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Iridium

Atomic Number: 77
Atomic Weight: 192.217
Melting Point: 2719 K (2446°C or 4435°F)
Boiling Point: 4701 K (4428°C or 8002°F)
Density: 22.42 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Element Classification: Metal
Period Number: 6 Group Number: 9 Group Name: none
What's in a name? From the Latin word for rainbow, iris.
Say what? Iridium is pronounced as i-RID-i-em.
History and Uses:

Iridium and osmium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson
Tennant in 1803. Iridium and osmium were identified in the black residue remaining after
dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture of 25% nitric acid (HNO3) and 75%
hydrochloric acid (HCl). Today, iridium is still obtained from platinum ores and as a by-
product of mining nickel.

Pure iridium is very brittle and is nearly impossible to machine. It is primarily used as a
hardening agent for platinum. Platinum-iridium alloys are used to make crucibles and
other high temperature equipment. Iridium is also alloyed with osmium to make the tips
of fountain pens and compass bearings.

Iridium is the most corrosive resistant metal known. For this reason, the standard meter
bar was created from an alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium. This bar was replaced
as the definition of the meter in 1960 when the meter was redefined in terms of the
orange-red spectral line of krypton-86.

A thin, worldwide layer of iridium exists in a layer of sediment that was put down at the
end of the Cretaceous period. Since meteors and asteroids contain a higher percentage of
iridium than the earth's crust, this iridium enriched layer is seen as evidence that the earth
was struck by a large meteor or asteroid at that time. Dust from the impact would have
spread around the globe, depositing the iridium. The dust also would have blocked the
sun for a time, resulting in the extinction of many plant and animal species, including the
dinosaurs.
COPPER IRIDIUM LEBBO COIN
(This document contains reliable knowledge and a Business proposal for the Copper Iridium
Lebbo Coin.)

JAYADEVAN

Introduction
Copper Iridium coins are magical and powerful. They will stop a bus when carried in it by
stopping ignition, but not when wrapped in a carbon paper. A candle flame bends towards this
coin. When rice is brought near the coin, it gets attracted towards the coin. You can find an
electric circuit tester indicating light when touched with, on the coin. Your electronic watch will
stop when brought near this coin!

A device in Germany (details unknown) which cost / worth 1 million dollars absorbs power of
the coin. The Copper Iridium coins called 1616 have three magical points, which disables
entire power in any form near it. To test the coin, it costs 0.1 million dollar chemicals. The
complete test can be done only in remote sea shores.

Facts about the 1616 Copper Iridium Coin


In 1603 AD, East India Company was formed in India, with establishments in various places,
with head office in England. The company started minting coins to do business according to its
new system.

In the year 1616 AD, there was a Grahakutami (A complete solar eclipse) which lasted for
more than 5 hours in India. The Britishers, with the help of Indian Rishis minted Copper coins
with Copper Iridium metal in assorted weights and sizes. The coins were hand made.

Only 16 pieces of the coins were made totally. In order to preserve the precious lebbos, the
Rishis engraved the currency denomination prevalent on one side and the nine planets on the
other side. Iridium Lebbo coins are also called Navagraha Lebbos. Lebbo in Greek means sun
guard. The coins have the provision to be charged when required. The special range of powers
of the coins can be activated by charging the coin on the three pin points, each having
different functions. After charging the coin with MRC 87 chemicals, a magnetic attraction of
carbohydrate contents is generated on the coin.
Sun (Surya), Moon (Chandra), Mars (Mangla), Mercury (Budha), Neptune (Guru), Jupiter
(Sugra), Saturn (Sani), Uranus (Ragu) and Venus (Kethu) are the planets engraved on the
coin and are interconnected with tiny veins, all leading to the charging point.

It is said that, millions of years ago, fragments of sun and other planets might have fallen on earth, particularly in South
India sub continent. It is also said that the gurus had gone to all the planets to collect the metal from each planet. The
material from other planets that reached earth thus is used to imprint the corresponding planet on the coin.

Our ancestors made the metal classification ‘space metals’. Metallurgists have discovered and
included three metals under this group, Ikkidium, Iridium and Virenium. These metals were
heavily priced in the 16th century and Rishis hand made the lebbo coins using the Iridium.

In 1616 The British East India Company had presented one 200 gram Iridium Lebbo coin to
King Leo of Hong Kong. Later in 1871, it was auctioned for 200 Billion dollars in the U.S.A.
International exhibition.

Weights and Quantities of Iridium Lebbo coins available


The different weights and quantities of the Iridium Lebbo coins made in 1616 are:
42 grams 3 pieces
65 grams 3 pieces (as errosimimic shape only)
82 grams 3 pieces (the three miraculous pin points give light indication)
200 grams 3 pieces
260 grams 2 pieces
300 grams 2 pieces (Ser denomination)

How the 1616 Copper Iridium coin looks


One side consists of Navagrahas (Nine planets) embedded on it by the great gurus and Rishis
of those time. The other side has the charging point divided into three a dotted hole through
which charging of the coin is possible. Also, inscribed are E; IC and ANNA 1616. For more
information see the images of the sides, shown below:
Precautions
The coin has to be kept away from any HDRC Powder, which contains chemicals like Metal
oxide plain powders, Metaquide liquid drops. Any tests or experiments with such materials can
damage the precious Copper Iridium Lebbo coin.

Scope of the Iridium Lebbo Coin


We believe, the magical powers of the Iridium Lebbo Coin can be utilized for commercial
purpose in various Industries like:
Medical research
Aviation
Telecom and Communication
Defense
Satellite systems
Power Systems
Mining
Disaster relief
Media and entertainment
Oil and gas exploration
Experiments on other Iridium Copper coins on the globe have proved that
The power of iridium copper coins can be extended to making potassium gold cyanide
from the chaff of rice kernels
References
For more information on the material, readers can go through the following:
Sputnik (January 1985)
World famous metals (Serial No 2)
Rare space metal by N.Brocinam, London S.M.P.C. (Page 101)
Rare space metals written by L.Fernando, west germany (Page 41 to 43)
Andrews Lebbo Grapy (page 40)

This article is about the chemical element.

77 osmium ← iridium → platinum


Rh

Ir

Mt Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 2713 2957 3252 3614 4069 4659
Main article: Isotopes of iridium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
189 189
Ir syn 13.2 d ε 0.532 Os
190 190
Ir syn 11.8 d ε 2.000 Os
191
Ir 37.3% Ir is stable with 114 neutrons
192
192
β 1.460 Pt
Ir syn 73.83 d 192
ε 1.046 Os
192m 192
Ir syn 241 y IT 0.155 Ir
193
Ir 62.7% Ir is stable with 116 neutrons
194 194
Ir syn 19.3 h β< 2.247 Pt
195 195
Ir syn 2.5 h β< 1.120 Pt
Iridium (IPA: /ɪˈɹɪdiəm/) is a chemical element in the
periodic table that has the symbol Ir and atomic
number 77. A dense, very hard, brittle, silvery-white
transition metal of the platinum family, iridium is used
in high strength alloys that can withstand high
temperatures and occurs in natural alloys with platinum
or osmium. Iridium is notable for being the most
corrosion resistant element known and for its
significance in the determination of the probable cause
of the demise, by a meteorite strike, of the dinosaurs. It
is used in high temperature apparatus, electrical
contacts, and as a hardening agent for platinum.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Notable characteristics
• 2 Applications
• 3 History
o 3.1 KT Boundary
• 4 Occurrence
• 5 Isotopes
• 6 Precautions
• 7 References

• 8 External links
Notable characteristics
A platinum group metal, iridium is white, resembling
platinum, but with a slight yellowish cast. Due to its
extreme hardness and brittle properties, iridium is
difficult to machine, form, or work. Iridium is the most
corrosion-resistant metal known. Iridium cannot be
attacked by any acids or by aqua regia, but it can be
attacked by molten salts, such as NaCl and NaCN.

The measured density of this element is only slightly


lower than that of osmium, which is often listed as the
most dense element known. However, calculations of
density from the space lattice may produce more
reliable data for these elements than actual
measurements and give a density of 22650 kg/m³ for
iridium versus 22610 kg/m³ for osmium. Definitive
selection between the two is therefore not possible at
this time.

Applications
The principal use of iridium is as a hardening agent in
platinum alloys. Other uses:

• For making crucibles and devices that require


high temperatures.
• Electrical contacts (notable example: Pt/Ir
sparkplugs).
• Osmium/iridium alloys are used for compass
bearings.
• Iridium is commonly used in complexes like
Ir(mppy)3 and other complexes in polymer LED
technology to increase the efficiency from 25%
to almost 100% due to triplet harvesting.
• Used in high-dose-radiation therapy for the
treatment of prostate and other forms of cancer
• Iridium is used as a catalyst for carbonylation of
methanol to produce acetic acid

At one time iridium, as an alloy with platinum, was


used in bushing the vents of heavy ordnance and, in a
finely powdered condition (iridium black), for painting
porcelain black.

Iridium was used to tip of some early twentieth century


fountain pen nibs. The tip material in modern ballpoint
pens is still conventionally called "iridium," although
there is seldom any iridium in it.

History
Iridium was discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant
in London, England along with osmium in the dark-
colored residue of dissolving crude platinum in aqua
regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid). The
element was named after the Latin word for rainbow
(iris; iridium means "of rainbows") because many of its
salts are strongly colored. Some linguists have claimed
the word-root is derived from "irid", which means
"seven" in the Lezghi Language presently spoken in
Azerbaijan and Daghestan.

An alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium was used in


1889 to construct the standard metre bar and kilogram
mass, kept by the International Bureau of Weights and
Measures near Paris. The metre bar was replaced as the
definition of the fundamental unit of length in 1960
(see krypton), but the kilogram prototype is still the
international standard of mass.

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General

Name, Symbol, Number iridium, Ir, 77

Chemical series transition metals


Group, Period, Block 9, 6, d

silvery white

Appearance

Atomic mass 192.217(3)  g·mol−1

Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2

Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2

Physical properties

Phase solid

Density (near r.t.) 22.65  g·cm−3

Liquid density at m.p. 19  g·cm−3

2719 K
Melting point
(2446 °C, 4435 °F)

4701 K
Boiling point
(4428 °C, 8002 °F)

Heat of fusion 41.12  kJ·mol−1

Heat of vaporization 231.8  kJ·mol−1

Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.10  J·mol−1·K−1

Atomic properties

Crystal structure cubic face centered

2, 3, 4, 6
Oxidation states
(mildly basic oxide)

Electronegativity 2.20 (Pauling scale)


Ionization energies 1st: 880 kJ/mol

2nd: 1600 kJ/mol

Atomic radius 135  pm

Atomic radius (calc.) 180  pm

Covalent radius 137  pm

Miscellaneous

Magnetic ordering no data

Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 47.1 n Ω·m

Thermal conductivity (300 K) 147  W·m−1·K−1

Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.4  µm·m−1·K−1

Speed of sound (thin


(20 °C) 4825 m/s
rod)

Young's modulus 528  GPa

Shear modulus 210  GPa

Bulk modulus 320  GPa

Poisson ratio 0.26

Mohs hardness 6.5

Vickers hardness 1760  MPa

Brinell hardness 1670  MPa

CAS registry number 7439-88-5

Selected isotopes

References