. •To accomplish this go to Manip… Stack… Stack Columns…. •We now want to see if we have equal variances in our samples.Checking for equal variance. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •To perform this test.8 • 82 . our data must be “stacked”.

•Select OK….Checking for equal variance.. •Select both of the available columns (Before and After) to stack.. •Type in the location where you want the stacked data….. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 83 . •Type in the location where you want the subscripts stored… In this example we will use C3…. In this example we will use C4…..

•Now that we have our data stacked... we are ready to test for equal variances. Test for equal Variances.… •Go to Stat… ANOVA….. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 84 .Checking for equal variance.

Setting up the test….. •Then select “OK”. •We set our Confidence Level for the test (95%).8 • 85 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Our response will be the actual receipt performance for the two weeks we are comparing. In this case we had put the stacked data in column C4…. •Our factors is the label column we created when we stacked the data (C3).

•Here. •The F test results are shown here.8 • 86 •Here we have box plot representations of both populations. the PValue of .229 indicates that we would fail to reject the null hypothesis. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.263 that again we would fail to reject the null hypothesis. we know that we will fail to reject the null hypothesis.Analyzing the data…. we see the 95% confidence intervals for the two populations. •Note that we get a graphical summary of both sets of data as well as the relevant statistics…. . Since they overlap. Note that the F test assumes normality •Levene’s test also compares the variance of the two samples and is robust to nonnormal data. Again. We can see from the P-Value of .

several Statistics….8 • 87 . In this example we will be using a 2 Sample t Test…. We see of the hypothesis tests which we discussed in class. Basic Statistics.Lets test the data with a 2 Sample t Test •Under Stat… Basic . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. 2 Sample t….. •Go to Stat….

we will load C4 for our samples and C3 for our subscripts. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Since we have already tested for equal variances.8 • 88 . •Since we already have our data stacked. we can check off this box… •Now select Graphs….Setting up the test….

•We see that we have two options for our graphical output. For this small a sample. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Boxplots will not be of much value so we select “Dotplots of data” and hit “OK”.Setting up the test….8 • 89 . Hit OK again on the next screen….

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.. •In the session window we have each population’s statistics calculated for us.Interpreting the results….8 • 90 . •Note that here we have a P value of ...922. We therefore find that the data does not support the conclusion that there is a significant difference between the means of the two populations.

Interpreting the results….8 • 91 . •The dotplot shows how close the datapoints in the two populations fall to each other. The close values of the two population means (indicated by the red bar) also shows little chance that this hypothesis could be rejected by a larger sample ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

 It can also be used in measurement system studies to determine if operators are getting the same mean value across the same set of samples.  Let’s look at an example: 2_Hypothesis_Testing_Shoe_wear.8 • 92 . An example would be to test automatic blood pressure cuffs and a nurse measuring the blood pressure on the same patient using a manual instrument.mpj ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Paired Comparisons  In paired comparisons we are trying to “pair” observations or treatments.

 Our data has been collected using ten boys.mpj  In this example we are trying to determine if shoe material “A” wear rate is different from shoe material “B”. whom were asked to wear one shoe made from each material.8 • 93 . Ho: Material “A” wear rate = Material “B” wear rate Ha: Material “A” wear rate  Material “B” wear rate ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.2_Hypothesis_Testing_Shoe_wear.

•Basic Statistics… • Paired t…..8 • 94 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Paired Comparison •Go to Stat….

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Paired Comparison •Select the samples… •Go to Graphs….8 • 95 .

. •Then select OK..Paired Comparison •Select the Boxplot for our graphical output.8 • 96 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

This gives us confirmation that the shoe materials are significantly different. In this case. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 97 .Paired Comparison We see how the 95% confidence interval of the mean relates to the value we are testing. the value falls outside the 95% confidence interval of the data mean.

CONTINGENCY TABLES (CHI SQUARE) ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 98 .

.8 • 99 . For this example. load the file Contingency Table. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.mpj. •Enter the data in a table format.Entering the data…..

Let’s set up a contingency table…. Tables… Chi Square Test…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 100 . •Contingency tables are found under Stat….

•Select the columns which contain the table.8 • 101 .Setting up the test…. Then select “OK” ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Minitab calculates the expected values. Minitab calculates the Chi Square statistic for each data point and totals the result. Note that our original data is presented and directly below.8 • 102 . •Here. The calculated Chi Square statistic for this problem is 30.846. Note that you will have the critical population and test statistics displayed in the session window.Performing the Analysis…. •Minitab builds the table for you. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

8 • 103 .ANalysis Of VAriance ANOVA ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

mpj… •Stack the data in C4 and place the subscripts in C5 ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 104 .Let’s set up the analysis •Load the file Anova example.

•Select Stat… •ANOVA… •One way… ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Set up the analysis….8 • 105 .

8 • 106 . •Select • C4 Responses • C5 Factors •Then select Graphs…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Set up the analysis….

Set up the analysis….. •Then OK ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Choose boxplots of data..8 • 107 .

Analyzing the results….8 • 108 . Note that the P value is less than .05 that means that we reject the null hypothesis ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

•Choose Stat •ANOVA •Main Effects Plot….Let’s Look At Main Effects….8 • 109 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

8 • 110 .Main Effects Select •C4 Response •C5 Factors •OK ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Data Means for Liters Per H 22 21 Liters Per H 20 19 18 Liters/Hr 1 Liters/Hr 2 Liters/Hr 3 Formulation Formulation 1 Has Lowest Fuel Consumption ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..Analyzing Main Effects.8 • 111 . Main Effects Plot .

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE) FUNDAMENTALS ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 112 .

....First Create an Experimental Design. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..8 • 113 . •Create Factorial Design.. Go to •Stat… •DOE… •Factorial.

8 • 114 . Select 2 Level Factorial design with 3 factors Then go to Display Available Designs…. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.First Create an Experimental Design...

select OK and go back to the main screen.Bowling Example (continued) We can now see the available experimental designs…... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Once at the main screen select Designs. We will be using the Full (Factorial) for 3 factors and we can see that it will require 8 runs… Now.8 • 115 .

8 • 116 . Once at the main screen select Factors.. We will be using the Full (Factorial) and again we can see that it will require 8 runs… Now.Bowling Example (continued) Select your design….. select OK and go back to the main screen. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

.Bowling Example (continued) Fill in the names for your factors…. select OK and go back to the main screen. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 117 . Once at the main screen select Options. Then fill in the actual conditions for low (-) or high (+) Now..

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Now. Once at the main screen select OK... select OK and go back to the main screen.8 • 118 .Bowling Example (continued) Remove the option to Randomize Runs….

Now. We are now ready to analyze the results… ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 119 .Bowling Example (continued) Minitab has now designed our experiment for us…. type your Data from each of your experimental treatments into C8.

•DOE… •Factorial..Bowling Example (continued) Go to •Stat…... ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Analyze Factorial Design..8 • 120 .

Then.Bowling Example (continued) Highlight your Data column and use Select to place it in the Responses box.8 • 121 . select the Terms Option. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Select OK.Bowling Example (continued) Note that Selected Terms has all of the available choices already selected. Then.8 • 122 . We need do nothing further. at the main screen select Graphs ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

Select OK to return to the main screen and then select OK again.Bowling Example (continued) Select your Effects Plots and reset your Alpha to .8 • 123 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.05.

Bowling Example (continued) Note that only one effect has a significance greater than 95%. All the remaining factors and interactions are not statistically significant. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 124 .

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Bowling Example (continued) •Another way we can look at the data is to look at the Factorial Plots of the resulting data.8 • 125 . •Factorial… •Factorial Plots…. •Go to •DOE….

8 • 126 .Bowling Example (continued) •Select Main Effects Plot and then Setup… ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. “Ball” and “Lane” as your factors. •Then select “OK” and OK again on the main screen.8 • 127 .Bowling Example (continued) •Select C8 as your response •Select “Wristband”.

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. Here we see that the wristband has dramatically more effect than any other factor.8 • 128 .Bowling Example (continued) •The magnitude of the vertical displacement indicates the strength of the main effect for that factor. •This plot also shows you the direction of the main effects. We know from our earlier plots that the wristband is the only statistically significant effect @ 95% confidence. We clearly see that the “with” condition is related to the higher level of performance.

•Factorial… •Factorial Plots… ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v..8 • 129 ..Bowling Example (continued) •Now lets look at the interactions.. •Go to •DOE….

©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.8 • 130 ..Bowling Example (continued) •Select InteractionPlot and then Setup….

•Select “Wristband”.Bowling Example (continued) •Select C8 as your response variable. “Ball” and “Lane” as your factors. ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •Then select “OK” and OK again on the next screen….8 • 131 .

the more the interaction..Bowling Example (continued) •We know from our earlier analysis that none of these interactions were statistically significant for this experiment….8 • 132 . ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v. •We see that the strongest interaction (still not significant) is between the lane and the ball. •The more the lines diverge from being parallel.

•Note that Wristband has the strongest effect followed by the interaction between the Wristband and the Lane...8 • 133 .. •You can also see that there is zero error •This is because only 1 run was performed with no replications ©The National Graduate School of Quality Management v.Bowling Example (Session Window) •This is where Minitab shows us the Main Effects and Interaction Effects.

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