The world of today is changing fast. India is no exception. Especially after the opening up of the economy, the pace of change that India and its people are experiencing in their socio cultural milieu is mind-boggling. India is wide diversity, offers a fascinating scope to study the host of changes, which developmental activities have brought about in its social and economic fabric. While it is possible to get some estimates of macro changes taking place in India, it is impossible to get any accurate measure of the subjective experiences that precede, accompany or follow such changes. However the fact remains that the profile of the Indian market is vastly different from what it was ten years ago. The Indians had an eagerness to gather the information’s for their development and these types of objectives make the entertainment industry still evergreen. The broadcasters offer good mixture of these things to the market for the customers to make a selection. The main competition in the media industry is between the TV channels of global village and this brings the world to an information explosion. Almost all parts of India have the network coverage of channels and the areas of development are implementing it at a faster pace. Television in India has been in existence for four decades. Television service in India is available throughout the country. Broadcasting is a central government monopoly under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, but the only network system, Doordarshan, also known as TV1, accepts advertisements for some programs. Doordarshan, established in 1959 and a part of All India Radio until 1976, consists of one national network and seven regional networks. In 1992 there were sixty-three high-power television transmitters, 369 medium-power transmitters, seventy-six low-power transmitters, and twenty-three transposes. Regular satellite transmissions began in 1982 (the same year color transmission began). The initial success of the channels had a snowball effects: more foreign programmers and Indian entrepreneurs flagged off their own versions. From two channels prior to 1991, Indian viewers were exposed to more than 50 channels by 1996. Software producers emerged to cater to the programming boom almost overnight. Some talent came from the film industry, some from advertising and some from journalism.
In Kerala there was TV broadcasting from the early days and was by the Doordarsan. But the private channels entered the market in the 1990s. Only after that, the competition in market started and it brought the quality picture as to withstand in the stiff competitive conditions.
Keralities are reaching all parts of the world in search of their living this widens the geographical scope of satellite channels even to Europe, America, Middle East and Singapore. The major channels, in Kerala’s satellite channel industry are: Asianet, Surya, Kairali, Jeevan TV, Amrita TV, Manorama News and India vision. Of these Asianet and Kairali are even available to USA and Canada. These channels are trying to reach all part of the world, where there is Malayalee population.
Doordarsan was the first TV channel in Kerala to make the relay in the Malayalam language. It started its service from 1984 itself. But the relay time was less and restricted to evenings only. Later it improved the timings and started the relay on afternoon also. This picture had changed after the arrival of the Pvt. Satellite channels in the 90’s. Asianet was the first to make the relay in Malayalam. This made a revolution in the entertainment industry.
Broadcasting industry is booming in the region in hand with the sharp increase in metropolitan culture, increase in population density, migration and fast urbanization of rural areas.
Keralities are reaching all parts of the world in search of their living: this widens the geographical scope of satellite channels even to Europe, America, Middle East and Singapore. Kerala is a state, which is known for its high literacy rate and proliferation of education. This is the main factor, which enables the channels to run in a profitable manner. The people of Kerala are having a cultural attitude towards everything that comes under their consideration. Medium of communication is highly correlated with the overall culture, perceptions and attitudes of the people. Malayalam broadcasting industries possess high potential for the prospects of the industry. It is fast growing and highly competitive. The major News channels, in Kerala’s satellite channel industry are Asianet News, Kairali, Manorama News, Indiavision etc. This shows that the entertainment industry in Kerala is growing in a high speed, for the problem for the study will identify.
“What is the scope for an additional Malayalam news channel in Kerala”?
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Media Industry is facing tough competition both between the medium and within the medium. Manorama news channel is the tough competitor for Indiavision. But with news coverage of 42% Indiavision still can with stand the competitions from Manorama news channel. The study will help the existing news channels to re-arrange their program mix according to the viewer’s opinion and also the new entrants can understand the viewer’s needs and wants through the study. The prime objective is to find out the viewers approach to Indiavision news channel compared with the other news channels, and to find if there is any scope for additional Malayalam news channel.
1.4OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of the study is to find out VIEWERS APPRECIATION about the Malayalam news channel of INDIAVISION Satellite communication Ltd. The other specific objectives of the study are:
1. To have an overall understanding of the organization and the various departmental activities. 2. To identify the expectations and needs of the viewers about their news desk. 3. To identify new segments that can be included in news apart from conventional politics, sports and weather. 4. To know about the programs that attracts/dejects majority of the viewers in rural area. 5. To know about different attributes that makes people watch it regularly. 6. To collect opinion about the existing news channels and Rank them. 7. To suggest measures to provide more satisfaction to existing viewers and to attract new viewers.
1.5 HYPOTHESIS FOR THE STUDY
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the factors for selecting a news channel and the time spent by TV viewers in watching the news
2Ho: There is no significant difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and International news programs 3Ho: There is no significant relationship between Local news programs and the choice of Malayalam news channel 4Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their preference for a Malayalam news channel 5Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons for not preferring a new Malayalam news channel
To define any research problem and give a suitable solution for the problem, a sound research plan is inevitable. Research methodology underlines the various steps involved by the researcher in systematically solving the problem with the objective of determining various facts.
1.6.1 Research Design A research work will be successful, only with a sound research design .The research design for the purpose of the study is Analytical in nature. The major purpose of analytical research is to analyze the state affaires as it exists at present. Analytical research includes survey and in-depth analysis of variables. The research plan calls for gathering primary and secondary data. The Sampling Method adopted for the present study is Simple Random Sampling
1.6.2 Methods of Data Collection In this research, the collection of data is from various sources and the are two types. 1. Primary Data 2. Secondary Data
18.104.22.168 Primary Data Primary data collection was mainly done through the mainly done through questionnaires, direct interview and telephone contacts. The respondents were approached personally and were requested to fill up the questionnaire.
22.214.171.124 Secondary Data Secondary data was collected from Company records, Internet, and books. 7
1.6.3 Variables of the Study The Malayalam news channel’s preference were assessed on the basis of the following variables – Accuracy of the news, News Coverage, Presentation Style, Number of advertisements etc., The preference of an additional Malayalam news channel were assessed on the basis of the following factors – satisfied with the existing channels, No scope for additional news channel, confusion of watching more news channels and lack of time etc.,
1.6.4 Research instrument The instruments adopted for the primary data collection is through “QUESTIONNAIRE”.
126.96.36.199 Nature of questions in a questionnaire
188.8.131.52Pretesting of questionnaire A pre-testing of questionnaire was conducted with 15 questionnaires, which were distributed and all of them were collected back as completed questionnaires. On the basis of the doubts raised by the respondents, the questionnaire was re-drafted to its present form.
1.6.5 Sampling Plan Sampling plan includes sampling unit used in the survey. It also includes the sampling size and the sampling procedure used for the survey.
184.108.40.206 Sampling unit The sampling unit is the Television Viewers.
220.127.116.11 Sampling size The sample size was selected based upon simple random sampling. For the purpose of study 50 samples are taken from one district.
Sampling Frame The study has been carried out in the village of Pang-West; it is situated in theMalappuram District.
Period of the study The research periods were from 2nd October to 4th November 2007.
Sampling Procedures Simple Random sampling in the district of Malappuram
1.6.8 Contact Method: The method used to contact the respondent was direct interview. The researcher selected direct contact method because there is no scope of contacting the dealers through telephone or direct mail. By telephone interview the respondent’s characteristics and environment cannot be observed. The response rate for mail survey is low. Hence the resulting sample will not be representative one.
1.6.9 Analysis of Data Datas are analysed through analytical statistics using correlation, the hypothesis are tested.
1.6.10 Presentation of data Percentage method, tables and charts are used to present the data.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Customer Satisfaction
The buyer’s satisfaction after purchases depends on the offers performance in relation to the buyer’s expectations. According to Philip Kotler, “satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pressure or disappointment resulting from product’s perceived performance (outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. Customer satisfaction is the level of a person’s felt state resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (outcome) in relation to the person’s expectations”.1 This satisfaction level is a function of difference between perceived performance and expectations. If the product’s performance, exceed expectation the customer highly satisfied or delighted. If the performance matches the expectations the customer is satisfied. If the products performance fall shorts of expectations the customer is dissatisfied. Many companies are aiming for high satisfaction because customers who are just satisfied still find it easy to switch when a better offer comes along. High satisfaction or delight creates an emotional affinity with brand. Variety of factors that affect customer satisfaction includes product quality, product availability and after sales support such as warranties and services. Customer satisfaction is seen as a proof of delivering a quality product or service. It is believed that customer satisfaction brings sales growth, and market share. A company can always increase customer satisfaction by lowering its price or increasing its services but this may result in lower profits. Thus the purpose of marketing is to generate customer value profitability. India is on the threshold of a new millennium. India chose for global economy, exposing her to winds of change in the market place, which has expanded vastly and become fiercely competitive. In the changed environment, decision makers view the marketing concept as the key to success. Marketing in practice has to manage products, pricing, promotion and distribution. A successful product can be developed by exploding these opportunities. While delivering the value of the consumer we make use of marketing support. This support is based on the knowledge of consumers and distribution. Marketing support both at the introduction of products and maturing is considered
Kotler Philip, “Marketing Management”, 2003. Eleventh Edition, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte ltd, pp-61.62
Marketing, as suggested by the American Marketing Association is "an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders".
The two major factors of marketing are the recruitment of new customers (acquisition) and the retention and expansion of relationships with existing customers (base management). Marketing methods are informed by many of the social, particularly psychology, sociology, and economics. Anthropology is also a small, but growing, influence. Market research underpins these activities. Through advertising, it is also related to many of the creative arts.
For a marketing plan to be successful, the mix of the four "Ps"2 i.e. product, price, place, promotion must reflect the wants and desires of the consumers in the target market. Trying to convince a market segment to buy something they don't want is extremely expensive and seldom successful. Marketers depend on marketing research, both formal and informal, to determine what consumers want and what they are willing to pay for. Marketers hope that this process will give them a sustainable competitive advantage. Marketing management is the practical application of this process. The offer is also an important addition to the 4P's theory.
2.2 Skills of Marketers
Marketers have 4 main skill sets that they bring to an enterprise: 2.2.1 Opportunity Identification True marketing begins before there is a product to sell. Many people think marketing is just selling whatever comes out of the manufacturing plant. It's the job of marketing to decide WHAT comes out of the manufacturing plant in the first place. Before a business can make money there must be opportunities for money to be made and it's marketing's job to define what those opportunities are. Marketers analyze markets, market gaps, trends, products, competition, and distribution channels to come up with opportunities to make money.
Earlier Project Report, “A study on viewers Perception with special reference to Indiavision satellite communication ltd, Calicut “ 2007
2.2.2 Competitive strategy/positioning
Markets consist of groups of competitors competing for a customer's business. The job of marketing is to decide how to create a defensible sustainable competitive advantage against competitors. Marketers conceive strategies, tactics, and business models to make it hard if not impossible for competition to take away customers from their business.
2.2.3 Demand generation/management
It's the job of marketing to create and sustain demand for a company's products. Marketers manage demand for a company's products by influencing the probability and frequency of their customer's purchase behavior.
The ultimate goal of marketing is to make money for a business. In most company’s sales is a different discipline and department from marketing. But in order for salespeople to have any long term success in a company they must be led by marketing. The better job a company does of identifying opportunities, creating a differential sustainable competitive advantage, and generating demand for their products the easier it will be for salespeople to make sales.
2.3 Method to measure customer satisfaction. Companies use the following methods to measure customer satisfaction.
2.3.1 Complaints and suggestion system 2.3.2 Customer satisfaction surveys Responsive companies obtain a direct measure of customer satisfaction by periodic surveys. They send questionnaires to random sample of their customers to find out how they feel about various aspects of the company’s performance and also solicit views on their competitor’s performance. It is useful to measure the customer’s willingness to recommend the company and brand to other persons.
2.3.3 Lost Customer Analysis.
Companies should contact customers who have stopped buying or who have switched to another supplier to learn why this happened.
2.3.4 Consumer Behavior Vs Consumption Behavior
Consumer behavior refers to the manner in which an individual reaches decision related to the selection, purchases and use of goods and services. Walters and Paul says that, consumer behavior is the process where by the individuals decides what, when, how and from whom to purchase goods & services. Consumer behavior relates to an individual person (Micro behavior) where as consumption behavior relates to and to the mass or aggregate of individuals (Macro behavior) consumers behavior as a study focuses on the decision process of the individual consumer or consuming unit such as the family. In contrast the consumption behavior as a study is to do with the explanation of the behavior of the aggregate of consumers or the consuming unit. Consumer is a pivot, around which the entire system of marketing revolves. The study of buyer behavior is one of the most important keys to successful marketing.
2.4 Factors Influencing the Buyer Behavior
Consumer purchase is influenced strongly by cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics as shown in the figure below.
Factors Influencing Buying Process
There are two key players involved in any purchase/buying or subscribing process. They are people and the competitive products. Within the scope of our work they can be classified as television viewers and competing TV channels like Manorama, Asianet and Kairali. The above figure lists out the main factors that influence the viewers to subscribe (purchase decision) to a particular TV channel. They are socio-cultural, economic/ business interests and family backgrounds etc. Let it be news, food or fashion, people from different regions has diverse idea about this. Even people from the same region may have different tastes based on their economic status and family traditions. Apart from these influences that every buyer has, there are certain other elements that decide the final purchase decision. They are ‘real need’ for the commodity, ‘proper motivation’ to purchase, ‘attitude, learning style and perception’ of the individual. In short the central process of subscribing to a news channel by an individual is decided by various external influence factors shown figure plus intrinsic personal traits of the individual.
3.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE
Television industry in kerala has been in existence for the three decades. For the three decades. For the first 17 years, it spread haltingly and transmission was mainly in black & white. The thinkers and policy makers of the country, which had just been liberated from centuries of colonial rule, frowned up on television, looking on at it as a luxury.
Television has come out to the forefront only in the past fifteen years and more so in the past seven. There have been two ignition points: the first in the eighties, when state owned broadcaster Doordarshan (DD1) introduced color TV during the 1982 Asian games. It then proceeded to install transmitter’s nation wide rapidly for terrestrial broadcasting. In this period no private enterprises was allowed to setup TV station or to transmit TV signals.
The second spark came in the early nineties the broadcasting of satellite TV foreign programmers like CNN followed by Star TV, MTV and a little later by domestic channel touch as Zee TV, Sun TV, and Eenadu in to Indian horres.prior to this, Indian viewers had to make do with DD’s chosen fare which was dull, non commercial in nature, directed towards only education and socio-economics development. Entertainment programmers were and when the solitary serials like Hum log (1984) and Mahabharata (1988-89) were televised, there were million of viewers.
When urban Indians learnt that it was possible to watch the gulf war on television, they rushed out and bought dish antennas for their homes. Others turned Entrepreneurs and started offering the signal to their neighbors by flinging cable over tree tops and verandahs. From the large metros satellite TV delivered via cable moved in to smaller towns, spurring the purchase of TV sets and even the up gradation from black and white to color TVs.
Doordarshan responded to this satellite TV invasion by launching an Entertainment and commercially driven channel and introduced Entertainment programming on its terrestrial network. This again fueled the purchase of sets in the remote area, where cable TV was not available.
Foreign programmers and Indian entrepreneurs were successful in their own version. From two channels prior to 1991, Indian viewers were exposed to more than 50 channels by 1996, software producers emerged to cater to the programming boom. Some talent came from film industry, some from advertising and some from journalism.
More and more people set up network until there was a time in estimated 60000 cable operators existed in the country and they had full control over TV distribution, the last ruile-to our home. Some of them had subscriber based as low as 50 to as high as in the thousands. Most of the networks could rely just 6 to 14 channels relying capacity required heavy investments, which cable operators had to make.
American and European cable network evinced interest as well as large business Indian groups, who setup sophisticated head ends capable of delivering more than 30 channels. The rashness of the players who rushed to setup satellite channels discovered that advertising revenue was not large to support them. This led to a shakeout. At least half a dozen either folded up or aborted the high-flaying plans they had drawn up, and started operating in a restricted manner. Some of them converted their channels basic subscription services charging cable operators a carriage fee.
The government started taxing cable operator in a bid to generate revenue .the rates varied in the 28 states that go to form India and ranged from 35% upward. The authorities moved in to regulate the Business and cable TV act was passed in 1995.The apex court in the country, the Supreme court, passed a judgment that the airwaves are not the property of the Indian governments and any Indian citizen wanting to use them should be allowed to do so.
The government reacted by making efforts to get some regulation in place by setting up committees to suggest what the broad casting law of India should be, as the sector was still being governed by laws which were passed in 19th century in India. A broad casting bill was drawn up in 1997 and introduced in parliament. But it was not passed in to an act state-owned telecaster Doordarshan and All India radio were brought under a holding company called the Prasar Bharathi under an act that had been gathering just for 7 years, the Prasar Bharathi 1990.
The act served to give autonomy to the broad casters as their management was left to a supervisory board consisting to retired professionals and bureaucratic. A committee headed by Mr.Sarath Pawar consisting of other politicians and industrialists were setup to review the content of the Broad casting Bill. It held discussions with industry, Politicians, and consumers and a report was even drawn up. But united front government fell and since then the report and the bill had no considerable importance.
In 1999, a BJP led government has been threatening to once again allow DTK Ku band broad casting and it has been taking of dismantling the Prasar Bharathi and once again reverting Doordarshan’s and All India Radio’s control. Back in the government’s hands. Some things change only to remain the same.
Today with over 100 channels on offer the private Broadcasters reach 42 million TV homes in India. The whole situation has changed over the time. The industry must tap the color, chaos, and variety in India to become more attractive TV broadcasting market among emerging economics.
Indian TV industry is headed for various interesting times. With variety and size that the Indian market offers, it even has the potential to become the global experimentation ground for new viewing experiences. This would require a lot of creative thinking on the part of broadcasters, cable operators, and software product.
3.2.1 INDIAVISION SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Ltd.
Indiavision is the channel, which was started a few years back and gave importance to the news and current affaires and it concreted on the niche market for satisfying the needs of news hungry people. It has new bureaus in all districts and as a highly equipped nodal point in Kochi for instant up linking in and Indiavision brings you unlimited coverage in it’s truest sense.
Reciprocal ties-ups with channels across India and bureaus in metros will ensure that the national events and covered to the minutes detail, while satellite links with Reuters and other international news agencies brings you the best of the international scenario. With facilities like completely 24 hours vans, Indiavision equipped to bring you news and events before anyone else does.
Indiavision is perhaps the first channel of it’s kind to challenge the typical visual formats and develop programmes that penetrate in to the core of our society and culture. Also bringing a new dimension of quality and depth in to entertainment through unexplored visual frameworks on television.
Indiavision has a 100% of digital recording transmission mode and it will ensure that Indiavision brings you crystal and sound to the drawing rooms keralities. Besides fully equipped state of the art studios with the state of the digital equipment and feed from play back room directly and linked to up linking centers will bring the advantage of the most advanced transmission and production technologies to the viewers.
3.2.2 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Unchallenged luminaries Behind this unique venture that is geared to make a bench mark entertainment, media, literature and others performance in the world
of media, there is an array of respected personalities form held as diverse as politics, business,
1.Chairman: Dr. M.K.Muneer is the chairman of Indiavision TV and is the only son of late Mr. C.H.Muhammed Koya he is a medical graduate and a widely respected political and cultural figure ÿÿd is the former miÿÿster of publicÿÿorks in the Govt. of Kwhica. 2.Vice Chairman: a) Mr. P.V.Gangadharan: He is one of the directors of Mathrubhumi Printing & Publishing, Kerala prestigious daily. He is a qualified engineer, businessman, publisher, and acclaimed film producer. Besides being at the forefront of a range of successful business ventures including KTC group of companies, Kalpaka Rubber Plantations, PVS Hospital Ltd, he is also presently the chairman of Kerala State Film Development Corporation and Vice president of international film producer association. b) Roy Mathews: He is also one of the Vice Chairman of Indiavision channel and also the Chairman of Mini Muthoot Group.
3.Directors: a)Mr. M.M.Ramachandran: He is also one of the directors of Indiavision channel and the managing director of Atlas Jewellery in Dubai. He is a well-known corporate figure with an entrepreneurial presence in almost all gulf countries he also known as film producer of considerable standing.
b)Mr. N.A.Hariss: Hailing from an eminent family for its active part in freedom struggle in Karnataka, he is a young upcoming politician, an established entrepreneur and a noted actor on TV. c)Dr. Lalitha: She is also one of the Directors of Indiavision channels and also the secretary of IMA (Indian Medical Association).
(4) Resident Director: Mr. Jamaludeen Farooque: He is also the resident director of the Indiavision channel. He is also the producer of the highly acclaimed ‘images of Lights’ and other short films and documentaries. He is also the managing director of the Corona Advertisers &Creative Services Pvt Ltd.
(5) Chief Program Consultant: Mr. M.T.Vasudevan Nair: He is the chief programming consultant of Indiavision channel. He is a towering literary figure who has played a part in adding depth and quality to the offering of the film industry in Kerala is also known for his perceptive on insights on current social and cultural trends.
3.3 PRODUCT PROFILE
News Updates News Roundup News@seven News Night News@Ten India 60 second
Life Vote N Talk World on vision Patrangalilude Bharathiyam Good Morning Kerala Jaithrayathra Talk Time Sunday Spice Business Politics Box Office Arogyavicharam Janasabha Vasthavam Medicine @ Indiavision Generation Next First Show Connecting Keralam World Today
(Table 3.1) (Source: Company Report)
3.4.1 MARKETING DEPARTMENT
Marketing is defined as all organized efforts, activities and expenditures designed to first, acquire a customer and, second, maintain a customer.3 The marketing department is a unit of organization, traditionally charged with carrying out specific task that are deemed to be marketing such as advertising, marketing research. As the definition would suggest the marketing department customer acquisition and customer maintenance efforts go beyond the organizational boundaries of the marketing department. When all departments know and understand their role and importance in the marketing process, the functions of marketing work better. The marketing department works better. Usually, the role of marketing is viewed from the inside of an enterprise looking out to the market place. In many instance, the marketing function should provide the perspective of the market place looking in.
Critical Marketing functions include:
1. Identifying the important constituencies with in the market place 2. Identifying and valuing specific target purchaser/ user groups for the product. (Also known as target audiences or market segments). 3. Communicating with the market place. 4. Conducting transactions with the market place. 5. Obtaining on-going feed back from the market place. obtaining feed back also means understanding the environmental conditions that the enterprise operates in, the product is marketed in. spending on research is essential to direct the development of a product or service and the development of communications messages necessary to acquaint potential customers with the product or service, in still them positive feelings about the product or service and motivate them to purchase.
3.4.2 SALES DEPARTMENT
The selling function is an important element of the overall marketing process. Many organizations establish a separate sales function, apart from other elements of the marketing process. This is often a sound business strategy but can lead to a chasm between Sales and the other marketing elements. Even when both are contained within a unified Marketing Department, separate sales and marketing groups often create the situation where they have competing views of the marketplace, competing objectives and competing priorities (e.g., budget, prestige). One area that often creates the opportunity for jurisdictional disputes and other serious problems is lead generation. In many instances, some component of the Marketing Department is responsible for developing leads and then turns them over to the Sales Department. "Discussions" over the timing and quality of leads are a top topic at almost all Sales-Marketing joint meetings. It makes sure that planning and executions of plans are always coordinated, and that all programs are integrated across both marketing and sales efforts.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT
A company is incomplete without a human resource department so it is said. But, it’s
true as the very existence of a human resource department is vital to overall productivity and efficiency of the strong workforce in any thriving organization. In fact, good human resources can be one of the most valued and respected departments in an organization; their job is managing people, and people are the company’s most important asset. One of the major roles of a human resources department in a successful business involves a lot of observation and analysis from behind the scenes. Indeed, the intelligence of the human resources department often involves what can be equated to “crunching numbers.” Compiling complex data and metrics that follow the performance of individual employees, as the move through the workforce is an important task, which has helped human resources, work out crucial solutions to inefficiency, wilting profit margins and more. Due to the sensitive nature of human relations and the work that human resources departments must carry out, discretion is a crucial element to this field. That’s because the
management of performance can often involve tough decisions such as choosing who to let go, who to promote and who to hire. Keeping the decision making process behind closed doors is an ethical practice that breeds the least amount of contention possible.
3.4.4 FINANCE DEPARTMENT
Finance Department largely performs the function of advising the Government on all financial matters. The formulation of the Budget is one of its most important functions. Finance department is also entrusted with the responsibility of framing rules regulating pay, emoluments and other service conditions of all Government employees. It has administrative control over the departments of Local Fund Audit, Directorates of National Savings, State Lotteries, State Insurance and Treasuries. The department is headed by the Principal Secretary and has two Secretaries in charge of expenditure and Finance Resources. The functions of Finance Department are Preparation of budget, appropriation of accounts, re-appropriations, surrender and savings.
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 4.1.1 VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF TV PROGRAM
NO OF RESPONDENTS
YES NO TOTAL
40 10 50
80 20 100
Among the 50 samples chosen for the research study. 80% of the respondents watch TV and rest of the 20% respondents do not watch TV.
VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF TV PROGRAMMERS
4.1.2 VIEWERS OF MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL
RESPONSE Yes No Total
NO OF RESPONDENTS 35 15 50
PERCENTAGE 70 30 100
Among the 50 samples 70% of the respondents are watching the News from Malayalam News channels and 30% of respondents watch News from Amritha TV, Jaya TV, and Surya TV.
PERCENTAGE OF VIEWERS WHO WATCH NEWS FROM MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNELS.
MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL VIEWERS
NO 30% YES NO YES 70%
4.1.3 TIME SPENT BY VIEWERS IN WATCHING TELEVISION
NO OF HRS Below 1 hr 1 hr to 2 hrs 3 hrs to 4 hrs Above 4 hrs Total NO OF RESPONDENTS 11 22 9 8 50 PERCENTAGE 22 44 18 16 100
(Table 4. 1. 3)
The above table shows 22% of respondents are spending less than 1 hr per day for watching TV. 44% of respondents of them are spending 1 to 2 hrs, 18% of them are spending 3 hrs to 4 hrs and 16% of them are spending more-than 4 hrs per day for watching TV.
TIME SPEND BY THE VIEWERS WATCHING IN TELIVISION.
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
22 18 16
Below 1 hr
1 hr to 2 hrs
3 hrs to 4 hrs
Above 4 hrs
Time spend by Respondents Percetage of Respondents
(Chart 4.1. 3)
4.1.4 VIEWERS FAVORITE MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL
CHANNELS Asianet News Indiavision Manorama News Kairali
NO OF RESPONDENTS 8 20 19 3
PERCENTAGE 16 40 38 6
(TABLE 4.1. 4)
From the above data table 16% of the people have supported Asianet News channel, 40% of the people have supported for Indiavision, 38% of the people voted for Manorama News channel, 6% of the people voted for Kairali channel as their favorite news channel.
VIEWERS FAVORITE MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL
40 35 30 25 Percentage of 20 Respondents 15 10 5 0
Asianet Indiavision Manorama Kairali News News Malayalam News channels
4.1.5 FACTORS FOR SELECTING A NEWS CHANNEL
FACTORS Accuracy Presentation style More News Coverage Less Advertisement Total
NO OF RESPONDENTS 8 11 21 10 50
PERCENTAGE 16 22 42 20 100
(Table 4.1. 5)
The above table shows that 42% of Viewers have selected the news channel as their favorite because of the More News Coverage, 22% of the Viewers have given more weight age to Presentation Style, 20% have selected the News channel because of the Less Advertisement and 16% of the viewers have selected the News channel because of Accuracy.
FACTORS FOR SELECTING A NEWS CHANNEL
45 40 35 Percentage of Respondents 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Accuracy Presentation style 16 22
More News Coverage
Factors for selecting News channel
(Chart 4. 1. 5)
PREFERED TIME SLOTS FOR WATCHING TELIVISION
CONVINIENT TIME Morning Afternoon Evening Night Total
NO OF RESPONDENTS 8 10 12 20 50
PERCENTAGE 16 20 24 40 100
(Table 4.1. 6)
The above table indicates that 40% of the viewers watch TV in Night, 24% of the viewers watch TV in Evening and only 20% and 16% of them watch TV in Afternoon and Morning.
PRIFFERED TIME SLOTS FOR WATCHING TELIVISION
Morning 16% Night 40% Afternoon 20%
Morning Afternoon Evening Night
(Chart 4.1. 6)
4.1.7 VIEWERS CONVENIENT TIME GAP FOR WATCHING THE DETAILED NEWS
TIME GAP ½ an hour 1 hour 1½ hour 2 hour More than 2 hours Total
NO OF RESPONDENTS 5 9 15 11 10 50
PERCENTAGE 10 18 30 22 20 100
The above table shows that 30% viewers prefer the time gap of 1½ for watching the detailed News. Only the 20% of the viewers agree for more than 2 hours.
VIEWERS CONVENIENT TIME GAP FOR WATCHING THE DETAILED NEWS
35 30 25 Percentage of Respondents 20 15 10 5 0 ½ an hour 1 hour 10 18
More than 2 hours
4.1.8 TYPE OF NEWS OFTEN WATCHED BY VIEWERS
TYPE OF NEWS
NO OF RESPONDENTS
All the above
(Table 4.1. 8)
The above table shows that 52% of viewers watch all News categories. 22% of the people giving more importance to Local News, 18% of viewers like to watch National level News rather than the other segments of the News and 8% of the viewers prefer International News.
TYPE OF NEWS OFTEN WATCHED BY VIEWERS
60 50 Percentage of Respondents 40 30 20 10 0
on al on al Lo cal ab ov e All the
Types of News often watched by the viewers
(Chart 4.1. 8)
4.1. 9 SEGMENT WISE RANKING OF NEWS PROGRAMS (A) INTERNATIONAL
PROGRAMS Current Affaires Political Business Education Automotive Sports Cinema Health Care
NO OF RESPONDENTS 15 12 09 05 04 03 02 00
% VALUE 30 24 18 10 8 6 4 00
RANK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
The above table shows that the Current Affaires ranked as first, Political and Business as second and third position; Health Cara is ranked in 8th position.
RANKING OF NEWS SEGMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
r ts Po litic al ine ss on Au tom otiv e Cin em a Sp o
30 24 18 15 12 9 1 2 3 5 10 4 4 8 5 3 7 2 4 00 8
Cu rre n
News Segments No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents Rank
PROGRAMS Political Current Affaires Sports Business Education Automotive Cinema Health Care
NO OF RESPONDENTS 16 12 7 6 3 2 2 2
% VALUE 32 24 14 12 6 4 4 4
RANK 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6
The above table shows that political News ranked as first, Current Affaires and Sports are second and third position. Automotive, Cinema, Health Care is ranked in 6th position. .
RANKING OF NEWS SEGMENTS IN NATIONAL LEVEL
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
32 24 16 12
12 6 4 65 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6
Po liti Cu ca rre l nt Af fa ire s Sp or ts Bu sin es s Ed uc ati on Au t om ot ive Ci ne ma He alt hC ar e
News Segments No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents
NO OF RESPONDENTS % VALUE RANK
Political Current Affaires Business Education Sports Cinema Health Care Automotive
21 8 6 5 4 3 2 1
42 16 12 10 8 6 4 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
The table shows that the Political news is ranked at first; Current Affaires and Business News are second and third position. Health Care is in 7th and Automotive is ranked in the local News segments.
RANKING OF NEWS SEGMENTS IN LOCAL LEVEL
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
21 16 12 8 1 2 6 3 10 5 4 8 4 5 3 8 12
Bu sin es s Ed uc ati on
Ci ne ma
Sp or ts
Cu rre nt A
News Segments No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents
He alt h
4.1.12 VIEWERS SATISFACTION WITH THE EXISTING NEWS CHANNELS
NO OF RESPONDENTS
The table shows that 76% of the viewers are satisfied with the existing News channels and 24% of the viewers are not satisfied with the existing News channels.
VIEWERS SATISFACTION WITH THE EXISTING NEWS CHANNELS
No 24% Yes No Yes 76%
4.1.13 VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL
OPINION Yes No
NO OF RESPONDENTS 10 40
PERCENTAGE 20 80
From the above table, it is draw that 20% of the viewers prefer more News channels and 80% of the viewers are happy with the available channels.
VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL
4.1.14 REASONS FOR NOT PREFERING A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL
REASONS Satisfied with the existing channel Lack of time Confusion of watching more channel No more scope for News channel Total
NO OF RESPONDENTS 15 2 6 27 50
PERCENTAGE 30 4 12 54 100
The above table shows that most of the respondents do not prefer any more channels because there is no more scope for news channels, it will affect the quality of news and repetition of news programmes. 30% of the respondents are satisfied with the existing channel, 12% of the respondents are confusion of watching more channels, and 4% of respondents has no time to watch the news.
REASONS FOR NOT PREFERING A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL
60 54 50 Percentage of respondents 40 30 20 10 4 0 Satisfied with the existing channel Lack of time Confusion of No more scope watching more for News channel channel 12 30
4.1.15 RANKING THE QUALITY FACTORS OF A NEWS READER
QUALITY FACTORS Clarity Presentation Personality Presentation Style Interpersonal Skills
NO OF RESPONDENTS 20 18 8 4
PERCENTAGE 40 36 16 8
RANK 1 2 3 4
The table shows that Clarity Presentation is the most important quality factor of a news reader. Personality, Presentation skills, Interpersonal skills are ranked two to four.
RANKING THE QUALITY FACTORS OF A NEWS READER
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20
16 8 8 3 4 4
1 Clarity Presentation
Presentation Style Interpersonal Skills
Quality Factors No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents
4.2 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
4.2.1 Ho: There is no significant relationship between the factors for selecting a news channel
and the time spent by TV viewers in watching the news
Correlations favorite channel time spent Pearson Correlation favorite channel Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation time spent Sig. (2-tailed) N ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). 1 . 50 .857(**) .000 50 .857(**) .000 50 1 . 50
Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 level the null hypothesis “There is no significant relationship between the factors for selecting a news channel and the time spent by TV viewers in watching the news” is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.
Ha: There is significant relationship between the factors for selecting a news
the time spent by TV viewers in watching the news
Ho: There is no significant difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and International news programs
Correlations prefer-segmentint Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) prefer-segment-int Sum of Squares and Crossproducts Covariance N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) prefer-segmentnational Sum of Squares and Crossproducts Covariance N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) pref-segment-local Sum of Squares and Crossproducts Covariance N 1 . 149.120 3.043 50 .986(**) .000 167.080 3.410 50 .970(**) .000 164.400 3.355 50 prefer-segmentnational .986(**) .000 167.080 3.410 50 1 . 192.720 3.933 50 .979(**) .000 188.600 3.849 50 pref-segment-local .970(**) .000 164.400 3.355 50 .979(**) .000 188.600 3.849 50 1 . 192.500 3.929 50
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 level the null hypothesis “There is no significant difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and International news programs” is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.
Ha: There is significant difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and
International news programs
4.2.3 Ho: There is no significant relationship between Local news programs and the choice of
Malayalam news channel
Correlations pref-segment-local favorite channel Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) pref-segment-local Sum of Squares and Cross-products Covariance N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) favorite channel Sum of Squares and Cross-products Covariance N ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). 1 . 192.500 3.929 50 .852(**) .000 68.100 1.390 50 .852(**) .000 68.100 1.390 50 1 . 33.220 .678 50
Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 level the null hypothesis “There is no significant relationship
between Local news programs and the choice of Malayalam news channel” is rejected and an
alternative hypothesis is framed.
Ha: There is significant relationship between Local news programs and the choice of
Malayalam news channel.
4.2.4 Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their
preference for a new Malayalam news channel
Correlations current satisfaction new news channel Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) current satisfaction Sum of Squares and Cross-products Covariance N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) new news channel Sum of Squares and Cross-products Covariance N * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 1 . 9.120 .186 50 .281(*) .048 2.400 .049 50 .281(*) .048 2.400 .049 50 1 . 8.000 .163 50
Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 levels the null hypothesis “There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their preference for a new Malayalam news channel” is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.
Ha: There is significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their preference for a new Malayalam news channel
4.2.5 Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons for not preferring a new Malayalam news channel.
Correlations no-refrence-reasons current satisfaction Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) no-reference-reasons Sum of Squares and Cross-products Covariance N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) current satisfaction Sum of Squares and Cross-products Covariance N ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). 1 . 88.500 1.806 50 .465(**) .001 13.200 .269 50 .465(**) .001 13.200 .269 50 1 . 9.120 .186 50
Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 levels the null hypothesis “There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons for not preferring a new Malayalam news channel” is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.
Ha: There is significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons
for not preferring a new Malayalam news channel
5. 1 SUMMARY
•The research reveals that keralities prefer watching news from Malayalam news channels. •The survey reveals that the people watching the Malayalam news prefer 1 -2 hrs of news per day. •The study also reached that 40% of the respondents prefer Indiavision, 38% of the respondents prefer Manorama news.16% of the respondents prefer Asianet News channel, and only 6% respondents prefer Kairali TV. • Viewers have selected their most favorite News channel the respondents prefer on the basis of the more news coverage, Presentation style of the news readers, less advertisement, Accuracy etc.The factors of the more news coverage is the prime feature deciding the viewing preferences. • Viewers given more importance to Presentation style of the News readers. •The study reached that the viewers prefer in watching detailed news in Malayalam at Night •The survey also reveals that 52% of the viewers like to watch all the news categories.22% of the viewers give more importance to local level News, 18% of the viewers like to watch the National News rather than the other segments of news and 8% of the viewers prefer to watch International News. •The study reached that the Viewers more importance to Current Affaires in International segments, and give importance to Political News in National and local levels.. • About 80% of the respondents do not prefer any more news channels, 20% of the people prefer some more news channels. •The respondents do not want Malayalam News channel, as they feel there is not more scope for an additional news channels and also there is confusion in watching more channels. •The viewers judge the news reader on the basis of, Clarity in presentation, Personality and Interpersonal skill.
•Indiavision is the one of the fastest growing channel in Kerala. •The survey revealed that Manorama news channel is the main competitor of the Indiavision in
•The viewer’s convenient time of watching detailed news in at Night. • Most of the viewers prefer to watch the news between1 -2 hrs. •Peoples are interested to watch all types of news. •The viewers often like to watch programs regarding Current Affairs from the International
•The viewers are satisfied with the existing Malayalam news channels. •In the national and local desk political news are the most popular. •The preference of a particular news channel is on the basis of information updates. •Regarding
the quality factors most of the viewers had opinion that the new readers and
reporters should have excellent language fluency, presentation, skills good personality and excellent interpersonal skills.
To give some more importance to real-estate in business slot, which is the most beloved
arena for investors.
Promote information contribution from the people like sharing amateur video footage
on anything of public interest.
Environmental/Ecological issues are no longer branded as issues of some nature
fanatics, is well accepted among the educated Keralites.
India being a fast developing nation it is appropriate to give more coverage to the
developments and success stories in the field of science and technology.
Introducing successful entrepreneurs, craftsmen, technicians, small scale industrialists,
farmers etc, from the neighborhood may attract local population, especially in the rural areas.
Add more discussions on local issues regarding the welfare of the society. Maximum news should be conveyed at a limited period of time, as everyone lacks time
to be spend in front of televisions
The news should be considered with priority. To include more live news. The programs need to be scheduled according to the viewer’s convenience. The news presentation should be unbiased. To deliver the relevant news with more accuracy.
5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
•The scope of the study restricted to only few areas. •Subscribers may not give an accurate data. •Busy nature of the respondents. •Sample size limited to 50 •Respondent’s bias towards the certain entertainment channels. •Lack of response from customers & resistance was yet another factor that damped the spirit of the researcher.
It is clear that television is no longer just a means of entertainment; specialized channels are also equally gaining popularity. Even channels that are focused on specific field like news are also facing tough competition. In kerala key players are Indiavision, Manorama News and Asianet News. The research shows that Manorama News poses strong challenge in terms of presentation skills, news coverage and popularity.
In purview of commercial position advertisements are the bread and butter for all private owned channels. Evidently this points to importance of extensive research in to the socio-political changes that the viewers are interested to listen and learn.
Every news channel has to be neutral and clear in their position to gain popularity and attract more viewers.
5.6 SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
The present study aimed at evaluating the level of satisfaction among Television Viewers with reference to Malayalam news channels. With the growing popularity of digital broadcasting, viewers have chance to watch various programs. However, they may have trouble choosing just one among many programs. As a result, there is a scope to determine how much the result of an evaluation reflects viewer satisfaction by comparing the variation of subjects’ satisfaction and the variation of objective evaluation criteria. `Digital broadcasting offers big scope for commercial marketing'. The present study can be further researched with reference to viewer’s preferences and satisfaction level with DTV – Digital Television, in comparison with the cable operators providing the services.