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CHNG 2 CC C TNH CA ANTEN

A A A
Z R jX = +
1. TR KHNG VO CA ANTEN


~
,
S S
V Z
Anten
A
I
S
R
S
jX
A
R
A
jX
S
V


~
A
V
2
1
2
S
A A
S A
V
P R
Z Z
=
+
.
A t S
P q P =
2
1
t
q = I
A S
A S
Z Z
Z Z

I =
+
2. HIU SUT CA ANTEN


~
,
S S
V Z
Anten
R
A
P
e
P
=
( )
A A A
A R D A
Z R jX
Z R R jX
= +
= + +
A
I
S
R
S
jX
R
R
A
jX
S
V


~
A
V
D
R
(1 )
D A R A
P P P e P = =
2
2
2
1
. .
2
1
. .
2
1
. .
2
A A A
R R A
D D A
P R I
P R I
P R I
=
=
=
R R R
A A R D
P R R
e
P R R R
= = =
+
3. TRNG IEN T BC XA T ANTEN
. .

( ) ( , ). ( , ).
j k r
e
E r F F
r
u |
u | u u | |

(
= +

2
. k
t
e c

= =
Trng ien mien xa anten, mot cach tong quat co dang
Cng o trng in t le nghch vi r (cng o trng cang giam khi
cang xa anten)
, u | Cng o trng ien phu thuoc hng bc xa:
. .

( ) ( , ). ( , ).
j k r
e
E r F F
r
u |
u | u u | |

(
= +

Khi iem quan sat u xa anten, trng bc xa t anten co the
c xem la song phang. Khi o trng t H co the c tnh:
1
( ) ( ) H r r E r
q
( =

1

( ) . ( , ). ( , ).
jkr
e
H r r F r F
r
u |
u | u u | |
q

(
= +

1

( ) . ( , ). ( , ).
jkr
e
H r F F
r
u |
u | | u | u
q

(
=

: La tr khang song cua moi trng
C
z q =
. .

( ) ( , ). ( , ).
j k r
e
E r F F
r
u |
u | u u | |

(
= +

1

( ) . ( , ). ( , ).
jkr
e
H r F F
r
u |
u | | u | u
q

(
=

Trng ien va trng t vung xa anten
th vuong goc gi nhau va vuong goc vi
hng truyen song.
4. CONG SUAT TRNG IEN T BC XA T ANTEN
Vector Poynting c nh ngha:
*
1
( ) . ( ) ( )
2
S r E r H r ( =

Phan thc cua vector Poynting ac trng cho dong cong suat cua trng
ien t. No c goi la vector mat o cong suat:
( ) Re ( ) W r S r ( =

. .
*
1

( ) Re ( , ). ( , ). . ( , ). ( , ).
j k r jkr
e e
W r F F F F
r r
u | u |
u | u u | | u | | u | u
q


( (
= +
`

)
2
2
2
1
( ) ( , ) ( , )
2. .
W r F F r
r
u |
u | u |
q
(
= +
(

2
2
2
1
( ) ( , ) ( , )
2. .
W r F F r
r
u |
u | u |
q
(
= +
(

Vector mat o cong suat co hng cua vector r. Nh vay mien xa anten
cong suat chay theo hng tia xa dan anten
Mat o cong suat t le nghch vi bnh
phng cua r.
Mat o cong suat:
2
2
2
1
( ) ( ) ( , ) ( , )
2. .
W r W r F F
r
u |
u | u |
q
(
= = +
(

Goc khoi:
Goc tnh theo radian:
( )
dl
d rad
r
o =
Goc khoi tnh theo steradian:
2
( )
dS
d sr
r
O =
Vi phan dien tch:
( . ).( .sin . ) dS r d r d u u | =
sin . . d d d u u | O=
Cng o bc xa c nh ngha: Cng
bc x U ca anten theo mt hng cho trc la
cong sut bc x gi qua mot n v goc khoi
theo hng o.
2
( ) . ( ) U r r W r =
Cng o bc xa khong phu thuoc vao r ma ch phu thuoc .

, u |
Cong suat bc xa t anten:
( ).
R
S
P W r dS =
}}
u
dS
r
Mt cu
Cong suat bc xa gi qua dien tch dS:
2
( ). ( ). . W r dS W r d r = O
2
2
2
1
( , ) . ( ) ( , ) ( , )
2.
U r W r F F
u |
u | u | u |
q
(
= = +
(

|
r
|
u
r
M

u
( . )( .sin . ). dS r d r d r u u | =
Chon S la mat cau ban knh r rat ln bao trum toan bo anten
( ). .
R
S
P W r r dS =
}}
( ).
R
S
P W r dS =
}}
| | | |
2
0 0
( ). . ( . )( .sin . ).
R
P W r r r d r d r
t t
| u
u u |
= =
=
} }
2
2
0 0
( ). .sin . .
R
P W r r d d
t t
| u
u u |
= =
( =
} }
| |
2
0 0
( , ). sin . .
R
P U d d
t t
| u
u | u u |
= =
=
} }
( , ).
R
S
P U d u | = O
}}
5. S PHAN CC
Khi quan sat trng bc xa rat xa anten. Tai v tr quan sat co the xem nh
trng bc xa cua anten la song phang: vector trng ien E va trng t H
vuong goc vi nhau va vuong goc vi phng truyen song. Tuy nhien theo
thi gian vector trng co the co phng co nh hoac quay khi quan sat doc
theo hng truyen song.
Neu vector trng co phng co
nh : phan cc tuyen tnh.
Neu vector trng ve thanh 1
ng tron : phan cc tron.
Neu vector trng ve thanh 1 ellip:
phan cc ellip.
Chieu quay co the la cung chieu
kim ong ho (right hand
polarization) hoac ngc chieu kim
ong ho (left hand polarization).

V du: vector trng ien cua anten vung xa co bieu thc:
. .

( ) sin .cos . .sin .
j k r
e
E r j
r
u |u u |

(
= +

Xac nh s phan cc cua trng anten doc theo: a) +x b)-x c)+y d)-y
a) Doc theo truc +x:
, 0, ; ,
2
r x z y
t
u | u | = = =
| |
. .
( ) .
j k x
e
E r z j y
x

= +
( , ) Re ( ).
j t
E r t E r e
=
( =

.
2
( , ) Re . . . . .
jkx jkx
j
j t j t
e e
E r t z e y e e
x x
t
= =

(
= +
(

cos( )
cos( )
2
( , ) . .
t kx
t kx
E r t z y
x x
t
=
=
+

= +
x
y
z
anten
r
iem quan sat
( , ) E r t

z u

y |
Song phan cc tron tay trai (quay ngc chieu
kim ong ho)
Trng bc xa t anten co cac kieu phan cc khac nhau tuy theo hng.
Ngi ta the hien s ac trng phan cc cua anten bang mot vector phan cc:

( , ). ( , ).
( , )
( , )
F F
p
F
u |
u | u u | |
u |
u |
+
=
2
2
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) F F F
u |
u | u | u | = +
. .
( ) ( , ). ( , )
j k r
e
E r F p
r
u | u |

=
| |
. .
( ) ( , ). ( , )
.
j k r
e
H r F r p
r
u | u |
q

=
6. O TH BC XA
o th ve cng o trng E hoac H.
o th ve cong suat, mat o cong suat trng bc xa.
o th cng o bc xa U.
o th ve o nh hng D .

o th dang 3 D
o th dang 2D: He toa o cc hoac he toa o decard.
Thng cac o th c ve theo ham a chuan hoa:
max
( , )
( , )
n
F
F
F
u |
u | =
max
( , )
( , )
n
U
U
U
u |
u | =
90
o
-90
o
0
o
180
o
|
60
o
-60
o
30
o
-30
o
120
o
-120
o
150
o
-150
o
0.5 1
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
7. O RONG NA CONG SUAT, O RONG GIA CAC GIA TR KHONG
AU TIEN (-)
HPBW
HP
left
u
HP
right
u
1
( )
2
HP
n left
U u =
1
( )
2
HP
n right
U u =
BWFN
null
left
u
null
right
u
x
y
z
A
O
8. GOC KHOI CUA ANTEN (-)
Goc khoi cua anten la mot goc khoi theo chum
chnh cua anten ang khao sat. Cong suat chay
qua goc khoi o bang vi toan bo cong suat bc
xa cua anten. vi gia thuyet la cng o bc xa
phan bo trong goc khoi phan bo eu va co o ln
bang cng o bc xa cc ai cua anten ang
khao sat.
Xet 2 anten: anten chung ta ang khao sat va
mot anten gia thuyet. Anten gia thuyet co cng
o bc xa phan bo eu va bang cng o bc
xacc ai cua anten ang khao sat.
( , ).
R
S
P U d u | = O
}}
Tong cong suat bc xa t anten ang khao sat:
Cong suat bc xa qua goc khoi cua anten gia thuyet:
A
O
( )
max
.
A
R A
P U
O
= O
max max
( , ).
( )
S R
A
U d
P
sr
U U
u | O
O = =
}}
9. O NH HNG, HE SO NH HNG
Xet 2 anten: anten chung ta ang khao sat va mot anten gia thuyet. Anten gia
thuyet (ang hng) co cng o bc xa phan bo eu va co cung cong suat bc
xa vi anten ang khao sat.
o nh hng D la t so gia cng o bc xa cua anten theo hng o va
cng o bc xa cua anten ang hng theo hng tng ng
cng o bc xa cua anten ang hng bang cng o bc xa trung bnh cua
anten ang khao sat:
1
( , ).
4 4
R
a
S
P
U U d u |
t t
= = O
}}
( , )
( , )
a
U
D
U
u |
u | =
o nh hng:
He so nh hng:
| |
max
( , ) D D Max D u | = =
10. O LI CUA ANTEN
Trong trng hp hieu suat e cua anten la 100% th o li cua anten theo
hng chnh la o nh hng theo hng tng ng.
Trng hp tong quat o li cua anten:
( , ) . ( , ) G e D u | u | =
.
R A
P e P =
( , ) 4 ( , )
( , )
4
A
A
U U
G
P
P
u | t u |
u |
t
= =
o li cc ai cua anten:
| |
max
max
4
( , )
A
U
G G Max G
P
t
u | = = =
11. ANTEN THU
L
I
L
R
L
jX
A
R
A
jX
C
V


~
L
V
L
Z
Anten
Tai
inc
E
( , ) u |
Khi co s phoi hp tr khang gia
anten va tai:
*
A L
Z Z =
Cong suat en tai la ln nhat:
2
8
C
L C
A
V
P P
R
= =
Neu khong co s phoi hp tr khang:
.
L r C
P q P =
2
4. .
A L
r
L A
R R
q
Z Z
=
+
Dien tch hieu dung cua anten thu
Khi biet dien tch hieu dung cua anten th
co the tnh c cong suat kha dung cua
anten thu a en tai:
.
inc
C e
P A S =
inc
S
La mat o cong suat trung bnh cua song ti trong mat phang ti.
( )
, ,
e e inc
A A p u | La dien tch hieu dung cua anten

inc
p La vector phan cc cua song ti
2
2.
inc
inc
E
S
q
=
L
Z
Anten
Tai
inc
E
( , ) u |

inc
inc
inc
E
p
E
=
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
, , . , . , .
4
e inc inc
A p G p p

u | u | u |
t
=
L
I
L
R
L
jX
R
R
A
jX
C
V


~
L
V
Dien tch hieu dung cua anten dipole Hertz:
,
L R L A
R R X X = = Khi phoi hp tr khang:
2
2
2 1
2 2 8
C C
L C L R R
R R
V V
P P I R R
R R
(
= = = =
(

2 2
2. 240
inc inc
inc
E E
S
q t
= =
2
2
30
C
C
e
inc
inc
R
V
P
A
S
R E
t
= =
.
inc inc
C
E l = vi chieu dai l, song ti E tao ra sc ien ong: V
2
2
80
R
l
R t

| |
=
|
\ .
2
3
8
e
A

t
=
1, 5
dipoleHertz
D =
2
4
e
D
A

t
=
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
, , . , . , . , ( )
4
e inc inc
A p G p p m

u | u | u |
t
=
Dien tch hieu dung cua anten theo hng cho trc t le vi o li G
cua anten theo hng o.
He so cho thay: theo mot hng cho trc neu che
o phat anten khong the bc xavi mot kieu phan cc nao o th che o
thu no cung khong the thu nhan c nang lng cua trng vi kieu phan
cc o.
( )
2
, .
inc
p p u |
( )
0

( ) . .sin .
jkr
e
E r E
r
u u

=
,
2
t
u |
| |
=
|
\ .

.
inc
E Eu =

( , )
2
p
t
u | u = =

inc
p u =
( , ). 1 : max
inc
p p u | =
l
z
r

u
M
O
r
I

|
2
t
u =
Anten
nguyen to thang
12. TUYEN ANTEN
L
Z
Tai
( , )
r r
u |


~
,
S S
V Z
( , )
t t
u |
r
, A t
Z
, A r
Z
Anten phat
Anten thu
.
L r C
P q P = Cong suat en tai:
( )
, , .
inc
C e r r t t
P A p S u | =
Dien tch hieu dung cua anten
thu theo hng vi
phan cc cua song ti la
( )
,
r r
u |

t
p
Mat o cong suat bc xa t
anten phat tai v tr anten
thu
Mat o cong suat bc xa t anten phat tai v tr anten thu:
2 2
, ,
2
1
( ) ( , ) ( , )
2. .
t t
W r F F
r
u |
u | u |
q
(
= +
(

inc
t
S =
( ) ( )
2
1
, , . ,
inc
t t t t t t
S W r U
r
u | u | = =
( )
( )
, .
,
4
t t t A
t t t
G P
U
u |
u |
t
=
( )
2
, .
4 .
t t t A inc
t
G P
S
r
u |
t
=
( )
, , .
inc
C e r r t t
P A p S u | =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
. , . , . , . , .
4 .
r r r r r r t t t t t t A
C
G p p G P
P
r
u | u | u | u |
t
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
. , . , . , . , .
4 .
r r r r r r t t t t t t A
C
G p p G P
P
r
u | u | u | u |
t
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
. . , . , . , . , . .
4 .
r r r r r r r t t t t t t t S
L
q G p p G q P
P
r
u | u | u | u |
t
=
.
L r C
P q P =
.
A t S
P q P =
( ) ( )
, . ,
r r r r r r r
G e D u | u | =
( ) ( )
, . ,
t t t t t t t
G e D u | u | =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
. . . , . , . , . , . . .
4 .
r r r r r r r r t t t t t t t t S
L
e q D p p D e q P
P
r
u | u | u | u |
t
=
ay la Cong thc truyen dan Friis
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
. . . , . , . , . , . . .
4 .
r r r r r r r r t t t t t t t t S
L
e q D p p D e q P
P
r
u | u | u | u |
t
=
. :
r r
e q He so th hin mat mat cua pha thu
. :
t t
e q He so th hin mat mat cua pha phat
( ) ( )
2
, . ,
r r r t t t
p p u | u |
He so th hin mat mat do mat phoi hp phan cc cua
tuyen anten
2
:
4 .r

t
(
(

He so mat mat khong gian
Cong thc tnh cong suat nhan c tai pha thu tnh theo dBm:
| | | | ( )| | ( )| |
| | | |
| | | | ( ) ( )
( )
, ,
20log( ) 20log( )
20log , . ,
32, 43
L S r r r t t t
t r r r r t t t
P dBm P dBm G dB G dB
r km f MHz
q dB q dB p p
u | u |
u | u |
= + +

+ + +