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For the ships of the Pakistan Navy, see PNS Tippu Sultan. For the mosque in Kolkata, India, see Tipu Sultan Mosque.
Nawab Tipu Sultan Bahadur, Tiger of Mysore
29 December 1782 – 4 May 1799
29 December 1782
Padishah, Nasib ad-Dawlah, Fath Ali Khan Bahadur
20 November 1750
4 May 1799 (aged 48)
Place of death Srirangapatna, Karnataka
Srirangapatna, Karnataka 12°24′36″N 76°42′50″ECoordinates: 12°24′36″N 76°42′50″E
Predecessor Royal House Father Mother Religious beliefs
Hyder Ali Kingdom of Mysore Hyder Ali Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa Islam
Tipu Sultan (20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and a scholar, soldier and poet. Tipu was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore and his wife Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa. Tipu introduced a number of administrative innovations, including the introduction of a new coinage, new Mauludi lunisolar calendar and new land revenue system, and initiated the growth ofMysore silk industry. Tipu expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets which he deployed in his resistance against military advances of theBritish. During Tipu's childhood, his father rose to take power in Mysore, and upon his father's death in 1782, Tipu succeeded to a large kingdom bordered by the Krishna River in the north, the Eastern Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Tipu was a devout Muslim although the majority of his subjects were Hindus, and few were also Christian. At the request of the French, Tipu built a church, the first in Mysore. Tipu was fluent in Kannada,Hindustani, Persian, Arabic, English and French. In alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, and in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, both Tipu and his father used their French trained army against the Marathas, Sira and rulers of Malabar, Coorg, Bednore,Carnatic and Travancore. He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War, and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father Hyder Ali died due to cancer in 1782 December in the midst of the second Mysore war. Tipu engaged in expansionist attacks against his neighbours. His treatment of his conquered non-Muslim subjects and British prisoners of war is controversial. He remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, bringing them into renewed conflict with an attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, Tipu was forced into a humiliating treaty, losing a number of previously conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore. He sent embassies to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British. In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore
War, the combined forces of the British East India Company and the Nizam of Hyderabaddefeated Tipu and he was killed on 4 May 1799, while defending his fort of Srirangapatna.
Although I never supposed that he (Napoleon) possessed, allowing for some difference of education, the liberality of conduct and political views which were sometimes exhibited by old Hyder Ali, yet I did think he might have shown the same resolved and dogged spirit of resolution which induced Tipu Sahib to die manfully upon the breach of his capital city with his sabre clenched in his hand.
—Sir Walter Scott, commenting on the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814
1 Early years
o o o
1.1 Childhood 1.2 Early military service 1.3 Second Anglo-Mysore War
2 Ruler of Mysore
o o o o
2.1 Foreign relations 2.2 War against the Marathas 2.3 Third Anglo-Mysore War 2.4 Napoleon's attempt at a junction
3 The Malabar Invasion of Sultanate of Mysore (1766-1790) 4 Death
4.1 Fourth Mysore War
5 Leadership, policy, and innovations
5.1 Mysorean rockets 5.2 Mysorean Navy
6 Religious policy
6.1 Attitude towards Hindus
6.1.1 Criticism of British accounts 6.1.2 Conversions of Hindus to Islam 6.1.3 Promoted Hindustani language 6.1.4 Employment of Hindus
2 Treatment for prisoners 7 Legacy o o o 7. in presentday Bangalore Rural district. 20th Dhu al-Hijjah. . about 33 km (21 mi) north of Bangalore city.3 In fiction 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links Early years[edit source] Childhood[edit source] Tipu Sultan confronts his opponent during the Siege of Srirangapatna Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 (Friday. He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the name of the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. o 6.1 Family 7.1. 1163 AH) at Devanahalli.6 Attitude towards Christians 6.5 Tipu's gifts to Hindu institutions 6.1.2 Sword and tiger 7. Tipu was also called "Fath Ali" after the name of his grandfather Fatah Muhammad.
He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. Hyder himself claimed descent from the Quraysh tribe of Arabs. providing some troops for its defence. he rapidly rose in power. His mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din or Shahal right Tharique. his complexion was fair. riding. who were about 3800 men. Arabic. Kannada. and became the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761. small arched eyebrows. Hyder Ali. Fatah Muhammad. In the Battle of Pollilur. Tipu decisively defeated Baillie. Tippu sultan's wife is Sindh Sultan and Grand son is Sahib sindh Sultan. which Tipu had placed under his protection. the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé. Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Hindustani. the tribe of the prophet Muhammad . His father. the governor of the fort of Kadapa.000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who was on his way to join Sir Hector Munro. built for Tipu Sultan in Srirangapatna. he had a short neck. 1793–94.Tipu's father. Tipu Sultan used many Western craftsmen. described Tipu Sultan as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches. He also distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War of 1775–1779. he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766. and served as a commander of 50 men in the bamboo rocket artillery (mainly used for signalling) in the army of the Nawab of Carnatic. and the general expression of his countenance. and the sepoys. was born inKolar. shooting and fencing. Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. Alexander Beatson. who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. In response. Early military service[edit source] A flintlock blunderbuss. he had large full eyes. At age 15. Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10. Second Anglo-Mysore War[edit source] Main article: Second Anglo-Mysore War In 1779. particularly his feet and hands. about 200 were captured alive. and an aquiline nose. Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic. was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore. Fatah Muhammad eventually entered the service of the Wodeyar Rajas of the Kingdom of Mysore. in name of his wife. and was rather corpulent: his limbs were small. Munro was moving . Islamic jurisprudence. not void of dignity". square shoulders. with the aim of driving the British out of Madras. suffered very high casualties. Quran. Persian. Out of 360 Europeans. During this campaign in September 1780. and this gun reflects the most up-to-date technologies of the time.
consisting of 100 Europeans. destroying crops and cattle. Ruler of Mysore[edit source] . The Second Mysore War came to an end with the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore. 1197 Hijri – Sunday). abandoning his artillery in a water tank at Kanchipuram. painted to celebrate his triumph over the British. Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan are believed to have impoverished the country. As late as 1785. The economic output of Tanjore is estimated to have fallen by 90% between 1780 and 1782. and the treaty is a prestigious document in the history of India. The economic devastation wrought by these attacks was so severe that Tanjore's economy did not recover until the start of the 19th century. He then worked to check the advances of the British by making alliances with the Marathas and theMughals. 22 December 1782 ( The inscriptions in some of Tipu's regalia showing it as 20 Muharram.  The war is also remembered for alleged excesses committed by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in Tanjore. During the period of occupation which lasted six months. in a simple coronation ceremony. The ravages of Hyder and Tipu were followed by alleged expeditions of plunder launched by the Kallars.south with a separate force to join Baillie. Tipu Sultan seized all the guns and took the entire detachment prisoner. 300 cavalry. the era is referred to in local folklore as the Hyderakalam. was the standard size of the colonial armies. Tipu Sultan realised that the British were a new kind of threat in India. Tipu Sultan defeated Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 February 1782. Tipu Sultan had thus gained sufficient military experience by the time Hyder Ali died on Friday. He became the ruler of Mysore on Sunday. but on hearing the news of the defeat he was forced to retreat to Madras. It was the last occasion when an Indian king dictated terms to the British. 1197 as per some records in Persian — there may be a difference of 1 to 3 days due to the Lunar Calendar). 1400 sepoys and 10 field pieces. In December 1781 Tipu Sultan successfully seized Chittur from the British.000 children from the region. Mural of the Battle of Pollilur on the walls of Tipu's summer palace. (Hijri date being 1 Muharram. 6 December 1782 – some historians put it at 2 or 3 days later or before. the Dutch missionary Christian Friedrich Schwarz describes Tipu's alleged abduction of 12. Braithwaite's forces.
and a new system of weights and measures mainly based on the methods introduced by French technicians. While leading a predominantly Hindu country. are displayed in the Royal Artillery Museumin London. He built a church. He is said to have started new coinage. in his Tipu Sultan Shaheed Memorial Lecture in Bangalore (30 November 1991). Kanivenarayanapura. Dr APJ Abdul Kalam. He managed to subdue all the petty kingdoms in the south. Tipu remained strong in his Muslim faith. the first in Mysore. the former President of India. He defeated the Marathas and the Nizams and was also one of the few Indian rulers to have defeated British armies. France. and built roads. Two of these rockets. Durrani Afghanistan. Karnataka Jama Masjid of Srirangapatana Muhammmad Falak Ali taught Tipu how to fight.Tipu Sultan's summer palace atSrirangapatna. the Mysore army proved to be a school of military science to Indian princes. public buildings. captured by the British at Srirangapatna. going daily to say his prayers and paying special attention to mosques in the area. and Chickballapur. Oman. on French request. Tipu Sultan laid the foundation for a dam where the famous Krishna Raja Sagara Dam across the river Cauvery was later built. He also completed the project of Lal Bagh started by his father Hyder Ali. He was well . The serious blows that Tipu Sultan inflicted on the British in the First and Second Mysore Wars affected their reputation as an invincible power. called Tipu Sultan the innovator of the world's first war rocket. Ottoman Turkey and Iran. calendar. His trade extended to countries which included Sri Lanka. His dominion extended throughout North Bangalore including the Nandi Hills. During his rule. and ports along the Kerala shoreline. Under his leadership.
Tipu Sultan is believed to have broken into tears. so they could defeat the British and Marathas. neither owed any allegiance to theNizam of Hyderabad and often instead chose direct contact and relations with the Mughal emperor. but the Persian attack on Afghanistan's Western border diverted its forces. Initially. Arabic. After the eunuch Ghulam Qadir had Shah Alam II blinded on 10 August 1788. Hindustani. Nevertheless. Tipu Sultan sought the investiture of the Mughal emperor. to the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid I requesting urgent assistance against the British East India Company and had proposed an offensive and defensive consortium. Unlike the Nawab of Carnatic. However. In the year 1787. In the Crimean war. Nizam Ali Khan. Furthermore Tipu Sultan also requested permission from the Ottomans to contribute to the maintenance of the Islamic shrines in Mecca. Immediately after his coronation.versed in Kannada. but claimed some degree of loyalty to the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. Tipu . Persian. the Ottomans were themselves at crisis and still recuperating from the devastating Austro-Ottoman War and a new war against the Russians in Crimea had just begun. Medina. English and French. Napoleonannexed Ottoman Egypt in the year 1798. Foreign relations[edit source] In his attempts to junction with Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan's ambassadors returned home only with gifts from their Ottoman allies. Tipu Sultan began to establish contacts with other Muslim rulers of that period. Zaman Shah agreed to help Tipu. but his father Hyder Ali insisted he become a capable soldier and leader. the Nizam of Hyderabad. Both Hyder Ali ismaael and Tipu Sultan were independent rulers of Mysore. Tipu Sultan began to correspond with Zaman Shah Durrani the ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire. After facing substantial threats from the Marathas. clearly expressed his hostility by dissuading the Mughal emperor and laying false claims onto Mysore. Due to the Ottoman-inability to organise a fleet in the Indian Ocean. and hence no help could be provided to Tipu. Tipu Sultan sent an embassy to the Ottoman capital Istanbul. Tipu Sultan requested the Ottoman Sultan to send him troops and military experts. Both of them are known to have maintained correspondence with the Mughal emperor. Najaf and Karbala. Disheartened but not disappointed. this event caused his defeat and loss of much territory by the year 1792. Tipu was supposed to become a Sufi. Ottoman Turkey needed British alliance to keep off the Russian Empire. hence it could not risk being hostile to the British in the Indian theatre.
now the Duke of Wellington. The deal that was finalized . But back in France. the British East India Company out of the subcontinent. Arthur Wellesley was the younger brother of the British Governor General of India. the border of the Maratha territory was extended to the Tungabhadra river. hence the French did not support him. sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. and Gajendragad in June 1786. Hyder Ali accepted the authority of Madhavrao who gave him the title of Nawab of Mysore. that he immediately started large scale preparations for a Final battle against Tipu Sultan. the capital of Mysore. The idea of a possible Tipu-Napoleon alliance alarmed the British Governor General Sir Richard Wellesley (also known as Lord Wellesley) so much. their common enemy. Like his father before him. but no allies when he needed them the most . Napoleon wrote a letter to Tipu Sultan appreciating his efforts of resisting the British annexation and plans. and was one of the British Generals in the Fourth Mysore War. twice defeating Tipu's father. the same Arthur Wellesley. Napoleon came as far as conquering Egypt in an attempt to link with Tipu Sultan against the British. Tipu Sultan maintained many embassies and made several contacts with Mohammad Ali Khan ruler of the Zand Dynasty in Persia. the French revolution had broken out and the ruling Bourbon family was executed and the country was in chaos. Several years later in Europe. who had been his traditional allies. General Arthur Wellesley led the British army into the City after the fall of Tipu Sultan. who sent an army towards Mysore under leadership of General Nana Phadnavis. This forced Tipu to open negotiations with the Maratha leadership. In 1767 Maratha Peshwa Madhavrao defeated both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and entered Srirangapatna. while still not the Emperor of France. Sir Richard Wellesley. War against the Marathas[edit source] The Maratha Empire under its new Peshwa Madhavrao II regained most of Indian subcontinent. aimed at driving his main rivals. Tipu Sultan also maintained correspondence with Hamad bin Said. It is strange that both Tipu Sultan and Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte were defeated by the same person. the ruler of the Sultanate of Oman. Tipu sought support from the French. In the Final siege and fall of Srirangapatna in 1799. Napoleon. However Tipu Sultan wanted to escape from the treaty of Marathas and therefore tried to take some Maratha forts in southern India. but this letter never reached Tipu and was seized by a British spy in Muscat. Kittur. By the victory in this war. He sent two of his agents to the Maratha capital at Pune. Regional interests and clever British diplomacy left Tipu with more enemies and betrayers.Sultan's correspondence with the Ottoman Turkish Empire and particularly it's new Sultan Selim III continued till his final battle in the year 1799. This brought Tipu in direct conflict with the Marathas. The Marathas took many forts of Tipu Sultan in the Mysore region Badami. led the armies of the Seventh Coalition and defeated the Imperial French army led by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In February 1798.for the final showdown with the British in the Fourth Mysore War. who was forced to accept Maratha Empire as the supreme power in 1764 and then in 1767.
He then descended into the Carnatic. In December 1789 he massed troops at Coimbatore. regaining much of the territory.resulted in the Marathas recovering their territories which had been invaded by Mysore. knowing that Travancore was (according to theTreaty of Mangalore) an ally of the British East India Company. although the British continued to hold Coimbatore itself. On account of the staunch resistance by the Travancore army. Furthermore the Nizam of Hyderabad received Adoni and Mysore was obligated to pay 48 lacs rupees as a war cost to the Marathas. taking control of much of the Coimbatore district. In 1790 the company forces advanced. Tipu was unable to break through the Tranvancore lines and the Maharajah of Travancore appealed to the East India Company for help. In response. where he attempted without success to draw the French into the conflict. and on 28 December made an attack on the lines of Travancore. eventually reaching Pondicherry. which was a Mysorean tributary. Third Anglo-Mysore War[edit source] Main article: Third Anglo-Mysore War Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces at the battle of Srirangapatna 1799 General Lord Cornwallis. and an annual tribute of 12 lacs rupees. . in return the Marathas recognized the rule of Tipu in the Mysore region. Tipu counterattacked. and formed alliances with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad to oppose Tipu. In 1789 Tipu Sultan disputed the acquisition by Dharma Raja of Travancore of two Dutch-held fortresses inCochin. receiving two of Tipu Sultan's sons as hostages in the year 1793. Lord Cornwallis mobilised company and British military forces.
 Napoleon assured to the French Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt. In this last effort he was successful. Following the withdrawal. and at the Battle of Abukirin 1801. together with them. as the lack of provisions forced Cornwallis to withdraw to Bangalore rather than attempt a siege of Srirangapatna. due to monsoon and news about the attack of British in Srirangapatnam he went back. After about two weeks of siege. when Tipu Sultan was just 15 years old." Napoleon was unsuccessful in this strategy. the Ottoman Empire. with the main British force under Cornwallis taking Bangaloreand threatening Srirangapatna. Main article: Franco-Indian alliances One of the motivations of Napoleon's Invasion of Egypt was to establish a junction with India against the British. Hyder Ali started losing his territories in Malabar.In 1791 his opponents advanced on all fronts. Tipu sent forces to Coimbatore. Tipu came from Mysore to reinstate the authority over Malabar. The 1792 campaign was a failure for Tipu. Napoleon's attempt at a junction[edit source] Louis XVI receives the ambassadors of Tipu Sultan in 1788.Siege of Tellicherry in Thalassery in North Malabar." According to a 13 February 1798 report by Talleyrand: "Having occupied and fortified Egypt. After the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789). In the ensuing treaty. attack the English in their possessions. losing the Siege of Acre in 1799. The allied army was well-supplied. with the ultimate dream of linking with Tippoo Sahib. he got the chance to apply his military training in battle for the first time. Tipu Sultan is known to have sent many diplomatic missions toFrance. and Tipu was unable to prevent the junction of forces from Bangalore and Bombay before Srirangapatna. After the incident. Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East. which they retook after a lengthy siege. Zand Dynasty and Durrani Empire. The Malabar Invasion of Sultanate of Mysore (1766-1790)[edit source] In 1766. and deliver two of his sons as hostages until he paid in full three crores and thirty lakhs rupees fixed as war indemnity to the British for the campaign against him. he will establish relations with the Indian princes and. Sultanate of Oman. we shall send a force of 15. Tipu opened negotiations for terms of surrender. he was forced to cede half his territories to the allies.000 men from Suez to India. when he accompanied his father on an invasion of Malabar. Tipu harassed the British supply and communication and embarked on a "scorched earth" policy of denying local resources to the invaders. He paid the amount in two installments and got back his sons from Madras. Death[edit source] Fourth Mysore War[edit source] . to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English.
and two British (one of which included Arthur Wellesley. the future first Duke of Wellington).000 . There were over 26. c.000 soldiers of the British East India Company comprising about 4000 Europeans and the rest Indians. one from Bombay. marched into Mysore in 1799 and besieged the capitalSrirangapatna in the Fourth Mysore War. 1800 The spot in Srirangapatana where Tipu's body was found After Horatio Nelson had defeated François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers at the Battle of the Nile in Egypt in 1798. A column was supplied by the Nizam of Hyderabad consisting of ten battalions and over 16.Main article: Fourth Anglo-Mysore War The Last Effort and Fall of Tipu Sultanby Henry Singleton. three armies. Tipu Sultan's forces during the Siege of Srirangapatna.
"I have experienced hurricanes. Tipu was buried the next afternoon. and Tipu Sultan died defending his capital on 4 May. The Mysorean rockets utilised by Tipu Sultan. The rockets had blades mounted on them.200 specialised troops in his army to operate rocket launchers. Mysorean rockets[edit source] Main article: Mysorean rockets Tipu Sultan organised hisRocket artillery brigades known asCushoon's.cavalry. with massive winds and rains. new coinage. which was located 300 yards (270 m) from the N. Angle of the Srirangapatna Fort. Tipu greatly expanded the use of rockets after Hyder's death. and many soldiers were sent by the Marathas.000 rocketeers at a time. Thus the soldiers in the British force numbered over 50. He deployed as many as 1. As Lieutenant Richard Bayly of the British 12th regiment wrote. Immediately after the death of Tipu Sultan many members of the British East India Company believed that Umdat Ul-Umra the Nawab of Carnaticsecretly provided assistance to Tipu Sultan during the war and immediately sought his deposition after the year 1799. The . were later updated by the Britishand successively employed during the Napoleonic Wars. and seven new government departments. Tipu Sultan's father had expanded on Mysore's use of rocketry. was one of his most confidential servants. and could wreak significant damage when fired en masse against a large army. Tipu Sultan was martyr at the Hoally (Diddy) Gateway.E.000 soldiers. but never in the whole course of my existence had I seen anything comparable to this desolating visitation". and gales of wind at sea. Wellesley felt his pulse and confirmed that he was dead. a great storm struck. The British broke through the city walls. policy. Leadership. Rajah Cawn.000 soldiers whereas Tipu Sultan had only about 30. making critical innovations in the rockets themselves and the military logistics of their use. Rajah was able to identify Tipu for the soldiers. deploying as many as 5. Next to him. typhoons. These men were skilled in operating the weapons and were trained to launch their rockets at an angle calculated from the diameter of the cylinder and the distance to the target. underneath his palankeen. and innovations[edit source] Tipu introduced a new calendar. and made military innovations in the use of rocketry. Tipu Sultan expanded the number of servicemen in the various Cushoon's from 1500 to almost 5000. When the fallen Tipu was identified. during his reign. near the remains of his father. In the midst of his burial.
and Captivity of Nairs at Seringapatam As a Muslim ruler in a largely Hindu domain. this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missiles (up to 2 km range). He even invited Zaman Shah to invade . which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars. By the year 1789 most of Tipu Sultan's ships had copper-bottoms. chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant. A Mir Yam led 30 admirals and each one of them had two ships. he declared himself to be the Badshah or Emperor of Mysore. and struck coinage in his own name without reference to the reigning Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. His religious legacy has become a source of considerable controversy in the subcontinent. D. which was at its decline during the period in question. Tipu Sultan's board of admiralty consisted of 11 commanders in service of a Mir Yam. Captivity of Coorgis at Seringapatam. an idea that increased the longevity of the ships and was introduced to Tipu by Admiral Suffren. and in reconciling his desire to be seen as a devout Islamic ruler with the need to be pragmatic to avoid antagonising the majority of his subjects. Tipu Sultan faced problems in establishing the legitimacy of his rule. Some groups proclaim him a great warrior for the faith or Ghazi. Religious policy[edit source] Attitude towards Hindus[edit source] Main articles: Mysorean invasion of Kerala. In the year 1790 he appointed Kamaluddin as his Mir Bahar and established massive dockyards at Jamalabad and Majidabad. decided to build a navy consisting of 20 battleships of 72 cannons and 20 frigates of 62 cannons. again following the lead of his father. while others revile him as a bigot who massacred Hindus. Sharma writes that. in his correspondence with other Islamic rulers such as Zaman Shah of the AfghanDurrani Empire. After Tipu's defeat in the fourth war the British captured a number of the Mysorean rockets. In 1780. Mysorean Navy[edit source] In 1786 Tipu Sultan. British accounts describe the use of the rockets during the third and fourth wars. along the lines of the Mughal Empire. Tipu Sultan used this title and declared that he intended to establish an Islamic empire in the entire country. he appears to have been as strict as his father Hyder Ali against any non-Muslim accused of collaboration with the British East India Company or the Maratha. inspiring the Congreve rocket. causing it to explode and send a towering cloud of black smoke with cascades of exploding white light rising up from the battlements. British shells struck a magazine containing rockets. During the climactic battle at Srirangapatna in 1799. H. These became influential in British rocket development. During the early period of Tipu Sultan's reign in particular.rockets deployed by Tipu during the Battle of Pollilur were much more advanced than those the British East India Company had previously seen.
Saletare has described Tippu Sultan as a defender of the Hindu Dharma. which were exchanged between Tippu Sultan's court and the Sringeri Shankaracharya were discovered in 1916 by the Director of Archaeology in Mysore. while also presenting many of them with gifts of silver and gold plate. and his having donated jewelry and deeded land grants to several temples. some Maratha horsemen under Raghunath Rao Patwardhan raided the temple and monastery of Sringeri Shankaracharya. S. and wrote: "People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma ruladbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying). His alliance with the French was supposedly aimed at achieving this goal by driving his main rivals. killing and wounding many. The temple at Melkote still has gold and silver vessels with inscriptions. B. and plundering the monastery of all its valuable possessions. Between 1782 and 1799 Tipu Sultan issued 34 "Sanads" (deeds) of endowment to temples in his domain.E. Tippu Sultan expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid. Tipu Sultan's treasurer was Krishna Rao. and he was still writing to the Swami in the 1790s C." Moolchand and Sujan Rai were his chief agents at the Mughal court.A. A bunch of about 30 letters written in Kannada. which some claim he was compelled to do in order to make alliances with Hindu rulers. largely left leaning scholars from the 20th century. The Srikanteswara Temple in Nanjangud still possesses a jeweled cup presented by the Sultan. Chetty argues that Wilks‘ account in particular cannot be trusted. argue that stories of Tipu Sultan's religious persecution of Hindus and Christians are largely derived from the work of early British authors such as Kirkpatrick and Wilks. amongst others. who also patronized other temples including one at Melkote. The incumbent Shankaracharya petitioned Tippu Sultan for help." Suba Rao. A. out of the subcontinent. There is such evidence as grant deeds. The portrayal of Tipu Sultan as a religious bigot is disputed. and some sources. whom they do not consider to be entirely reliable. his brother Ranga Iyengar was also an officer and Purnaiya held the very important post of "Mir Asaf. the British. Tippu Sultan's interest in the Sringeri temple continued for many years. In light of this and other events. for which he issued a Kannada decree that the Shrivaishnava invocatory verses there should be recited in the traditional form. Shamaiya Iyengar was his Minister of Post and Police. In 1791. suggest that he in fact often embraced religious pluralism.India to help achieve this mission. Criticism of British accounts[edit source] Brittlebank. and correspondence between his court and temples. Habib and Saletare. was also a Hindu." He immediately ordered his "Asaf" of Bednur to supply the Swami with 200 "rahatis" (fanams) in cash and other gifts and articles. Tippu Sultan also presented four silver cups to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale. and his chief "Peshkar. Chetty. Hasan. indicating that they were presented by the Sultan. Irfan Habib and Mohibbul Hasan argues that these early British .
who promoteth the faith of Muhammad. and withhold us from those who are so inclined from the true faith. Budruz Zuman Khan. Victory and conquest are from the Almighty. Since I am overjoyed at the prospect of converting him and his subjects to Islam. change their state. on which the following was inscribed on one side in Persian: "Of God the bestower of blessings". 200 Brahmins were forcibly converted and made to eat beef. make black their faces (i." In 1788." During a search of his palace in 1795. the Emir of the Faithful.authors had a strong vested interest in presenting Tipu Sultan as a tyrant from whom the British had liberated Mysore. deprive their eyes of sight. support us against the people who are unbelievers. May the Lord God assist thee.. Praise be to him (God). I have happily abandoned the idea of going back to Srirangapatanam now. The following is a translation of an inscription on the stone found at Seringapatam. to the faithful. with a mighty great victory. destroy their very root! Cause death to be near them. which was situated in a conspicuous place in the fort: "Oh Almighty God! dispose the whole body of infidels! Scatter their tribe. thou will prosper.Mohibbul Hasan. he destroyed the wicked race who were unbelievers." On the handle of the sword presented by Tipu to Marquess Wellesley was the following inscription: "My victorious sabre is lightning for the destruction of the unbelievers. Tipu ordered his governor in Calicut Sher Khan to begin the process of converting Hindus to Islam. for God is the kind protector and is the most merciful of the merciful. and the other: "victory and conquest are from the Almighty". Oh Muhammad. 1st Marquess Wellesley. some gold medals were found in the palace.e. Oh Muhammad. and in July of that year. Conversions of Hindus to Islam[edit source] Tipu sent a letter on 19 January 1790 to the Governor of Bekal. Ali. is victorious for my advantage. Sheikh Ali. Confound him. and other historians cast great doubt on the scale of the deportations and forced conversions in .. Prof. who refuseth the faith of Muhammad. who is the Lord of the Worlds! Thou art our Lord. Bring happy tidings.e. It says: "Don't you know I have achieved a great victory recently in Malabar and over four lakh Hindus were converted to Islam? I am determined to march against that cursed Raman Nair (Rajah of Travancore) very soon. cut off from them the means of sustenance! Shorten their days! Be their bodies the constant object of their cares (i. The Lord is predominant over his own works. These were carved in commemoration of a victory after the war of 1780. This assessment is echoed by Brittlebank in her recent work where she writes that Wilks and Kirkpatrick must be used with particular care as both authors had taken part in the wars against Tipu Sultan and were closely connected to the administrations of Lord Cornwallis and Richard Wellesley. make him victorious. If God assists thee. He to whom the Lord giveth victory prevails over all (mankind). and moreover. bring shame). infest them with diseases). cause their feet to stagger! Overthrow their councils. Oh Lord.
Suba Rao. He argues that little reliance can be placed in Muslim accounts such as Kirmani's Nishan-e Haidari.000 Coorgis were converted. when forty years later the entire population of Coorg was still less than that number. and Hasan says that the British versions of what happened were intended to malign Tipu Sultan. unlike Muslims in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. and some sources suggest that he in fact often embraced religious pluralism. was also a Hindu. including this handsome copper double paisa weighing over 23 gm. . Employment of Hindus[edit source] Tipu Sultan's treasurer was Krishna Rao. He promoted Kannada language though his official language was Persian. his brother Ranga Iyengar was also an officer. in their anxiety to represent the Sultan as a champion of Islam.  He was the first person to coin the word Karnataka. and to be used as propaganda against him. andPurnaiya held the very important post of "Mir Asaf". Muslims in southern Karnataka use Urdu. Tipu strengthened and instituted education in Hindustani and Persian among Muslims in the Mysore region. Tipu introduced new coin denominations and new coin types. they had a tendency to exaggerate and distort the facts: Kirmani claims that 70. Shamaiya Iyengar was his Minister of Post and Police. To this day. According to Ramchandra Rao Punganuri the true number of converts was about 500.  Promoted Hindustani language[edit source] Among his many innovations. The portrayal of Tipu Sultan as a religious bigot is disputed. Moolchand and Sujan Rai were his chief agents at the Mughal court. and his chief "Peshkar". The coin on the left also contains the emblem of the Sultanate of Mysore.  Tipu's gifts to Hindu institutions[edit source] Editor of Mysore Gazettes Srikantaiah has listed 156 temples to which Tipu regularly paid annual grants.Coorg in particular.
who also patronised other temples including one at Melkote. which were exchanged between Tipu Sultan's court and the Sringeri Shankaracharya were discovered in 1916 by the Director of Archaeology in Mysore. A bunch of about 30 letters written in Kannada. Tipu Sultan expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid. Tipu Sultan also presented four silver cups to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale. and wrote: "People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma rudadbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying). In light of this and other events. Tipu Sultan's interest in the Sringeri temple continued for many years.A. and plundering the monastery of all its valuable possessions. and he was still writing to the Swami in the 1790s CE." He immediately ordered the Asaf of Bednur to supply the Swami with 200 rahatis (fanams) in cash and other gifts and articles. Tipu Sultan does seem to have repossessed unauthorised grants of land made to Brahmins and temples. for which he issued a Kannada decree that the Shrivaishnava invocatory verses there should be recited in the traditional form. Engraving after a painting by David Wilkie. The temple at Melkote still has gold and silver vessels with inscriptions indicating that they were presented by the Sultan. discovering the fallen body of Tipu Sultan after the Siege of Srirangapatna in the year 1799.Rajah Cawn and David Baird. but those which had proper sanads . Saletare has described Tipu Sultan as a defender of the Hindu dharma. killing and wounding many. The incumbent Shankaracharya petitioned Tipu Sultan for help. some Maratha horsemen under Raghunath Rao Patwardhan raided the temple and matha of Sringeri Shankaracharya. B. In 1791.
the first in Mysore. The portrayal of Tipu Sultan as a religious bigot is disputed . There is such evidence as grant deeds. Muslim or Hindu. and correspondence between his court and temples. This temple was hardly a stone's throw from his palace from where he would listen with equal respect to the ringing of temple bells and themuezzin's call from the mosque. P. Between 1782 and 1799 Tipu Sultan issued 34 sanads (deeds) of endowment to temples in his domain. He was proficient in many languages. Nanjundeswara. and he allowed Christians to build a church at Seringapatam. Attitude towards Christians[edit source] Main article: Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam The Jamalabad fort route. he built a church. and his having donated jewellery and deeded land grants to several temples. Pursuant to treaties concluded with the Portuguese. Tipu‘s army also included Catholic soldiers. in the same town of Nanjungud. It was a normal practice for any ruler. The Srikanteswara Temple in Nanjangud still possesses a jewelled cup presented by the Sultan. D'Souza mentions that Tipu also had Christians in his administration. where French generals used to offer prayers and priests used to visit. on his accession or on the conquest of new territory. To another temple. At the request of the French. he gave a greenish linga. Mangalorean Catholics had travelled through this route on their way to Seringapatam He was a devout Muslim but majority of his subjects were Hindus and Christians . to Ranganatha temple at Srirangapatna he gifted seven silver cups and a silver camphor burner. . Mangalorean historian A. while also presenting many of them with gifts of silver and gold plate. he also allowed Portuguese priests to settle disputes among Christians. L. which some claim he was compelled to do in order to make alliances with Hindu rulers.were not.
Church of Merces at Ullal. Silva of Gangolim. Church of Jesu Marie Jose at Omzoor. remains the most disconsolate memory in their history. The captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam.000 escaping. owing to the friendly offices of the Chauta Raja of Moodbidri. who was held captive along with Mangalorean Catholics. Together with Fr. fined Rupees 2 lakhs. The young women and girls were forcibly made wives of the Muslims living there.000 of them were forcibly converted to Islam.000. Rosario at Barkur. Among them included the Church of Nossa Senhora de Rosario Milagres at Mangalore. the capital of his empire. with 10. Fr Miranda's Seminary at Monte Mariano. According to Thomas Munro. during the usurpation of that country by Tipu Sultan from an implacable hatred he had against them who professed Christianity." Tipu Sultan's rule of the Malabar Coast had an adverse impact on the Saint Thomas Christian community. to accomplish that subject. the punishment under the orders of Tipu was the cutting off of the ears. "It is notoriously known in all Asia and all other parts of the globe of the oppression and sufferings experienced by the Christians in the Dominion of the King of Kanara. San Jose at Perar. labour to the utmost of their power. The Archbishop of Goa wrote in 1800. a Scottish soldier and the first collector of Canara. from a population of 80. The young men who offered resistance were disfigured by cutting their noses. Many churches in Malabar and Cochin were damaged. They were forced to climb nearly 4. nose. It was 210 miles (340 km) from Mangalore to Seringapatam.000 feet (1. According to British Government records. and the journey took six weeks. a survivor of the captivity. According to Mr. Nossa Senhora dos Remedios at Kirem. Chapel at Bolar." Soon after the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784. upper lips. the feet and one hand. all the 21 arrested priests were issued orders of expulsion to Goa. Tipu gained control of Canara. through theJamalabad fort route. around 60. 30. were captured. and considering the annihilation of infidels as a sacred duty. and threatened death by hanging if they ever returned. and deport them to Seringapatam. According to James Scurry. Francis Buchanan gives the numbers as 70.Tipu is regarded to be anti-Christian by some historians. All were razed to the ground. if a person who had escaped from Seringapatam was found. nearly 92 percent of the entire Mangalorean Catholic community. which began on 24 February 1784 and ended on 4 May 1799. The old Syrian Nasrani .000 escaped. Miranda. The Barcoor Manuscript reports him as having said: "All Musalmans should unite together. and ears. a British officer. 20. He issued orders to seize the Christians in Canara. Sao Lawrence at Karkal. confiscate their estates.000 captured. Imaculata Conceiciao at Mulki. with the exception of The Church of Holy Cross at Hospet.000 of them died on the march to Seringapatam. there were no priests among the captives. Tipu ordered the destruction of 27 Catholic churches. only 7. However.000 people. all beautifully carved with statues depicting various saints. Immaculata Conceciao at Baidnur.200 m) through the jungles of the Western Ghat mountain ranges.
The Netravati River was so putrid with the stench of dying bodies. there were a significant number of forced conversions of British captives between 1780 and 1784. the Syrian Christian community fled Calicut and small towns like Arthat to new centres like Kunnamkulam.   and . Tipu's persecution of Christians even extended to captured British soldiers. one of those prisoners. His skin had darkened to the swarthy complexion of negroes. Kannankode. all the Mestizos and remaining non-British foreigners were killed.seminary at Angamaly which had been the centre of Eastern Church education for several centuries was razed to the ground by Tipu's soldiers. having lost all his vernacular idiom. plantations and encouraged their businesses. the gibbets being weighed down by the number of bodies they carried. 7." However. and moreover. the ruler of Travancore. the British resident of Travancore also helped them. His English was broken and stilted. harmony and concord. that the local residents were forced to leave their riverside homes. Those condemned by Tipu Sultan for treachery were hanged instantly. Colonel Maculay. the Arthat church and the Ambazhakkad seminary was also destroyed. when Tipu's army invaded Guruvayur and adjacent areas. Following their disastrous defeat at the 1780 Battle of Pollilur.000 British men along with an unknown number of women were held captive by Tipu in the fortress of Seringapatnam. pepper and cashew plantations held by Christian farmers were also indiscriminately destroyed by the invading army. thirteen murdered British prisoners were discovered. Of these. together with 5. During the surrender of the Mangalore fort which was delivered in an armistice by the British and their subsequent withdrawal. the ruler of Cochin and Karthika Thirunal. over 300 were circumcised and given Muslim names and clothes and several British regimental drummer boys were made to wear ghagra cholis and entertain the court as nautch girls or dancing girls. the Tipu "took his stand on the bedrock of humanity.600 Mangalorean Catholics. Letters sent by Tipu to his officers encouraged the practice of forced conversion of prisoners imprisonment of women and children. etc. Cheppadu. Ennakadu. during the storming of Srirangapatna by the British in 1799. They were given refuge by Sakthan Tamburan. where there were already Christians. Treatment for prisoners[edit source] According to historian Professor Sheikh Ali. For instance. James Scurry. Most of the coconut. he had developed an aversion to wearing European clothes. Chalakudi. The Mor Sabor church at Akaparambu and the Martha Mariam Church attached to the seminary were destroyed as well. regarding all his subjects as equal citizen to live in peace. The church was later relocated to Kottayam where it still exists. recounted that he had forgotten how to sit in a chair and use a knife and fork. Furthernmore. After the 10 year long captivity ended. who gave them lands. arecanut. A lot of centuries old religious manuscripts were lost forever. Mavelikkara. many Saint Thomas Christians were killed or forcibly converted to Islam. As a result. killed by either having their necks broken or nails driven into their skulls. Tipu's army set fire to the church at Palayoor and attacked the Ollur Church in 1790. Over the course of this invasion.
Tipu Sultan's prestigious legacy was aggrandized soon after his death by the Salar Jung the Vizier of the Nizam of Hyderabad in the year 1839. a television series directed in 1990 by Sanjay Khan was based on the life and rule of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. The British Army's National Army Museum named Tipu Sultan among the top 10 Greatest Enemy Commanders that the British Army ever faced. Pakistan Navyships of PNS Tippu Sultan are also named after him. and is revered as a hero and a freedom fighter in India and Pakistan. Family[edit source] The mausoleum housing Tipu's tomb is another example of Islamic architecture. including him among the ranks of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The Sword of Tipu Sultan.Legacy[edit source] Tipu Sultan is immortalized as the "Tiger of Mysore". He was the First Indian king to be martyred defending his homeland against the British Colonial Empire. Pakistan television made drama about Tipu which is called "Tipu Sultan" directed by Qasim Jalali. . Tipu's flag is in the foreground.
. Sword and tiger[edit source] Main article: Tipu's Tiger Tipu Sultan's Tiger. His Highness Shahzada Sir Ghulam Muhammad Sultan Sahib.. Shahzada Muhi-ud-din Sultan (1782 – 30 September 1811) 4.. Sultan (1797–1797) Tipu Sultan's family was sent to Calcutta by the British.. London Tipu Sultan had lost his sword in a war with the Nairs of Travancore during the Battle of the Nedumkotta. Shahzada Muhammad Jamal-ud-din Sultan (1795 – 13 November 1842) 13. Shahzada Mu'izz-ud-din Sultan (1783 – 30 March 1818) 5. Shahzada Muhammad Subhan Sultan (1785 – 27 September 1845) 9. The Nair armyunder the leadership of Raja Kesavadas again defeated the Mysore ... Shahzada Muhammad Nizam-ud-din Sultan (1791 – 20 October 1791) 12.. Shahzada Sarwar-ud-din Sultan (1790 – 20 October 1833) 11. Shahzada Hyder Ali Sultan (1771 – 30 July 1815) 2. Shahzada Abdul Khaliq Sultan (1782 – 12 September 1806) 3. 1. in which he was defeated. Shahzada Muhammad Shukrullah Sultan (1785 – 25 September 1837) 10.. KCSI (March 1795 – 11 August 1872) 15. Shahzada Mu'in-ud-din Sultan (1784? – ?) 7. Shahzada ... A descendent of one of Tipu Sultan's uncles Noor Inayat Khan was a British Special Operations Executive agent during the Second World War.. Shahzada Mi'raj-ud-din Sultan (1784? – ?) 6.The tomb of Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna. Shahzada Ghulam Ahmad Sultan (1796 – 11 April 1824) 16. Victoria and Albert Museum. Shahzada Muhammad Yasin Sultan (1784 – 15 March 1849) 8.. Tipu's tomb is adjacent to his mother's and father's graves. murdered in the German Dachau concentration camp in 1944. Shahzada Munir-ud-din Sultan (1795 – 1 December 1837) 14.
London. No. Naseem Hijazi's novels Muazam Ali and Aur Talvar Ṭūṭ Gaye (And The Sword Broke) describe Tipu Sultan's wars. In fiction[edit source] In G.army near Aluva. He even had French engineers build a mechanical tiger for his palace. Tipu Sultan is the only king who died on the battlefield. Tipu Sultan's life and adventures were the central theme of a short-running South Indian television series "The Adventures of Tipu Sultan". Sid Meier's Civilization: Revolution. and blunderbusses. is on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum. fusils. picked it up.  It is said that Tipu Sultan was hunting in the forest with a French friend. He came face to face with a tiger. The device. and his dagger fell on the ground as the tiger jumped on him. In The Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen by Rudolf Erich Raspe. and of a more popular national television series "The Sword of Tipu Sultan". daggers. or silver. Sharpe's Tiger is a novel in which Napoleonic soldier Richard Sharpe fights at Seringapatam. and beautifully inlaid and ornamented with tigers' heads and stripes. Munchausen vanquishes Tippoo near the end of the novel. the industrialist-politician Vijay Mallya purchased the sword of Tipu Sultan and some other historical artefacts. Tipu was commonly known as the Tiger of Mysore and adopted this animal as the symbol of his rule. from where the sword went to London. The Only King Who Died on the Battlefield: An Historical Novel Based on Truth (published in 2006). Not only did Tipu place relics of tigers around his palace and domain. That earned him the name "the Tiger of Mysore". Captain Nemo is described as a nephew of Tipu Sultan. . The novel claims that in recent history. At an auctionin London in 2004.A. and brought them back to India for public display after nearly two centuries. The Maharaja. 1 Manchester Square. London. gifted the famous sword to the Nawab of Arcot. Tipu Sultan appears as a "Great Person" in the video game. was written by a US-Pakistani resident and a young college student Mohammed Faisal Iftikhar. Sometimes this tiger was very ornate and had inscriptions within the drawing. Wilkie Collins's novel The Moonstone contains an account of Tipu Sultan and the fall of Srirangapatna in the prologue. Historian Alexander Beatson reported that "in his palace was found a great variety of curious swords.Henty's book The Tiger of Mysore he has a role In Jules Verne's Mysterious Island. mounted with gold. He reached for the dagger. some were of exquisite workmanship. pistols. alluding to Tipu's faith. Dharma Raja. later killing Tipu Sultan. His gun did not work. known as Tipu's Tiger. he also had the emblem of a tiger on his banners and even on some arms and weapons. The sword was on display at the Wallace Collection. or with Persian and Arabic verses". and killed the tiger with it.
2013. Mohibbul (2005). National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science. ^ Jump up to: a b c Roddam Narasimha (1985). Muslim political thought through the ages: 1562-1947 (2 ed. 399. 4. 5. 17. haughty. Alexander (1800). yet full of self-control. 2013. p. 6. 78. History of Tipu Sultan. Tipu is portrayed as cunning. ci–civ. History of Tipu Sultan. hard-hearted. Jump up^ R. John William (1902). In his historical novels on the Seringapatam captivity of Konkani Catholics by the Konkani littérateur V. Devache Krupen(By the Grace of God). Pennsylvania State University. Jump up^ Hasan. "Appendix No. Jump up^ Tipu Sultan – Wars & Peace . & W. A history of the British army. p.). Retrieved January 18. Jump up^ Allana. Retrieved January 19. ISBN 8187879572. Aakar Books. 431– 432. Pennsylvania: Royal Book Company. Global Silk Industry: A Complete Source Book. APH Publishing. p. 2013. Retrieved January 19. 3. 2013. Jump up^ Hasan. ^ Jump up to: a b c Hasan. Sardarachi Sinol (The sign of the Knights) and Infernachi Daram (The gates of Hell).P. ISBN 8131300870. Retrieved January 19. 10. Macmillan. 2013.J. Gulam (1988).D. New York. Jump up^ Exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. See also[edit source] Tipu's Tiger Mysore invasion of Kerala The Dreams of Tipu Sultan by Girish Karnad Muslim warriors Mughal weapons PNS Tippu Sultan Tipu Sultan Mosque Notes[edit source] 1. Saldanha. pp. Belthangaddicho Balthazar (Balthazar of Belthangady). Aakar Books. Jump up^ Fortescue. A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. History of Tipu Sultan. London: G. XXXIII". Retrieved January 22. 6. 24. ^ Jump up to: a b Beatson. ISBN 8187879572. Nichol. Aakar Books. Mohibbul (2005).k. p. Rockets in Mysore and Britain. Mohibbul (2005). 1750–1850 A.datta (2007). ISBN 8187879572. 8. Jump up^ National Galleries of Scotland 11. 2. Volume 3. pp. 7. 9. p. revengeful.
23.com/august. Muthanna. Cal-Info. History of the Proceedings and Debates of the [House of Lords and House of Commons]-J. . K. British Library Online Gallery. 1793 33. 17. Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: The Roots of British Domination. War. Jump up^ Economic and Political Weekly. ISBN 9789004106321. the Ottomans and Britain. Retrieved 14 June 2009. Jump up^http://www. Tipu Sultan: Giving the Devil His Due. Jump up^ Bhacker. Seringapatam (Mysore)". p. Jump up^ "Description of the Burial of Tipu during a Severe Thunderstorm". Jump up^ Karsh. Cal-Info.com/personalities/tipu-sultan/ 32. Jump up^ Naravane. Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims. Macquarie University Library. 22. Almon. 17401849.ISBN 9780415079976. Jump up^ Kausar. Jump up^ http://www. Jump up^ Prof. Watson pp.islamicvoice. ISBN 9789004106321. Retrieved 12 February 2010. Jump up^ The Parliamentary Register. M.99/tippu. Jump up^ "Persian script of Tipu Sultan on the gateway to Krishnaraja Sagar Dam (KRS)". Jump up^ Özcan. Jump up^ http://www. 24. where Tipu Sultan was martyr. "Tipu Sultan — Step towards Economic development". Sheik Ali. 16. 65 14.htm 26. Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims. R. 19. S (2006-01-01). Jump up^ Özcan. M. Jump up^ Tricolor and crescent William E. 25. p. 18771924. Azmi (1997). Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj. Jump up^ Brittlebank 18. 18771924. 34. Jump up^ A Survey Of Kerala History By A Sreedhara Menon 31. The Maratha Rajas of Tanjore. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Subramanian. Retrieved 17 October 2006.ISBN 9788131300343.karnataka. Mohmed Reda (1992).12.archive. ^ Jump up to: a b Napoleon and Persia by Iradj Amini. Kabir (1980). Kaushik (2011-03-30). p. p. Or. the Ottomans and Britain. Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia.13–14 27. (1928). Jump up^ I. Azmi (1997). Secret correspondence of Tipu Sultan. Jump up^ Subramanian. 64. I. 13.12 28.11 29. Muthanna — CHAPTER XIII TIPU'S FERVENT APPEAL TO MUSLIMS ABROAD 21. p. Jump up^ Roy.org/stream/dictionaryofindi00buckuoft#page/86/mode/1up 30. M.ISBN 9781136790874. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Jump up^ "View of the Hoally Gateway. 2837 15. 20.
Moreover. 36. ^ Jump up to: a b Valath. Mysore 1930. Bangalore 1864. Saletare. Jump up^ C. Jump up^ W. Keralathile Sthacharithrangal — Thrissur Jilla (in Malayalam). Englishmen were prejudiced against him because they regarded him as their most formidable rival and an inveterate enemy. Jump up^ B. pp. ―Tipu‘s endowments to Hindus‖ in Habib. and because. or by the prisoners of war who had suffered punishments which they thought they did not deserve. (16 January 1991). unlike other Indian rulers. 10-11. He was also misrepresented by those who were anxious to justify the wars of aggression which the Company's Government had waged against him. 74–79. 58. Many of the atrocities of which he has been accused were allegedly fabricated either by persons embittered and angry on account of the defeats which they had sustained at his hands. Wagoner "Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu Domain by Kate Brittlebank (Review The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 45.ISBN 9781136790874. 111 -115. 41. S. ed. Jump up^ Irfan Habib "War and Peace. 47.266 (Jan. London 1811 46. pp. Jump up^ A. Jump up^ 1916. No. 17401849. The Real Tipu. he refused to become a tributary of the English Company. Jump up^ Brittlebank. Jump up^ Phillip B. 357-358.68 No. 73-76. k. v. Kerala Sahithya Academy. Wilks Report on the Interior Administration. Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia. Mohibbul Hasan writes "The reasons why Tipu was reviled are not far to seek. Jump up^ Hasan 1971. 43. 2 (May 1999) pp. Jump up^ A. 2 vols. 541–543 38. Chetty. 2002. 39. 42. 1–3 37. 1783-4"State and Diplomacy Under Tipu Sultan (Delhi) 2001 p5. 40. Resources and Expenditure of the Government of Mysore under the System prescribed by the Order of the Governor-General in Council dated 4 September 1799. M. andHistorical Sketches of the South of India in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysore. Davies "Review of The History of Tipu Sultan by Mohibbul Hasan" in The English Historical Review Vol. Rishi Publications.) Confronting Colonialismp111 49. Kaushik (2011-03-30).D. Kirkpatrick Select Letters of Tipu Sultan. Jump up^ Roy. 2002. (1981). 116 -118. 44.C. thus helping in the consolidation of the new regime" The History of Tipu Sultan(Delhi) 1971 p368 . Tipu Sultan's Account of the last Phase of the Second War with the English. Jump up^ Sharma.35. Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department. V. Hammick. ―Tipu Sultan as Defender of the Hindu Dharma‖ in Habib. 1953) pp144-5 48. his achievements were belittled and his character blackened in order that the people of Mysore might forget him and rally round the Raja. Varanasi. Jump up^ Hasan 1971. 359. War. Jump up^ M. Subbaraya Chetty "Tipu's endowments to Hindus and Hindu institutions" in Habib (Ed. H. A.
1930. 63. 93 55. 117. Jump up^ Hasan. 359 61. M1 Google Print. ^ Jump up to: a b Ali." 51. "He stuck to his dream of a united Mysore". Roland E. 2006.50. "Tipu's endowments to Hindus". 1930. Jump up^ Sampath. German Reformation. Prashant More. 342.M. pp. p. Biography of Tipu Sultan. Jump up^ Hasan. Panicker. August 1923 52. Panorama (Deccan Herald). p. Joe Lobo .ISBN 0-19-820659-3. pp. TwoCircles. 66. 68. Sheikh. 1998. The British Isles and the War of American Independence. 67. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Government Press. Jump up^ "Deportation & The Konkani Christian Captivity at Srirangapatna (1784 Feb. Sheikh (17 August 2008). 116–8 62. Jump up^ A. 56. Volume 2. 111 –115. and Christians . Muslims. 24th Ash Wednesday)". Orient Longman. 2. Government Press. Jump up^ N. was initially constructed by the Subcontinent's colonisers. 357–8 59. ISBN 81-88432-12-1. Oxford University Press. Jump up^ Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department1916 pp10-11. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Sarasvati's Children.Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. Saletare "Tipu Sultan as Defender of the Hindu Dharma" in Habib (Ed. "Persian script of Tipu Sultan on the gateway to Krishnaraja Sagar Dam (KRS)". Issue 4. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help) 64. p. Miller. ^ Jump up to: a b Mysore gazetteer. Jump up^ Mappila Muslims of Kerala: a study in Islamic trends (1992). Jump up^ J. Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao (Rao sahib). Vikram (4 October 2006). French Revolution". pp. Cal-Info. History of Tipu Sultan. Jump up^ Mysore gazetteer. M1 Google Print. Mittal Publications.) Confronting Colonialism. 2000. 65. 73–6 60. p. History of Tipu Sultan.net. Subbaraya Chetty. Jump up^ B. Jump up^ Brittlebank. The History of Tipu Sultan. B. South Kanara. Religion and society in South India: Hindus. p. as we shall see. Jump up^ K. p. Bhasha Poshini. Jump up^ Hasan.A. Volume 2. 2698 54. ISBN 81-7099-586-8. pp. Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao (rao sahib). Shyam Bhat. M1 Google Print. Retrieved 17 October 2006. Jump up^ Ali. On page 2 she writes "it is perhaps ironic that the aggressive Hinduism of some members of the Indian Community in the 1990s should draw upon an image of Tipu which. 2697 53. Jump up^ Stephen Conway. Benjamin Lewis Rice. 10–12. Retrieved 29 February 2008. Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR. pp. Retrieved 18 August 2008. "Tipu had in him Italian Renaissance. Issue 4. 58. Benjamin Lewis Rice. 362–363 57. p. 1799–1860: a study in colonial administration and regional response.
11 April 2004. K. and reproduced as Appendix No.69.packhum.doi:10. 3 May 2011. Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. 74:History of Christianity in Canara (1965)) 77. Jump up^ "Tiger Motif". . p. Jump up^ Brittlebank. Aakar Books. An Examination of the Tiger Emblem of Tipu Sultan of Mysore".2307/312813.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D21201010%26ct%3D229 81. Jump up^ Modern Indian literature. Victoria & Albert Museum. Jump up^ "Christianity in Mangalore". Haidar Alí and Tipú Sultán. Delhi: Oxford University Press. The Hindu. 314–316 70. p. Wellington: The Iron Duke. p. M. Jump up^ http://persian. Shanbhag. OCLC 11827326. L. Severino da Silva. Jump up^ Account of a Surviving Captive. Jump up^ "The swords of Tipu Sultan". Hasan. Silva of Gangolim(Letter of a Mr. Macquarie University Library. Lawrence (2000-08-12). 87. Mohibbul. 217 References[edit source] Bowring. and the Struggle with the Musalmán Powers of the South. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m K. p. 72. 84. Silva to his sister. to the author. Brittlebank. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India. edit 85. Jump up^ John B. Jump up^ Scurry & Whiteway 1824.Harper Collins. Jump up^ James. Sahitya Akademy.28 79. Lewin (1899). Jump up^ Holmes. pp. p. Richard (2003). 126 74. Retrieved 28 April 2009. Jump up^ http://persian. 83. p. Jump up^ "Tippoo's Tiger". Jump up^ William Dalrymple White Mughals (2006) p. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 73. Modern Asian Studies 29 (2): 257–269. 7 April 2004. Jump up^ Scurry & Whiteway 1824.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D21201010%26ct%3D355 82. Jump up^ Bowring. OCLC 246448596. Bernard. MacMillan. BBC News. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 60. Volume 2. 88. Retrieved 12 February 2010. ISBN 81-87879-57-2.packhum.M. Monteiro. Retrieved 10 December 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2008. Jump up^ Habib Beary. Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy.78–79 78. 388 71. Kerala History . Diocese of Mangalore. History of Tipu Sultan. Jump up^ Forrest 1887. A Mr. ISBN 978-0-312-26382-9. an anthology.R. (1995). "Sakti and Barakat: The Power of Tipu's Tiger. 103 75. pp. ISBN 978-019-563977-3.L. 104 76. a copy of which was given by an advocate. 86. Kate (1999). Jump up^ The Gentleman's Magazine 1833. 80. ISBN 0-00-713750-8. "Tipu's sword back in Indian hands". "Monti Fest Originated at Farangipet – 240 Years Ago!".
William. A fictionalised account of Tipu's life. Further reading[edit source] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tipu Sultan Agrawal. Sayyid. Tipu Sultan. Shamsu. Institute of Objective Studies Siddiqi. Robert. Home. Sultan Tipu Shahid. ISBN 1-869933-02-8 Campbell. G. "Mirza Ghalib in London". Tipu Sultan". Gidwami S (1976).. Buddle. Nyasanal Buk Trast Amjad. Tipu Sultan the Great. Himaliyah Buk Ha®us Banglori. India. Savanih Tipu Sultan. Anne. Mahmud Khan Mahmud. Irfan. Mylapore. Siva Publications Habib. Maktabah-yi Urdu Da®ijast Home. Madras: selfpublished. Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of their religious policies (IOS series). Asian Educational Services. Mohammad. State and Diplomacy Under Tipu Sultan: Documents and Essays . B. B Sheik. Press Chinnian. ISBN 0-901974-42-0 Ali. Tigers Round the Throne. Manohar Publishers and Distributors. Faiz Alam. John Carmichael (of the East India Company) (1777). ). Zamana Gallery. Sunset at Srirangapatam: After the death of Tipu Sultan. The Maratha Rajas of Tanjore. Lion M. The Sword of Tipu Sultan: a historical novel about the life and legend of Tipu Sultan of India. John Henry. K. OCLC 173807200. Grose. ISBN 81-206-1512-3 Mohibbul Hasan. Orient Longman. Select Views in Mysore: The Country of Tipu Sultan from Drawings Taken on the Spot by Mr. Tipu Sultan's Mission to Constantinople. Allied Publishers. N. Richard Hamilton. Bhagwan. This book contains a printing of an earlier version of this Wikipedia article. Buk K . R (1928). 2008. Charmichael. V3. Sajjad. Logan (1887). "Flight Delayed". Agha. ‗Ali Ashahri. ISBN 81-87879-56-4 Moienuddin. Paperback. Freedom fighters of India. Tippoo Sultan: The fall of Srirangapattana and the restoration of the Hindu raj. ISBN 9788120604469. A Voyage to the East Indies. ISBN 81-250-1919-7 Pande. Malabar Manual. Subramanian. OCLC 249773661. Sahifah-yi Tipu Sultan. P. Himālayah Pablishing Hā‘ūs. Aakar Books. Govt. ISBN 81-85229-52-X Hashimi. Tipu Sultan.
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