You are on page 1of 13

CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Violating the Abstraction Barrier

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 1


Case 1: The Double Take

Problem R VO

“0” Æ “1” Vi

expected observed

VO “1” VO “1”

huh?

“0” t “0” t
in forbidden region!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 2


(a) DC case

R VO V1
very high
Vi impedance,
like open
circuit
Vi = 5V DC VO = 5V DC V1 = 5V DC OK

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 3


(b) Step
R VO V1
very high
Vi impedance,
like open
circuit

5V Vi

b.1
0V t
t=0
VO
5V
b.3

VO = 2.5V not ok!

t
t=0 2T
b.2
5V V1
looks ok!

t
t=0 T
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 4
2.5

R
5
....
Vi R→

characteristic
impedance instantaneous R divider
finite propagation speed
of signals

5V 5V 5V

0 0 2T 0 T

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 5


Question: So why did our circuits work?
5V V1
o u rce
1. Look only at V1
“S
i n ation”
Term
O
0 t
DEM 0 T

5V VO
2. Keep wires short

EM O w ire 0 t
D mal l
e s 0
us

le l
Paral ation
in
5V VO term
3. Termination
2.5V t
O 0
DEM at the
R
add
end
More in 6.014

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 6


Case 2: The Double Dip
Problem Æ strange spikes on supply

0 1
V 1 0

OK

driving a 50 Ω
resistor!

0
V
input

driving a 50 Ω
resistor! Why?

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 7


Drop across inductor

VS Ldi
dt

Inverter current

v inductor
VS

solution 1. short wires


2. low inductance wires
3. avoid big current swings

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 8


Case 3: The Double Team, or,
Slower may be faster!
Problem
a given chip
worked,
but was slow.

ideal

C
actual

Let’s try speeding it up by using stronger


drivers
ideal

ω
L actual

Disaster!
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 9
Why? DEMO
Consider

ok

C
R1 DEMO

R0
R2

dV
α
dt

dV
C
dt
crosstalk!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 10


How does this relate to chip?

Solution
DEMO

small dV
dt

Load output! — put cap on outputs of chip


— jitter edges
— slew edges

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 11


Case 4: The Double Jump
Careful abstraction violation for the
better…

Recall

Vo

Vi expect

Vo

Vi

but, observe

Vo

Vi

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 12


Case 4: The Double Jump
Careful abstraction violation for the
better…

5V

Vi

5V 5V + 3V
So, pullup has
0V 3V stronger drive
as output rises

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 25 13