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Intron LTE

Intron LTE

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Published by Mohamed Alattar
Intron LTE
Intron LTE

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Published by: Mohamed Alattar on Oct 03, 2013
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05/14/2014

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Sections

  • 3GPP Evolution
  • General Requirements
  • Requirements: Mobility
  • Requirements: Coverage
  • Requirements: E-MBMS
  • Requirements: Spectrum Flexibility
  • Frame Structure
  • Resource Grid
  • Flexible Bandwidth
  • Transmission Time Interval (TTI)
  • Multiple Access Scheme
  • Adaptive Modulation and Coding
  • MIMO Support
  • LTE Release 9 enhancements
  • 3GPP “LTE Release 10 and beyond”
  • Uplink Channels
  • Mapping to Physical Channels
  • Uplink Control Signalling
  • Data & Control Information on PUSCH
  • Control Information PUCCH
  • Channels and Signals
  • Uplink Reference Signals
  • Demodulation Reference Signals: DRS
  • Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) I
  • Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) II
  • SRS Transmission
  • Physical Uplink Control Channel
  • PUCCH Bandwidth
  • Physical Uplink Shared Channel
  • PUSCH Scrambling
  • PUSCH Modulation
  • PUSCH Precoding
  • PUSCH Precoding: DFT Size
  • Resource Element Mapping
  • PUSCH Frequency Hopping
  • Downlink Channels
  • Downlink Channels and Signals
  • Frame structure
  • Downlink PCFICH
  • Physical Downlink Control Channel I
  • Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel I
  • Physical Downlink Shared Channel
  • Downlink PBCH
  • Downlink Reference Signals I
  • Downlink Reference Signals II
  • Synchronisation Signals I
  • Synchronisation Signals II
  • Channel Coding Procedures
  • Tr. Channel & Ctrl. Information Processing
  • Downlink Physical Channel Processing
  • Scrambling
  • Modulation
  • Downlink Modulation Mapper
  • Multi-antenna Processing in LTE
  • Transmission Schemes I
  • Transmission Schemes II
  • Transmission Schemes III
  • Physical Antennas and Antenna Ports
  • Precoding for Spatial Multiplexing
  • Spatial Mux: Precoding without CDD
  • Spatial Mux: Large Delay CDD Precoding
  • Beamforming
  • Transmit Diversity Precoding
  • OFDM Symbol Construction
  • OFDM Modulation

Europe &APAC

94 Duke Street
GlasgowG4 0UW
Scotland UK
Tel and Fax +44 (0)141 552 8855
www.steepestascent.com
info@steepestascent.com
USA
200N. Westlake Blvd, #202
Westlake Village
Los Angeles CA 91362, USA
Tel +1 805 413 4127
Introduction to LTE
Daniel García-Alís, Iain Stirling & Bob Stewart
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
2
3GPP Evolution
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
3
General Requirements
• Data rates (for a 20 MHz bandwidth):
• 100 Mbps in DL
• 50 Mbps in UL
• Spectral efficiency associated to data rates shown above
• 5 bits/sec/Hz in DL
• 2.5 bits/sec/Hz in UL
• Latency smaller than 5 msec for small IP packets
• Voice service: at least same quality as WCDMA/HSPA
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
4
Requirements: Mobility
• Mobility:
• Optimised for 0 to 15 km/h
• High performance for up to 120 km/h
• Should maintain a connection for up to 350 km/h (or even 500
km/h for some frequency bands)
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
5
Requirements: Coverage
• Coverage:
• Up to 5 km cell radius: meet throughput, spectral efficiency and
mobility targets
• Up to 30 km cell radius: slight performance degradation is
tolerated
• Up to 100 km cell radius: operation not precluded
5 km
30 km
100 km
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
6
Requirements: E-MBMS
• Enhanced Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (E-MBMS):
• Should provide MBMS better than Release 6;
• Broadcast required spectral efficiency 1 bit/sec/Hz;
• Should be possible to have MBMS only or a mixture of MBMS
and non-MBMS services;
• Can transmit MBMS over single frequency network (MBSFN);
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
7
Requirements: Spectrum Flexibility
• Duplexing modes:
• FDD: Frequency Division Duplex
• TDD: Time Division Duplex
• Example bandwidths:
1.4 MHz
3 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
15 MHz
20 MHz
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
8
Frame Structure
• FDD frame structure:
• TDD frame structure:
slot (0.5ms)
0
subframe (1ms)
frame (10ms)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
subframe
frame
slot
0 2 3 4 5 7 8 9
DwPTS UpPTS GP
DwPTS UpPTS
GP
0 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 6
10 msec
switch-point
5 msec
switch-point
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
9
Resource Grid
• Two dimensional data structure:
...
0
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
a slot
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
OFDM symbols
time
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
0
frame
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
a resource element
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
10
Flexible Bandwidth
• LTE defined in a bandwidth independent way with:
• resource blocks of 12 sub-carriers spaced 15 kHz
• System bandwidth should be easily reconfigured
1
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
resource
block
1 slot
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
time
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
11
Transmission Time Interval (TTI)
• TTI:
• length of independently decodable transmission link
• In LTE a TTI is a subframe (2 slots): 1 msec
• Minimum resource that can be allocated in LTE:
• 1 subframe in time: 1 msec
• 12 subcarriers in frequency:
0 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 1 6
subframe: 1 msec
frame: 10 msec
180 kHz 12 15 kHz × =
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
12
Multiple Access Scheme
• Downlink
• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) with
cyclic prefix (CP)
• Uplink
• Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-
FDMA) with cyclic prefix
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
13
Adaptive Modulation and Coding
• Downlink modulation schemes
• BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64 QAM
• Uplink modulation schemes
• QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
• Channel coding: Turbo coder with
• coding rate of 1/3
• two 8-state constituent encoders
• contention free internal interleaver
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
14
MIMO Support
• Multiple input multiple output support (downlink only):
• 2 or 4 transmit antennas
• 2 or 4 receive antennas
• Transmit diversity
• Cyclic delay diversity (CDD)
• Space frequency transmit diversity (transmit diversity coding
applied before IDFT)
• Spatial multiplexing
• Up to 4 layers or transmit streams
• Codebook based precoding
• Note: one antenna is used in non-MIMO mode.
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
15
LTE Release 9 enhancements
• Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS)
• completion of MBMS specification by adding related logical
channels and clarifying physical layer details.
• Home eNodeB (femtocells)
• Interference scenarios such as WiFi and DECT interference;
• Positioning support
• UE reception of satellite positioning signals (Galileo/GPS/
GLONASS)
• UE reception of new downlink positioning reference signal
• Dual-layer UE-specific (non-codebook based) beamforming
• Two new reference signals are defined (antenna ports 7 and 8)
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
16
3GPP “LTE Release 10 and beyond”
• Has been submitted to the ITU as a candidate for IMT-Advanced;
• Release 10 features:
• Carrier aggregation to give up to 100MHz bandwidth;
• Downlink transmission with 8 antennas and layers;
• Uplink multi-antenna transmission with up to 4 antennas;
• Co-ordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) transmission and reception;
• Relaying from Relay Nodes (RN) to eNB;
• Latency improvements;
• 2.6GHz TDD support for USA
• Self Optimising Networks (SON) enhancements
Europe &APAC
94 Duke Street
GlasgowG4 0UW
Scotland UK
Tel and Fax +44 (0)141 552 8855
www.steepestascent.com
info@steepestascent.com
USA
200N. Westlake Blvd, #202
Westlake Village
Los Angeles CA 91362, USA
Tel +1 805 413 4127
LTE Uplink
Daniel García-Alís, Iain Stirling & Bob Stewart
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
2
Uplink Channels
• Transport Channels (TrCH)
• Control Information
UL-SCH Uplink - Shared Channel
RACH Random Access Channel
UCI Uplink Control Information
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
3
Mapping to Physical Channels
• Control information can be carried in PUSCH and PUCCH
UL-SCH
UCI
RACH
Uplink
PUSCH
PRACH
PUCCH
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
4
Uplink Control Signalling
• Conveys L1 and L2 control information
• HARQ acknowledgments for DL-SCH blocks
• channel quality reports: CQI, RI and PMI
• scheduling requests
• Transmitted on
• PUCCH if no resources are allocated to UL-SCH
• multiplexed with UL-SCH on to PUSCH (before SC-FDMA) if
there is a valid schedule grant
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
5
Data & Control Information on PUSCH
• For the PUSCH data and control information are multiplexed:
• If only control is present, the data coding path is absent
channel
coding
rate
matching
code block
segment.
bitstream h
k
H bits
CRC
attachment
code block
concat.
input bits a
k
A bits
L 24 G
CRC24A
D ( ) , =
turbo
data and control
multiplexing
code
block
O
bits
data
Channel Quality
L 24 G
CRC24B
D ( ) , =
block
code
Rank
Indication (RI)
block
code
ACK / NACK
channel
interleaver
1 or 2 bits 1 or 2 bits
Indication (CQI)
UCI (control)
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
6
Control Information PUCCH
• The channel coding operations are:
code
block
up to 11 bits
Indication (CQI)
ACK / NACK
1 or 2 bits
Channel Quality scheduling
0 bits
request
PUCCH
format 1
PUCCH
format 1a
or format 1b
PUCCH
format 2
code
block
up to 11 bits
Indication (CQI)
Channel Quality
PUCCH
format 2a
ACK / NACK
1 or 2 bits
20 bits 20 bits
or format 2b
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
7
Channels and Signals
• A physical channel is defined as a set of resource elements carrying
information originating at a higher layer;
• A physical signal is defined as a set of resource elements used in
support of the physical layer but not originating from a higher layer.
• For the uplink, the following physical channels are defined:
• PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel;
• PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel;
• PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel.
• For the uplink, the following physical signals are defined:
• Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)
• Demodulation Reference Signal (DMRS)
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
8
Uplink Reference Signals
• There are two types of uplink reference signals:
• Demodulation reference signal: associated with PUSCH or PUCCH
• Sounding reference signal: not associated with any other transmission
• They are time multiplexed with uplink data (not frequency multiplexed)
• Used for channel estimation
01234560123456
slot slot
subframe
01234560123456
01234560123456
user #1
user #2
user #3
reference signal
data
f
t
PUSCH demodulation reference
signal example (normal CP)
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
9
Demodulation Reference Signals: DRS
• There are two demodulation reference signals:
• one for the PUSCH;
• and one for the PUCCH.
• Used for channel estimation to allow for coherent demodulation
• Desired attributes: small power variations in:
• time: results in high power amplifier efficiency
• frequency: results in similar channel estimation quality for all
frequency components
• DRS sequences used:
• Cyclic extensions of Zadoff-Chu sequences (long sequences)
• Special short QPSK sequences
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
10
Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) I
• eNodeB needs channel quality information in order to assign resources
• From DRS eNodeB can only get channel estimates on UE spectrum
• No information available out of assigned spectrum
• SRS overcome this problem
• Used by base station to estimate channel quality of UEs
UE
allocated
resources
txed resource
grid
channel estimates
only available on
rxed resource
grid
this band
no channel estimates
available in other bands
DRS
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
11
Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) II
• May cover large frequency span (not assigned to UE):
• minimum of 4 resource block span
• multiples of 4 resource blocks span
• Can be transmitted as often as 2 msec (every 2nd subframe)
• Can be transmitted as infrequently as 160 msec (every 16th frame)
• Not necessarily transmitted with any physical channel (unlike DRS)
• SRS modes
• wideband: one transmission covers band of interest
• frequency hopping: narrowband, location changes with time
subframe subframe subframe subframe subframe subframe
SRS
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
12
SRS Transmission
• Transmitted on last symbol of subframe every 2nd subcarrier
• Multiple UEs can transmit SRSs simultaneously
• Interference is avoided by:
• using different cyclic shifts (phase rotations): orthogonality
• changing the comb transmission pattern
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
subframe
.
.
.
.
.
.
OFDM symbol
SRS subcarriers UE
1
used for SRS
SRS subcarriers
UE
2
UE
3
using different
cyclic shifts for SRS
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
13
Physical Uplink Control Channel
• PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel
• conveys uplink control information;
• never transmitted simultaneously with PUSCH from the UE.
• PUCCH used if UE has no valid schedule grant
• Transmitted with frequency hopping (provides frequency diversity)
• Transmitted on band edges: leaves contiguous bandwidth for PUSCH
in the middle.
UE
uplink control
PUCCH:
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
14
PUCCH Bandwidth
• One resource block (RB) allocated to each PUCCH
• This is too large for the amount of information transmitted
• Therefore more than one PUCCH can share the same RB:
• Use same base reference sequence
• Use different phase rotations (cyclic shifts )
• Use different orthogonal cover code (formats 1, 1a & 1b)
• Inter-cell interference can be a problem
• Inter-cell interference is randomised by using hopping patterns in
and orthogonal codes with each symbol
α
α
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
15
Physical Uplink Shared Channel
• PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel carries
• data;
• control information.
• PUSCH processing chain:
UE
uplink data & control
PUSCH:
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
SC-FDMA
Precoding
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
16
PUSCH Scrambling
• Modulo 2 multiplication (XOR) with a scrambling sequence
• Only applied to: coded data, channel quality coded bits, ACK coded
bits
• Not applied to ACK placeholders, these are set to predetermined value
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
SC-FDMA
Precoding
PUSCH
c
1 ACK bit
placeholders Q
m
4 = ( )
...0 0 1 0 1 1 1 X X X 0 1 1 0 1 0...
coded data
ch. quality coded bits
ACK coded bits
.0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 b
˜
i ( )
b i ( )
c i ( )
b
˜
i ( ) b
˜
i 1 – ( ) =
b
˜
i 1 + ( ) b
˜
i 2 + ( ) 1 = =
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
17
PUSCH Modulation
• Maps bits into symbols
• The modulation mapping defines 3 constellations as follows:
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
SC-FDMA
Precoding
PUSCH
Q
I
QPSK
1
1
00
01
10
11
Q
I
1
1
16-QAM
Q
I
3 5 7
3
5
7
64-QAM
0000
0001
0010
0011
1010
1011
1000
1001
3
3
0101
0100
0111
0110
1111
1110
1101
1100
1
1
101111 101101 100101 100111 000111 000101 001101 001111
101110 101100 100100 100110 000110 000100 001100 001110
101010 101000 100000 100010 000010 000000 001000 001010
101011 101001 100001 100011 000011 000001 001001 001011
111011 111001 110001 110011 010010 010001 011001 011011
111010 111000 110000 110010 010010 010000 011000 011010
111110 111100 110100 110110 010110 010100 011100 011110
111111 111101 110101 110111 010111 010101 011101 011111
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
18
PUSCH Precoding
• Not the same as downlink (multi-antenna) precoding
• Produces SC-FDMA modulation;
• Generation process:
• Split the modulated symbols into sets;
• Each set (of size ) forms an SC-FDMA symbol;
• Perform a DFT (precoding part of SC-FDMA modulation);
• DFT size: its prime must be a product of 2, 3 and/or 5
• Smallest DFT size is 12
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
SC-FDMA
Precoding
PUSCH
M
symb
M
symb
M
sc
PUSCH

M
sc
PUSCH
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
19
PUSCH Precoding: DFT Size
• DFT can be implemented with FFT for efficiency;
• DFT size: its prime factors are 2, 3 and/or 5
• Minimum DFT size (resource block size in the frequency domain): 12
M
sc
PUSCH
N
sc
RB
2
α
2
× 3
α
3
5
α
5
× × N
sc
RB
N
RB
UL
≤ =
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
subframe
freq
time
1
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
DFT
N
sc
RB
12 =
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
20
Resource Element Mapping
• The final stage in PUSCH processing is to map the symbols to the
allocated physical resource elements
• Note that allocation sizes are limited to values whose prime factors are
2, 3 & 5 (imposed by precoding stage)
• Map in increasing order:
• first subcarriers
• then the time domain (SC-FDMA)
• Avoid SC-FDMA symbols with
• Demodulation reference signals
• Sounding reference signals
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
SC-FDMA
Precoding
PUSCH
z
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
21
PUSCH Frequency Hopping
• Allocated spectrum to a UE can change every subframe;
• This is controlled by a frequency hopping function :
• This provides for better frequency and interference diversity.
f
hop
. ( )
frequency
time
subframe
intervals
short-term narrowband interference
Mobile 2
Mobile 3
Mobile 1
Europe &APAC
94 Duke Street
GlasgowG4 0UW
Scotland UK
Tel and Fax +44 (0)141 552 8855
www.steepestascent.com
info@steepestascent.com
USA
200N. Westlake Blvd, #202
Westlake Village
Los Angeles CA 91362, USA
Tel +1 805 413 4127
LTE Downlink
Daniel García-Alís, Iain Stirling & Bob Stewart
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
2
Downlink Channels
• Transport Channels (TrCH):
• Control Information:
DL-SCH Downlink - Shared Channel
BCH Broadcast Channel
PCH Paging Channel
MCH Multicast Channel
CFI Control Format Indicator
HI HARQ Indicator
DCI Downlink Control Information
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
3
Mapping to Physical Channels
DL-SCH
CFI
BCH
PCH
MCH
HI
DCI
Downlink
PDSCH
PBCH
PMCH
PCFICH
PDCCH
PHICH
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
4
Downlink Channels and Signals
• A physical channel: set of resource elements carrying information
originating at a higher layer;
• A physical signal: set of resource elements used in support of the
physical layer but not originating from a higher layer.
• Reference Signals;
• Synchronisation Signals;
• PDSCH: Phy DL Shared Ch
• PDCCH: Phy DL Control Ch.
• PMCH: Phy Multicast Ch.
• PBCH: Phy Broadcast Ch.
• PCFICH: Phy Ctrl Format
Indicator Ch.
• PHICH: Phy Hybrid ARQ
Indicator Ch.
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
5
Frame structure
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
OFDM symbol
ref. signal
control
PSS
SSS
BCH
unused
PCFICH
ref. signal
PDCCH
PDSCH
regions
unused
unused
SSS
PSS
BCH
PCFICH
SSS
PSS
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
6
Downlink PCFICH
• PCFICH: Downlink Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
• specifies how many OFDM symbols are used for PDCCH
transmission;
• Uses QPSK modulation
• Transmitted in the same set of antenna ports as PBCH;
• It has its own specific layer mapping, precoding and mapping to
resource elements.
UE
format of PDCCH
PCFICH:
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
7
Physical Downlink Control Channel I
• PDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel
• carries control information including scheduling assignments;
• Uses QPSK modulation
• Transmitted in the same set of antenna ports as PBCH;
• It has its own specific layer mapping, precoding and mapping to
resource elements
UE
downlink and uplink scheduling assignments
PDCCH:
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
8
Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel I
• PHICH: Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel
• hybrid-ARQ ACK and NACK indicators UEs;
• Transmitted in the same set of antenna ports as PBCH;
• The PHICH uses its own specific:
• layer mapping;
• precoding;
• mapping to resource elements.
UE
ACK / NACK
PHICH:
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
9
Physical Downlink Shared Channel
• PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel
• It is the “main” downlink channel;
• Carries transport blocks to the mobiles;
• PDSCH uses the following antenna ports:
• {0}, {0,1}or {0,1,2,3}if UE-specific reference signals are not
transmitted;
• {5}if UE-specific reference signals are transmitted.
UE
downlink data
PDSCH:
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
10
Downlink PBCH
• PBCH: Physical Broadcast Channel
• carries broadcast information (from the BCCH logical channel)
• Uses a simplified and fixed transport format;
• A coded block of 1920 samples for normal cyclic prefix or 1728
samples for extended cyclic prefix is produced by the channel coder
every 40ms;
• This block is QPSK modulated into 960 or 864 complex symbols;
• Transmit diversity layer mapping and precoding is performed.
UE
UE
UE
UE
UE
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
11
Downlink Reference Signals I
• There are three types of downlink reference signal:
• Cell-specific: its structure depends on the cell ID
• MBSFN references for MBSFN transmission;
• UE-specific references: used in non-codebook based
beamforming.
• Provided in support of coherent demodulation;
• Used by UE to perform channel estimation and to obtain channel
quality measurements.
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
12
Downlink Reference Signals II
• References are arranged across time and frequency;
• Only one reference signal is transmitted through per antenna port, this
allows for channel estimation for the different antenna ports;
• When an antenna port transmits a reference signal other ports are
silent;
time
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
ANTENNA PORT 1
ANTENNA PORT 2
Antenna port 1 reference signal
Antenna port 2 reference signal
No transmission
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
13
Synchronisation Signals I
• There are two downlink synchronisation signals:
• Primary synchronisation signal;
• Secondary synchronisation signal.
• This structure reduces cell search procedure complexity;
• Used to obtain:
UE
CELL
Primary/secondary synch signals
• Cell identity
• frame timing
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
14
Synchronisation Signals II
• Always transmitted in the same place regardless of bandwidth used.
• first 72 carriers (around DC carrier);
• OFDM symbols 5 and 6 of first slot in subframes 0 & 5.
10 msec radio frame
#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9
subframe
01234560123456
slot slot
7
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
OFDM symbol
01234560123456
slot slot
7
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
OFDM symbol
b
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h
f
t
secondary synch signal
primary synch signal
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
15
Channel Coding Procedures
• There are a number of procedures which are used for multiple
transport channel or control information types:
• CRC calculation;
• Code block segmentation;
• Channel coding (tail biting convolutional and turbo);
• Rate matching;
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
16
Tr. Channel & Ctrl. Information Processing
• Depending on the channel, a different set of processing steps occurs:
channel
coding
rate
matching
code block
segment.
bitstream e
k
E
b
i
t
s

bitstream f
k
G
b
i
t
s

CRC
attachment
code block
concat.
channel
coding
rate
matching
CRC
attachment
input bits a
k
A
b
i
t
s

input bits a
k
A
b
i
t
s

BCH DL-SCH, PCH and MCH
G
C
R
C
1
6
D
(
)
c
o
n
v
.
G
C
R
C
2
4
A
D
(
)
t
u
r
b
o

G
C
R
C
2
4
B
D
(
)
channel
coding
bitstream b
k
B
b
i
t
s

CFI or HI
CFI or HI
H
I
:

r
a
t
e

1
/
3

r
e
p
e
t
i
t
i
o
n

c
o
d
e
C
F
I
:

r
a
t
e

1
/
1
6

b
l
o
c
k

c
o
d
e
bitstream e
k
E
b
i
t
s

channel
coding
rate
matching
CRC
attachment
input bits a
k
A
b
i
t
s

DCI
G
C
R
C
1
6
D
(
)
c
o
n
v
.

©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
17
Downlink Physical Channel Processing
• The general structure of downlink physical channels processing is:
• This structure applies to the PDSCH;
• other channels have slightly different processing chains.
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
layers antenna ports
mapper
Layer
Precoding
modulation
OFDM
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
OFDM
code words
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
18
Scrambling
• Produces a block of scrambled bits from the code word bits :
• Modulo 2 multiplication (XOR) of the code word bits with a scrambling
sequence :
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
layers antenna ports
mapper
Layer
Precoding
modulation
OFDM
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
OFDM
code words
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
b
˜
q ( )
b
q ( )
b
˜
q ( )
i ( ) b
q ( )
i ( ) c
q ( )
i ( ) + ( ) mod 2; = i 0…M
bit
q ( )
1 – =
c
q ( )
block of bits b
q ( )
block of bits b
˜
q ( )
c
q ( )
scrambling sequence
code word bits scrambled bits
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
19
Modulation
• Downlink supported modulation formats:
Physical Channel Modulation Schemes
PDSCH QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
PMCH QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
PDCCH QPSK
PBCH QPSK
PCFICH QPSK
PHICH BPSK
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
layers antenna ports
mapper
Layer
Precoding
modulation
OFDM
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
OFDM
code words
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
20
Downlink Modulation Mapper
• The modulation mapping defines 4 constellations as follows:
• Amplitude levels are normalised.
Q
I
QPSK
1
1
00
01
10
11
Q
I
1
1
16-QAM
Q
I
3 5 7
3
5
7
64-QAM
0000
0001
0010
0011
1010
1011
1000
1001
3
3
0101
0100
0111
0110
1111
1110
1101
1100
1
1
101111 101101 100101 100111 000111 000101 001101 001111
101110 101100 100100 100110 000110 000100 001100 001110
101010 101000 100000 100010 000010 000000 001000 001010
101011 101001 100001 100011 000011 000001 001001 001011
111011 111001 110001 110011 010010 010001 011001 011011
111010 111000 110000 110010 010010 010000 011000 011010
111110 111100 110100 110110 010110 010100 011100 011110
111111 111101 110101 110111 010111 010101 011101 011111
Q
I
QPSK
1
1
00
01
10
11
Q
I
BPSK
1
1
0
1
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
21
Multi-antenna Processing in LTE
• Includes
• layer mapping: splits data sequence into a number of layers
• precoding
• Under precoding the LTE standard can use
• cyclic delay diversity (CDD)
• spatial multiplexing (precoding)
• transmit diversity
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
layers antenna ports
mapper
Layer
Precoding
modulation
OFDM
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
OFDM
code words
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
22
Transmission Schemes I
• non codebook based beamforming (single antenna, Port 5):
• Single antenna port, Port 0: • Transmit Diversity:
UE
UE
S
F
B
C
2 or 4 antennas supported
b
e
a
m
f
o
r
m
2 or 4 antennas supported
arbitrary beamforming vector
1 layer
UE
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
23
Transmission Schemes II
• Open-loop spatial multiplexing (Large Delay CDD):
• Closed-loop spatial multiplexing:
p
r
e
c
o
d
i
n
g
2 or 4 antennas supported
codebook
2, 3 or 4 layers
UE
UE
p
r
e
c
o
d
i
n
g
2 or 4 antennas supported
codebook
2, 3 or 4 layers
codebook selection suggestion (PMI)
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
24
Transmission Schemes III
• Multi-user MIMO:
• codebook based beamforming (Closed-loop spatial multiplexing using
a single transmission layer):
b
e
a
m
f
o
r
m
b
e
a
m
f
o
r
m
2 or 4 antennas supported
codebook
2, 3 or 4
codebook selection suggestion (PMI)
layers
codebook
codebook selection suggestion (PMI)
(shared resources)
UE
UE
b
e
a
m
f
o
r
m
2 or 4 antennas supported
codebook
codebook selection suggestion (PMI)
1 layer
UE
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
25
Physical Antennas and Antenna Ports
• LTE standard refers to antenna ports
• Antenna ports and physical antennas are different
• Antenna port: defined by the presence of an antenna port specific
reference signal
• There are up to 6 antenna port specific reference signals
• Number of physical antennas is
• Antenna ports map to physical antennas.
1 2 4 , , { }
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
26
Precoding for Spatial Multiplexing
• Used with the layer mapping for spatial multiplexing
• Supports or antennas: &
• Different coding used for:
• precoding without CDD or closed loop spatial multiplexing
• precoding with large delay CDD or open loop spatial mux.
• Codebook based precoding:
• 7 element codebook for the 2 antenna port case
• 16 element codebook for the 4 antenna port case
• For spatial multiplexing the number of layers is also known as the
transmission rank
P 2 = P 4 = p 0 1 , { } ∈ p 0 1 2 3 , , , { } ∈
ν
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
27
Spatial Mux: Precoding without CDD
• Also known as closed loop precoding
• Based on downlink channel estimates
• UE reports recommendations: RI (rank indication) and PMI
(precoder matrix indication)
• eNodeB may or may not follow these recommendations when
selecting
layer 1
layer 2
layer ν
IDFT CP
precoding
IDFT CP
IDFT CP
W i ( )
P ν ×
ant 1
ant 2
ant P
x
0 ( )
i ( )
x
1 ( )
i ( )
x
ν 1 – ( )
i ( )
W i ( )
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
28
Spatial Mux: Large Delay CDD Precoding
• Also known as open loop precoding
• matrices and are applied first, then precoding
• codebook matrices used are predetermined
• channel quality measurements are not required
layer 2
layer ν
IDFT CP
precoding CDD
IDFT CP
IDFT CP
W i ( )
P ν ×
ant 1
ant 2
ant P
1 0 … 0
0 e
j2πkδ –
… 0
… … … …
0 0 … e
j2πk ν 1 – ( )δ –
U
ν ν ×
D i ( )
ν ν ×
layer 1
U D W i ( )
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
29
Beamforming
• Supported by LTE: precoding applied to a single layer
• Codebook based beamforming:
• Use precoding matrix from codebook
• UE is informed of precoding matrix used
• Non-codebook based beamforming:
• Arbitrary beamforming applied
• UE is not notified of precoding matrix used
• UE needs to estimate channel including effect of beamforming
• UE specific reference signals used (antenna port 5)
• Beamforming (UE specific) is applied to this reference signal
ν 1 =
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
30
Transmit Diversity Precoding
• For 2 antennas, precoding the Alamouti scheme is used as:
• Note that any two columns of the coding matrix are orthogonal;
• This is space-frequency transmit diversity (coding in frequency
domain)
• A similar sparse mapping applies to the case of 4 antennas.
y
0 ( )
2i ( )
y
1 ( )
2i ( )
y
0 ( )
2i 1 + ( )
y
1 ( )
2i 1 + ( )
1
2
-------
1 0 j 0
0 1 – 0 j
0 1 0 j
1 0 j – 0
Re x
0 ( )
i ( ) { }
Re x
1 ( )
i ( ) { }
Im x
0 ( )
i ( ) { }
Im x
1 ( )
i ( ) { }
=
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
31
Resource Element Mapping
• The final stage in the physical layer processing before OFDM
modulation is resource element mapping
• Symbols are mapped to assigned resource elements
• Resource elements used by reference signals are avoided
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
layers antenna ports
mapper
Layer
Precoding
modulation
OFDM
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
OFDM
code words
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
32
OFDM Symbol Construction
• DC subcarrier is not modulated
• Subcarriers of resource blocks are arranged on both sides of the DC
subcarrier
• For larger values of resource blocks in DL ( ) more resource blocks
lie to the left and right of the spectrum illustrated above.
• OFDM symbols are transmitted in turn.
f
resource
block
DC subcarrier
... ...
N
RB
DL
©Steepest Ascent Ltd. www.steepestascent.com
33
OFDM Modulation
• Implemented using an IFFT with 15kHz carrier spacing
• Cyclic prefix also added at this stage
• Each antenna port has its own OFDM modulation
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
layers antenna ports
mapper
Layer
Precoding
modulation
OFDM
Scrambling
Modulation
mapper
mapper
Resource el.
modulation
OFDM
code words
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

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