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217 Melting Point: 2719 K (2446°C or 4435°F) Boiling Point: 4701 K (4428°C or 8002°F) Density: 22.42 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 9 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for rainbow, iris. Say what? Iridium is pronounced as i-RID-i-em. History and Uses: Iridium and osmium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803. Iridium and osmium were identified in the black residue remaining after dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture of 25% nitric acid (HNO3) and 75% hydrochloric acid (HCl). Today, iridium is still obtained from platinum ores and as a byproduct of mining nickel. Pure iridium is very brittle and is nearly impossible to machine. It is primarily used as a hardening agent for platinum. Platinum-iridium alloys are used to make crucibles and other high temperature equipment. Iridium is also alloyed with osmium to make the tips of fountain pens and compass bearings. Iridium is the most corrosive resistant metal known. For this reason, the standard meter bar was created from an alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium. This bar was replaced as the definition of the meter in 1960 when the meter was redefined in terms of the orange-red spectral line of krypton-86. A thin, worldwide layer of iridium exists in a layer of sediment that was put down at the end of the Cretaceous period. Since meteors and asteroids contain a higher percentage of iridium than the earth's crust, this iridium enriched layer is seen as evidence that the earth was struck by a large meteor or asteroid at that time. Dust from the impact would have spread around the globe, depositing the iridium. The dust also would have blocked the sun for a time, resulting in the extinction of many plant and animal species, including the dinosaurs.
COPPER IRIDIUM LEBBO COIN
(This document contains reliable knowledge and a Business proposal for the Copper Iridium Lebbo Coin.) JAYADEVAN
Copper Iridium coins are magical and powerful. They will stop a bus when carried in it by stopping ignition, but not when wrapped in a carbon paper. A candle flame bends towards this coin. When rice is brought near the coin, it gets attracted towards the coin. You can find an electric circuit tester indicating light when touched with, on the coin. Your electronic watch will stop when brought near this coin! A device in Germany (details unknown) which cost / worth 1 million dollars absorbs power of the coin. The Copper Iridium coins called 1616 have three magical points, which disables entire power in any form near it. To test the coin, it costs 0.1 million dollar chemicals. The complete test can be done only in remote sea shores.
Facts about the 1616 Copper Iridium Coin
In 1603 AD, East India Company was formed in India, with establishments in various places, with head office in England. The company started minting coins to do business according to its new system. In the year 1616 AD, there was a Grahakutami (A complete solar eclipse) which lasted for more than 5 hours in India. The Britishers, with the help of Indian Rishis minted Copper coins with Copper Iridium metal in assorted weights and sizes. The coins were hand made. Only 16 pieces of the coins were made totally. In order to preserve the precious lebbos, the Rishis engraved the currency denomination prevalent on one side and the nine planets on the other side. Iridium Lebbo coins are also called Navagraha Lebbos. Lebbo in Greek means sun guard. The coins have the provision to be charged when required. The special range of powers of the coins can be activated by charging the coin on the three pin points, each having different functions. After charging the coin with MRC 87 chemicals, a magnetic attraction of carbohydrate contents is generated on the coin.
Sun (Surya), Moon (Chandra), Mars (Mangla), Mercury (Budha), Neptune (Guru), Jupiter (Sugra), Saturn (Sani), Uranus (Ragu) and Venus (Kethu) are the planets engraved on the coin and are interconnected with tiny veins, all leading to the charging point.
It is said that, millions of years ago, fragments of sun and other planets might have fallen on earth, particularly in South India sub continent. It is also said that the gurus had gone to all the planets to collect the metal from each planet. The material from other planets that reached earth thus is used to imprint the corresponding planet on the coin.
Our ancestors made the metal classification ‘space metals’. Metallurgists have discovered and included three metals under this group, Ikkidium, Iridium and Virenium. These metals were heavily priced in the 16th century and Rishis hand made the lebbo coins using the Iridium. In 1616 The British East India Company had presented one 200 gram Iridium Lebbo coin to King Leo of Hong Kong. Later in 1871, it was auctioned for 200 Billion dollars in the U.S.A. International exhibition.
Weights and Quantities of Iridium Lebbo coins available
The different weights and quantities of the Iridium Lebbo coins made in 1616 are: 42 grams 65 grams 82 grams 200 grams 260 grams 300 grams 3 pieces 3 pieces (as errosimimic shape only) 3 pieces (the three miraculous pin points give light indication) 3 pieces 2 pieces 2 pieces (Ser denomination)
How the 1616 Copper Iridium coin looks
One side consists of Navagrahas (Nine planets) embedded on it by the great gurus and Rishis of those time. The other side has the charging point divided into three a dotted hole through which charging of the coin is possible. Also, inscribed are E; IC and ANNA 1616. For more information see the images of the sides, shown below:
The coin has to be kept away from any HDRC Powder, which contains chemicals like Metal oxide plain powders, Metaquide liquid drops. Any tests or experiments with such materials can damage the precious Copper Iridium Lebbo coin.
Scope of the Iridium Lebbo Coin
We believe, the magical powers of the Iridium Lebbo Coin can be utilized for commercial purpose in various Industries like: Medical research Aviation Telecom and Communication Defense Satellite systems Power Systems Mining Disaster relief Media and entertainment Oil and gas exploration Experiments on other Iridium Copper coins on the globe have proved that The power of iridium copper coins can be extended to making potassium gold cyanide from the chaff of rice kernels
For more information on the material, readers can go through the following: Sputnik World famous metals Rare space metal by N.Brocinam, London S.M.P.C. Rare space metals written by L.Fernando, west germany Andrews Lebbo Grapy (January 1985) (Serial No 2) (Page 101) (Page 41 to 43) (page 40)
This article is about the chemical element.
osmium ← iridium → platinum
↓ Mt Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table Vapor pressure P(Pa) at T(K) 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k 4659 2713 2957 3252 3614 4069
Main article: Isotopes of iridium iso
189 190 191
NA syn syn 37.3% syn syn 62.7% syn
half-life 13.2 d 11.8 d
DM ε ε β ε IT β<
DE (MeV) 0.532 2.000 1.460 1.046 0.155 2.247
Ir Ir Ir Ir Ir
Os Os Pt Os Ir Pt
Ir is stable with 114 neutrons
192 192 192
73.83 d 241 y 19.3 h
192m 193 194 195
Ir is stable with 116 neutrons
195 Ir syn 2.5 h β< 1.120 Pt Iridium (IPA: /ɪˈɹɪdiəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A dense, very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum family, iridium is used in high strength alloys that can withstand high temperatures and occurs in natural alloys with platinum or osmium. Iridium is notable for being the most corrosion resistant element known and for its significance in the determination of the probable cause of the demise, by a meteorite strike, of the dinosaurs. It is used in high temperature apparatus, electrical contacts, and as a hardening agent for platinum.
• • • • • • • •
1 Notable characteristics 2 Applications 3 History o 3.1 KT Boundary 4 Occurrence 5 Isotopes 6 Precautions 7 References 8 External links
A platinum group metal, iridium is white, resembling platinum, but with a slight yellowish cast. Due to its extreme hardness and brittle properties, iridium is difficult to machine, form, or work. Iridium is the most corrosion-resistant metal known. Iridium cannot be attacked by any acids or by aqua regia, but it can be attacked by molten salts, such as NaCl and NaCN. The measured density of this element is only slightly lower than that of osmium, which is often listed as the most dense element known. However, calculations of density from the space lattice may produce more reliable data for these elements than actual measurements and give a density of 22650 kg/m³ for iridium versus 22610 kg/m³ for osmium. Definitive selection between the two is therefore not possible at this time.
The principal use of iridium is as a hardening agent in platinum alloys. Other uses:
• • • •
For making crucibles and devices that require high temperatures. Electrical contacts (notable example: Pt/Ir sparkplugs). Osmium/iridium alloys are used for compass bearings. Iridium is commonly used in complexes like Ir(mppy)3 and other complexes in polymer LED technology to increase the efficiency from 25% to almost 100% due to triplet harvesting. Used in high-dose-radiation therapy for the treatment of prostate and other forms of cancer Iridium is used as a catalyst for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid
At one time iridium, as an alloy with platinum, was used in bushing the vents of heavy ordnance and, in a finely powdered condition (iridium black), for painting
porcelain black. Iridium was used to tip of some early twentieth century fountain pen nibs. The tip material in modern ballpoint pens is still conventionally called "iridium," although there is seldom any iridium in it.
Iridium was discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant in London, England along with osmium in the darkcolored residue of dissolving crude platinum in aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid). The element was named after the Latin word for rainbow (iris; iridium means "of rainbows") because many of its salts are strongly colored. Some linguists have claimed the word-root is derived from "irid", which means "seven" in the Lezghi Language presently spoken in Azerbaijan and Daghestan. An alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium was used in 1889 to construct the standard metre bar and kilogram mass, kept by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris. The metre bar was replaced as the definition of the fundamental unit of length in 1960 (see krypton), but the kilogram prototype is still the international standard of mass.
</B< TD> General Name, Symbol, Number iridium, Ir, 77 Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block
9, 6, d silvery white
Atomic mass Electron configuration Electrons per shell
192.217(3) g·mol−1 [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2 2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2
Physical properties Phase Density (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p. Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Heat capacity solid 22.65 g·cm−3 19 g·cm−3 2719 K (2446 °C, 4435 °F) 4701 K (4428 °C, 8002 °F) 41.12 kJ·mol−1 231.8 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 25.10 J·mol−1·K−1 Atomic properties Crystal structure Oxidation states Electronegativity cubic face centered 2, 3, 4, 6 (mildly basic oxide) 2.20 (Pauling scale)
1st: 880 kJ/mol 2nd: 1600 kJ/mol
Atomic radius Atomic radius (calc.) Covalent radius
135 pm 180 pm 137 pm Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering Electrical resistivity Thermal conductivity Thermal expansion Speed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulus Shear modulus Bulk modulus Poisson ratio Mohs hardness Vickers hardness Brinell hardness CAS registry number
no data (20 °C) 47.1 n Ω·m (300 K) 147 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 6.4 µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 4825 m/s 528 GPa 210 GPa 320 GPa 0.26 6.5 1760 MPa 1670 MPa 7439-88-5
Selected isotopes References