NAME: INSTITUTION: COURSE: PROFESSOR: DATE: Bone cells Bone cells are found within the bone tissue and are responsible for creating and maintaining the skeleton in vertebrates. There are four main types of bone cells; i) osteoclasts ii) osteoblasts iii) osteocytes and iv) lining cells. Osteoclasts are large bone cells that dissolve the bones. They come from the bone marrow and are formed from two or more cells that fuse together so they usually have two or more nuclei. They dissolve bone tissue by latching onto it and releasing enzymes which breakdown bone tissue into phosphorus and calcium ions. Osteoblasts are the cells responsible for bone formation. They have only one nucleus and are related to structural cells. They work in groups to produce new bones by combining bone collagen and other proteins. The collagen is used as a framework and deposits of calcium phosphate hardened by bicarbonate and hydroxide ions (Dell Fattore 2011). They are usually

Lining cells line the surface of the bones and are formed from old osteoblasts. They are flat and pancake shaped. 2010). They are found mainly in adults although they can also form in children. Their role is to regulate the passage of calcium in and out of the bone (Marie.SURNAME2 present on the surface of the newly formed bone and control the calcium and other mineral deposition. direct where osteoclasts will dissolve the bone (Jilka 2013). They can detect pressures and cracks on the bone and therefore. . They also respond to hormones by making special proteins to activate the osteoclasts. They are also formed from osteoblasts and live within a small chamber in the bone matrix called a canaliculi. The inside of the bone in made up of cells called osteocytes (Jilka 2013).

& Manolagas. L. .. A. C.3 (2010): 571-576. and N." Bone 46. A. Teti. "The calcium-sensing receptor in bone cells: a potential therapeutic target in osteoporosis..Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. F. R. Dysapoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes increases cancellous bone formation but exaggerates bone porosity with age.SURNAME3 References: Del Fattore.. S. "Bone cells and the mechanisms of bone remodelling.. P. O'Brien. C. Rucci. Roberson. A.." Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 4 (2011): 2302-2321.. Weinstein. K. (2013). R. Jilka. S. Marie. Pierre J. Bonewald. L.

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