Design Criteria Tower

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KAMIS, MARET 12, 2009


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Design Criteria Tower

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Jemi Dwi Astomo, ST. Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia As my indicates, I graduated from Civil Engineering Department, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology Surabaya (ITS) in 2006. Hold the Certificate of Beginner Competence (SKA-P) from LPJK and be a member of HAKI since 2007. I have worked as a Design Engineer since 2006 at steel industries Company and Consulting engineer specialist for Tower Structure. Responsible for Civil and Structural Engineer work as my experience in design structure of Telecommunication tower and Electrical Transmission Line. I am familiar with structural analysis programs such as Ms.Tower-6, SAP 2000, PC Acol, MS Project, AutoCAD and also Ms.Office & Application programs

In compliance with the technical specification, the document describes the minimum criteria for specifying and designing of tower. I. STANDARD / REFERENCE a. TIA / EIA - 222 - STANDARD : Structural Standards for Steel Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures. b. AISC-ASD Code ' 89 - American Institute of Steel Construction c. ACI 318-89 Code - American Concrete Institute d. Indonesian Loading Code ( PMI 1970 N.I-I8 ) II. MATERIALS SPECIFICATION a.Steel Structure - Structure Type = Self Supporting Tower - Steel Shapes & Plates = ASTM A 36 / JIS G3101 fy = 245 Mpa b.Bolt & Nut - Splice Bolts = ASTM A - 325 / JIS B1051 - Grade 8.8 fy = 560 Mpa c.Anchor Bolt - Grade of Anchor = ASTM A - 307 fy = 240 Mpa d.First Coating - Hot Dipped Galv. = ASTM A - 123 80 microns thickness e.Concrete - fc' = 19 Mpa ( 28 days ) / K-225 f.Rebars - Grade of rebars = BJTP ( dia. ≤ 12 mm ) fy = 240 Mpa - Grade of rebars = BJTD ( dia. ≥ 13 mm ) fy = 390 Mpa g.Welding Electrodes - Minimum Grade of Welding Electrode = AWS A5.1 E60XX. fy = 345 Mpa

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Ms. Tower V 6.01 Soft-not available Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure Volume 1-DR Mashhour A.Ghoneim Pile Design for Structural and Geotechnical EngineersRajapakse Detailing for Steel Construction ACI 318M 2005 Buildings Code Requirements For Structural Concrete Design Criteria for Self Supporting Tower Standart TIA/EIA Versi F Complete-not available Revisi TIA-EIA 222 F&G (Article).pdf SNI-03-1729-2002 Tata Cara Perencanaan Struktur Baja untuk Bangunan Gedung SNI-03-2847-2002 Tata Cara Perhitungan Struktur Beton untuk Bangunan Gedung.pdf SNI-1726-2002 Standar Perencanaan Ketahanan Gempa untuk Struktur Bangunan


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Design Criteria Tower

at professional level. I also familiar with : TIA/EIA-222-F & G, ASCE, ACI, UBC codes & AWS, JIS, ASTM as material standards & codes. I'm a person who have Fast Target oriented, Good analytical thingking, Fast Learning, Energetic, Flexible and Hard working for all my Jobs and Friendly Corespondace. Lihat profil lengkapku

a.Dead Load Consist of Weight of Tower structure including antenna, ladder and appurtenances. b.Wind Load Calculated according to TIA / EIA - 222 - STANDARD : Structural Standard for Steel Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures Maximum Wind Speed 120 Kph (3 Second Gust) and,Operational wind speed 84 Kph. Where wind force applied to each section of the structure shall be calculated from the equation : F = horizontal force applied to a section of the structure ( KN ) qz * GH * [ CF * AE + SCA*AA)], but not to exceed 2*qz*GH*AG qz = Velocity pressure ( Pa ) = .613 Kz V2 for V in m/s Kz = Exposure Coefficient = [z/10]2/7 for z in meters 1.00 < Kz<2.58 V = basic wind speed for the structure location ( m.s-1) z = height above average ground level to midpoint of panel of the structure and appurtenances ( M) GH = gust response factor CF = structure force coefficient e = (AF+AR)/AG e = solidity ratio AF = projected area of flat structural component in one face of the section ( m2 ) AG = gross area of one tower face ( m2 ) AR = Projected area ( m2 ) of round structural component in one face of the section AE = efective projected area of structural component in one face ( m2 ) = DF AF + DR AR RR (m2) ( Note : For tubular steel pole structure, AE shall be the actual projected area based on diameter or overall width. ) RR = .51e2 + .57 RR<1.0 RR = The reduction factor for round structural component DF = Wind direction factor 1 for square cross section and normal wind direction 1+ 0.75 e for square cross section and + 450 wind direction (1.2 max) DR = Wind direction factor for round structural components = 1 ; for square cross section and normal wind direction = 1+ 0.75 e ; for square cross section and + 450 wind direction (1.2 max) CA = linear or discrete appurtance force coefficient AA = projected area of a linear appurtance CA is depended on Aspect ratio Aspect Ratio = Overall length/width ratio in plane normal to wind direction Wind Load Calculation method on the antennas is as follow: Fa = Ca x A x Kz x GH x V2 Fs = Cs x A x Kz x GH x V2 M = Cm x D x A x Kz x GH x V2 Ha = (Fa2+Fs2 )1/2 Mt = Fa x X + Fs x Y + M L = the distance the antenna's axis to the frame's joints GH = Gust response factor from 2.3.4 = 0.65+0.6/(h/10)1/7 for h in meters A = Outside aperture area of parabolic reflector, grid, or horn antenna = Plate area of passive reflector ( ft2 ) D = Outside diameter of parabolic reflector, grid, or horn antenna ( ft ) = Width or length of passive reflector ( ft2 ) V = basic wind speed ( m.p.h ) from 2.3.3 KZ = Exposure coefficient from 2.3.3 with z equal to the hight of the origin of the axis system Kz = Exposure Coefficient = [z/10]2/7 for z in meters FA = axial force ( lb ) Fs = side force ( lb ) M = Twisting moment ( ft-lb ) Ca, Cs, Cm are load coeficients contained in tables B1 trough B6 as function of wind angle,…... TIA page 62-67 Ha = resultant of FA and FS ( lb ) Mt = Total twisting moment ( ft-lb ) X = The offset of the mounting pipe ( ft ) Y = The distance on the reflector axis from the reflector vertex to the center of the mounting pipe ( ft ) Wind Load Calculation methode on the parabolic antenna is as follow:


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Design Criteria Tower

Fa = Ca x A x Kz x GH x V2 Fs = Cs x A x Kz x GH x V2 M = Cm x D x A x Kz x GH x V2 Ha = (Fa2+Fs2 )1/2 Mt = Fa x X + Fs x Y + M where: Fa = axial force ( kg ) Fs = side force ( kg ) M = Twisting moment ( kg-m ) Ca = Wind load coeficient Cs = Wind load coeficient Cm = Wind load coeficient V = Wind velocity ( m.p.h ) c.Antennas Load and Top body part dimension. Tower Structure considered to be able to support the antennas load IV. LOAD COMBINATION According to AISC - ASD'89 Standard , only the following load combination shall be investigated when calculating the maximum member stresses and structure reaction : COMB 1 = DL COMB 2 = DL + LL COMB 3 = DL + LL ± WL Where ; DL : Dead Load LL : Live Load WL : Wind Load ShoutMix chat widget



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V. DESIGN TOLERANCES The design / analysis tolerances are : a.Allowable Stress Ratio = 1 b.Slenderness Ratio : Leg ≤ 150 Bracing ≤ 200 Redudant ≤ 250 c.Allowable Twist = 0.5 degree d.Allowable Sway = 0.5 degree e.Allowable Horizontal Displacement = H/200 ( H= Tower Height ) f.Verticality = H/2000 ( H= Tower Height )

VI. ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS The unit stresses in the stucture membersdo not aceed the allowable unit stresses for the materials as specified in the EIA standard EIA - 222 1. Tension Ft = 0.60 Fy ( Kg/cm2 ) 2. Shear Fv = 0.40 Fy ( Kg/cm2 ) 3. Compression i ) On the gross section of axial loaded compression members when kl/r is less than Cc : ii ) On the gross section of axial loaded compression member, when kl/r exceeds 4) Bending Tension and compression on extreme fibers : Fb = 0.66 Fy (Kg/cm2) 5) Tension on Bolts Fv = 0.60 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 6) Shear on Bolts Fv = 0.30 Fy ( kg/cm2 ) 7) Bearing on Bolts Fp = 1.20 Fv ( kg/cm2)

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Posted by Jemi Dwi Astomo, ST. at 04:14 Labels: Tower

Raj D, Jemi Thanks, I will review and comment Senin, Maret 23, 2009 9:19:00 PM

Jemi Dwi Astomo, ST.,

Selasa, Maret 24, 2009 10:11:00 AM

Ok,Thank U. I'm waiting your response.


Minggu, Oktober 18, 2009 10:33:00 PM

Hi..jemi, How could it be implemented using PLS-TOWER computer software. thx


Rabu, November 25, 2009 1:22:00 AM

mas jemmy, klo mau analisis self supporting tower buat di pakai sebagai tower wind mills bisa? misal dengan tinggi 15 m makasih

Jemi Dwi Astomo, ST.,

Kamis, November 26, 2009 11:52:00 AM

Maksud tower wind mills utk jenis apa ya,.Tower ini utk jenis rangka..


Senin, November 30, 2009 12:19:00 PM

Mas Jemi, Angka Max wind speed 120 kph itu dapat darimana ya? kita tentukan sendiri berdasarkan data kec. angin perlokasi/site atau memang ada di TIA/EIA? kalau memang ada dibagian mananya ya mas? Kalau yang Operational wind yang 84 kph saya lihat

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Design Criteria Tower

memang di TIA/EIA ada di Operational Requirements yaitu setara dgn 22.4m/s. Mohon pencerahannya. Thanks B4.

Jemi Dwi Astomo, ST., Salam,.

Senin, November 30, 2009 10:26:00 PM

Prinsipnya basic Wind speed/Load tergantung requirement dan akan berbeda disetiap lokasi/negara (menurut TIA/EIA and Code lain normalnya rencana design Wind speed 50 tahunan. Tp utk di Indonesia biasanya Wind speed 120 kph (fastest mile) sdh sgt cukup. Tetapi sebagian operator/owner sekarang menggunakan 120 kph (3 second gust). Sebenarnya ini salah kaprah dimana masih byk designer dg Ms.Tower versi 6.01 (TIA/EIA-222F) menggunakan istilah 3 second gust, yang mana hanya bisa digunakan pada Ms.Tower 6.02 (TIA/EIA-222G update)..Hanya dengan alasan konversi designer tsb men-change fastest mile ke 3 second gust. Padahal versi F dg G sdh berbeda baik metoda analisanya (ASD ke LRFD), Terrain factor, Load kombinasi dll.. Semoga bermanfaat.


Rabu, Desember 02, 2009 12:38:00 PM

Mas Jemi, Thanks untuk penjelasannya, sangat informatif. kalau bisa saya simpulkan kec. angin 120 kph hanya asumsi/common practice designer tower di Indonesia yang mengikuti design criteria terdahulu/pendahulunya? (misalkan karena telkom sudah menentukan asumsi design criteria tower diawal spt itu, untuk selanjutnya operator lain/designer tower mengikuti parameter tsb. Mungkin okelah bisa kita tetapkan fastest mile 120 kph sehingga bisa dianggap sudah sangat cukup..tapi dasarnya apa? dan mengacu kemana? apakah data BMG? seperti data curah hujan tahunan atau klasifikasi daerah gempa atau Indonesia punya windspeed map yang dikeluarkan secara formal oleh lembaga yang berwenang seperti pada IBC section 1609. Karena kaitannya secara ekonomi/berat tower mungkin akan berbeda cukup signifikan bila kita tidak tepat menetapkan nilai fastest mile ini. dan tugas sebagai seorang designer untuk menetapkan design yang paling optimum dengan parameter yang tepat bukan? Nah 120 kph ini merupakan parameter yg tepat atau tidak? misalkan berdasarkan data yg dikeluarkan BMG No.sekian tahun sekian tercatat angin tercepat yang pernah terjadi pada 50 thn terakhir di Indonesia adalah 120 kph di daerah NTT...mohon masukannya mas. Terimakasih banyak.

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Design Criteria Tower

Jemi Dwi Astomo, ST.,

Kamis, Desember 03, 2009 8:32:00 PM

Sudah saya sebutkan sebelumnya bahwa design rencana utk Wind Speed normalnya pakai standard data 50 tahunan. Tp ada juga yang 100 thnan..Byk acuannya, TIA/EIA, ASCE and BS code menyatakan standard 50 thn (Itu klo mengacu CODE yg ada). Tp kita (Owner ato Designer) bisa menentukan sendiri Wind rencana tsb bs lebih rendah berdasar (faktor keutamaan strukture dan ekonomis). Misalnya utk tower Radio PRIBADI dan lokasi jauh dari pemukiman bisa saja kita menggunakan Wind speed rencana 10 tahunan..Semoga bermanfaat.

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