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Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that defend them from predators. They are endemic in both the Old World and the New World. After the capybara and the beaver, Porcupines are the third largest of the rodents. Most porcupines are about 25–36 in (630–910 mm) long, with an 8–10 in (200–250 mm) long tail. Weighing between 12–35 lb (5.4–16 kg), they are rounded, large and slow. Porcupines come in various shades of brown, grey, and the unusual white. A porcupine is any of 27 species of rodent belonging to the families Erethizontidae or Hystricidae. All defend themselves with hair modified into sharp spines. Porcupines vary in size considerably: Rothschild's Porcupine of South America weighs less than a kilogram (2.2 lb (1.00 kg)); the African Porcupine can grow to well over 20 kg (44 lb). The two families of porcupines are quite different and although both belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are not closely related. The eleven Old World porcupines are almost exclusively terrestrial, tend to be fairly large, and have quills that are grouped in clusters. They are believed to have separated from the other hystricognaths about 30 million years ago, much earlier than the New World porcupines. The twelve New World porcupines are mostly smaller (although the North American Porcupine reaches about 85 cm/33 in in length and 18 kg/40 lb), have their quills attached singly rather than grouped in clusters, and are excellent climbers, spending much of their time in trees. The New World porcupines evolved their spines independently (through convergent evolution) and are more closely related to several other families of rodent than they are to the Old World porcupines. Porcupines' quills or spines take on various forms, depending on the species, but all are modified hairs coated with thick plates of keratin, and they are embedded in the skin musculature. Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) have quills embedded in clusters, whereas in New World porcupines (Erethizontidae) single quills are interspersed with bristles, underfur, and hair. Porcupine quills are as sharp as needles, detach very easily, and will remain embedded in an attacker. Unlike needles, however, the quills of New World porcupines have microscopic, backwards-facing barbs on the tip that catch on the skin making them difficult and painful to extract, though they must be removed. Quills are about 75 millimetres (3.0 in) long and 2 millimetres (0.079 in) wide. If a quill becomes lodged in the tissues of a would-be attacker, the barbs act to pull the quill further into the tissues with the normal muscle movements of the attacker, moving up to several millimeters in a day. Predators have been known to die as a result of quill penetration and infection. Quills are still capable of penetrating animals and humans even after death. Quills are released by contact with them or they may drop out when the porcupine shakes them, they are not sprayed out.
Beavers are two primarily nocturnal, semi-aquatic species of rodent, one native to North America and one to Europe. They are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American population was 60-400 million, but as of 1988, 6-12 million, due to being hunted for fur, for their glands used as medicine and perfume, and because their harvesting of trees and flooding of waterways may interfere with other land uses. Beavers are known for their natural trait of building dams in rivers and streams, and building their homes (known as beaver lodges) in the resulting pond. Beavers also build canals to float build materials that are difficult to haul over land. They use powerful front teeth to cut trees and plants that they use for building and for food. They are known for their "danger signal": when startled or frightened, a swimming beaver will rapidly dive while forcefully slapping the water with its broad tail. This creates a loud "slap", audible over large distances above and below water. This noise serves as a warning to beavers in the area. Once a beaver has made this danger signal, nearby beavers dive and may not reemerge for some time. Beavers are slow on land, but good swimmers that can stay under water for as long as 15 minutes. (Wilson, 1971) Rarely, a frightened beaver attacks a human.
wallaroos. Early explorers described them as creatures that had heads like deer (without antlers). tree-kangaroos. However. which is uncommon among mammals. Kangaroos have large. Europeans have long regarded kangaroos as strange animals. but keen senses of hearing. and a broad. and to protect grazing land for sheep and cattle. Combined with the two-headed appearance of a mother kangaroo.000 years ago. In general. In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family. but wild kangaroos are shot for meat. and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo of the Macropus genus. while in the Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant extinct beaver. In the beavers or Castoridae these bones are in close contact at their lower ends. The Thylacine. Females are as large as or larger than males of the same age. European and American beavers grow to about 2 ft (0. the Red Kangaroo. Beavers continue to grow throughout life. and the habitats are arboreal and terrestrial. is now extinct.61 m) long (plus 10 in (250 mm) of tail). the tail is round and hairy. representing a genus by itself. including Qantas.000 years ago and the introduction of the dingo about 5.Beavers do not hybernate. Wedge tailed Eagles and other raptors usually eat . powerful hind legs. this led many back home to dismiss them as travellers' tales for quite some time. Other extinct predators included the Marsupial Lion. by taxidermists who had never seen the animal before and displayed to the general public as a curiosity. Kangaroo Kangourou Canguro A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae. Adult specimens weighing over 25 kg (55 lb) are not uncommon. while the smaller macropods are found in Australia and New Guinea. Beavers have webbed hind-feet. Beavers are closely related to squirrels (Sciuridae). They are crepuscular rather than nocturnal. Megalania and the Wonambi. some 63 living species in all. The animal was shot and its skin and skull transported back to England whereupon it was stuffed. Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial deposits of England and the continent of Europe. agreeing in certain structural peculiarities of the lower jaw and skull. large feet adapted for leaping. They are not farmed to any extent. the Antilopine Kangaroo. and hopped like frogs. the tail is depressed. kangaroos have had to adapt. but store sticks and logs underwater to feed on during the winter. considered by palaeontologists to have once been a major natural predator of the kangaroo. scaly tail. and subsist chiefly on bark and twigs or the roots of water plants. They have poor eyesight. a long muscular tail for balance. They have been known to eat grasses on the banks of rivers and streams. In the Sciuridae the two main bones (tibia and fibula) of the lower half of the leg are quite separate. The first kangaroo to be exhibited in the western world was an example shot by John Gore. They are the only extant members of the family Castoridae. smell. The mere barking of a dog can set a full grown male boomer into a wild frenzy. on some of its currency. which contains a single genus. The family also includes many smaller species which include the wallabies. stood upright like men. Genetic research has shown the European and North American beaver populations to be distinct species and that hybridization is unlikely. harvesting kangaroos for meat has many environmental and health benefits over sheep or cows grazed for meat. The kangaroo is an Australian icon: it is featured on the Australian coat of arms. larger kangaroos have adapted much better to changes wrought to the Australian landscape by humans and though many of their smaller cousins are endangered. which means they are active at dawn and dusk. never traveling by land unless driven by necessity. Kangaroos are endemic to the continent of Australia. Kangaroos have few natural predators. Trogontherium cuvieri. with the arrival of humans in Australia at least 50. sport. Although there is some controversy. and touch. and is used by many Australian organisations. They are essentially aquatic in their habits. and their habitats are aquatic. expanded and scaly. they are plentiful. Castor. Like all marsupials. female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development. pademelons and the Quokka. an officer on Captain Cook's Endeavour in 1770. and a small head.
It lives in all the world's oceans.wikipedia. Another defensive tactic described by witnesses is catching the attacking dog with the forepaws and disembowelling it with the hind legs. the focus of a continuing taxon-specific or habitat-specific conservation programme targeted towards the taxon in question. Kangaroos and wallabies are adept swimmers.wikipedia (Original text : Frank Holden) Permission: GNU Free Documentation License Peale's dolphin Order : Cetacea Suborder : Odontoceti . Goannas and other carnivorous reptiles also pose a danger to smaller kangaroo species when other food sources are lacking. The females are called 'cow' and males 'bull'. If pursued into the water. striped dolphin is listed as Conservation Dependent (LR/cd).They travel in groups of more than 100 individuals.26 degrees celsius). Along with dingos and other canids. Striped dolphin Striped dolphin Order : Cetacea Suborder : Odontoceti Family : Delphinidae Species : Stenella coeruleoalba The Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) is an extensively studied animal. because of refusing to be fed. the cessation of which would result in the taxon qualifying for one of the threatened categories below within a period of five years. and often flee into waterways if presented with the option. herd. alliance (male) or party (female)'. preferring the temperate and tropical waters (preferring 18-22 degrees celius. (Original text : self-made) Author: Original uploader was FDrummondH at en. Transfer was stated to be made by User:PurpleHz. on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Namings for the striped dolphin A young / baby of a striped dolphin is called a 'calf or pup'. The total population is estimated to exceed two million individuals. A striped dolphin group is called a 'team.kangaroo carrion. The Euphrosyne dolphin. although they are spotted in waters ranging from 10 . pod.6 metres and can weigh around 160 kg and can reach 60 years of age. school. introduced species like foxes and feral cats also pose a threat to kangaroo populations. these dolphins cannot be kept in captivity. feeding on small fish and squid. a large kangaroo may use its forepaws to hold the predator underwater so as to drown it. They can reach lengths of up to 2. Although numerous attempts. Peale's dolphin Picture has been licensed under a GFDL Original source: Transferred from en.
Peale's dolphin is native to cold waters of the Atlantic and Pacific off the southern part of South America. inadequate information to make a direct. (Full text) Recognition at sea: Peale's Dolphins are most likely to be confused with the similar Dusky Dolphin. (Full text) The Peale's Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus australis) is a robust and large dolphin. assessment of its risk of extinction.about 1m in length at birth and 2. (Full text) 4 Conservation 5 References Physical description Peale's Dolphin is of typical size in its family about 1m in length at birth and 2. Countries Argentina. on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Namings for the Peale A young / baby of a Peale is called a 'calf or pup'. and so are easily observed. (Full text) The Peale's dolphin is known to ride the bow waves of large vessels and may swim alongside smaller ones. Peale's dolphin (Lagenorhynchus australis) is native to cold waters of the Atlantic and Pacific off the southern part of South America. Biology and Behaviour Habitat: Peale's dolphins are often seen near the coast. peale's dolphin is listed as Data Deficient (DD). herd. pod. or indirect. but the scale of incidental mortality is not considered large in any area of their range. Chile and Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Habitats Epipelagic (0-200m). A Peale group is called a 'team. (Full text) Peale's dolphins are grayish black above and white below. For example. (Full text) Peale's dolphins are greyish black above and white below. (Full text) PealeÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Dolphins are subject to entanglement in gillnets set near shore. Macroalgal / Kelp. Physical description Peale's Dolphin is of typical size in its family . Lagenorhynchus australis. (Full text) Blackchin Dolphin or Lagenorhynchus australis is listed on the IUCN Red list (1996) as Data Deficient . school. (Full text) Lifespan-. Marine Oceanic and Pelagic Facts about the Peale's dolphin Description & Fascinating FactsPeale's dolphin. alliance (male) or party (female)'.The Peale's dolphin is dark grey or black.Family : Delphinidae Species : Lagenorhynchus australis The Blackchin dolphin. Blue whale Blue whale . Marine Neritic. is small cetacean with a stocky body and a very small beak. Recognition at Sea: Peale's dolphins are most likely to be confused with the similar Dusky dolphin.about 1m in length at birth and 2. (Full text) Adult Peale's dolphins are dark gray to black in color with lighter shading on the flanks. (Full text) Peale's Dolphin is of typical size in its family . The females are called 'cow' and males 'bull'.
Range From s. Southern Leopard Frog (R. with large dark spots between light-colored dorsolateral ridges . green to brown.1-12. Light stripe along upper jaw. typically. north to c. Yesterday i saw an episode of Genographic Project on National Geographic. Subspecies Florida Leopard Frog (R. Texas. about the evolution on whales. Wanders among moist vegetation in the summer. Slender and narrow-headed. Furthermore. But a little search on google shows a lot of different views. and today humans still disturb these beautiful underwater giants. March to June in northern areas.Order : Cetacea Suborder : Mysticeti Family : Balaenopteridae Species : Balaenoptera musculus The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) was hunted almost to extinction until hunting was outlawed in 1966.such as a raccoon or waterbird . New York to the Florida Keys. They are considered an endangered species. meanwhile the predator continues to search in the direction of the original dive. west to Texas and e. Did you know adult blue whales are about the same size as a boeing 737 ? AMPHIBIANS Southern Leopard Frog Rana sphenocephala (Rana utricularia) Family: Ranidae. makes a sharp turn while still submerged. During the day. sphenocephala). Illinois and Indiana. eastern seaboard from s.this frog dives into the water. Discussion The most ubiquitous frog of the eastern states. utricularia). According to the Genographic project. northern Florida to Florida Keys. Some authorities do not recognize the Florida population as a separate subspecies. returns to freshwater ponds and streams and brackish marshes rest of year. Primarily nocturnal. Oklahoma. Voice Series of short throaty croaks. north to ec. With the increase of the noise from ships and military sonar. The world population is estimated between 3. Kansas. Males call while afloat or from land. it hides in grass or sedges or sunny banks. Breeding Year-round in southern areas. New York to c. This is the species most frequently hunted for frogs' legs by youngsters in the Southeast. s. s. True Frogs view all from this family Description 2-5" (5. Read about it on National Geographic. . a light spot in center of eardrum. and surfaces amid vegetation at the water's edge.000 and 4. pollution and fishing nets. Egg masses are laid in shallow water. all cetaceans descended from a wolf-like creature. Habitat Any freshwater location. they are threatened by illegal whaling. To elude a predator .7 cm). including the hippopotamus.000 (source). blue whales have a hard time communicating with each other.ridges continuous to groin.
also New Brunswick and parts of Nova Scotia. Southern Toads breed from March to October in temporary pools and flooded meadows. No dorsolateral ridges. southern. and may take almost 2 years to transform. True Frogs view all from this family Description 3 1/2-8" (9-20. The largest frog in North America. These form knobs in the area between the eyes (see diagram). and when seen from the right direction they give the impression that the toad has horns. it will as soon flee into nearby vegetation as take to the water. humid nights.3 cm). may be mottled with gray. Discussion Nocturnal. Belly cream to white. May to July. February to October. Large external eardrum. Range Eastern and central United States. Attempts to commercially harvest frogs' legs have prompted many introductions of the American Bullfrog outside its natural range. crayfish.2-17. When frightened. Large specimens have been known to catch and swallow small birds and young snakes. Tadpoles are large. Males have throats that are darker than the rest of the underside. Bufo terrestris The Southern Toad is a medium sized toad reaching lengths around 3 inches or more. its usual diet includes insects. other frogs. Southern Toad. and slow-moving streams large enough to avoid crowding and with sufficient vegetation to provide easy cover. Breeding Northern areas. it is usually found on the bank at water's edge. Prefers ponds. Green to yellow above with random mottling of darker gray.2 cm). olive-green. Sometimes there is a light line down the middle of the back which usually becomes diffuse toward the back. This toad can easily be distinguished from other toads in the southeast by the shape of its cranial crests. Less aquatic than the Pig Frog. hind feet fully webbed except for last joint of longest toe. lakes. Voice Deep-pitched jug o'rum call can be heard for more than a quarter mile on quiet mornings. and minnows. Their coloration varies from brick red to brown or light gray. on young specimens.American Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana Family: Ranidae. Eggs hatch in 1-3 days and the tadpoles take 1-2 months to develop into toadlets . Egg masses are attached to submerged vegetation. however. and can be heard caling on warm. These knobs are not well developed. 4-6 3/4" (10. Extensively introduced in the West. Habitat Aquatic.
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