vor|ed lxemp|es

to lurocode ? Vo|ume !

A cement end concrete |ndustry pu|||cet|on
|or tho dosign of in-situ concroto o|omonts in framod bui|dings
to 8S £N 1992-1-1: 2004 and its Uk Nationa| Annox: 2005
CH Coodchi|d bSc Clng MClOb MlStructl ot a|
2
|oroword
The introduction of European standards to UK construction is a significant event as, for the
first time, all design and construction codes within the EU will be harmonised. The ten design
standards, known as the Eurocodes, will affect all design and construction activities as all current
British Standards for structural design are due to be withdrawn in 2010.
The cement and concrete industry recognised the need to enable UK design professionals to use
Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, quickly, effectively, efficiently and with confidence.
Supported by government, consultants and relevant industry bodies, the Concrete Industry
Eurocode 2 Group (CIEG) was formed in 1999 and this Group has provided the guidance for a
coordinated and collaborative approach to the introduction of Eurocode 2.
As a result, a range of resources are being delivered by the concrete sector (see www.eurocode2.info).
The aim of this publication, Worked Examples to Eurocode 2: Volume 1 is to distil from Eurocode 2,
other Eurocodes and other sources the material that is commonly used in the design of concrete
framed buildings.
These worked examples are published in two parts. Volume 2 will include chapters on Foundations,
Serviceability, Fire and Retaining walls.
Acknow|odgomonts
The original ideas for this publication emanates from the research project `Eurocode 2: Transition
from UK to European concrete design standards’, which was led by the BCA and part funded by
the DTI under their PII scheme and was overseen by a Steering Group and the CIEG. The work has
been brought to fruition by The Concrete Centre from early initial drafts by various authors listed
on the inside back cover. The concrete industry acknowledges and appreciates the support given
by many individuals, companies and organisations in the preparation of this document. These are
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We gratefully acknowledge the authors of the initial drafts and the help and advice given by Robin
Whittle in checking the text. Thanks are also due to Gillian Bond, Kevin Smith, Sally Huish and the
design team at Michael Burbridge Ltd for their work on the production.
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Cement end Concrete lndustry lu|||cet|ons (CCll) ere produced through en |ndustry |n|t|et|ve to
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i
Contents
vor|ed lxemp|es
to lurocode ? Vo|ume !
Symbo|s ||
1 |ntroduction !
!! A|m !
!? lurocode bes|s o¦ structure| des|gn 3
!3 lurocode ! Act|ons on structures 4
!4 lurocode ? Les|gn o¦ concrete structures 4
!S Net|one| Annexes S
!6 bes|s o¦ the wor|ed exemp|es |n th|s pu|||cet|on S
!/ Assumpt|ons 6
!S Meter|e| propert|es 6
!9 lxecut|on 6
2 Ana|ysis, actions and |oad arrangomonts /
?! Methods o¦ ene|ys|s /
?? Act|ons /
?3 Cherecter|st|c ve|ues o¦ ect|ons /
?4 Ver|e||e ect|ons |mposed |oeds S
?S Ver|e||e ect|ons snow |oeds !?
?6 Ver|e||e ect|ons w|nd |oeds !3
?/ Ver|e||e ect|ons others !/
?S lermenent ect|ons !S
?9 Les|gn ve|ues o¦ ect|ons ?!
?!0 loed errengement o¦ ect|ons |ntroduct|on ?S
?!! loed errengements eccord|ng to the
0l Net|one| Annex to lurocode ?S
?!? lxemp|es o¦ |oed|ng ?/
3 S|abs 3S
30 Cenere| 3S
3! S|mp|y supported one-wey s|e| 36
3? Cont|nuous one-wey so||d s|e| 40
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e| S?
34 l|et s|e| /!
3S Ste|r ¦||ght 9S
4 8oams 9/
40 Cenere| 9/
4! Cont|nuous |eem on p|n supports 9S
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem !04
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem !!9
5 Co|umns !34
S0 Cenere| !34
S! ldge co|umn !3S
S? ler|meter co|umn (|nterne| env|ronment) !39
S3 lnterne| co|umn !46
S4 Sme|| per|meter co|umn su||ect
to two-hour ¦|re res|stence !S/
6 wa||s !66
60 Cenere| !66
6! Sheer we|| !6/
7 koforoncos and furthor roading !S3
Appondix A: Dorivod formu|ao !SS
Appondix 8: Sorvicoabi|ity |imit stato !90
Appondix C: Dosign aids !94
Vo|umo 2 (pu|||shed seperete|y)
loundet|ons
Spec|e| dete||s strut 8 t|e
Serv|cee||||ty
l|re
kete|n|ng we||
ke¦erences end ¦urther reed|ng
Append|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
Append|x b Les|gn e|ds
ii
Symbols and abbreviations used in this publication
Symbol Definition
/ Cross-sect|one| eree, Acc|dente| ect|on
/ S|te e|t|tude, m (snow)
/ A|t|tude o¦ the s|te |n metres e|ove meen see |eve| (w|nd)
/, S, C Ver|e||es used |n the determ|net|on o¦ l
||m
/
c
Cross-sect|one| eree o¦ concrete
/
d
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ en ecc|dente| ect|on
/
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ e se|sm|c ect|on
/
re¦
ke¦erence eree o¦ the structure or structure| e|ement (w|nd)
/
s
Cross-sect|one| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement
/
s,m|n
M|n|mum cross-sect|one| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement
/
s,prov
Aree o¦ stee| prov|ded
/
s,req
Aree o¦ stee| requ|red
/
s!
Aree o¦ re|n¦orc|ng stee| |n |eyer !
/
s?
Aree o¦ compress|on stee| (|n |eyer ?)
/
s|
Aree o¦ the tens||e re|n¦orcement extend|ng et |eest /
|d
÷ J |eyond the sect|on cons|dered
/
sM
(/
sN
) ¹ote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red |n symmetr|ce|, rectengu|er co|umns to res|st moment (ex|e| |oed) us|ng
s|mp||¦|ed ce|cu|et|on method
/
sw
Cross-sect|one| eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement, Aree o¦ punch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |n one per|meter eround the
co|umn
/
sw,m|n
M|n|mum cross-sect|one| eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement, M|n|mum eree o¦ punch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |n one
per|meter eround the co|umn
/
t
Aree o¦ tens||e re|n¦orcement |n ¦|et s|e| co|umn str|ps
o L|stence, e||owence et supports
o Ax|s d|stence ¦rom the concrete sur¦ece to the centre o¦ the |er (¦|re)
o An exponent (|n cons|der|ng ||ex|e| |end|ng o¦ co|umns)
o lro|ect|on o¦ the ¦oot|ng ¦rom the ¦ece o¦ the co|umn or we||
o
|
L|stence |y wh|ch the |ocet|on where e |er |s no |onger requ|red ¦or |end|ng moment |s d|sp|eced to e||ow ¦or the
¦orces ¦rom the truss mode| ¦or sheer ('Sh|¦t' d|stence ¦or curte||ment)
o
!
, o
?
, L|stence ¦rom edge o¦ support to centre o¦ support
o
!
, /
!
L|mens|ons o¦ the contro| per|meter eround en e|ongeted support (punch|ng sheer)
ems| A|t|tude e|ove meen see |eve|
/ Overe|| w|dth o¦ e cross-sect|on, or ¦|enge w|dth |n e ¹- or l-|eem
/ breedth o¦ |u||d|ng (w|nd)
/
e
l¦¦ect|ve w|dth o¦ e ¦|et s|e| (ed|ecent to per|meter co|umn)
/
e¦¦
l¦¦ect|ve w|dth o¦ e ¦|enge
/
eq
(/
eq
) lqu|ve|ent w|dth (he|ght) o¦ co|umn /(/) ¦or rectengu|er sect|ons
/
m|n
M|n|mum w|dth o¦ we| on ¹-, l- or l-|eems
/
t
Meen w|dth o¦ the tens|on .one lor e ¹-|eem w|th the ¦|enge |n compress|on, on|y the w|dth o¦ the we| |s te|en
|nto eccount
/
w
v|dth o¦ the we| on ¹-, l- or l-|eems M|n|mum w|dth |etween tens|on end compress|on chords
/
!
le|¦ o¦ d|stence |etween ed|ecent we|s o¦ downstend |eems
C
e
lxposure coe¦¦|c|ent (snow)
C
t
¹herme| coe¦¦|c|ent (snow)
C
w
Sheer centre
Symbol Definition
c
!
, c
?
L|mens|ons o¦ e rectengu|er co|umn lor edge co|umns, c
!
|s meesured perpend|cu|er to the ¦ree edge (punch|ng
sheer)
c
e|t
A|t|tude ¦ector (w|nd)
c
d
Lynem|c ¦ector (w|nd)
c
d|r
L|rect|one| ¦ector (w|nd)
c
e,¦|et
lxposure ¦ector (w|nd)
c
¦
lorce coe¦¦|c|ent (w|nd)
c
m|n
M|n|mum cover, (due to the requ|rements ¦or |ond, c
m|n,|
or dure||||ty c
m|n,dur
)
c
nom
Nom|ne| cover Nom|ne| cover shou|d set|s¦y the m|n|mum requ|rements o¦ |ond, dure||||ty end ¦|re
c
pe
(lxterne|) pressure coe¦¦|c|ent (w|nd)
c
pe,!0
(lxterne|) pressure coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or erees > ! m
?
(w|nd)
c
p|
lnterne| pressure coe¦¦|c|ent (w|nd)
c
pro|
lro|e||||ty ¦ector (w|nd)
c
seeson
Seeson ¦ector (w|nd)
c
s
S|.e ¦ector (w|nd)
c
y
, c
x
Co|umn d|mens|ons |n p|en
Dc
dev
A||owence mede |n des|gn ¦or dev|et|on
/ L|emeter o¦ e c|rcu|er co|umn, L|emeter
J l¦¦ect|ve depth to tens|on stee|
J
?
l¦¦ect|ve depth to compress|on stee|
J
c
l¦¦ect|ve depth o¦ concrete |n compress|on
/ l¦¦ect o¦ ect|on, lntegr|ty (|n ¦|re), l|est|c modu|us
/
cd
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ modu|us o¦ e|est|c|ty o¦ concrete
/
cm
Secent modu|us o¦ e|est|c|ty o¦ concrete
/I bend|ng st|¦¦ness
/
s
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ modu|us o¦ e|est|c|ty o¦ re|n¦orc|ng stee|
lxp lxpress|on
lQ0 Stet|c equ||||r|um
e lccentr|c|ty
e
0
M|n|mum eccentr|c|ty |n co|umns
e
?
Le¦|ect|on (used |n essess|ng /
?
|n s|ender co|umns)
e
|
lccentr|c|ty due to |mper¦ect|ons
e
y
, e
.
lccentr|c|ty, /
ld
/\
ld
e|ong , end · exes respect|ve|y (punch|ng sheer)
l! lector to eccount ¦or ¦|enged sect|ons (de¦|ect|on)
l? lector to eccount ¦or |r|tt|e pert|t|ons |n essoc|et|on w|th |ong spens (de¦|ect|on)
l3 lector to eccount ¦or serv|ce stress |n tens||e re|n¦orcement (de¦|ect|on)
/ Act|on
llM l|xed end moment
/
c
(/
s
) lorce |n concrete (stee|)
/
d
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ en ect|on
/
l
¹ens||e ¦orce |n re|n¦orcement to |e enchored
/
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on
/
rep
kepresentet|ve ect|on ( y/
|
where y ¦ector to convert cherecter|st|c to representet|ve ect|on)
/
s
¹ens||e ¦orce |n re|n¦orcement
/
td
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the tens||e ¦orce |n |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement
D/
td
Add|t|one| tens||e ¦orce |n |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement due to the truss sheer mode|
iii
Symbol Definition
/
V,ld
¹ote| vert|ce| |oed (on |reced end |rec|ng mem|ers)
/
w
kesu|tent cherecter|st|c ¦orce due to w|nd (See sect|on ?6)
|
|d
0|t|mete |ond stress
|
cd
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ concrete compress|ve strength
|
c|
Cherecter|st|c compress|ve cy||nder strength o¦ concrete et ?S deys
|
ct,d
Les|gn tens||e strength o¦ concrete (a
ct
|
ct,|
/g
C
)
|
ct,|
Cherecter|st|c ex|e| tens||e strength o¦ concrete
|
ctm
Meen ve|ue o¦ ex|e| tens||e strength o¦ concrete
|
sc
Compress|ve stress |n compress|on re|n¦orcement et 0lS
|
yd
Les|gn y|e|d strength o¦ |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement, /
s|
|
y|
Cherecter|st|c y|e|d strength o¦ re|n¦orcement
|
ywd
Les|gn y|e|d strength o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
|
ywd,e¦
l¦¦ect|ve des|gn strength o¦ punch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement
|
yw|
Cherecter|st|c y|e|d strength o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
O
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e permenent ect|on
O
|,sup
0pper cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e permenent ect|on
O
|,|n¦
lower cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e permenent ect|on
q
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e permenent ect|on per un|t |ength or eree
/
|
lor|.onte| ect|on epp||ed et e |eve|
/ le|ght o¦ |u||d|ng (w|nd)
/ Overe|| depth o¦ e cross-sect|on, le|ght
/
eve
O|struct|on he|ght (w|nd)
/
d|s
L|sp|ecement he|ght (w|nd)
/
¦
Lepth o¦ ¦oot|ng, ¹h|c|ness o¦ ¦|enge
/
s
Lepth o¦ s|e|
I Second moment o¦ eree o¦ concrete sect|on, lnert|e
I lnsu|et|on (|n ¦|re)
/ ked|us o¦ gyret|on
/ /
ld
//J
?
|
c|
A meesure o¦ the re|et|ve compress|ve stress |n e mem|er |n ¦|exure
/ lector to eccount ¦or structure| system (de¦|ect|on)
/ Ve|ue o¦ / e|ove wh|ch compress|on re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
/
v
A correct|on ¦ector ¦or ex|e| |oed
/
f
A correct|on ¦ector ¦or creep
/ Coe¦¦|c|ent or ¦ector
/ ke|et|ve ¦|ex|||||ty or re|et|ve st|¦¦ness
/ C|eer he|ght o¦ co|umn |etween end restre|nts
/ le|ght o¦ the structure |n metres
/ (or /) length, Spen
/
0
l¦¦ect|ve |ength (o¦ co|umns)
/
0
L|stence |etween po|nts o¦ .ero moment
/
0
Les|gn |ep |ength
/
0,¦|
l¦¦ect|ve |ength under ¦|re cond|t|ons
/
|
bes|c enchorege |ength
/
|d
Les|gn enchorege |ength
/
|,eq
lqu|ve|ent enchorege |ength
/
|,m|n
M|n|mum enchorege |ength
iv
Symbol Definition
/
|,rqd
bes|c enchorege |ength
/
e¦¦
l¦¦ect|ve spen
/
n
C|eer spen
/
y
, /
.
Spens o¦ e two-wey s|e| |n the , end · d|rect|ons
/ bend|ng moment Moment ¦rom ¦|rst order ene|ys|s
/ Moment cepec|ty o¦ e s|ng|y re|n¦orced sect|on (e|ove wh|ch compress|on re|n¦orcement |s requ|red)
/
0,lqp
l|rst order |end|ng moment |n ques| permenent |oed com||net|on (SlS)
/
0!
, /
0?
l|rst order end moments et 0lS /nc/aJ/nq e||owences ¦or |mper¦ect|ons
/
0ld
lqu|ve|ent ¦|rst order moment |nc|ud|ng the e¦¦ect o¦ |mper¦ect|ons (et e|out m|d he|ght)
/
0ld,¦|
l|rst order moment under ¦|re cond|t|ons
/
?
Nom|ne| second order moment |n s|ender co|umns
/
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the epp||ed |nterne| |end|ng moment
/
ldy
, /
ld.
Les|gn moment |n the respect|ve d|rect|on
/
kdy
, /
kd.
Moment res|stence |n the respect|ve d|rect|on
/
t
Les|gn trens¦er moment to co|umn ¦rom e ¦|et s|e|
m Num|er o¦ vert|ce| mem|ers contr||ut|ng to en e¦¦ect
m Mess
/ Ax|e| ¦orce
/ bes|c spen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-depth ret|o, //J, ¦or / !0
/
0ld,¦|
Ax|e| |oed under ¦|re cond|t|ons
NA Net|one| Annex
/
e
, /
|
long|tud|ne| ¦orces contr||ut|ng to /
|
/
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the epp||ed ex|e| ¦orce (tens|on or compress|on) et 0lS
NLl Net|one||y Leterm|ned leremeter(s) es pu|||shed |n e country's Net|one| Annex
n loed |eve| et norme| temperetures Conservet|ve|y n 0/ (¦|re)
n Ax|e| stress et 0lS
n 0|t|mete ect|on (|oed) per un|t |ength (or eree)
n ke|et|ve ex|e| ¦orce /
ld
/(/
c
|
cd
)
n
|e|
¹he ve|ue o¦ n et mex|mum moment res|stence
n
0
, n
s
Num|er o¦ storeys
Ç
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on
Ç
|!

||
) Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e |eed|ng ver|e||e ect|on (Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en eccompeny|ng ver|e||e ect|on)
¡
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on per un|t |ength or eree
¡
|
bes|c w|nd pressure
¡
p
lee| w|nd pressure
¡
p

e
) lee| ve|oc|ty pressure et re¦erence he|ght ·
e
, (w|nd)
/ kes|stence, Mechen|ce| res|stence (|n ¦|re)
/
A
keect|on et support A
/
b
keect|on et support b
/
d
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the res|stence to en ect|on
· ked|us
·
m
ket|o o¦ ¦|rst order end moments |n co|umns et 0lS
SlS Serv|cee||||ty ||m|t stete(s) ÷ correspond|ng to cond|t|ons |eyond wh|ch spec|¦|ed serv|ce requ|rements ere no
|onger met
· Spec|ng
· Snow |oed on e roo¦
v
Symbol Definition
·
|
Cherecter|st|c ground snow |oed
·
r
ked|e| spec|ng o¦ per|meters o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
·
t
¹engent|e| spec|ng sheer re|n¦orcement e|ong per|meters o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
| ¹h|c|ness, ¹|me |e|ng cons|dered, breedth o¦ support
|
0
¹he ege o¦ concrete et the t|me o¦ |oed|ng
0lS 0|t|mete ||m|t stete(s) ÷ essoc|eted w|th co||epse or other ¦orms o¦ structure| ¦e||ure
a ler|meter o¦ concrete cross-sect|on, hev|ng eree /
c
a ler|meter o¦ thet pert wh|ch |s exposed to dry|ng
a C|rcum¦erence o¦ outer edge o¦ e¦¦ect|ve cross-sect|on (tors|on)
a
0
ler|meter ed|ecent to co|umns (punch|ng sheer)
a
!
bes|c contro| per|meter (et ?J ¦rom ¦ece o¦ |oed) (punch|ng sheer)
a
!
´ keduced contro| per|meter et per|meter co|umns (et ?J ¦rom ¦ece o¦ |oed) (punch|ng sheer)
a
|
length o¦ the contro| per|meter under cons|deret|on (punch|ng sheer)
a
out
ler|meter et wh|ch sheer re|n¦orcement |s no |onger requ|red
\ Sheer ¦orce
\
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the epp||ed sheer ¦orce
\
kd,c
Sheer res|stence o¦ e mem|er w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement
\
kd,mex
Sheer res|stence o¦ e mem|er ||m|ted |y the crush|ng o¦ compress|on struts
\
kd,cm|n
M|n|mum sheer res|stence o¦ mem|er cons|der|ng concrete e|one
\
kd,s
Sheer res|stence o¦ e mem|er governed |y the y|e|d|ng o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
.
|
bes|c w|nd ve|oc|ty
.
|,0
¹he ¦undemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|ty |e|ng the cherecter|st|c !0 m|nute w|nd ve|oc|ty et !0 m e|ove ground |eve| |n
open country
.
|,mep
lundemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|ty ¦rom l|gure NA! m/s
.
ld
lunch|ng sheer stress
.
ld
Sheer stress ¦or sect|ons u/|/oa| sheer re|n¦orcement ( \
ld
//
w
J)
.
ld,.
Sheer stress ¦or sect|ons w|th sheer re|n¦orcement ( \
ld
//
w
· \
ld
//
w
09J)
.
kd,c
Les|gn sheer res|stence o¦ concrete w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement expressed es e stress
.
kd,mex
Cepec|ty o¦ concrete struts expressed es e stress
w
!
lector correspond|ng to e d|str||ut|on o¦ sheer (punch|ng sheer)
w
e
lee| externe| w|nd |oed
w
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ w|nd ect|on (Nb not |n the lurocodes end shou|d |e regerded es e ¦orm o¦ Ç
|
,
cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on)
u
|
Cherecter|st|c un|t w|nd |oed
u
|
Crec| w|dth
u
mex
l|m|t|ng ce|cu|eted crec| w|dth
`0, `A, `C Concrete exposure c|esses
`L, `l, `S
\ Neutre| ex|s depth
\ L|stence |etween |u||d|ngs (w|nd)
\ L|stence o¦ the sect|on |e|ng cons|dered ¦rom the centre ||ne o¦ the support
\, ,, · Co-ord|netes, l|enes under cons|deret|on
\
u
Lepth o¦ the neutre| ex|s et the u|t|mete ||m|t stete e¦ter red|str||ut|on
´ ?one num|er o|te|ned ¦rom mep (snow)
· lever erm o¦ |nterne| ¦orces
vi
vii
Symbol Definition
· ke¦erence he|ght (w|nd)
·
e
ke¦erence he|ght ¦or w|ndwerd we||s o¦ rectengu|er |u||d|ngs (w|nd)
a Ang|e, Ang|e o¦ sheer ||n|s to the |ong|tud|ne| ex|s, ket|o
a
A
A coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or use w|th e representet|ve ver|e||e ect|on te||ng |nto eccount eree supported
a
!
, a
?
, a
3
lectors dee||ng w|th enchorege end |eps o¦ |ers
a
4
, a
S
, a
6

a
cc
(a
ct
) A coe¦¦|c|ent te||ng |nto eccount |ong term e¦¦ects o¦ compress|ve (tens||e) |oed end the wey |oed |s epp||ed
a
e
Modu|er ret|o /
s
//
cd
a
n
A coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or use w|th e representet|ve ver|e||e ect|on te||ng |nto eccount num|er o¦ storeys supported
b Ang|e, ket|o, Coe¦¦|c|ent
b lector dee||ng w|th eccentr|c|ty (punch|ng sheer)
g lert|e| ¦ector
g
C
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or concrete
g
l
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or ect|ons, /
g
C
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or permenent ect|ons, O
g
C|,sup
lert|e| ¦ector to |e epp||ed to O
|,|n¦
g
C|,|n¦
lert|e| ¦ector to |e epp||ed to O
|,sup
g
Q
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or ver|e||e ect|ons, Ç
g
M
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or meter|e| (usue||y g
C
or g
S
)
g
S
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or re|n¦orc|ng stee|
d ked|str||ut|on ret|o eque|s ret|o o¦ the red|str||uted moment to the e|est|c |end|ng moment (! ÷ % red|str||ut|on)
e
cu
0|t|mete compress|ve stre|n |n the concrete
e
cu?
0|t|mete compress|ve stre|n ||m|t |n concrete wh|ch |s not ¦u||y |n pure ex|e| compress|on essum|ng use o¦ the
pere|o||c÷rectengu|er stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|p (numer|ce||y e
cu?
e
cu3
)
e
cu3
0|t|mete compress|ve stre|n ||m|t |n concrete wh|ch |s not ¦u||y |n pure ex|e| compress|on essum|ng use o¦ the
||||neer stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|p
e
sc
Compress|ve stre|n |n re|n¦orcement
e
st
¹ens||e stre|n |n re|n¦orcement
n lector de¦|n|ng e¦¦ect|ve strength ( ! ¦or < CS0/60)
n
!
Coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or |ond cond|t|ons
n
?
Coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or |er d|emeter
y Ang|e, Ang|e o¦ compress|on struts (sheer)
y
|
lnc||net|on used to represent |mper¦ect|ons
l S|enderness ret|o
l lector de¦|n|ng the he|ght o¦ the compress|on .one ( 0S ¦or < CS0/60)
l
¦|
S|enderness |n ¦|re
l
||m
l|m|t|ng s|enderness ret|o (o¦ co|umns)
m
|
, m
!
, m
?
Snow |oed shepe ¦ectors
m
¦|
ket|o o¦ the des|gn ex|e| |oed under ¦|re cond|t|ons to the des|gn res|stence o¦ the co|umn et norme| tempereture
|ut w|th en eccentr|c|ty epp||ce||e to ¦|re cond|t|ons
v Strength reduct|on ¦ector ¦or concrete crec|ed |n sheer
j keduct|on ¦ector/d|str||ut|on coe¦¦|c|ent lector epp||ed to O
|
|n bS lN !990 lxp (6!0|)
r kequ|red tens|on re|n¦orcement ret|o
r Lens|ty o¦ e|r (w|nd)
r ke|n¦orcement ret|o ¦or requ|red compress|on re|n¦orcement, /
s?
//J
viii
Symbol Definition
r
!
lercentege o¦ re|n¦orcement |epped w|th|n 06S/
0
¦rom the centre ||ne o¦ the |ep |e|ng cons|dered
r
|
ke|n¦orcement ret|o ¦or |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement
r
|y,
r
|.
ke|n¦orcement ret|o o¦ |onded stee| |n the , end · d|rect|on
r
0
ke¦erence re|n¦orcement ret|o |
c|
0S
!0
÷3
s
gd
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the ground pressure
s
s
Stress |n re|n¦orcement et SlS
s
s
A|so|ute ve|ue o¦ the mex|mum stress perm|tted |n the re|n¦orcement |mmed|ete|y e¦ter the ¦ormet|on o¦ the crec|
s
sc
(s
st
) Stress |n compress|on (end tens|on) re|n¦orcement
s
sd
Les|gn stress |n the |er et the u|t|mete ||m|t stete
s
su
0nmod|¦|ed serv|ce stress |n re|n¦orcement determ|ned ¦rom 0lS |oeds (See l|gure C3)
h(e,|
0
) l|ne| ve|ue o¦ creep coe¦¦|c|ent
h

l¦¦ect|ve creep ¦ector
f ber d|emeter
c lectors de¦|n|ng representet|ve ve|ues o¦ ver|e||e ect|ons
c
0
Com||net|on ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on (eg used when cons|der|ng 0lS)
c
!
lrequent ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on (eg used when cons|der|ng whether sect|on w||| heve crec|ed or not)
c
?
Ques|-permenent ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on (eg used when cons|der|ng de¦ormet|on)
w Mechen|ce| re|n¦orcement ret|o /
s
|
yd
//
c
|
cd
< !
1
Introduction
Aim
¹he e|m o¦ th|s pu|||cet|on |s to |||ustrete through wor|ed exemp|es how bS lN !99?÷!÷!
|!|

(lurocode ?) mey |e used |n prect|ce to des|gn |n-s|tu concrete |u||d|ng structures lt |s |ntended
thet these wor|ed exemp|es w||| exp|e|n how ce|cu|et|ons to lurocode ? mey |e per¦ormed
lurocode ? str|ct|y cons|sts o¦ ¦our perts (lerts !÷!, !÷?, ? end 3)
|!-4|
|ut ¦or the purposes o¦
th|s pu|||cet|on, lurocode ? re¦ers to pert !÷! on|y, un|ess que||ued ¹he wor|ed exemp|es w|||
|e cerr|ed out w|th|n the env|ronment o¦ other re|event pu|||cet|ons ||sted |e|ow, end |||ustreted
|n l|gure !!
¹he other three perts o¦ lurocode ? N
Other lurocodes N
Meter|e| end execut|on stenderds N
lu|||cet|ons |y the concrete |ndustry end others N
¹here ere, there¦ore, meny re¦erences to other documents end wh||e |t |s |ntended thet th|s
pu|||cet|on, re¦erred to es wo·/eJ e\omo/e·, cen stend e|one, |t |s ent|c|peted thet users mey
requ|re severe| o¦ the other re¦erences to hend, |n pert|cu|er, Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
|S|
, wh|ch
summer|ses the ru|es end pr|nc|p|es thet w||| |e common|y used |n the des|gn o¦ re|n¦orced
concrete ¦remed |u||d|ngs to lurocode ?
BS EN 1991–1–1
BS EN 1992–1–1
DESIGN OF
CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
BS EN 1991–2
ACTIONS
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
–2
–3
–4
–6
PD6687
1–2
–3
–2
WORKED EXAMPLES
TO EUROCODE 2
VOL 1
CONCRETE INDUSTRY
PUBLICATIONS
WORKED
EXAMPLES
PUBLICATIONS
BY OTHERS
Fire
Bridges
Liquid retaining
Fire
Snow
Wind
Execution
Densities and
imposed loads
VOL 2
General
STANDARDS
PRECAST
WORKED
EXAMPLES
BS EN 1990
BASIS OF
DESIGN
CONCISE
EUROCODE
2
HOW TO
DESIGN
CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
www.
Eurocode2
.info
RC SPREAD
SHEETS
PRECAST
DESIGN
MANUAL
MANUALS
DETAILERS
HANDBOOK
DESIGN
GUIDES
BS EN 13670
EXECUTION
OF
CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
Noto
¹he term Stenderds encompesses br|t|sh Stenderds, lurocodes, Net|one| Annexes (NA) end lu|||shed Locuments
|iguro 1.1
workod oxamp|os in contoxt
¹he des|gns ere |n eccordence w|th bS lN !99?÷!÷!
|!|
, es mod|ued |y the 0l Net|one| Annex
|!e|

end exp|e|ned |n lL 66S/
|6|

lntroduct|on
1
1.1
2
Cenere||y, the ce|cu|et|ons ere cross-re¦erenced to the re|event c|euses |n e|| ¦our perts o¦
lurocode ?
|!÷4|
end, where eppropr|ete, to other documents See l|gure !? ¦or e gu|de to
presentet|on ke¦erences to bS S!!0
|/|
re¦er to lert ! un|ess otherw|se steted
Cenere||y, the 's|mp|e' exemp|es depend on equet|ons end des|gn e|ds der|ved ¦rom lurocode ?
¹he der|ved equet|ons ere g|ven |n Append|x A end the des|gn e|ds ¦rom Sect|on !S o¦ Conc/·e
/a·ocoJe ?
|S|
ere repeeted |n Append|x b
¹he exemp|es ere |ntended to |e eppropr|ete ¦or the|r purpose, wh|ch |s to |||ustrete the use o¦
lurocode ? ¦or |n-s|tu concrete |u||d|ng structures ¹here ere s|mp|e exemp|es to |||ustrete how
typ|ce| hend ce|cu|et|ons m|ght |e done us|ng eve||e||e cherts end te||es der|ved ¦rom the Code
¹hese ere ¦o||owed |y more dete||ed exemp|es |||ustret|ng the dete||ed wor||ngs o¦ the Codes
ln order to exp|e|n the use o¦ lurocode ?, severe| o¦ the ce|cu|et|ons ere presented |n dete|| ¦er
|n excess o¦ thet necessery |n des|gn ce|cu|et|ons once users ere ¦em|||er w|th the Code ¹o en
extent, the des|gns ere contr|ved to show ve||d methods o¦ des|gn|ng e|ements, to g|ve |ns|ght
end to he|p |n ve||det|ng computer methods ¹hey ere not necesser||y the most eppropr|ete, the
most econom|c or the on|y methods o¦ des|gn|ng the mem|ers |||ustreted
Sections 1 and 2 Worked examples
Cl. 6.4.4
ke|event c|euses or ¦|gure num|ers ¦rom bS lN
!99?÷!÷! (|¦ the re¦erence |s to other perts, other
lurocodes or other documents th|s w||| |e |nd|ceted)
Cl. 6.4.4
NA
lrom the re|event 0l Net|one| Annex (genere||y to
bS lN !99?÷!÷!)
NA
Cl. 6.4.4 & NA lrom |oth bS lN !99?÷!÷! end 0l Net|one| Annex
Cl. 6.4.4 & NA
Fig. 2.1
Section 5.2
ke|event perts o¦ th|s pu|||cet|on
Fig. 2.1
Section 5.2
EC1-1-1: 6.4.3
lrom other lurocodes bS lN !990, bS lN !99!,
bS lN !99?÷!÷?, etc
EC1-1-1: 6.4.3
PD 6687
[6]

Soc/q·oanJ oooe· |o c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\e·
S´ // '99?-'
PD 6687
[6]
Concise Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
|S|
Concise
How to: Floors
[8]

/ou |o Je·/qn conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/nq
/a·ocoJe ?
|S|
//oo··
How to:
Floors
[8]
Grey shaded tables
ln Append|ces, der|ved content |n te||es not ¦rom
lurocode ?
|iguro 1.2
Cuido to prosontation
As some o¦ the dete|||ng ru|es |n lurocode ? ere genere||y more |nvo|ved then those to bS S!!0,
some o¦ the des|gns presented |n th|s pu|||cet|on heve |een extended |nto erees thet heve
tred|t|one||y |een the respons|||||ty o¦ dete||ers ¹hese extended ce|cu|et|ons ere not necesser||y
pert o¦ 'norme|' des|gn |ut ere |nc|uded et the end o¦ some ce|cu|et|ons lt |s essumed thet
the des|gner w||| d|scuss end egree w|th the dete||er erees o¦ respons|||||ty end the degree o¦
ret|one||set|on, the extent o¦ des|gn|ng dete||s, essessment o¦ curte||ment end other espects
thet the dete||er shou|d underte|e lt |s recogn|sed thet |n the vest me|or|ty o¦ ceses, the ru|es
g|ven |n dete|||ng menue|s
|S,9|
w||| |e used lowever, the exemp|es ere |ntended to he|p when
curte||ment, enchorege end |ep |engths need to |e determ|ned
3
lntroduct|on
Eurocode: Basis of structural design
ln the lurocode system bS lN !990, lurocode So·/· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/qn
|!0|
overerches e|| the
other lurocodes, bS lN !99! to bS lN !999 bS lN !990 deunes the e¦¦ects o¦ ect|ons, |nc|ud|ng
geotechn|ce| end se|sm|c ect|ons, end epp||es to e|| structures |rrespect|ve o¦ the meter|e| o¦
construct|on ¹he meter|e| lurocodes deune how the e¦¦ects o¦ ect|ons ere res|sted |y g|v|ng ru|es ¦or
des|gn end dete|||ng o¦ concrete, stee|, compos|te, t|m|er, mesonry end e|um|n|um (see l|gure !3)
Structural safety,
serviceability and durability
Actions on structures
Design and detailing
Geotechnical
and seismic
design
BS EN 1990, Eurocode:
Basis of structural design
BS EN 1991, Eurocode 1:
Actions on structures
BS EN 1992, Eurocode 2: Concrete
BS EN 1993, Eurocode 3: Steel
BS EN 1994, Eurocode 4: Composite
BS EN 1995, Eurocode 5: Timber
BS EN 1996, Eurocode 6: Masonry
BS EN 1999, Eurocode 9: Aluminium
BS EN 1997, Eurocode 7:
Geotechnical design
BS EN 1998, Eurocode 8:
Seismic design
|iguro 1.3
1ho £urocodo hiorarchy
bS lN !990 prov|des the necessery |n¦ormet|on ¦or the ene|ys|s o¦ structures |nc|ud|ng pert|e|
end other ¦ectors to |e epp||ed to the ect|ons ¦rom lurocode ! lt este|||shes the pr|nc|p|es end
requ|rements ¦or the se¦ety, serv|cee||||ty end dure||||ty o¦ structures lt descr||es the |es|s ¦or
des|gn es ¦o||ows
A structure she|| |e des|gned end executed (constructed) |n such e wey thet |t w|||, dur|ng |ts
|ntended ||¦e, w|th eppropr|ete degrees o¦ re||e||||ty end |n en econom|ce| wey
Suste|n e|| ect|ons end |n¦|uences |||e|y to occur dur|ng execut|on end use N
keme|n ¦|t ¦or the use ¦or wh|ch |t |s requ|red N
ln other words, |t she|| |e des|gned us|ng ||m|t stetes pr|nc|p|es to heve edequete
Ste||||ty N
Structure| res|stence (|nc|ud|ng structure| res|stence |n ¦|re) N
Serv|cee||||ty N
Lure||||ty N
lor |u||d|ng structures, e des|gn wor||ng ||¦e o¦ S0 yeers |s |mp||ed
bS lN !990 stetes thet ||m|t stetes shou|d |e ver|ued |n e|| re|event des|gn s|tuet|ons pers|stent,
trens|ent or ecc|dente| No re|event ||m|t stete she|| |e exceeded when des|gn ve|ues ¦or ect|ons
end res|stences ere used |n des|gn ¹he ||m|t stetes ere
0|t|mete ||m|t stetes (0lS), wh|ch ere essoc|eted w|th co||epse or other ¦orms o¦ structure| N
¦e||ure
Serv|cee||||ty ||m|t stetes (SlS), wh|ch correspond to cond|t|ons |eyond wh|ch spec|¦|ed N
serv|ce requ|rements ere no |onger met
A|| ect|ons ere essumed to very |n t|me end spece Stet|st|ce| pr|nc|p|es ere epp||ed to err|ve et the
megn|tude o¦ the pert|e| |oed ¦ectors to |e used |n des|gn to ech|eve the requ|red re||e||||ty |ndex
(|eve| o¦ se¦ety) ¹here |s en under|y|ng essumpt|on thet the ect|ons themse|ves ere descr||ed |n
stet|st|ce| terms
1.2
EC0: 2.1
4
1.3
1.4
Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
Act|ons ere deuned |n the !0 perts o¦ bS lN !99! lurocode ! /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
|!!|

bS lN !99!÷!÷! ?00? /en·/|/e· ·e/|-ue/q/| /moo·eJ /ooJ· |o· /a//J/nq·
bS lN !99!÷!÷? ?00? /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· e\oo·eJ |o |·e
bS lN !99!÷!÷3 ?003 ´nou /ooJ·
bS lN !99!÷!÷4 ?00S w/nJ oc|/on·
bS lN !99!÷!÷S ?003 I/e·mo/ oc|/on·
bS lN !99!÷!÷6 ?00S /c|/on· Ja·/nq e\eca|/on
bS lN !99!÷!÷/ ?006 /cc/Jen|o/ oc|/on·
bS lN !99!÷? ?003 /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· I·o||c /ooJ· on /·/Jqe·
bS lN !99!÷3 ?006 C·one· onJ moc//ne·,
bS lN !99!÷4 ?006 ´//o· onJ |on/·
¹h|s pu|||cet|on |s me|n|y concerned w|th des|gn|ng ¦or the ect|ons deuned |y lert÷!÷!
/en·/|/e· ·e/|-ue/q/| /moo·eJ /ooJ· |o· /a//J/nq·
Les|gn ve|ues o¦ ect|ons end |oed errengements ere covered |n Sect|on ?
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
lurocode ? /e·/qn o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e·
|!÷4|
operetes w|th|n en env|ronment o¦ other luropeen
end br|t|sh stenderds (see l|gure !3) lt |s governed |y bS lN !990
|!0|
end su||ect to the ect|ons
deuned |n lurocodes !
|!!|
, /
|!?|
end S
|!3|
lt depends on ver|ous meter|e|s end execut|on stenderds
end |s used es the |es|s o¦ other stenderds lert ?, S·/Jqe·
|3|
, end lert 3, //¡a/J ·e|o/n/nq onJ
con|o/nmen| ·|·ac|a·e·
|4|
, wor| |y except|on to lert !÷! end !÷?, thet |s, c|euses |n lerts ? end 3
conurm, mod|¦y or rep|ece c|euses |n lert !÷!
BS EN 1990
EUROCODE
Basis of Structural Design
BS EN 1991
EUROCODE 1
Basis of Structural Design
BS EN 1992
EUROCODE 2
Design of concrete structures
Part 1–1: General Rules for
Structures
Part 1–2: Structural Fire Design
BS EN 1992
EUROCODE 2
Part 3:
Liquid Retaining
Structures
BS EN 1995
EUROCODE 5
Design of
Composite
Structures
BS EN 13670
Execution of
Structures
BS 8500
Specifying
Concrete
BS EN 206
Concrete
BS EN 1992
EUROCODE 2
Part 2:
Bridges
BS EN 1997
EUROCODE 7
Geotechnical Design
BS EN 1998
EUROCODE 8
Seismic Design
BS EN 13369
Precast
Concrete
BS EN 10080
Reinforcing
Steels
BS 4449
Reinforcing
Steels
Noto
lor c|er|ty Net|one| Annexes end exp|enetory documents (eg lL 66S/, end
Non-Contred|ctory Comp|ementery ln¦ormet|on ÷ NCCl) ere not shown
|iguro 1.4
£urocodo 2 in contoxt
5
lntroduct|on
1.5
1.6










































National Annexes
lt |s the preroget|ve o¦ eech ClN Mem|er Stete to contro| |eve|s o¦ se¦ety |n thet country As e
resu|t, some se¦ety ¦ectors end other peremeters |n the lurocodes, such es c||met|c cond|t|ons,
dure||||ty c|esses end des|gn methods, ere su||ect to conurmet|on or se|ect|on et e net|one| |eve|
¹he dec|s|ons mede |y the net|one| |od|es |ecome Net|one||y Leterm|ned leremeters (NLls)
wh|ch ere pu|||shed |n e Net|one| Annex (NA) ¦or eech pert o¦ eech lurocode ¹he Net|one|
Annex mey e|so |nc|ude re¦erence to non-contred|ctory comp|ementery |n¦ormet|on (NCCl),
such es net|one| stenderds or gu|dence documents
¹h|s pu|||cet|on |nc|udes re¦erences to the re|event Net|one| Annexes es eppropr|ete
Basis of the worked examples in this publication
¹he des|gn ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s pu|||cet|on ere |n eccordence w|th
bS lN !990, N /a·ocoJe So·/· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/qn
|!0|
end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|!0e|

bS lN !99!, lurocode ! N /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· |n !0 perts
|!!|
end the|r 0l Net|one|
Annexes
|!!e|

bS lN !99?÷!÷!, lurocode ? ÷ lert !÷! N /e·/qn o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· onJ
·a/e· |o· /a//J/nq·
|!|
end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|!e|

bS lN !99?÷!÷?, lurocode ? ÷ lert !÷? N /e·/qn o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· -
´|·ac|a·o/ |/·e Je·/qn
|?|
end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|?e|

lL 66S/, bec|ground peper to the N c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\e·
|6|

bS lN !99/, lurocode / N Oeo|ec/n/co/ Je·/qn - /o·| ' Oene·o/ ·a/e·
|!?|
end |ts 0l Net|one|
Annex
|!?e|

¹hey use meter|e|s con¦orm|ng to
bS SS00÷! N Conc·e|e - Como/emen|o·, S·/|/·/ ´|onJo·J |o S´ // ?06-' /e|/oJ o| ·oec/|,/nq
onJ qa/Jonce |o |/e ·oec/|/e·
|!4|

bS 4449 N ´|ee/ |o· |/e ·e/n|o·cemen| o| conc·e|e - we/Jo//e ·e/n|o·c/nq ·|ee/ - So· co// onJ
Jeco//eJ o·oJac| - ´oec/|/co|/on
|!S|

¹hey me|e re¦erence to severe| pu|||cet|ons, most note||y
N Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ? |o· |/e Je·/qn o| /n-·/|a conc·e|e |·omeJ /a//J/nq· |o S´ // '99?-'-'
?004 onJ /|· c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\ ?00'
|S|

N /ou |o Je·/qn conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/nq /a·ocoJe ?
|S|

¹he execut|on o¦ the wor|s |s essumed to con¦orm to
lL 66S/ N Soc/q·oanJ oooe· |o |/e c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\e· S´ // '99?-'
|6|

NSCS, N /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/nq con·|·ac|/on, 3rd ed|t|on
|!6|
Mey
?004
Or, when eve||e||e
bS lN !36/0 N /\eca|/on o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· Lue ?0!0
|!/|
As |mp|emented |y
spec|¦|cet|ons such es
NSCS, N /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/nq con·|·ac|/on, 4th ed|t|on
|!S|

CCll-0S0, due ?0!0
6
Assumptions
Eurocode 2
lurocode ? essumes thet
Les|gn end construct|on w||| |e underte|en |y eppropr|ete|y que||¦|ed end exper|enced personne| N
Adequete superv|s|on end que||ty contro| w||| |e prov|ded N
Meter|e|s end products w||| |e used es spec|¦|ed N
¹he structure w||| |e edequete|y me|nte|ned end w||| |e used |n eccordence w|th the des|gn |r|e¦ N
¹he requ|rements ¦or execut|on end wor|mensh|p g|ven |n lN !36/0 ere comp||ed w|th N
The worked examples
0n|ess noted otherw|se, the ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s pu|||cet|on essume
EC0: Table 2.1 A des|gn ||¦e o¦ S0 yeers N
Table 3.1 ¹he use o¦ C30/3/ concrete N
BS 4449 ¹he use o¦ Crede A, b or C re|n¦orcement, des|gneted 'l' |n eccordence w|th bS S666 N
|!9|

Table 4.1,
BS 8500: Table A.1
lxposure c|ess `C! N
Building Regs
[20,21]
! hour ¦|re res|stence N
Cenere||y eech ce|cu|et|on |s rounded end |t |s the rounded ve|ue thet |s used |n eny ¦urther ce|cu|et|on
Material properties
Meter|e| propert|es ere spec|ued |n terms o¦ the|r cherecter|st|c ve|ues ¹h|s usue||y corresponds
to the |ower S% ¦rect||e o¦ en essumed stet|st|ce| d|str||ut|on o¦ the property cons|dered
¹he ve|ues o¦ g
C
end g
S
, pert|e| ¦ectors ¦or meter|e|s, ere |nd|ceted |n ¹e||e !!
1ab|o 1.1
Þartia| factors for matoria|s
Dosign situation g
C
- concroto g
S
- roinforcing stoo|
ULS – persistent and transient !S0 !!S
Accidental – non-fire !?0 !00
Accidental – fire !00 !00
SLS !00 !00
Execution
ln the 0l, LL lNV !36/0
|??|
|s current|y eve||e||e |ut w|thout |ts Net|one| App||cet|on Locument
lor |u||d|ng structures |n the 0l, the |ec|ground document lL 66S/
|6|
cons|ders the prov|s|ons o¦
the Net|one| Structure| Concrete Spec|ucet|on (NSCS)
|!6|
to |e equ|ve|ent to those |n lN !36/0 ¦or
to|erence c|ess ! vhen pu|||shed, bS lN !36/0
|!/|
end, |¦ eppropr|ete, the correspond|ng Net|one|
App||cet|on Locument w||| te|e precedence
1.7
1.7.1








1.7.2
1.8
1.9
Cl. 1.3
PD 6687
[6]
Table 2.1 & NA
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
7
2
2.1
2.1.1

2.1.2
2.2




2.3




Analysis, actions and load arrangements
Methods of analysis
ULS
At the u|t|mete ||m|t stete (0lS) the type o¦ ene|ys|s shou|d |e eppropr|ete to the pro||em |e|ng
cons|dered ¹he ¦o||ow|ng ere common|y used
l|neer e|est|c ene|ys|s N
l|neer e|est|c ene|ys|s w|th ||m|ted red|str||ut|on N
l|est|c ene|ys|s N
Cl. 5.1.1(7)
lor 0lS, the moments der|ved ¦rom e|est|c ene|ys|s mey |e red|str||uted prov|ded thet the
resu|t|ng d|str||ut|on o¦ moments reme|ns |n equ||||r|um w|th the epp||ed ect|ons ln cont|nuous
|eems or s|e|s w|th |
c|
< S0 Mle the m|n|mum e||owe||e ret|o o¦ the red|str||uted moment to
the moment |n the ||neer ene|ys|s, d, |s 0/0 where C|ess b or C|ess C re|n¦orcement |s used or
0S0 where C|ess A re|n¦orcement |s used
Cl. 5.5.4 & NA
v|th|n the ||m|ts set, coe¦uc|ents ¦or moment end sheer der|ved ¦rom e|est|c ene|ys|s mey |e
used to determ|ne ¦orces |n regu|er structures (see Append|x b) ¹he des|gn o¦ co|umns shou|d |e
|esed on e|est|c moments w|thout red|str||ut|on
Cl. 5.1.1
l|est|c ene|ys|s mey |e used ¦or des|gn et 0lS prov|ded thet the requ|red duct|||ty cen |e essured,
¦or exemp|e |y ||m|t|ng \
u
/J (to < 0?S ¦or concrete strength c|esses < CS0/60), us|ng C|ess b
or C re|n¦orcement, or ensur|ng the ret|o o¦ moments et |ntermed|ete supports to moments |n
spens |s |etween 0S end ?0
Cl. 5.6.2
SLS
At the serv|cee||||ty ||m|t stete (SlS) ||neer e|est|c ene|ys|s mey |e used l|neer e|est|c ene|ys|s
mey |e cerr|ed out essum|ng
Cross-sect|ons ere uncrec|ed end reme|n p|ene (|e ene|ys|s mey |e |esed on concrete N
gross sect|ons)
l|neer stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|ps N
¹he use o¦ meen ve|ues o¦ e|est|c modu|us N
Cl. 5.4(1)
Actions
Act|ons re¦er to |oeds epp||ed to the structure es deuned |e|ow
lermenent ect|ons ere ect|ons ¦or wh|ch the ver|et|on |n megn|tude w|th t|me |s neg||g|||e N EC1-1-1: 2.1
Ver|e||e ect|ons ere ect|ons ¦or wh|ch the ver|et|on |n megn|tude w|th t|me |s not neg||g|||e N
EC1-1-1:
2.2, 3.3.1(2)
Acc|dente| ect|ons ere ect|ons o¦ short duret|on |ut o¦ s|gn|¦|cent megn|tude thet ere N
un|||e|y to occur on e g|ven structure dur|ng the des|gn wor||ng ||¦e
EC1-1-7
lmposed de¦ormet|ons ere not cons|dered |n th|s pu|||cet|on
Characteristic values of actions
¹he ve|ues o¦ ect|ons g|ven |n the ver|ous perts o¦ lurocode ! /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
|!!|
ere te|en
es cherecter|st|c ve|ues ¹he cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on |s deuned |y one o¦ the ¦o||ow|ng
three e|ternet|ves
EC0: 4.1.2
lts meen ve|ue ÷ genere||y used ¦or permenent ect|ons N
8
An upper ve|ue w|th en |ntended pro|e||||ty o¦ not |e|ng exceeded or |ower ve|ue w|th en N
|ntended pro|e||||ty o¦ |e|ng ech|eved ÷ norme||y used ¦or ver|e||e ect|ons w|th |nown
stet|st|ce| d|str||ut|ons, such es w|nd or snow
A nom|ne| ve|ue ÷ used ¦or some ver|e||e end ecc|dente| ect|ons N
Variable actions: imposed loads
General
lmposed |oeds on |u||d|ngs ere d|v|ded |nto cetegor|es ¹hose most ¦requent|y used |n concrete
des|gn ere shown |n ¹e||e ?!
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.7, 6.9
& NA
1ab|o 2.1
Catogorios of
imposod |oads
Catogory Doscription
A Arees ¦or domest|c end res|dent|e| ect|v|t|es
B O¦¦|ce erees
C Arees o¦ congreget|on
D Shopp|ng erees
E Storege erees end |ndustr|e| use (|nc|ud|ng eccess erees)
F ¹re¦¦|c end per||ng erees (veh|c|es < 30 |N)
G ¹re¦¦|c end per||ng erees (veh|c|es > 30 |N)
H koo¦s (|neccess|||e except ¦or me|ntenence end repe|r)
I koo¦s (eccess|||e w|th occupency cetegor|es A ÷ L)
K koo¦s (eccess|||e ¦or spec|e| serv|ces, eg ¦or he||copter |end|ng erees)
Notos
1 Cetegory ¦ |s not used
2 lor ¦or|||¦t |oed|ng re¦er to bS lN !99!÷!÷! C| 6?3
Characteristic values of imposed loads
Cherecter|st|c ve|ues ¦or common|y used |mposed |oeds ere g|ven |n ¹e||es ?? to ?S
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
1ab|o 2.2
A: domostic and rosidontia|
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
} J
k
{kN}
A1 A|| useges w|th|n se|¦-conte|ned dwe|||ng un|ts Commune|
erees (|nc|ud|ng ||tchens) |n sme||
a
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
!S ?0
A2 bedrooms end dorm|tor|es, except those |n se|¦-conte|ned
s|ng|e ¦em||y dwe|||ng un|ts end |n hote|s end mote|s
!S ?0
A3 bedrooms |n hote|s end mote|s, hosp|te| werds, to||et erees ?0 ?0
A4 b||||erd/snoo|er rooms ?0 ?/
A5 be|con|es |n s|ng|e-¦em||y dwe|||ng un|ts end commune| erees
|n sme||
a
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
?S ?0
A6 be|con|es |n hoste|s, guest houses, res|dent|e| c|u|s Commune|
erees |n |erger
a
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
M|n 30
b
M|n ?0
c
A7 be|con|es |n hote|s end mote|s M|n 40
b
M|n ?0
c
Notos
a Sme|| ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets ere those w|th < 3 storeys end < 4 ¦|ets per ¦|oor/ste|rcese Otherw|se they ere
cons|dered to |e |erger ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
b Seme es the rooms to wh|ch they g|ve eccess, |ut w|th e m|n|mum o¦ 30 |N/m
?
or 40 |N/m
?
c Concentreted et the outer edge
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
1ab|o 2.3
8: officos
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
} J
k
{kN}
B1 Cenere| use other then |n b? ?S ?/
B2 At or |e|ow ground ¦|oor |eve| 30 ?/

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
9
1ab|o 2.4
C: aroas of congrogation
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
J
k

C1 Aroas with tab|os
C11 lu|||c, |nst|tut|one| end commune| d|n|ng rooms end
|ounges, ce¦es end resteurents (Note use C4 or CS |¦
eppropr|ete)
?0 30
C12 keed|ng rooms w|th no |oo| storege ?S 40
C13 C|essrooms 30 30
C2 Aroas with fixod soats
C21 Assem||y erees w|th ¦|xed seet|ng
a
40 36
C22 l|eces o¦ worsh|p 30 ?/
C3 Aroas without obstac|os for moving poop|o
C31 Corr|dors, he||weys, e|s|es |n |nst|tut|one| type |u||d|ngs,
hoste|s, guest houses, res|dent|e| c|u|s end commune|
erees |n |erger
b
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
30 4S
C32 Ste|rs, |end|ngs |n |nst|tut|one| type |u||d|ngs, hoste|s,
guest houses, res|dent|e| c|u|s end commune| erees |n
|erger
b
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
30 40
C33 Corr|dors, he||weys, e|s|es |n other
c
|u||d|ngs 40 4S
C34 Corr|dors, he||weys, e|s|es |n other
c
|u||d|ngs su||ected to
whee|ed veh|c|es, |nc|ud|ng tro||eys
S0 4S
C35 Ste|rs, |end|ngs |n other
c
|u||d|ngs su||ected to crowds 40 40
C36 ve||weys ÷ l|ght duty (eccess su|te||e ¦or one person,
we||wey w|dth epprox 600 mm)
30 ?0
C37 ve||weys ÷ Cenere| duty (regu|er two-wey pedestr|en
tre¦¦|c)
S0 36
C38 ve||weys ÷ leevy duty (h|gh-dens|ty pedestr|en tre¦¦|c
|nc|ud|ng escepe routes)
/S 4S
C39 Museum ¦|oors end ert ge||er|es ¦or exh|||t|on purposes 40 4S
C4 Aroas with possib|o physica| activitios
C41 Lence he||s end stud|os, gymnes|e, steges
d
S0 36
C42 Lr||| he||s end dr||| rooms
d
S0 /0
C5 Aroas subjoctod to |argo crowds
C51 Assem||y erees w|thout ¦|xed seet|ng, concert he||s, |ers
end p|eces o¦ worsh|p
d,e
S0 36
C52 Steges |n pu|||c essem||y erees
d
/S 4S
koy
a l|xed seet|ng |s seet|ng where |ts remove| end the use o¦ the spece ¦or other purposes |s |mpro|e||e
b Sme|| ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets ere those w|th < 3 storeys end < 4 ¦|ets per ¦|oor/ste|rcese Otherw|se they ere
cons|dered to |e '|erger' ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
c Other |u||d|ngs |nc|ude those not covered |y C3! end C3?, end |nc|ude hote|s end mote|s end
|nst|tut|one| |u||d|ngs su||ected to crowds
d lor structures thet m|ght |e suscept|||e to resonence e¦¦ects, re¦erence shou|d |e mede to NA?!
e lor grendstends end sted|e, re¦erence shou|d |e mede to the requ|rements o¦ the eppropr|ete
cert|¦y|ng euthor|ty
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
10
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
1ab|o 2.5
D: shopping aroas
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
} J
k
{kN}
D Shopping aroas
D1 Arees |n genere| rete|| shops 40 36
D2 Arees |n depertment stores 40 36
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.3, 6.4
& NA.4, NA.5
1ab|o 2.6
£: storago aroas and industria| uso {inc|uding accoss aroas}
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
} J
k
{kN}
£1 Aroas suscoptib|o to accumu|ation of goods inc|uding accoss aroas
E11 Cenere| erees ¦or stet|c equ|pment not spec|¦|ed
e|sewhere (|nst|tut|one| end pu|||c |u||d|ngs)
?0 !S
E12 keed|ng rooms w|th |oo| storege, eg |||rer|es 40 4S
E13 Cenere| storege other then those spec|¦|ede ?4/m /0
E14 l||e rooms, ¦|||ng end storege spece (o¦¦|ces) S0 4S
E15 Stec| rooms (|oo|s) ?4/m he|ght
(m|n 6S)
/0
E16 leper storege end stet|onery stores 40/m he|ght 90
E17 Lense mo|||e stec||ng (|oo|s) on mo|||e tro||eys |n
pu|||c end |nst|tut|one| |u||d|ngs
4S/m he|ght /0
E18 Lense mo|||e stec||ng (|oo|s) on mo|||e truc|s |n
werehouses
4S/m he|ght
(m|n !S0)
/0
E19 Co|d storege S0/m he|ght
(m|n !S0)
90
£2 |ndustria| uso See bS lN !99!÷!÷!
¹e||es 6S 8 66
lor|||¦ts C|esses ll! to ll6
koy
a lower |ound ve|ue g|ven More spec|¦|c |oed ve|ues shou|d |e egreed w|th c||ent
1ab|o 2.7
| and C: traffic and parking aroas
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
} J
k
{kN}
| 1raffic and parking aroas {vohic|os < 30 kN}
¹re¦¦|c end per||ng erees (veh|c|es < 30 |N) ?S S0
C 1raffic and parking aroas {vohic|os > 30 kN}
¹re¦¦|c end per||ng erees (veh|c|es > 30 |N) S0 ¹o |e
determ|ned ¦or
spec|¦|c use
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
11

2.4.3



1ab|o 2.8
H, | and k: roofs
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
} J
k
{kN}
H koofs {inaccossib|o oxcopt for maintonanco and ropair}
koo¦ s|ope, a° < 30° 06
09 30° < a < 60° 06(60 ÷ a)/30
< 60° 0
| koofs {accossib|o with occupancy catogorios A - D}
Cetegor|es A ÷ L As ¹e||es ?? to ?S eccord|ng to
spec|¦|c use
k koofs {accossib|o for spocia| sorvicos, o.g. for ho|icoptor |anding aroas}
le||copter c|ess lC! (< ?0 |N) (su||ect to
dynem|c ¦ector f !4)
÷÷ ?0
le||copter c|ess lC? (< 60 |N) ÷÷ 60
Notos
1 koo¦s ere cetegor|.ed eccord|ng to the|r eccess|||||ty lmposed |oeds ¦or roo¦s thet ere norme||y
eccess|||e ere genere||y the seme es ¦or the spec|¦|c use end cetegory o¦ the ed|ecent eree lmposed
|oeds ¦or roo¦s w|thout eccess ere g|ven e|ove
2 ¹here |s no cetegory ¦
EC1-1-1:
6.3.4.1(2), Tables 6.9,
6.10, 6.11 & NA.7
EC1-1-1:
6.3.4 & NA
Movable partitions
¹he se|¦-we|ght o¦ move||e pert|t|ons mey |e te|en |nto eccount |y e un|¦orm|y d|str||uted |oed,
¡
|
, wh|ch shou|d |e edded to the |mposed |oeds o¦ ¦oors es ¦o||ows
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (8) & NA
lor move||e pert|t|ons w|th e se|¦-we|ght o¦ !0 |N/m we|| |ength N
¡
|
0S |N/m
?

lor move||e pert|t|ons w|th e se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?0 |N/m we|| |ength N
¡
|
0S |N/m
?

lor move||e pert|t|ons w|th e se|¦-we|ght o¦ 30 |N/m we|| |ength N
¡
|
!? |N/m
?

leev|er pert|t|ons shou|d |e cons|dered seperete|y
Reduction factors
General
koo¦s do not que||¦y ¦or |oed reduct|ons ¹he method g|ven |e|ow comp||es w|th the 0l
Net|one| Annex |ut d|¦¦ers ¦rom thet g|ven |n the lurocode
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10)
6.3.1.2(11) & NA
Area
A reduct|on ¦ector ¦or |mposed |oeds ¦or eree, a
A
, mey |e used end shou|d |e determ|ned
us|ng
a
A
!0 ÷ A/!000 ~ 0/S
where
/ |s the eree (m
?
) supported w|th |oeds que||¦y|ng ¦or reduct|on (|e cetegor|es A to l es
||sted |n ¹e||e ?!)
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10)
& NA Exp. (NA.1)
12
Number of storeys
A reduct|on ¦ector ¦or num|er o¦ storeys, a
n
, mey |e used end shou|d |e determ|ned us|ng
a
n
!! ÷ n/!0
a
n
06
a
n
0S
¦or ! < n < S
¦or S < n < !0
¦or n > !0
where
n num|er o¦ storeys w|th |oeds que||¦y|ng ¦or reduct|on (|e cetegor|es A to L es ||sted |n
¹e||e ?!)
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (11) & NA
Use
Accord|ng to the 0l NA, a
A
end a
n
mey not |e used together
Variable actions: snow loads
EC1-1-3:
5.2(3)
ln pers|stent or trens|ent s|tuet|ons, snow |oed on e roo¦, ·, |s deuned es |e|ng
· m
|
C
e
C
t
·
|
where
EC1-1-3:
5.3.1, 5.3.2 & NA
m
|
snow |oed shepe ¦ector, , e|ther m
!
or m
?
m
!
undr|¦ted snow shepe ¦ector
m
?
dr|¦ted snow shepe ¦ector
lor ¦et roo¦s, 0° a (w|th no h|gher structures c|ose or e|utt|ng),
m
!
m
?
0S
lor she||ow monop|tch roo¦s, 0°< a < 30° (w|th no h|gher structures c|ose or
e|utt|ng), m
!
0S, m
?
0S (! ÷ a/30) lor other ¦orms o¦ roo¦ end |oce| e¦¦ects
re¦er to bS lN !99!÷!÷3 Sect|ons S3 end 6
EC1-1-3:
5.2(7) &Table 5.1
C
e
exposure coe¦uc|ent
lor w|ndswept topogrephy C
e
0S
lor norme| topogrephy C
e
!0
lor she|tered topogrephy C
e
!?
EC1-1-3:
5.2(8)
C
|
therme| coe¦uc|ent, C
|
!0 other then ¦or some g|ess-covered roo¦s, or s|m||er
EC1-1-3:
& NA 2.8
·
/
cherecter|st|c ground snow |oed |N/m
?
0!S(0!´ ÷ 00S) ÷ (/ ÷ !00)/S?S
where
´ .one num|er o|te|ned ¦rom the mep |n bS lN !99!÷!÷3 NA l|gure NA!
/ s|te e|t|tude, m
l|gure NA! o¦ the NA to bS lN !99!÷!÷3 e|so g|ves ugures ¦or ·
|
et !00 m ems|
essoc|eted w|th the .ones
lor the me|or|ty o¦ the South lest, the M|d|ends, Northern lre|end end the north o¦
lng|end epert ¦rom h|gh ground, ·
|
0S0 |N/m
?

lor the vest Country, vest ve|es end lre|end the ugure |s |ess lor most o¦ Scot|end
end perts o¦ the eest coest o¦ lng|end, the ugure |s more See l|gure ?!
Snow |oed |s c|ess|ued es e ver|e||e uxed ect|on lxcept|one| c|rcumstences mey |e treeted es
ecc|dente| ect|ons |n wh|ch cese re¦erence shou|d |e mede to bS lN !99!÷!÷3
2.5
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (11)
& NA Exp. ( NA.2)
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
13
1
1
1 Zone 1 = 0.25 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.40 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.50 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.60 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.70 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
2
3
4
5
1
1
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5 5
1
|iguro 2.1
Charactoristic ground snow |oad map {ground snow |oad at 100 m a.m.s.|. {kNIm
2
}
EC1-1-3: NA Fig.
NA.1
Variable actions: wind loads
¹h|s Sect|on presents e very s|mp|e |nterpretet|on o¦ lurocode !
|!!, !!e|
end |s |ntended to
prov|de e |es|c understend|ng w|th respect to rectengu|er-p|en |u||d|ngs w|th ¦et roo¦s ln
genere|, mex|mum ve|ues ere g|ven w|th more |n¦ormet|on e |ower ve|ue m|ght |e used ¹he
user shou|d |e cere¦u| to ensure thet eny |n¦ormet|on used |s w|th|n the scope o¦ the epp||cet|on
env|seged ¹he user |s re¦erred to more spec|e||st gu|dence
|?3, ?4|
or bS lN !99!÷!÷4
|?S|
end
|ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|?Se|
¹he Net|one| Annex |nc|udes c|eer end conc|se ¦ow cherts ¦or the
determ|net|on o¦ pee| ve|oc|ty pressure, ¡
p

ln essence cherecter|st|c w|nd |oed cen |e expressed es
u
|
c
¦
¡
p(.)
where
c
¦
¦orce coe¦uc|ent, wh|ch ver|es, |ut |s e mex o¦ !3 ¦or overe|| |oed
¡
p(.)
c
e(.)
c

¡
|
where
c
e(.)
exposure ¦ector ¦rom l|gure ?3
c

town terre|n ¦ector ¦rom l|gure ?4
¡
|
0006.
|
?
|N/m
?
where
.
|
.
|,mep
c
e|t
EC1-1-4:
Figs NA.7, NA.8
where
.
|,mep
¦undemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|ty ¦rom l|gure ??
c
e|t
e|t|tude ¦ector, conservet|ve|y, c
e|t
! ÷ 000!/
where
/ e|t|tude ems|
EC1-1-4:
Fig. NA.1
Sym|o|s e||rev|et|ons end some o¦ the ceveets ere exp|e|ned |n the sect|ons |e|ow, wh|ch
together prov|de e procedure ¦or determ|n|ng w|nd |oed to bS lN !99!÷!÷4
2.6
14
Determine basic wind velocity, v
b

.
|
c
d|r
c
seeson
c
pro|
.
|,0
EC1-1-4:
4.2(1) Note 2
& NA 2.4, 2.5
where
c
d|r
d|rect|one| ¦ector
Conservet|ve|y, c
d|r
!0
(c
d|r
|s e m|n|mum o¦ 0/3 or 0/4 ¦or w|nd |n en eester|y d|rect|on,
30° to !?0°)
EC1-1-4:
4.2(2) Note 3
& NA 2.7: Fig. NA.2
c
seeson
seeson ¦ector
lor e 6 month return per|od, |nc|ud|ng w|nter, or greeter,
c
seeson
!00
EC1-1-4:
4.2(1) Notes 4 & 5
& NA 2.8
c
pro|
pro|e||||ty ¦ector
!00 ¦or return per|od o¦ S0 yeers
.
|,0
.
|,mep
c
e|t
EC1-1-4:
4.2(1) Note 2
& NA 2.4: Fig. NA.1
where
.
|,mep
¦undemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|ty ¦rom l|gure ??
EC1-1-4:
4.2(2) Note 1
& NA 2.5
c
e|t
e|t|tude ¦ector
Conservet|ve|y, c
e|t
! ÷ 000!/
where
/ e|t|tude o¦ the s|te |n metres ems|
vhere orogrephy |s s|gn|ucent (|e the s|te |s c|ose to e s|ope
steeper then 00S), re¦er to NA ?S
Calculate basic wind pressure, q
b

¡
|
0Sr.
|
?
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 2 & NA 2.18
where
.
|
es e|ove
r dens|ty o¦ e|r
!??6 |g/m
3
( !?0 N/m
3
) ¦or 0l
Calculate peak wind pressure, q
p(z)

EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17
¡
p(.)
c
e(.)
¡
|
¦or country |ocet|ons
c
e(.)
c

¡
|
¦or town |ocet|ons
where
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1, NA 2.17
& Fig. A.NA.1
¡
|
es e|ove
c
e(.)
exposure ¦ector der|ved ¦rom l|gure ?3 et he|ght · (see |e|ow)
c
e,¹
exposure correct|on ¦ector ¦or town terre|n der|ved ¦rom l|gure ?4
· the he|ght et wh|ch ¡
p
|s sought
lor e w|ndwerd we|| end when / < /, ¡
p
|s ce|cu|eted et the re¦erence he|ght
·
e
/ lor other espect ret|os // o¦ the w|ndwerd we||, ¡
p
,|s ce|cu|eted et
d|¦¦erent re¦erence he|ghts ¦or eech pert (see bS lN !99!÷!÷4)
where
/ he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
/ |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng
lor |eewerd end s|de we||s,
· he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17:
Fig. NA.8
EC1-1-4: 7.2.2(1),
Note & NA 2.26
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17:
Fig. NA.7
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
15
30
31
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
200
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
z
-
h
d
i
s
(
m
)
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
≤0.1 1 10
Distance upwind to shoreline (km)
≥100
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
1.5
2.0
10
Use 1.0 in this area
0.9
0.8
0.7
200
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
z
-
h
d
i
s
(
m
)
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
≤0.1 1 10
Distance inside town terrain (km)
≥20
Noto
Subjoct to a|titudo corroction.
Noto
Conora||y a
dis
= 0. |or torrain catogory |V {towns otc.} soo 8S £N 1991-1-4: A.5.
|iguro 2.2
Map of fundamonta| basic wind
vo|ocity, o
b,map
, {mIs}
|iguro 2.3
£xposuro factor \
o{z}
for sitos in country
or town torrain
|iguro 2.4
Mu|tip|ior for oxposuro corroction for
sitos in town torrain
EC1-1-4: 4.2(1)
Note 2 & NA 2.4: Fig. NA.1
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17: Fig. NA.7
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17: Fig. NA.8
Calculate characteristic wind load, w
k

u
|
¡
p(.)
c
¦

where
¡
p(.)
es e|ove
c
¦
¦orce coe¦uc|ent ¦or the structure or structure| e|ement
Cenere||y
c
pe
÷ c
p|
where
EC1-1-4:
7, 8 & NA
c
pe
(externe|) pressure coe¦uc|ent dependent on s|.e o¦ eree cons|dered end .one
lor erees e|ove ! m
?
, c
pe,!0
shou|d |e used
EC1-1-4:
7.2.1(1) Note 2 &
NA. 2.25
Overall loads
lor the we||s o¦ rectengu|er-p|en |u||d|ngs, c
pe,!0
mey |e determ|ned ¦rom
¹e||e /! o¦ bS lN !99!÷!÷4
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
NA.2.27
lowever, ¦or the determ|net|on o¦ overe|| |oeds on |u||d|ngs, the net pressure
coe¦uc|ents g|ven |n ¹e||e ?9 mey |e used ln th|s cese |t w||| |e unnecessery
to determ|ne |nterne| w|nd pressure coe¦uc|ents
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
NA.2.27, Table NA.4
Cladding loads
lor erees e|ove ! m
?
, c
pe,!0
shou|d |e used c
pe,!0
mey |e determ|ned ¦rom
¹e||e /! o¦ bS lN !99!÷!÷4 See ¹e||e ?!0
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
NA.2.27
2.6.4
16
EC1-1-4:
7.2.3, NA.2.28 & NA
advisory note
Flat roofs
lor ¦et roo¦s, eccord|ng to the Adv|sory Note |n the NA some o¦ the ve|ues
o¦ c
pe,!0
|n ¹e||e /? o¦ bS lN !99!÷!÷4 (see ¹e||e ?!!) ere s|gn|ucent|y
d|¦¦erent ¦rom current prect|ce |n the 0l lt recommends thet des|gners shou|d
cons|der us|ng the ve|ues |n bS 6399? to me|nte|n the current |eve|s o¦ se¦ety
end economy See ¹e||e ?!?
BS 6399:
Table 8 & Fig. 18
EC1-1-4:
NA.2.28 & NA
advisory note
lor other ¦orms o¦ roo¦ re¦er to bS lN !99!÷!÷4 end the 0l NA
lt w||| e|so |e necessery to determ|ne |nterne| w|nd pressure coe¦uc|ents ¦or
the des|gn o¦ c|edd|ng
EC1-1-4:
7.2.9(6) Note 2
c
p|
|nterne| pressure coe¦uc|ent
lor no dom|nent open|ngs c
p|
mey |e te|en es the more onerous o¦ ÷0? end ÷03
EC1-1-4:
NA 2.27, Table NA.4
1ab|o 2.9
Not prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
, for wa||s of roctangu|ar p|an bui|dings*
a(] Not prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
5 !3
1 !!
~ 0.25 0S
Notos
1 ´ |n e¦¦ect these ve|ues ere ¦orce coe¦¦|c|ents ¦or determ|n|ng overe|| |oeds on |u||d|ngs
2 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
3 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (perpend|cu|er to w|nd)
4 J depth o¦ |u||d|ng (pere||e| to w|nd)
5 Ve|ues mey |e |nterpo|eted
6 lxc|udes ¦unne|||ng
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Table 7.1,
Note 1 & NA 2.27:
Tables NA.4a , NA.4b
1ab|o 2.10
£xtorna| prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
, for wa||s of roctangu|ar-p|an bui|dings
Zono Doscription
\
po,10
Max. Min.
Zone A lor we||s pere||e| to the w|nd d|rect|on, erees w|th|n
0?m|n|/, ?/| o¦ w|ndwerd edge
÷!?
Zone B lor we||s pere||e| to the w|nd d|rect|on, erees w|th|n
0?m|n|/, ?/| o¦ w|ndwerd edge
÷0S
Zone C lor we||s pere||e| to the w|nd d|rect|on, erees ¦rom
0?m|n|/, ?/| to m|n|/, ?/| o¦ w|ndwerd edge
÷0S
Zone D v|ndwerd we|| ÷0S
Zone E leewerd we|| ÷0/
Zones D
and E
Net ÷!3
Notos
1 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
2 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (perpend|cu|er to w|nd)
EC1-1-4:
7.2, Table 7.2 & NA
1ab|o 2.11
£xtorna| prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
for f|at roofs*
Zono Doscription
\
po,10
Sharp odgo
at oavos
with parapot
Zone F v|th|n 0!m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end w|th|n
0?m|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (pere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷!S ÷!6
Zone G v|th|n 0!m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end outw|th
0?m|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (pere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷!? ÷!!
Zone H koo¦ |etween 0!m|n||, ?h| end 0Sm|n||, ?h| ¦rom
w|ndwerd edge
÷0/ ÷0/
Zone I keme|nder |etween 0Sm|n||, ?h| end |eewerd edge ±0? ±0?
Notos
1 ´ Accord|ng to NA to bS lN !99!-!-4, th|s te||e |s not recommended ¦or use |n the 0l
2 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
3 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (perpend|cu|er to w|nd)
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
17
1ab|o 2.12
£xtorna| prossuro coofficiont, \
po
, for f|at roofs
Zono Doscription
\
po
Sharp odgo
at oavos
with parapot
Zone A v|th|n 0!m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end w|th|n
0?Sm|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (pere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷?0 ÷!9
Zone B v|th|n 0!m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end outw|th
0?Sm|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (pere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷!4 ÷!3
Zone C koo¦ |etween 0!m|n||, ?h| end 0Sm|n||, ?h| ¦rom
w|ndwerd edge
÷0/ ÷0/
Zone D keme|nder |etween 0Sm|n||, ?h| end |eewerd edge ±0? ±0?
Notos
1 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
2 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (perpend|cu|er to w|nd)
EC1-1-4:
7.2.3, NA.2.28 &
NA advisory note.
BS 6399:
Table 8 & Fig. 18
Calculate the overall wind force, F
w

/
w
c
s
c
d
Su
|
/
re¦
where
EC1-1-4:
5.3.2, Exp. (5.4)
& NA
u
|
es e|ove
EC1-1-4:
6.2(1) a), 6.2(1) c)
c
s
c
d
structure| ¦ector, conservet|ve|y
!0
or mey |e der|ved
EC1-1-4:
6.2(1) e) & NA.2.20
where
c
s
s|.e ¦ector
c
s
mey |e der|ved ¦rom lxp (6?) or te||e NA3 Lepend|ng on ve|ues o¦
(/ ÷ /) end (· ÷ /
d|s
) end d|v|d|ng |nto ?one A, b or C, e ve|ue o¦ c
s

(e ¦ector < !00) mey |e ¦ound
EC1-1-4:
6.3(1), Exp. (6.2) &
NA.2.20, Table NA3
c
d
dynem|c ¦ector
c
d
mey |e der|ved ¦rom lxp (63) or ugure NA9 Lepend|ng on ve|ues o¦ d
s

(|oger|thm|c decrement o¦ structure| demp|ng) end ///, e ve|ue o¦ c
d
(e ¦ector >
!00) mey |e ¦ound
EC1-1-4:
6.3(1), Exp. (6.3) &
NA.2.20: Fig. NA9
c
d
mey |e te|en es !0 ¦or ¦remed |u||d|ngs w|th structure| we||s end mesonry
|nterne| we||s, end ¦or c|edd|ng pene|s end e|ements
/
re¦
re¦erence eree o¦ the structure or structure| e|ement
EC1-1-4:
5.3.2, Exp. (5.4)
& NA
Variable actions: others
Act|ons due to construct|on, tre¦uc, ure, therme| ect|ons, use es s||os or ¦rom crenes ere outs|de
the scope o¦ th|s pu|||cet|on end re¦erence shou|d |e mede to spec|e||st ||tereture
EC1-1-6, EC1-2,
EC1-1-2, EC1-1-5,
EC1-3 & EC1-4
2.6.5
2.7
18
Permanent actions
¹he dens|t|es end eree |oeds o¦ common|y used meter|e|s, sheet meter|e|s end ¦orms o¦
construct|on ere g|ven |n ¹e||es ?!3 to ?!S
Act|ons er|s|ng ¦rom sett|ement, de¦ormet|on end creep ere outs|de the scope o¦ th|s document
|ut genere||y ere to |e cons|dered es permenent ect|ons vhere cr|t|ce|, re¦er to spec|e||st
||tereture
1ab|o 2.13
8u|k donsitios for soi|s and matoria|s
[11, 26]
8u|k donsitios kNIm
3
8u|k donsitios kNIm
3
Soi|s Matoria|s
C|ey ÷ st|¦¦ !9÷?? Concrete ÷ re|n¦orced ?S0
C|ey ÷ so¦t !6÷!9 Concrete ÷ wet re|n¦orced ?60
Crenu|er ÷ |oose !6÷!S C|ess ?S6
Crenu|er ÷ dense !9÷?! Cren|te ?/3
S||ty c|ey, sendy c|ey !6÷?0 lerdcore !90
Matoria|s l|mestone (lort|end stone ÷ med we|ght) ??0
Asphe|t ??S l|mestone (mer||e ÷ heevywe|ght) ?6/
b|oc|s ÷ eereted concrete (m|n) S0 Mecedem pev|ng ?!0
b|oc|s ÷ eereted concrete (mex) 90 MLl S0
b|oc|s ÷ dense eggregete ?00 l|ester !4!
b|oc|s ÷ ||ghtwe|ght !40 l|ywood 63
boo|s ÷ |u|| storege S÷!! Sendstone ?3S
br|c|wor| ÷ ||ue ?40 Screed ÷ send/cement ??0
br|c|wor| ÷ eng|neer|ng ??0 Stee|/|ron //0
br|c|wor| ÷ ¦|etton !S0 ¹errecotte ?0/
br|c|wor| ÷ london stoc| !90 ¹|m|er ÷ Loug|es ¦|r S?
br|c|wor| ÷ send ||me ?!0 ¹|m|er ÷ luropeen |eech/oe| /!
Ch|p|oerd 69 ¹|m|er ÷ Crede C!6 36
Concrete ÷ eereted !00 ¹|m|er ÷ Crede C?4 4!
Concrete ÷ ||ghtwe|ght !S0 ¹|m|er ÷ lro|o/tee| 64
Concrete ÷ p|e|n ?40
2.8
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
19
1ab|o 2.14
1ypica| aroa |oads for concroto s|abs and shoot matoria|s
[11, 26]
1ypica| aroa |oads kNIm
2
1ypica| aroa |oads kNIm
2
Concroto s|abs Shoot matoria|s
lrecest concrete so||d un|ts (!00 mm) ?S0 l|ester s||m coet 00S
lrecest concrete ho||owcore un|ts
a
(!S0 mm) ?40 l|ester|oerd (!?S mm) 009
lrecest concrete ho||owcore un|ts
a
(?00 mm) ?S/ l|ester|oerd (!9 mm) 0!S
lrecest concreteho||owcore un|ts
a
(300 mm) 40/ l|ywood (!?S mm) 00S
lrecest concrete ho||owcore un|ts
a
(400 mm) 4S4 l|ywood (!9 mm) 0!?
k|||ed s|e|
b
(?S0 mm) 400 Querry t||es |nc|ud|ng morter |edd|ng 03?
k|||ed s|e|
b
(300 mm) 430 ke|sed ¦|oor ÷ heevy duty 0S0
k|||ed s|e|
b
(3S0 mm) 4/0 ke|sed ¦|oor ÷ med|um we|ght 040
ve¦¦|e s|e|
c
÷ stenderd mou|ds (3?S mm) 600 ke|sed ¦|oor ÷ ||ghtwe|ght 030
ve¦¦|e s|e|
c
÷ stenderd mou|ds (4?S mm) /30 kender (!3 mm) 030
ve¦¦|e s|e|
c
÷ stenderd mou|ds (S?S mm) S60 Screed ÷ S0 mm !!S
Shoot matoria|s Screed ÷ ||ghtwe|ght (?S mm) 04S
Asphe|t (?0 mm) 046 Ste|n|ess stee| roo¦|ng (04 mm) 00S
Cerpet end under|ey 00S Suspended ce|||ng ÷ stee| 0!0
Ch|p|oerd (!S mm) 0!? Suspended ¦||re|oerd t||es 00S
Lry ||n|ng on stud (?0 mm) 0!S ¹8C |oerds (!SS mm) 009
le|se ce|||ng ÷ stee| ¦rem|ng 0!0 ¹8C |oerds (?? mm) 0!?
le|t (3 |eyer) end ch|pp|ngs 03S ¹||es ÷ cerem|c ¦|oor on |edd|ng !00
C|ess ÷ dou||e g|e.|ng 0S? bettens ¦or s|et|ng end t|||ng 003
C|ess ÷ s|ng|e g|e.|ng 030 ¹||es ÷ c|ey roo¦ (mex) 06/
lnsu|et|on ÷ g|ess ¦||re (!S0 mm) 003 ¹||es ÷ neture| s|ete (th|c|) 06S
lev|ng stones (S0 mm) !?0 ¹||es ÷ |nter|oc||ng concrete 0SS
l|ester ÷ two coet gypsum (!? mm) 0?! ¹||es ÷ p|e|n concrete 0/S
koy
a lo||owcore ¦|gures essume no topp|ng (S0 mm structure| topp|ng : !?S |N/m
?
)
b k|||ed s|e|s !S0 we| © /S0 centres w|th !00 mm th|c| ¦|enge/s|e| ve| s|ope !!0
c ve¦¦|e s|e|s !S0 r||s © 900 centres w|th !00 mm th|c| ¦|enge/s|e| ve| s|ope !!0
20
1ab|o 2.15
Loads for typica| forms of construction
[26]
Cavity wa|| {kNIm
2
}
br|c|wor| !0?S mm ?40
lnsu|et|on S0 mm 00?
b|oc|wor| !00 mm !40
l|ester 0?!
1ota| 4.0
Lightwoight c|adding {kNIm
2
}
lnsu|eted pene| 0?0
lur||ns 00S
Lry ||n|ng on stud 0!S
1ota| 0.40
Curtain wa||ing {kNIm
2
}
A||ow !00
Þrocast concroto c|adding {kNIm
2
}
lec|ng !00
lrecest pene| (!00 mm) ?40
lnsu|et|on 00S
Lry ||n|ng on stud 0!S
1ota| 3.60
Dry |ining {kNIm
2
}
Mete| studs 00S
l|ester|oerd end s||m × ? 040
1ota| 0.45
1imbor stud wa|| {kNIm
2
}
¹|m|er studs 0!0
l|ester|oerd end s||m × ? 040
1ota| 0.50
Offico f|oor {kNIm
2
}
Cerpet 003
ke|sed ¦|oor 030
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Suspended ce|||ng 0!S
Serv|ces 030
1ota| 7.03
Offico coro aroa {kNIm
2
}
¹||es end |edd|ng, e||ow !00
Screed ??0
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Suspended ce|||ng 0!S
Serv|ces 030
1ota| 9.90
Stairs {kNIm
2
}
!S0 mm we|st ( z!/S © ?S |N/m
3
) 440
¹reeds 0!S × 0?S × 4/? © ?S |N/m
3
!SS
Screed 00S © ?? |N/m
3
!!0
l|ester 0?!
l|n|sh t||es 8 |edd|ng !00
1ota| 8.60

2.5c Loads for typica| forms of construction
1ab|o 2.14
2.5c Loads for typica| forms of construction
kosidontia| f|oor {kNIm
2
}
Cerpet 00S
l|oet|ng ¦|oor 0!S
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Suspended ce|||ng 0?0
Serv|ces 0!0
1ota| 6.75
Schoo| f|oor {kNIm
2
}
Cerpet/¦|oor|ng 00S
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Suspended ce|||ng 0!S
Serv|ces 0?0
1ota| 6.60
Hospita| f|oor {kNIm
2
}
l|oor|ng 00S
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Screed ??0
Suspended ce|||ng 0!S
Serv|ces (|ut cen |e greeter) 00S
1ota| 8.70
||at roofIoxtorna| torraco {kNIm
2
}
lev|ng or greve|, e||ow ??0
veterproo¦|ng 0S0
lnsu|et|on 0!0
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| ce|||ng 6?S
Suspended ce|||ng 0!S
Serv|ces 030
1ota| 9.50
1imbor pitchod roof {kNIm
2
}
¹||es (renge 0S0÷0/S) 0/S
bettens 00S
le|t 00S
ke¦ters 0!S
lnsu|et|on 00S
l|ester|oerd 8 s||m 0!S
Serv|ces 0!0
Ce|||ng |o|sts 0!S
1ota| porpondicu|ar to roof 1.45
1ota| on p|an assuming 30° pitch 1.60
Mota| docking roof {kNIm
2
}
lnsu|eted pene| 0?0
lur||ns 0!0
Stee|wor| 030
Serv|ces 0!0
1ota| 0.70

Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
21
Design values of actions
General case
¹he des|gn ve|ue o¦ en ect|on, /
d
, thet occurs |n e |oed cese |s
/
d
g
l
c /
|
where
g
l
pert|e| ¦ector ¦or the ect|on eccord|ng to the ||m|t stete under cons|deret|on ¹e||e
?!6 |nd|cetes the pert|e| ¦ectors to |e used |n the 0l ¦or the com||net|ons o¦
representet|ve ect|ons |n |u||d|ng structures
c /
|
mey |e cons|dered es the representet|ve ect|on, /
rep
, eppropr|ete to the ||m|t stete
|e|ng cons|dered
where
c e ¦ector thet converts the cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on |nto e representet|ve
ve|ue lt ed|usts the ve|ue o¦ the ect|on to eccount ¦or the neture o¦ the ||m|t
stete under cons|deret|on end the |o|nt pro|e||||ty o¦ the ect|ons occurr|ng
s|mu|teneous|y lt cen essume the ve|ue o¦ !0 ¦or e permenent ect|on or c
0

or c
!
or c
?
¦or e ver|e||e ect|on ¹e||e ?!/ shows how cherecter|st|c ve|ues o¦
ver|e||e ect|ons ere converted |nto representet|ve ve|ues ¹h|s te||e |s der|ved
¦rom bS lN !990
|!0|
end |ts Net|one| Annex
|!0e|

/
|
cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on es deuned |n Sect|ons ?? end ?3
1ab|o 2.16
Þartia| factors {g
|
} for uso in vorification of |imit statos in porsistont and transiont dosign situations
Limit stato Þormanont actions
{@
k
}
Loading variab|o action
{J
k,1
}
Accompanying variab|o
actions {J
k,i
}
d
a} £qui|ibrium {£QU}
!!0 (09)
a
!S0 (00)
a
c
0,|
!S0 (00)
a
b} Strongth at ULS {S1kIC£O} not invo|ving gootochnica| actions
Either
lxp (6!0) !3S (!0)
a
!S c
0
!S
or the worst case of
lxp (6!0e) !3S (!0)
a
c
0
!S c
0
!S
and
lxp (6!0|) !?S (!0)
a
!S c
0
!S
c} Strongth at ULS {S1kIC£O} with gootochnica| actions
Worst case of
Set b !3S (!0)
a
!S (00)
a
and
Set C !0 !3
d} Sorvicoabi|ity
Cherecter|st|c !00 !00 c
0,|
!00
lrequent !00 c
!,!
!00 c
?,|
!00
Ques|-permenent !00 c
?,!
!00 c
?,|
!00
o} Accidonta| dosign situations
lxp (6!!e) !0 /
d
b
c
!,|
(me|n)
c
?,|
(others)
f} Soismic
lxp (6!?e/|) !0 /
ld
c
c
?,|
koy
a Ve|ue |¦ ¦evoure||e (shown |n |rec|ets)
b leed|ng ecc|dente| ect|on, /
d
, |s un¦ectored
c Se|sm|c ect|on, /
ld
d ke¦er to bS lN !990 A!?? 8 NA
Notos
1 ¹he ve|ues o¦ c ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?!/
2 Ceotechn|ce| ect|ons g|ven |n the te||e
ere |esed on Les|gn Approech ! |n
C|euse A!3!(S) o¦ bS lN !990, wh|ch |s
recommended |n |ts Net|one| Annex
EC0:
Tables A1.2(A), A1.2(B),
A1.2(C), A1.4 & NA

2.9
2.9.1
22
Design values at ULS
EC0: 6.4.3.2(3)
lor the 0lS o¦ strength (S¹k), the des|gner mey choose |etween us|ng lxpress|on (6!0) or the
worst cese o¦ lxpress|on (6!0e) or lxpress|on (6!0|)
Single variable action
At 0lS, the des|gn ve|ue o¦ ect|ons |s
e|ther
lxp (6!0) !3S O
|
÷ !S Ç
|,!

or the worst cese o¦
lxp (6!0e) !3S O
|
÷ c
0,!
!S Ç
|,!
end
lxp (6!0|) !?S O
|
÷ !S Ç
|,!

where
O
|
permenent ect|on
Ç
|,!
s|ng|e ver|e||e ect|on
c
0,!
com||net|on ¦ector ¦or e s|ng|e ver|e||e |oed (see ¹e||e ?!/)
EC1-1-1: 3.3.2

1ab|o 2.17
Va|uos of c factors
Action c
0
c
1
c
2
|mposod |oads in bui|dings
Category A: domestic, residential areas 0/ 0S 03
Category B: office areas 0/ 0S 03
Category C: congregation areas 0/ 0/ 06
Category D: shopping areas 0/ 0/ 06
Category E: storage areas !0 09 0S
Category F: traffic area (vehicle weight < 30 kN) 0/ 0/ 06
Category G: traffic area (30 kN < vehicle weight < 160 kN) 0/ 0S 03
Category H: roofs
a
0/ 00 00
Snow loads where altitude < 1000 m a.m.s.l.
a
0S 0? 00
Wind loads
a
0S 0? 00
Temperature effects (non-fire)
a
06 0S 00
koy
a On roo¦s, |mposed |oeds, snow |oeds end w|nd |oeds shou|d not |e epp||ed together
Notos
1 ¹he numer|ce| ve|ues g|ven e|ove ere |n eccordence w|th bS lN !990 end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
2 Cetegor|es l end l ere essumed to |e es ¦or Cetegory l
lxpress|on (6!0) |eeds to the use o¦ g
l
g
C
!3S ¦or permenent ect|ons end g
l
g
Q
!S0 ¦or
ver|e||e ect|ons (g
C
¦or permenent ect|ons |s |ntended to |e constent ecross e|| spens)
lxpress|on (6!0) |s e|weys eque| to or more conservet|ve then the |ess ¦evoure||e o¦ lxpress|ons
(6!0e) end (6!0|) lxpress|on (6!0|) w||| norme||y epp|y when the permenent ect|ons ere not
greeter then 4S t|mes the ver|e||e ect|ons (except ¦or storege |oeds, cetegory l |n ¹e||e ?!/,
where lxpress|on (6!0e) e|weys epp||es)
¹here¦ore, except |n the cese o¦ concrete structures support|ng storege |oeds where c
0
!0,
or ¦or m|xed use, lxpress|on (6!0|) w||| usue||y epp|y ¹hus, ¦or mem|ers support|ng vert|ce|
ect|ons et 0lS, !?SO
|
÷ !SÇ
|
w||| |e eppropr|ete ¦or most s|tuet|ons end epp||ce||e to most
concrete structures (see l|gure ?S)
Compered w|th the use o¦ lxpress|on (6!0), the use o¦ e|ther lxpress|on (6!0e) or (6!0|) |eeds
to e more cons|stent re||e||||ty |ndex ecross ||ghtwe|ght end heevywe|ght meter|e|s
2.9.2

EC0: A1.2.2
& NA
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
23
50
40

g
k

k
N
/
m

(
o
r

k
N
/
m
2
)
q
k
kN/m (or kN/m
2
)
Use Exp. (6.10b)
Use Exp. (6.10a)
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Noto
Assum|ng c
0
0/
|e epp||ce||e to e|| erees
except storege
|iguro 2.5
whon to uso £xp. {6.10a} or £xp. {6.10b}
Accompanying variable actions
Age|n the des|gner mey choose |etween us|ng lxpress|on (6!0) or the |ess ¦evoure||e o¦
lxpress|ons (6!0e) or (6!0|)
EC0:
6.4.3.2(3)
l|ther
lxp (6!0) !3S O
|
÷ !S Ç
|,!
÷ S(c
0,|
!S Ç
|,|
)
or the worst cese o¦
lxp (6!0e) !3S O
|
÷ c
0,!
!S Ç
|,!
÷ S(c
0,|
!S Ç
|,|
)
end
lxp (6!0|) !?S O
|
÷ !S Ç
|,!
÷ S(c
0,|
!S Ç
|,|
)
where
O
|
permenent ect|on
Ç
|,!
!st ver|e||e ect|on
Ç
|,|
|
th
ver|e||e ect|on
c
0,!
cherecter|st|c com||net|on ¦ector ¦or !st ver|e||e |oed (see ¹e||e ?!/)
c
0,|
cherecter|st|c com||net|on ¦ector ¦or |
th
ver|e||e |oed (see ¹e||e ?!/)
ln the e|ove, Ç
|,!
(end c
0,|
) re¦ers to the |eed|ng ver|e||e ect|on end Ç
|,|
(end c
0,|
) re¦ers to
eccompeny|ng |ndependent ver|e||e ect|ons ln genere|, the d|st|nct|on |etween the two types o¦
ect|ons w||| |e o|v|ous (see l|gure ?6), where |t |s not, eech |oed shou|d |n turn |e treeted es the
|eed|ng ect|on A|so, the numer|ce| ve|ues ¦or pert|e| ¦ectors g|ven |n the 0l Net|one| Annex
|!0e|

ere used |n the equet|ons e|ove ¹he ve|ue o¦ c
0
depends on the use o¦ the |u||d|ng end shou|d
|e o|te|ned ¦rom the 0l Net|one| Annex ¦or bS lN !990 (see ¹e||e ?!/)
EC0:
A1.2.2, A1.3.1 & NA
q
k2
g
k2
q
k1
g
k1
q
k1
g
k1
q
k1
g
k1
q
k1
q
k3
= w
k
A B C
g
k1
Noto
Cenere||y the ver|e||e
ect|ons on e typ|ce| o¦¦|ce
||oc| wou|d |e cons|dered
es |e|ng three sets o¦
|ndependent ver|e||e
ect|ons
lmposed o¦¦|ce |oeds !
on the o¦¦|ce ¦|oors
koo¦ |mposed |oed ?
v|nd |oed 3
|iguro 2.6
|ndopondont variab|o actions

24
¹he express|ons te|e |nto eccount the pro|e||||ty o¦ |o|nt occurrence o¦ |oeds |y epp|y|ng the
c
0,|
¦ector to the eccompeny|ng ver|e||e ect|on ¹he pro|e||||ty thet these com||ned ect|ons w|||
|e exceeded |s deemed to |e s|m||er to the pro|e||||ty o¦ e s|ng|e ect|on |e|ng exceeded
l¦ the two |ndependent ver|e||e ect|ons Ç
|,!
end Ç
|,?
ere essoc|eted w|th d|¦¦erent spens end the
use o¦ lxpress|on (6!0|) |s eppropr|ete, then |n one set o¦ ene|yses epp|y
!?SO
|
÷ !SÇ
|,!
to the Ç
|,!
spens
end !?SO
|
÷ c
0|
!SÇ
|,!
to the Ç
|,?
spens
ln essoc|eted ene|yses epp|y
!?SO
|
÷ c
0,|
!SÇ
|,!
to the Ç
|,!
spens
end !?SO
|
÷ !?SÇ
|,?
to the Ç
|,?
spens
See lxemp|e ?!!? (two ver|e||e ect|ons)
Design values at SLS
EC0: 6.5 & Table A1.4
¹here ere three com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons et SlS (or |oed com||net|on et SlS) ¹hese ere g|ven |n
¹e||e ?!S ¹he com||net|on end ve|ue to |e used depends on the neture o¦ the ||m|t stete |e|ng
chec|ed Ques|-permenent com||net|ons ere essoc|eted w|th de¦ormet|on, crec| w|dths end
crec| contro| lrequent com||net|ons mey |e used to determ|ne whether e sect|on |s crec|ed or
not ¹he numer|c ve|ues o¦ c
0
, c
!
end c
?
ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?!/
Co||oqu|e||y
c
0
hes |ecome |nown es the 'cherecter|st|c' ve|ue
c
!
hes |ecome |nown es the '¦requent' ve|ue
c
?
hes |ecome |nown es the 'ques|-permenent' ve|ue
EC0: Table A1.4
1ab|o 2.18
Þartia| factors to bo app|iod in tho vorification of tho SLS
Combination Permanent actions G
k
Variable actions Q
k
Unfavourable
a
Favourable
a
Leading
b
Others
b
Characteristic O
|,sup
O
|,|n¦
Ç
|,!
c
0,|
Ç
|,|
Frequent O
|,sup
O
|,|n¦
c
!,!
Ç
|,!
c
?,|
Ç
|,|
Quasi-permanent O
|,sup
O
|,|n¦
c
?,!
Ç
|,!
c
?,|
Ç
|,|
koy
a Cenere||y O
|,sup
end O
|,|n¦
mey |e te|en es O
|
See Sect|on ?9S
b c ¦ectors ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?!/
Design values for other limit states
loed com||net|ons ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?!6 ¦or
e) lqu||||r|um (lQ0),
|) Strength et 0lS not |nvo|v|ng geotechn|ce| ect|ons,
c) Strength et 0lS w|th geotechn|ce| ect|ons,
d) Serv|cee||||ty,
e) Acc|dente| end
¦) Se|sm|c des|gn s|tuet|ons
2.9.3
2.9.4
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
25
Variations in permanent actions
vhen the ver|et|on o¦ e permenent ect|on |s not sme|| then the upper (O
||,sup
) end the |ower
(O
||,|n¦
) cherecter|st|c ve|ues (the 9S% end S% ¦rect||e ve|ues respect|ve|y) shou|d |e este|||shed
¹h|s procedure |s necessery on|y when the coe¦uc|ent o¦ ver|et|on ( !00 t stenderd dev|et|on/
meen) |s greeter then !0 ln terms o¦ permenent ect|ons, ver|et|ons |n the se|¦-we|ght o¦ concrete
|n concrete ¦remes ere cons|dered sme||
EC0: 4.1.2, 4.1.2 (3)
PD 6687
[6]
: 2.8.4
At 0lS where the ver|et|on |s not sme||,
g
C|,sup
shou|d |e used w|th O
||,sup
end
g
C|,|n¦
w|th
O
||,|n¦
S|m||er|y, where the ver|et|on |s not sme||, et SlS O
||,sup
shou|d |e used where ect|ons ere
un¦evoure||e end O
||,|n¦
used where ¦evoure||e
vhere chec|s, note||y chec|s on stet|c equ||||r|um (lQ0), ere very sens|t|ve to ver|et|on o¦ the
megn|tude o¦ e permenent ect|on ¦rom one p|ece to enother, the ¦evoure||e end un¦evoure||e
perts o¦ th|s ect|on shou|d |e cons|dered es |nd|v|due| ect|ons ln such 'very sens|t|ve' ver|ucet|ons
g
C,sup
end g
C,|n¦
shou|d |e used
EC0: 6.4.3 (4)
Load arrangements of actions: introduction
¹he process o¦ des|gn|ng concrete structures |nvo|ves |dent|¦y|ng re|event des|gn s|tuet|ons end
||m|t stetes ¹hese |nc|ude pers|stent, trens|ent or ecc|dente| s|tuet|ons ln eech des|gn s|tuet|on
the structure shou|d |e ver|ued et the re|event ||m|t stetes
EC0: 3.2
ln the ene|ys|s o¦ the structure et the ||m|t stete |e|ng cons|dered, the mex|mum e¦¦ect o¦
ect|ons shou|d |e o|te|ned us|ng e ree||st|c errengement o¦ |oeds Cenere||y ver|e||e ect|ons
shou|d |e errenged to produce the most un¦evoure||e e¦¦ect, ¦or exemp|e to produce mex|mum
overturn|ng moments |n spens or mex|mum |end|ng moments |n supports
lor |u||d|ng structures, des|gn concentretes me|n|y on the 0lS, the u|t|mete ||m|t stete o¦
strength (S¹k), end SlS, the serv|cee||||ty ||m|t stete lowever, |t |s essent|e| thet e|| ||m|t stetes
ere cons|dered ¹he ||m|t stetes o¦ equ||||r|um (lQ0), strength et 0lS w|th geotechn|ce| ect|ons
(S¹k/ClO) end ecc|dente| s|tuet|ons must |e te|en |nto eccount es eppropr|ete
EC0: 3.3, 3.4, 6.4, 6.5
Load arrangements according to the UK National
Annex to Eurocode
ln |u||d|ng structures, eny o¦ the ¦o||ow|ng sets o¦ s|mp||ued |oed errengements mey |e used et
0lS end SlS (See l|gure ?/)
Cl. 5.1.3 & NA
¹he more cr|t|ce| o¦ N
e) e|ternete spens cerry|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
Q
Ç
|
w|th other spens |oeded w|th g
C
O
|
, end
|) eny two ed|ecent spens cerry|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
Q
Ç
|
w|th other spens |oeded w|th g
C
O
|

Or the more cr|t|ce| o¦ N
e) e|ternete spens cerry|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
Q
Ç
|
, w|th other spens |oeded w|th g
C
O
|
, end
|) e|| spens cerry|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
Q
Ç
|

Or, ¦or s|e|s on|y, e|| spens cerry|ng N g
C
O
|
÷ g
C
O
|
, prov|ded the ¦o||ow|ng cond|t|ons ere met
ln e one-wey spenn|ng s|e| the eree o¦ eech |ey exceeds 30 m L
?
(e |ey |s de¦|ned es e
str|p ecross the ¦u|| w|dth o¦ e structure |ounded on the other s|des |y ||nes o¦ support)
¹he ret|o o¦ the ver|e||e ect|on, L Ç
|
, to the permenent ect|on, O
|
, does not exceed !?S
¹he megn|tude o¦ the ver|e||e ect|on exc|ud|ng pert|t|ons does not exceed S |N/m L
?

vhere ene|ys|s |s cerr|ed out ¦or the s|ng|e |oed cese o¦ e|| spens |oeded, the resu|t|ng moments,
except those et cent||evers, shou|d |e reduced |y ?0%, w|th e consequent|e| |ncreese |n the
spen moments
2.9.5
2.10
2.11
26
g
Q
Ç
| g
C
O
|
a) Alternate spans loaded b) Adjacent spans loaded c) All spans loaded
g
Q
Ç
|
g
Q
Ç
|
g
Q
Ç
|
g
C
O
|
g
C
O
|
Noto
vh||st the use o¦ lxp (6!0) |s |nd|ceted, these errengements mey eque||y |e used w|th lxp (6!0e)
or (6!0|)
|iguro 2.7
Load arrangomonts for boams and s|abs according to Uk NA to £urocodo
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
27
2.12.1 Continuous beam in a domestic structure
Determine the appropriate load combination and ultimate load
for a continuous beam of four 6 m spans in a domestic structure
supporting a 175 mm slab at 6 m centres.
6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm
q
k

g
k

A B C D E
Figure 2.8 Continuous beam in a domestic structure
a) Actions kN/m
Permanent action, g
k
Self-weight, 175 mm thick slabs : 0.17 x 25 x 6.0 = 26.3
E/o self-weight downstand 800 × 225 : 0.80 x 0.225 x 25 = 4.5
50 mm screed @ 22 kN/m
3
: 0.05 x 22 x 6.0 = 6.6
Finishes and services : 0.50 x 6.0 = 3.0
Dividing wall 2.40 × 4.42 (200 mm dense blockwork with
plaster both sides)
= 10.6
Total g
k
= 51.0
Variable action, q
k
Imposed, dwelling @ 1.5 kN/m
2
: 1.5 x 6.0 = 9.0
Total q
k
= 9.0
Ultimate load, n
Assuming use of Exp. (6.10), n = 1.35 × 51 + 1.5 × 9.0 = = 82.4
Assuming use of worst case of Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b)
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 9.0 = = 78.3
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 9.0 = = 77.3
In this case Exp. (6.10a) would be critical


=ultimate load

= 78.3

This could also be determined from Figure 2.5 or by determining that g
k
> 4.5q
k
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Continuous beam in a domestic
structure
2.12 Examples of loading
28
2.12.2 Continuous beam in mixed use structure
Determine the worst case arrangements of actions for ULS design of a
continuous beam supporting a 175 mm slab @ 6 m centres. Note that
the variable actions are from two sources as defined in Figure 2.9.:
6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm
Office use @ 2.5 kN/m
2
Shopping use @ 4.0 kN/m
2
c
0
= 0.7 c
0
= 0.7
q
k1
= 15 kN/m
A B C D E
q
k2
= 24 kN/m
g
k
= 51 kN/m
Figure 2.9 Continuous beam in mixed-use structure
a) Load combination
Load combination Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) will be used, as either
will produce a smaller total load than Exp. (6.10). It is necessary to
decide which expression governs.
i) Actions kN/m
Permanent action
As before, Example 2.12.1 g
k
= 51.0
Variable action
Office @ 2.5 kN/m
2
q
k1
= 15.0
Shopping @ 4.0 kN/m
2
q
k2
= 24.0
Ultimate load, n
For office use:
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 15.0 = 84.6
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 15.0 = 86.3
For shopping use:
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 1.5 × 0.7 × 24.0 = 94.1
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 24.0 = 99.8
By inspection Exp. (6.10b) governs in both cases

b) Arrangement of ultimate loads
As the variable actions arise from different sources, one is a leading
variable action and the other is an accompanying variable action. The
unit loads to be used in the various arrangements are:

This could also be determined from Figure 2.5 or by determining that g
k
> 4.5q
k
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.1 & NA,
EC0:
A.1.2.2. & NA
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Continuous beam in mixed use
structure
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
29
i) Actions kN/m
Permanent
1.25 × 51.0 = 63.8
Variable
Office use
as leading action, g
Q
Q
k
= 1.5 × 15 = 22.5
as accompanying action, c
0
g
Q
Q
k
= 0.7
× 1.5 × 15
= 15.75
Shopping use
as leading action, g
Q
Q
k
= 1.5 × 24 = 36.0
as accompanying action, c
0
g
Q
Q
k
= 0.7
× 1.5 × 24
= 25.2

ii) For maximum bending moment in span AB
The arrangement and magnitude of actions of loads are shown
in Figure 2.10. The variable load in span AB assumes the value as
leading action and that in span CD takes the value as an
accompanying action.
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
q
k1
= 22.5 kN/m
Accompanying
variable action
c
Q
g
Q
q
k2
= 25.2 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G
g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.10 For maximum bending moment in span AB p

iii) For maximum bending moment in span CD
The load arrangement is similar to that in Figure 2.10, but now
the variable load in span AB takes its value as an accompanying
action
(i.e. 15.75 kN/m) and that in span CD assumes the value as
leading action (36 kN/m).
A B C D E
Accompanying
variable action
c
Q
g
Q
q
k1
= 15.8 kN/m
Leading
variable action
g
Q
q
k2
= 36.0 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G,inf
g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.11 For maximum bending moment in span CD p

30
iv) For maximum bending moment at support B
The arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.12. As both spans AB
and BC receive load from the same source, no reduction is possible
(other than that for large area ( g (other than that for large area

). )).
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.1 (10)
& NA & NA
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
gg q
k1
= 22.5 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G
gg g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.12 For maximum bending moment at support B pp
v) For maximum bending moment at support D
The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.13. Comments
made in d) also apply here.
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
gg q
k2
= 36 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G
gg g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.13 For maximum bending moment at support D pp
vi) For critical curtailment and hogging in span CD
The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.14.
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
q
k2
= 36.0 kN/m
Accompanying
variable action
p
c
0gQ
q
k1
= 15.8 kN/m
Pe n rmanent actionn
g
G,in
gg
f
g
k
m = 51 kN/mm
Figure 2.14 For curtailment and hogging in span CD p
Eurocode 2 requires that all spans should be loaded with either g
G,sup
gg or g
G,inf
gg (as
f
per Table 2.16). As illustrated in Figure 2.14, using
g
G,inf
gg = 1.0 might be critical for
f
curtailment and hogging in spans. curtailment and hogging in spans curtailment and hogging in spans.
Cl. 2.4.3(2)

Variable actions may be subjected to reduction factors: a
A
, according to the
pp ( area supported (m area supported (m
2
), ), ), aa
AAA
= 1.0 – A/1000 1.0 A/1000 ≥≥ 0.75. 0.75.
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10)
& NA & NA
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
31
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Propped cantilever
2.12.3 Propped cantilever
Determine the Equilibrium, ULS and SLS (deformation) load
combinations for the propped cantilever shown in Figure 2.15. The
action P at the end of the cantilever arises from the permanent
action of a wall.
q
k
g
k
A B
P
C
Figure 2.15 Propped cantilever beam and loading pp
For the purposes of this example, the permanent action P is considered
to be from a separate source than the self-weight of the structure so
both g
G,sup
and g
G,inf
need to be considered.
a) Equilibrium limit state (EQU) for maximum uplift at A
0.0q
k
= 0 1.5q
k
g
Ginf
g
k
= 0.9g
k
g
Gk,sup
g
k
= 1.1g
k
g
Gk,sup
P= 1.1P
A B
C
p
EC0:
Table 1.2(B),
Note 3
EC0:
Table A1.2 (A)
& NA
EC0:
6.4.3.1 (4),
Table A1.2 (A)
& NA
b) Ultimate limit state (ULS)
i) For maximum moment at B and anchorage of top reinforcement BA
g
Gk,sup
g
k
= 1.35g
k
g
Gk,sup
P= 1.35P g
Q
q
k
= 1.5q
k
A B
C
Figure 2.17 ULS: maximum moment at B
Notes
g
Gk,inf
g
k
= 1.0 g
k
may be critical in terms of curtailment of top bars BA.
EC0: Tables A1.1,
A1.2 (B) & NA
32
ii) For maximum sagging moment AB
g
Q
gg q
k
= 1.5q
k
g
Gk,sup
gg g
k
= 1.35g
k
g
Gk,sup
gg P= PP 1.1P
A B
C
Figure 2.18 ULS: maximum span moment AB p
Notes Notes
1 Depending on the magnitude of g
k
, q
k
length AB and BC, g
Gk,inf
gg g
k
(= 1.0 g
k
) may be more
critical for span moment.
2 The magnitude of the load combination indicated are those for Exp. (6.10) of BS EN
1990. The worst case of Exp. (6.10a) and Exp. (6.10b) may also have been used.
3 Presuming supports A and B were columns then the critical load combination for Column
A would be as Figure 2.18. For column B the critical load combination might be either as
Figure 2.17 or 2.18.
EC0:
Table A1.1,
A1.2 (B) & NA
c) Serviceability limit state (SLS) of deformation:
(quasi-permanent loads)
i) For maximum deformation at C
1.0g
k
1.0P
1.0c
2
cc q
k
=0.3*q
k
*Assuming office area
A B
C
Figure 2.19 SLS: maximum deformation at C
EC0:
Tables A1.1,
A1.2.2, A1.4 &
NA
ii) For maximum deformation AB
1.0P
A B
C
* Assuming office area
1.0c
2
cc q
k
=0.3*q
k
1.0g
k
Figure 2.20 SLS: maximum deformation AB
Notes Notes
Quasi-permanent load combinations may also be used for calculations of crack widths or
controlling cracking, i.e. the same load combinations as shown in Figures 2.19 and 2.20 may
be used to determine SLS moment to determine stress in reinforcement. The characteristic
and/or frequent combinations may be appropriate for other SLS limit states: for example, it
is recommended that the frequent combination is used to determine whether a member has
cracked or not.
Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
33
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Overall stability
2.12.4 Overall stability (EQU)
For the frame shown in Figure 2.21, identify the various load
arrangements to check overall stability (EQU) against overturning.
Assume that the structure is an office block and that the loads q
k2
and q
k3
may be treated as arising from one source.
w
k
g
k1
q
k1
g
k2
q
k2
g
k3
q
k3
A B
Figure 2.21 Frame configuration
a) EQU – Treating the floor imposed load as the leading variable r
action
Permanent action, PP
favourable
0.9g
k1
Permanent action, PP
favourable
0.9g
k2
Permanent action, PP
favourable
0.9g
k3
Accompanying
variable action
= g
Qk
gg c
o
cc w
k
ww
= 1.5 x 0.5 x w
k
ww
= 0.75 w
k
ww
Accompanying va n = riable actioon on g
Qk
gg c
o
cc q
k1
= 1.05q
k1
Permanent action, unfavour ble = aab a g
Gk,sup
gg g
k1
= 1.1g
k1
Lead variable action = g
Qk
gg q
2 kk2 k2
= 1.5q
k2
Permanent action, unfavour ble = aab a g
Gk,sup
gg g
k2
= 1.1g
k2
Lead variable action = g
Qk
gg q
3 kk3 k3
= 1.5q
k3
Permanent action, unfavour ble = aab a g
Gk,sup
gg g
k3
= 1.1g
k3
A B
Figure 2.22 Frame with floor variable action as leading variable action
Tables 2.16 Tables 2.16
& 2.17 & 2.17
See Table 2.17 for values of c
0
cc
34
b) EQU – Treating the roof imposed load as the leading variable f
action
0.9g
k1
0.9g
k2
0.9g
k3
0.75 w
k
ww
1.5q
k1
1.1g
k1
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k2
= 1.05 q
k2
1.1g
k2
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k3
= 1.05 q
k3
1.1g
k3
A B
tion Figure 2.23 Frame with roof variable action as leading variable actt
Tables 2.16 Tables 2.16
& 2.17 & 2.17
c) EQU – Treating wind as the leading variable action
0.9g
k1
0.9g
k2
0.9g
k3
1.5 w
k
ww
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k1
= 1.05 q
k1
1.1g
k1
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k2
= 1.05 q
k2
1.1g
k2
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k3
= 1.05 q
k3
1.1g
k3
A B
Figure 2.24 Frame with wind as lead variable action
Tables 2.16 Tables 2.16
& 2.17 & 2.17
35
3 S|e|s
Slabs
General
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s sect|on ere presented |n the ¦o||ow|ng su|-sect|ons
3! A s|mp|y supported one-wey s|e|
3? A cont|nuous one-wey s|e|
33 A cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
34 A |ey o¦ e ¦et s|e|
3S A ste|r ¦|ght
¹hese ce|cu|et|ons ere |ntended to show whet m|ght |e deemed typ|ce| hend ce|cu|et|ons ¹hey
ere |||ustret|ve o¦ the Code end ere not necesser||y |est prect|ce ¹he urst three su|-sect|ons
|nc|ude dete|||ng chec|s eg curte||ment |engths determ|ned str|ct|y |n eccordence w|th the
prov|s|ons o¦ bS lN !99?÷!÷! ¹he ¦et s|e| ce|cu|et|on |s supp|emented |y e commentery
A genere| method o¦ des|gn|ng s|e|s |s shown |e|ow
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA Table NA.2.1
Assess ect|ons on the s|e| N EC1 & NA
Assess dure||||ty requ|rements end determ|ne N
concrete strength
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1: Tables A4 & A5
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eppropr|ete ¦|re N
res|stence per|od
EC2-1-2: Tables 5.8,
5.9, 5.10 & 5.11
Ce|cu|ete m|n|mum cover ¦or dure||||ty, ¦|re end N
|ond requ|rements
Cl. 4.4.1
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons epp|y N EC0 & NA Tables
NA.A1.1 & NA.A1.2 (B)
Leterm|ne |oed|ng errengements N Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
Ane|yse structure to o|te|n cr|t|ce| moments end sheer N
¦orces
Cl. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6
Les|gn ¦|exure| re|n¦orcement N Cl. 6.1
Chec| de¦|ect|on N Cl. 7.4
Chec| sheer cepec|ty N Cl. 6.2
Other des|gn chec|s N
Chec| m|n|mum re|n¦orcement
Chec| crec||ng (s|.e or spec|ng o¦ |ers)
Chec| e¦¦ects o¦ pert|e| ux|ty
Chec| secondery re|n¦orcement
Cl. 9.3.1.1(1), 9.2.1.1(1)
Cl. 7.3, Tables 7.2N & 7.3N
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1(2), 9.3.1.4(1)
Chec| curte||ment N Cl. 9.3.1.1(4), 9.2.1.3, Fig. 9.2
Chec| enchorege N Cl. 9.3.1.2, 8.4.4, 9.3.1.1(4)
Cl. 9.2.1.5(1), 9.2.1.5(2)
Chec| |eps N Cl. 8.7.3
3
3.0
36
Simply supported one-way slab
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show e typ|ce| |es|c hend ce|cu|et|on
3.1
lro|ect dete||s
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C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Simply supported one-way slab
A 175 mm thick slab is required to support screed, finishes, an
office variable action of 2.5 kN/m
2
and demountable partitions
(@ 2 kN/m). The slab is supported on load-bearing block walls.
f
ck
= 30 MPa, f
yk
= 500 MPa. Assume a 50-year design life and a
requirement for 1 hour resistance to fire.
q
k
= 3.3 kN/m
2
g
k
= 5.9 kN/m
2
4800
Figure 3.1 Simply supported one-way slab p pp
3.1.1 Actions
kN/m
2
Permanent:
Self-weight 0.175 × 25 = 4.4 EC1-1-1: Table A1
50 mm screed = 1.0
Finishes, services = 0.5
Total g
k
= 5.9
Variable:
Offices, general use B1 = 2.5 EC1-1-1: Tables
6.1, 6.2 & NA
Movable partitions @ 2.0 kN/m = 0.8
Total ¡
k
= 3.3 EC1-1-1: 6.3.12(8)
3.1.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar
Assume 12 mm main bars.
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions
Assuming XCI and using C30/37 concrete,
c
min,dur
= 15 mm
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation.
Assuming no measurement of cover,
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
= c
nom
= 15 + 10 = 25 mm
Exp. (4.1)
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Table A4.
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
37 37
3! S|mp|y supported one-wey s|e|
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for 1 hour fire resistance (i.e. REI 60).
Thickness, h
s,min
= 80 mm cf. 175 mm proposed = OK
Axis distance, a
min
= 20 mm cf. 25 + f/2 = 31 i.e. not critical = OK
= choose c
nom
= 25 mm
EC2-1-2:
4.1(1), 5.1(1)
& Table 5.8

3.1.3 Load combination (and arrangement)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs
= n = 1.25 × 5.9 + 1.5 × 3.3 = 12.3 kN/m
2
3.1.4 Analysis
Design moment:
M
Ed
= 12.3 × 4.8
2
/8 = 35.4 kNm
Shear force:
V = 12.3 × 4.8/2 = 29.5 kN/m
Fig. 2.5
ECO:
Exp. (6.10b)
3.1.5 Flexural design
Effective depth:
d = 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm
Flexure in span:
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 35.4 × 10
6
/(1000 × 144
2
× 30) = 0.057
z/d = 0.95
z = 0.95 × 144 = 137 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 35.4 × 10
6
/(137 × 500/1.15) = 594 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.41%)
Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm
2
/m)
Fig. 3.5
Appendix A1
Table C5
3.1.6 Deflection
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Basic span-to-effective-depth ratio for r = 0.41% = 20
A
s,prov
/A
s,req
= 645/599 = 1.08
Max. span = 20 × 1.08 × 144 = 3110 mm i.e. < 4800 mm = no good
Consider in more detail:
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
N = 25.6 (r = 0.41%, f
ck
= 30 MPa)
K = 1.0 (simply supported)
F1 = 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
= 1.0)
F2 = 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
F3 = 310/ s
s
< 1.5
Appendix B
Table 7.4N & NA
Exp. (7.17)
Cl. 7.4.2,
Appendix C7,
Tables C10-C13
38 38
where

s
s
s = s
su
s (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) 1/d
where
s
su
s { 242 MPa (From Figure C3 and
g
k
/q
k
= 1.79, c
2
cc = 0.3, g
G
gg = 1.25)
d = redistribution ratio = 1.0 d
= s
s
s { 242 × 594/645 = 222
= F3 = 310/222 = 1.40 < 1.5
= Allowable l/ ll d = 25.6 × 1.40 = 35.8 d
Actual l/ ll d = 4800/144 = 33.3 d = OK
Use H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N, & NA
Table NA.5:
Note 5
Figure C3 Figure C3
Figure C3 Figure C3
3.1.7 Shear
By inspection, OK
However, if considered critical:
V = 29.5 kN/m as before V
V
Ed
VV = 29.5 – 0.14 × 12.3 = 27.8 kN/m
v
Ed
vv = 27.8 × 10
3
/144 × 10
3
= 0.19 MPa
v
Rd,c
vv = 0.53 MPa
= No shear reinforcement required q
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Cl. 6.2.2(1);
Table C6 Table C6
3.1.8 Summary of design
H12 @ 175
Figure 3.2 Simply supported slab: summary p pp
3.1.9 Detailing checks
It is presumed that the detailer would take the design summarised
above and detail the slab to normal best practice, e.g. to SMDSC
[9]
or to How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2, 2
[8]
Chapter
10, Detailing. This would usually include dimensioning and detailing
curtailment, laps, U-bars and also undertaking the other checks detailed
below. See also 3.2.10 detailing checks for a continuous one-way slab.
a) Minimum areas
Minimum area of reinforcement:
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
f /f
yk
ff ) b
t
bb J ~ 0.0013 b
t
bb d
where
b
t
bb = width of tension zone
f
ctm
f = 0.30 × f
ck
f
0.666
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Table 3.1

See Appendix B1.5
S|e|s
39 39
3! S|mp|y supported one-wey s|e|
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%) r
= H12 @ 175 B1 OK
Crack control:
OK by inspection.
Maximum spacing of bars:
< 3h < 400 mm OK
Secondary reinforcement:
20% A
s,req
= 0.2 × 645 = 129 mm
q
2
/m
Use H10 @ 350 (224) B2
Edges: effects of assuming partial fixity along edge
Top steel required = 0.25 × 594 = 149 mm
2
/m
Use H10 @ 350 (224) T2 B2 as U-bars
extending 960 mm into slab
§
Table 7.2N & NA
Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
Cl. 9.3.1.1.(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.2.(2)
b) Curtailment
Curtailment main bars:
Curtail main bars 50 mm from or at face of support.
At supports:
50% of A
s
to be anchored from face of support.
Use H12 @ 350 B1 T1 U-bars
In accordance with SMDSC
[9]
detail MS3 lap U-bars 500 mm with
main steel, curtail T1 leg of U-bar 0.1l (= say 500 mm) from face l
of support.
SMDSC
[9]
:
Fig. 6.4;
How to
[8]
:
Detailing
Cl. 9.3.1.2.(1)
§
A free unsupported edge is required to use ‘longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement’ generally using U-bars with legs at least 2h long. For slabs
150 mm deep or greater, SMDSC
[9]
standard detail recommends U-bars lapping
500 mm with bottom steel and extending 0.1l top into span. l
Cl. 9.3.1.4.(1)
40 40
3.2 Continuous one-way solid slab
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show |n dete|| the prov|s|ons o¦ des|gn|ng e s|e| to lurocode ?
us|ng essent|e||y the seme s|e| es used |n lxemp|e 3!
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous one-way solid slab
A 175 mm thick continuous slab is required to support screed, finishes,
an office variable action of 2.5 kN/m
2
and demountable partitions
(@ 2 kN/m). The slab is supported on 200 mm wide load-bearing block
walls at 6000 mm centres. f
ck
= 30, f
yk
= 500 and the design life is
50 years. A fire resistance of 1 hour is required.
q
k
= 3.3 kN/m
2
g
k
= 5.9 kN/m
2
5800 5800
200 200
Figure 3.3 Continuous solid slab
3.2.1 Actions
kN/m
2
Permanent:
As Section 3.1.1 g
k
= 5.9
Variable:
As Section 3.1.1 ¡
k
= 3.3 EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2(8)
3.2.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
As Section 3.1.2 c
nom
= 25 mm
3.2.3 Load combination (and arrangement)
Fig. 2.5
EC0:
Exp. (6.10b)
Ultimate action (load):
As Section 3.1.3, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs
= n = 1.25 × 5.9 + 1.5 × 3.3 = 12.3 kN/m
2
3.2.4 Analysis
Clear span, l
n
= 5800 mm
a
1
= min[h/2; t/2] = min[175/2; 200/2] = 87.5 mm Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
a
2
= min[h/2; t/2] = min[175/2; 200/2] = 87.5 mm
l
eff
= 5975 mm
S|e|s
41 41
3? Cont|nuous one-wey so||d s|e|
Bending moment:
End span M
Ed
= 0.086 × 12.3 × 5.975
2
= 37.8 kNm/m Cl. 5.1.1(7)
Table C2
1st internal support M
Ed
= 0.086 × 12.3 × 5.975
2
= 37.8 kNm/m
Internal spans M
Ed
= 0.063 × 12.3 × 5.975
2
= 27.7 kNm/m
and supports
Shear:
End support V
Ed
= 0.40 × 12.3 × 5.975 = 29.4 kN/m
1st interior support V
Ed
= 0.60 × 12.3 × 5.975 = 44.1 kN/m
3.2.5 Flexural design: span
a) End span (and 1st internal support)
Effective depth, d:
d = h − c
nom
− f/2
= 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm
Relative flexural stress, K:
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 37.8 × 10
6
/1000 × 144
2
× 30 = 0.061
K' = 0.207
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
= by inspection, section is under-reinforced
(i.e. no compression reinforcement required).
Appendix A1
Lever arm, z:
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d


= (144/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.061)
0.5
] = 0.945d = 136 mm
Fig. 3.5
Appendix A1
Area of steel, A
s
:
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 37.8 × 10
6
/(500/1.15 × 136) = 639 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.44%)
Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm
2
/m)
b) Internal spans and supports
Lever arm, z:
By inspection, z = 0.95d = 0.95 × 144 = 137 mm
Fig. 3.5
Appendix A1
Area of steel, A
s
:
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 27.7 × 10
6
/(500/1.15 × 137) = 465 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.32%)
Try H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm
2
/m)

Designers may choose to use another form of this equation:
z/d = 0.5 + (0.25 − 0.882K)
0.5
≤ 0.95
42 42
3.2.6 Deflection: end span
Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Allowable l/d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
Appendix B Appendix B
where
N = basic effective depth to span ratio: N
r = 0.44% r
r
0
= f
ck
f
0.5
× 10
−3
= 0.55% = use Exp. (7.16a)
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5 N f
ck
f
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2 r f
ck
f
0.5
(r
0
/r − 1) r
1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 30
0.5
× 0.55/0.44 + 3.2 × 30
0.5
(0.55/0.44 – 1)
1.5
= 11.0 + 10.3 + 2.2 = 23.5
Exp. (7.16a)
K = structural system factor
= 1.3 (end span of continuous slab)
Cl. 7.4.2
F1 = flanged section factor
= 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
= 1.0)
w
Cl. 7.4.2
F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions
= 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
Cl. 7.4.2
F3 = 310/ s
s
s ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N & NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
where

s
s
s = (f
yk
f / g
S
gg ) (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads (1/d)
= f
yd
ff × (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) × (g
k
+ c
2
cc q
k
)/(g
G
gg g
k
+ g
Q
gg q
k
) (1/d)
= (500/1.15) × (639/645) × [(5.9 + 0.3 × 3.3)/12.3] × 1.08
§
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.56 × 1.08 = 260 MPa
Exp. (7.17)
EC0: A1.2.2
Table C14 Table C14
F3 = 310/260 = 1.19
Note: A
s,prov
/A
s,req
≤ 1.50 Table 7.4N & NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
Allowable l/d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
= 23.5 × 1.3 × 1.0 × 1.19
= 36.4
Max. span = 36.4 × 144 = 5675 mm, i.e. < 5795 mm = No good
Try increasing reinforcement to H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm
2
/m)
s
s
s = 434.8 × 639/754 × 0.56 × 1.08 = 223
F3 = 310/223 = 1.39
Allowable l/d = 23.5 × 1.3 × 1.0 × 1.39 d
= 42.5

See Appendix B1.5
§
The use of Table C3 implies certain amounts of redistribution, which are defined in
Table C14.
S|e|s
43 43
3? Cont|nuous one-wey so||d s|e|
Max. span = 42.5 × 144 = 6120 mm, i.e. > 5795 mm OK
= H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm
2
/m) OK
3.2.7 Deflection: internal span
Check internal span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
N = basic effective depth to span ratio: N
r = 0.32% r
r
0
= f
ck
f
0.5
× 10
−3
= 0.55% = use Exp. (7.16a)
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5 N f
ck
f
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2 r f
ck
f
0.5
(r
0
/r − 1) r
1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 30
0.5
× 0.55/0.32 + 3.2 × 30
0.5
(0.55/0.32 – 1)
1.5
= 11.0 + 14.1 + 10.7 = 35.8
Exp. (7.16a)
K = structural system factor
= 1.5 (interior span of continuous slab)
Cl. 7.4.2
F1 = flanged section factor
= 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
bb = 1.0)
w
Cl. 7.4.2
F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions
= 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
Cl. 7.4.2
F3 = 310/ s
s
s ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5.
where
s
s
s = f
yd
ff × (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) × (g
k
+ c
2
cc q
k
)/(g
G
gg g
k
+ g
Q
gg q
k
) (1/d)
= (500/1.15) × (465/502) × [(5.9 + 0.3 × 3.3)/12.3] × 1.03
= 434.8 × 0.93 × 0.56 × 1.03 = 233 MPa
Exp. (7.17)
EC0: A1.2.2
Table C14 Table C14
F3 = 310/233 = 1.33
Allowable l/d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
= 35.8 × 1.5 × 1.0 × 1.33
= 71.4
Max. span = 71.4 × 144 = 10280 mm i.e. > 5795 mm OK
Use H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm
2
/m) in internal spans p
3.2.8 Shear
Design shear force, V
Ed
VV :
At d from face of end support, d
V
Ed
VV = 29.4 – (0.144 + 0.0875) × 12.3 = 26.6 kN/m Cl. 6.2.1(8)
At d from face of 1st interior support, d
V
Ed
VV = 44.1 − (0.144 + 0.0875) × 12.3 = 41.3 kN/m
Shear resistance, V
Rd,c
VV :
V
Rd,c
VV = (0.18/ g
C
gg )k(100 r
l
f
ck
f )
0.333
b
w
bb d ≥ 0.0035k
1.5
k f
ck
f
0.5
b
w
bb d Cl. 6.2.2(1)
44 44
where
k = 1 + (200/ k d)
0.5
≤ 2.0 as d < 200 mm d
k = 2.0 k
r
l
= A
sl
/bd
Assuming 50% curtailment (at end support)
= 50% × 754/(144 × 1000) = 0.26%
V
Rd,c
VV = (0.18/1.5) × 2.0 × (100 × 0.26/100 × 30)
0.33
× 1000 × 144
= 0.12 × 2 × 1.97 × 1000 × 144
= 0.47 × 1000 × 144 = 68.1 kN/m
But V
Rd,cmin
VV = 0.035k
1.5
f
ck
f
0.5
b
w
bb d
where
k = 1 + (200/ k d)
0.5
≤ 2.0; as before k = 2.0 k
V
Rd,cmin
VV = 0.035 × 2
1.5
× 30
0.5
× 1000 × 144
= 0.54 × 1000 × 144 = 77.6 kN/m
= V
Rd,c
VV = 77.6 kN/m
= OK, no shear reinforcement required at end or 1st internal
supports
= H12 @ 150 B1 & H12 @ 175 T1 OK
By inspection, shear at other internal supports OK.
3.2.9 Summary of design
f
ck
f = 30 MPa PP
c
nom
= 25 mm
H12 @ 150 H12 @ 225
H12 @ 175
Figure 3.4 Continuous solid slab: design summary
Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design
summarised above together with the general arrangement illustrated
in Figure 3.3 and detail the slab to normal best practice. The
detailer’s responsibilities, standards and timescales should be clearly
defined but it would be usual for the detailer to draw and schedule
not only the designed reinforcement but all the reinforcement
required to provide a compliant and buildable solution. The work
would usually include checking the following aspects and providing
appropriate detailing :
Minimum areas t
Curtailment lengths t
Anchorages t
S|e|s
45 45
3? Cont|nuous one-wey so||d s|e|
Laps t
U-bars t
Rationalisation t
Critical dimensions t
Details and sections t
The determination of minimum reinforcement areas, curtailment
lengths, anchorages and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is
shown in detail in the following calculations. In practice these would
be determined from published tables of data or by using reference
texts
[8, 9]
. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing
for design intent and compliance with standards. It is therefore
necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles
of the detailing used.
3.2.10 Detailing checks
a) Minimum areas
Minimum area of longitudinal tension (flexural) reinforcement
A
s,min
= 0.26(f
ctm
f /f
yk
f ) b
t
bb d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
bb d
where
b
t
bb = width of tension zone
f
ctm
f = 0.30 × f
ck
f
0.667
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.667
× 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm
7 2
/m
(r = 0.15%) r
= H12 @ 225 B1 OK
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Table 3.1
Secondary (transverse reinforcement)
Minimum 20% A
s,req
20% A
s,req
= 0.2 × 502 = 100 mm
q
2
/m
Consider A
s,min
to apply as before.
A
s,min
= 216 mm
2
/m
Try H10 @ 350 B2 (224 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1(2)
SMDSC
[9]
Check edge.
Assuming partial fixity exists at edges, 25% of A
s
is required
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
A
s,req
= 25% × 639 = 160 mm
q
2
/m
A
s,min
as before = 216 mm
2
/m
= Use H10 @ 350 (224 mm
2
/m) U-bars at edges
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
46
Curtail 0.2 × 5975 = 1195 mm, say 1200 mm measured from face
of support

.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Maximum spacing of bars
Maximum spacing of bars < 3h < 400 mm OK
Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
Crack control
As slab < 200 mm, measures to control cracking are unnecessary.
Cl. 7.3.3(1)
However, as a check on end span:
Loading is the main cause of cracking,
= use Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N for w
max
ww = 0.4 mm and s
s
s = 241 MPa
(see deflection check).
Max. bar size = 20 mm
or max. spacing = 250 mm
= H12 @ 150 B1 OK.
Cl. 7.3.3(2),
7.3.1.5
Table 7.2N &
interpolation,
Table 7.3N &
interpolation
End supports: effects of partial fixity
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of A
s
is required
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
A
s,req
= 15% × 639 = 96 mm
q
2
/m
But, A
s,min
as before = 216 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%) r
One option would be to use bob bars, but choose to use U-bars
Try H12 @ 450 (251 mm
2
/m) U-bars at supports pp
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Curtail 0.2 × 5975 = say, 1200 mm measured from face of support.

Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
b) Curtailment
i) End span, bottom reinforcement
Assuming end support to be simply supported, 50% of A
s
should
extend into the support.
50% × 639 = 320 mm
2
/m
Try H12 @ 300 (376 mm
2
/m) at supports pp
Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
In theory, 50% curtailment of reinforcement may take place a
l
from
where the moment of resistance of the section with the remaining
50% would be adequate to resist the applied bending moment. In
practice, it is usual to determine the curtailment distance as being
a
l
from where M
Ed
= M
Ed,max
/2.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
Note, 9.2.1.3 (2)

Detail MS2 of SMDSC
[9]
, suggests 50% of T1 legs of U-bars should extend 0.3l
(= say 1800 mm) from face of support by placing U-bars alternately reversed.
47
3? Cont|nuous one-wey so||d s|e|
a) Load arrangement rr
Tensile for TT ce
in reinforcement, F
s
F
633
50%
50%
633 (say 500)
Tensile r TT esistance of reinforcement
X
M
Ed,max
M
Edx
= R
A
X – X nX
2
XX /2
M
Edx
/z
l
bd
l
bd
n
A B
A B
A B
A
B
b) Bending moment M
Edx
c) Tensile TT force in bottom reinforcement
d) Curtailment of bottom reinforcement
987
987
(say 850)
Figure 3.5 Curtailment of bottom reinforcement: actions, bending
moments, forces in reinforcement and curtailment
Thus, for a single simply supported span supporting a UDL of n,
M
Ed,max
= 0.086nl
2
; R
A
= 0.4nl
At distance, X, from end support, moment, XX
M
Ed
@X = X R
A
X – X nX
2
/2
= when M@X = X M
Ed,max
/2:
0.086nl
2
/2 = 0.4nlX – X nX
2
/2
48
Assuming X = X xl
0.043nl
2
= 0.4nlxl – l nx
2
xx l
2
/2
0.043 = 0.4x – x x
2
xx /2
0 = 0.043 – 0.4x + x x
2
xx /2
x = 0.128 or 0.672, say 0.13 and 0.66 x
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.13 x span
0.13 × 5975 = 777 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, a
l
may be taken as d (= 144 mm), d
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 777 – 144
= 633 mm from centreline of support.
Say 500 mm from face of support A pp
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
6.2.2(5)
= in end span at 1st internal support 50% moment occurs at 0.66
× span
0.66 × 5975 = 3944 mm
Shift rule: for slabs a
l
may be taken as d (= 144 mm), d
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 3944 + 144
= 4088 mm from support A
or 5975 – 4088 = 987 mm from centreline of support B.
Say 850 mm from face of support B pp
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
6.2.2(5)
ii) 1st interior support, top reinforcement
Presuming 50% curtailment of reinforcement is required this may
take place a
l
from where the moment of resistance of the section
with the remaining 50% would be adequate. However, it is usual to
determine the curtailment distance as being a
l
from where M
Ed
=
M
Ed,max
/2.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
Note, 9.2.1.3(2)
Thus, for the 1st interior support supporting a UDL of n,
M
Ed,maxT
= 0.086
T
nl
2
; R
B
= 0.6nl
At distance Y from end support, moment, Y
M
Ed
@Y = Y M
Ed,maxT

T
R
A
Y + Y nY
2
/2
= when M@Y = Y M
Ed,maxT
/2
0.086nl
2
/2 = 0.086nl
2
– 0.6nlY + Y nY
2
/2
Assuming Y = Y yl
0.043nl
2
= 0.086nl
2
– 0.6nlyl + l ny
2
l
2
/2
0 = 0.043 − 0.6y + y y
2
/2
y = 0.077 y (or 1.122), say 0.08
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.08 × span
0.08 × 5975 = 478 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, a
l
may be taken as d 144 mm d
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 478 + 144
= 622 mm from centreline of support.
50% of reinforcement may be curtailed at, say,
600 mm from either face of support B pp
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
6.2.2(5)
49
3? Cont|nuous one-wey so||d s|e|
100% curtailment may take place a
l
from where there is no hogging
moment. Thus,
when M@Y = M
Ed,maxT
/2
0 = 0.086nl
2
– 0.6nlY + nY
2
/2
Assuming Y = yl
0 = 0.086 – 0.6y + y
2
/2
y = 0.166

(or 1.034), say 0.17
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.17 × span
0.17 × 5975 = 1016 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, a
l
may be taken as d
= curtail to 100% of required reinforcement at 1016 + 144
= 1160 mm from centreline of support.
100% of reinforcement may be curtailed at, say,
1100 mm from either face of support B.
iii) Support B bottom steel at support
At the support 25% of span steel required Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1),
9.2.1.4(1)
0.25 × 639 = 160 mm
2
A
s,min
as before = 216 mm
2
/m
For convenience use H12 @ 300 B1 (376 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
c) Anchorage at end support
As simply supported, 50% of A
s
should extend into the support.
This 50% of A
s
should be anchored to resist a force of
Cl. 9.2.1.2(1) &
Note, 9.2.1.4(2)
F
E
= V
Ed
× a
l
/z
where
Exp. (9.3)
V
Ed
= the absolute value of the shear force
a
l
= d, where the slab is not reinforced for shear
z = lever arm of internal forces
F
E
= 29.4 × d/0.95

d = 30.9 kN/m
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2)
Anchorage length, l
bd
: Cl. 8.4.4
l
bd
= al
b,rqd
≥ l
b,min
Exp. (8.4)
where
a = conservatively 1.0
l
b,rqd
= basic anchorage length required
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
) Exp. (8.3)
where
f = diameter of the bar = 12 mm
s
sd
= design stress in the bar at the ultimate limit state
= F
E
/A
s,prov
= 30.9 × 1000/376 = 81.5 MPa

Maximum z = 0.947 at mid-span and greater towards support.
50
f
bd
= ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n
1
n
2
f
ct,d
Cl. 8.4.2(2)
where
n
1
= 1.0 for ‘good’ bond conditions and 0.7 for all other
conditions = 1.0
n
2
= 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
f
ct,d
= design tensile strength
= a
ct
f
ct,k
/ g
C
. For f
ck
= 30 MPa
= 1.0 × 2.0/1.5 = 1.33 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6(2) &
NA, Tables 3.1
& 2.1N
=f
|d
= 2.25 × 1.33 = 3.0 MPa
l
b,rqd
= (12/4) (81.5/1.33) = 183 mm
l
b,min
= max(10d, 100 mm) = 120 mm
l
bd
= 183 mm measured from face of support
By inspection, using U-bars, OK
Exp. (8.6)
Fig. 9.3
d) Laps
Lap H12 @ 300 U-bars with H12 @ 150 straights.
Tension lap, l
0
= a
1
a
2
a
3
a
5
a
6
l
b,rqd
a l
0min
Exp. (8.10)
where
a
1
= 1.0 (straight bars)
a
2
= 1 − 0.15 (c
d
− f)/f
Table 8.2
where
c
d
= min(pitch, side cover or cover)
= 25 mm
Fig. 8.4
f = bar diameter
= 12 mm
a
2
= 0.84
a
3
= 1.0 (no confinement by reinforcement)
a
5
= 1.0 (no confinement by pressure)
Table 8.2
a
6
= 1.5 Table 8.3
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) s
sd
/f
bd
Exp. (8.3)
where
s
sd
= the design stress at ULS at the position from
where the anchorage is measured.
Assuming lap starts 500 mm from face of
support (587.5 mm from centreline of support):
M
Ed
= 29.5 × 0.59 − 12.3 × 0.59
2
/2
= 15.2 kNm
s
sd
= M
Ed
/(A
s
z)
= 15.2 × 10
6
/(376 × 144/0.95) = 267 MPa
f
bd
= ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n
1
n
2
f
ct,d
Cl. 8.4.2(2)
51
3? Cont|nuous one-wey so||d s|e|
where
n
1
= 1.0 for ‘good’ conditions
n
2
= 1.0 for f < 32 mm
f
ct,d
= a
ct
f
ct,k
/g
C
where
a
ct
= 1.0
f
ct,k
= 2.0
g
C
= 1.5
=f
|d
= 2.25 × 2.0/1.5 = 3.0 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6 (2) & NA
Table 3.1
Table 2.1N & NA
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) s
sd
/f
bd
= (12/4) × (267/3) = 267 mm
l
0min
b = max[0.3 a
6
l
b,rqd
; 15f/ 200 mm]
= max[0.3 × 1.5 × 229; 15 × 12; 200]
= max[124; 180; 200] = 200 mm
= l
0
= a
1
a
2
a
3
a
5
a
6
l
b,rqd
≥ l
0min
= 1.0 × 0.84 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 × 329 ≥ 200 = 414 mm
Exp. 8.6
But good practice suggests minimum lap of max[tension lap; 500]
= lap with bottom reinforcement = 500 mm starting 500 from
face of support.
3.2.11 Summary of reinforcement details
SMDSC
[9]
: MS2
A
A
500 1200
H12 U-bars @ 300 H12 @ 175 T1
H12 @ 150
H12 @ 300 H12 @ 225
500 600 600
200
200
200 500 500 500 500 350 350
Figure 3.6 Continuous solid slab: reinforcement details
500
1200
H10 @ 350 B2
Figure 3.7 Section A–A showing reinforcement details at edge
52
3.3 Continuous ribbed slab
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous ribbed slab
This continuous 300 mm deep ribbed slab has spans of 7.5 m,
9.0 m and 7.5 m and is required for an office to support a variable
action of 5 kN/m
2
. It is supported on wide beams that are the same
depth as the slab designed in Section 4.3. One hour fire resistance
is required: internal environment. The ribs are 150 mm wide @ 900
mm centres. Links are required in span to facilitate prefabrication of
reinforcement. Assume that partitions are liable to be damaged by
excessive deflections. In order to reduce deformations yet maintain a
shallow profile use f
ck
= 35 MPa and f
yk
= 500 MPa.
g
k
= 4.17 kN/m
2
g
k
= 4.3 kN/m
2
q
k
= 5.0 kN/m
2
A B
7500
550 1000 1000 1000
9000 7500
C D
550 1000
Figure 3.8 Continuous ribbed slab example p
Notes on ribbed slab design
There are various established methods for analysing ribbed slabs and dealing
with the solid areas:
t Using UDLs simplifies the analysis and remains popular. One method is
to ignore the weight of the solid part of the slab in the analysis of the
ribbed slab. (The weight of the solid area is then added to the loads on the
supporting beam). This ignores the minor effect the solid areas have on
bending in the ribbed slab.
t Alternatively the weight of the solid part of the slab is spread as a UDL
over the whole span. This is conservative both in terms of moment and
shears at solid/shear interfaces but underestimates hogging in internal
spans.
The advent of computer analysis has made analysis using patch loads t
more viable and the resulting analysis more accurate.
t The ribbed part of the slab may be designed to span between solid areas.
(The ribs span d/2 into the solid areas, which are assumed to act as
beams in the orthogonal direction.) However, having to accommodate
torsions induced in supporting beams and columns usually makes it simpler
to design from centreline of support to centreline of support.
Analysis programs can cope with the change of section and therefore t
change of stiffness along the length of the slab. Moments would be
attracted to the stiffer, solid parts at supports. However, the difference in
stiffness between the ribbed and the solid parts is generally ignored.
53
In line with good practice analysis, this example is carried out using
centreline of support to centreline of support and patch loads

.
Constant stiffness along the length of the slab has been assumed.
300
200 200
C
L
1000 550
100
A
A
C
L
Figure 3.9 Long section through slab
150 150 750
Figure 3.10 Section A–A: section through ribbed slab
3.3.1 Actions
Permanent: UDL kN/m
2
Self-weight: kN/m
2
Rib 0.15 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.833
Slope 2 × (1/2) × 0.2/10 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.112
Slab 0.1 × 2.5 = 2.500
Cross rib 0.19 × 0.71 × 0.2 × 25/(0.9 × 7.5) = 0.100
Total self-weight = 3.545 ≈ 3.55
Ceiling = 0.15
Services = 0.30
Raised floor = 0.30
Total permanent actions g
k
= 4.30

In this case, assuming the patch load analysis is accurate, taking the weight
of solid area to be spread over the whole span would overestimate span and
support moments by 6–8% and shears at the solid/rib interface by 8–9%.
Ignoring the weight of the solid area in the analysis of this ribbed slab would
lead to underestimates of span moments by 1%, support moments by 3% and
no difference in the estimation of shear at the solid shear interface. The latter
may be the preferred option.
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
54
Permanent: patch load
Extra over solid in beam area as patch load
(0.2 × 25 – 0.833) = 4.167 g
k
≈ 4.17
Variable
Imposed = 4.00*
Allowance for partitions = 1.00*
Total variable action g
k
= 5.00
3.3.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max(c
min,b
; c
min,dur
)
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond
= diameter of bar.
Assume 20 mm main bars and 8 mm links
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete, c
min,dur
= 15 mm
r
Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Table A4
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 20 + 10 to main bars or
= 15 + 10 to links = critical
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for REI 60.
EC2-1-2: 5.7.5(1)
Minimum slab thickness, h
s
= 80 mm OK EC2-1-2: Table 5.8
Axis distance required
Minimum rib width b
min
= 120 mm with a = 25 mm
or b
min
= 200 mm with a = 12 mm
EC2-1-2: Table 5.6
= at 150 mm wide (min.) a = 20 mm
By inspection, not critical.
Use 25 mm nominal cover to links
3.3.3 Load combination and arrangement
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical
n
slab
= 1.25 × 4.30 + 1.5 × 5.0 = 13.38 kN/m
2
n
solid areas
= 1.25 × (4.30 + 4.17) + 1.5 × 5.0 = 18.59 kN/m
2
Fig. 2.5 Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
*Client requirements. See also BS EN 1991–1–1, Tables 6.1, 6.2, Cl. 6.3.2.1(8) & NA.
55
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded. Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
option b
3.3.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer, includes 15% redistribution at support and
none in the span.
§
EC0: A1.2.2
& NA, 5.3.1 (6)
100
90.7 kNm/m 90.7 kNm/m
– 61.1 kNm/m – 65.3 kNm/m – 65.3 kNm/m
80
60
40
20
0
–20
–40
–60
–80
A B C D
a) Elastic moments
77.1 kNm/m 77.1 kNm/m
–61.7 kNm/m –61.7 kNm/m –55.9 kNm/m
100
80
60
40
20
0
–20
–40
–60
–80
A B C D
b) Redistributed envelope
Figure 3.11 Bending moment diagrams
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
§
Note 1: A ribbed slab need not be treated as discrete elements provided
rib spacing ≤ 1500 mm, depth of the rib ≤ 4 × its width, the flange is > 0.1 ×
distance between ribs and transverse ribs are provided at a clear spacing not
exceeding 10 × overall depth of the slab.
Note 2: As 7.5 m < 85% of 9.0 m, coefficients presented in Concise Eurocode 2
[5]

are not applicable.
56
A B C D
0
80
40
42.5 kN/m
– 42.5 kN/m
63.2 kN/m
– 63.2 kN/m
63.5 kN/m
– 63.5 kN/m
– 80
– 40
At solid/rib interface:
AB @ 550 mm from A
M
Ed
(sagging)
V
Ed
= 20.4 kNm/m z 18.3 kNm/rib
= 32.5 kN/m z 29.3 kN/rib
BA @1000 mm from B
M
Ed
(hogging)
V
Ed

= 47.1 kNm/m z 42.4 kNm/rib
= 45.4 kN/m z 40.9 kN/rib
BC @ 1000 mm from B
M
Ed
(hogging)
V
Ed

= 43.0 kNm/m z 38.7 kNm/rib
= 45.1 kN/m z 40.6 kN/rib
Symmetrical about centreline of BC.
3.3.5 Flexural design, span A–B
a) Span A–B: Flexure
M
Ed
= 61.7 kNm/m
= 55.5 kNm/rib
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = 900 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 20/2 = 257
assuming 8 mm link at H20 in span
f
ck
= 35 MPa
=K = 55.5 × 10
6
/(900 × 257
2
× 35) = 0.027
K' = 0.207
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
Appendix A1
57
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (257/2) (1 + 0.951) ≤ 0.95 × 257
= 251 ≤ 244 = z = 244 mm
Appendix A1
But z = d – 0.4x
= x = 2.5(d − z) = 2.5(257 − 244) = 33 mm
= By inspection, neutral axis is in flange
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
where
|
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 55.5 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 244) = 523 mm
2
/rib
Try 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
Appendix A1
b) Span A–B: Deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r
0
and whether to use Cl. 7.4.2(2)
Exp. (7.16a) or Exp. (7.16b)
r
0
= f
ck
0.5
/1000 = 35
0.5
/1000 = 0.59%
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
] PD 6687
[6]
where
b
w
= min. width between tension and compression
chords. At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib:
= 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10
= 159 mm
r = 523/(159 ( 257 + (900 − 159) × 100)
= 523/114963
= 0.45%
r < r
0
= use Exp. (7.16a)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r /r
0
+ 3.2f
ck
0.5
(r /r
0
– 1)
1.5
]
= 11 + 1.5 × 35
0.5
× 0.055/0.045 + 3.2 × 35
0.5

(0.055/0.045 – 1)
1.5
= [11 + 10.8 + 2.0] = 22.8
Exp. (7.16a)
K = (end span) 1.3
Table 7.4N &
NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 5.66) 0.8
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
= 7.0/7.5 = (span > 7.0 m) 0.93 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/ s
s
≤ 1.5
Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
& NA; Table NA.5

Section 2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T-beams should be based on
the area of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
58
where

s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8(523/628) [ (4.30 + 0.3 × 5.0)/13.38]
(65.3/61.7
§
)
= 434.8 × 0.83 × 0.43 × 1.06
= 164 MPa
F3 = 310/s
s
= 310/164 = 1.89
#
but ≤ 1.5, therefore say 1.50
= Permissible l/d = 22.8 × 1.3 × 0.8 × 0.93 × 1.50 = 33.0
Actual l/d = 7500/257 = 29.2 = OK
Use 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
c) Support A (and D): flexure (sagging) at solid/rib interface
Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both
moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule) Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
M
Ed,max
= 18.3 kNm/rib
V
Ed,max
= 29.3 kNm/rib
At solid/rib interface
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z + DF
td
/f
yd
Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2),
Fig. 9.2
where
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
where
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = 900 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 25 − 20/2 = 232
assuming 8 mm links and H25B in edge beam
f
ck
= 30
= 18.3 × 10
6
/(900 × 232
2
× 35) = 0.011

See Appendix B1.5
§
In analysis, 15% redistribution of support moments led to redistribution of span
moments:
d = 61.7/65.3 = 0.94.
#
Both A
s,prov
/A
s,req
and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or Exp.
(7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA. Therefore, 310/
s
s
is restricted to 1.5.
59
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
25 cover
8 link
8 link
20 bar
25 cover
12 fabric
16 bar
25 cover
8 link
25 bar
16 bar
= z = (232/2) (1 + 0.980) ≤ 0.95 × 232
= 230 ≤ 220 = z = 220 mm
f
yd
= 434.8 MPa
DF
td
= 0.5V
Ed
(cot y – cot a)
Appendix A1
Cl. 6.2.3(7),
Exp. (6.18)
where
y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the
beam axis. Assume cot y = 2.5 (as a maximum)
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis.
For vertical links, cot a = 0
DF
td
= 1.25V
Ed
= 1.25 × 29.3 = 36.6 kN
A
s
= 18.3 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 220) + 36.6 × 10
3
/434.8
= 191 + 84 mm
2
= 275 mm
2
=Try 1 no. H20 B in end supports*
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
Appendix A2
Appendix C,
Table C6
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
d) Support B (and C) (at centreline of support)
M
Ed
= 77.1 kNm/m
= 69.4 kNm/rib
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link − 20/2
= 245
K = 69.4 × 10
6
/(900 × 245
2
× 35) = 0.037
By inspection, K ≤ K'
z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K)
0.5
] ≤ 0·95d
= (245/2) (1 + 0.932) < 0.95d
= 237 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 69.4 × 10
6
/434.8 × 237 = 673 mm
2
/rib
*

An alternative method would have been to calculate the reinforcement required
to resist M
Ed
at the shift distance, a
l
, from the interface.
60
e) Support B (and C): flexure (hogging) at solid/rib interface
Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both
moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule).
M
Ed,max
= 42.4 kNm/rib max.
V
Ed,max
= 40.9 kNm/rib max.
Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z + DF
td
/f
yd
where
z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K)
0.5
] ≤ 0·95d
where
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 42.4 × 106/(150 × 245
2
× 35)
= 0.135
Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
Check K ≤ K'
K' = 0.168 for d = 0.85 (i.e. 15% redistribution)
= Section under-reinforced: no compression reinforcement required
Appendix C,
Table C4
Appendix A
= z = (245/2) (1 + 0.723) ≤ 232 = 211 mm
f
yd
= 434.8 MPa
DF
td
= 0.5V
Ed
(cot y – cot a)
Cl. 6.2.3(7),
Exp. (6.18)
where
y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the
beam axis. Assume cot y = 2.5 (as a maximum)
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis. For
vertical links, cot a = 0
DF
td
= 1.25V
Ed
= 1.25 × 40.9 = 51.1 kN
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
Appendix A2;
Table C6
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
A
s
= 42.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 211) + 51.1 × 10
3
/434.8
= 462 + 117 mm
2
= 579 mm
2
/rib
To be spread over b
eff
where by inspection, b
eff
= 900. Cl. 9.2.1.2(2)
=Centre of support more critical (679 mm
2
/rib required). Cl. 5.3.2.1(3)
Top steel may be spread across b
eff
where
b
eff
= b
w
+ b
eff1
+ b
eff2
≤ b
= b
w
+ 2 × 0.1 × 0.15 × (l
1
+ l
2
)
= 150 + 0.03 × (7500 + 9000) ≤ 900
= 645 mm
= Use 2 no. H16 above rib and 3 no. H12 between (741 mm
2
/rib)
where 2 no. H16 and 2 no. H12 are within b
eff
Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
5.3.2
3.3.6 Flexural design, span BC
a) Span B–C: Flexure
M
Ed
= 55.9 kNm/m
= 50.3 kNm/rib
61
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 50.3 × 10
6
/900 × 257
2
× 35
= 0.02 i.e. ≤ K’ (as before K’ = 0.168)
By inspection,
z = 0.95d = 0.95 × 257 = 244 mm
By inspection, neutral axis is in flange.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 50.3 × 10
6
/434.8 × 244 = 474 mm
2
Try 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
b) Span B–C: Deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
Section C7
where
N = Basic l/d
r = 474/(159 (× 257 + (900 − 159) × 100)
= 474/114963
= 0.41%
r
0
= 0.59% (for f
ck
= 30)
= r < r
0
use Exp. (7.16a)
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5 f
ck
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2f
ck
0.5
(r
0
/r – 1)
1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 35
0.5
× 0.055/0.041 + 3.2 × 35
0.5
(0.055/0.041 − 1)
1.5
= 11 + 11.9 + 3.8 = 26.7
Exp. (7.16a)
K = (internal span) 1.5 Table 7.4N, &
NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 6.0) 0.8
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
= 7.0/9.0 = (span > 7.0 m) 0.77 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/s
S
≤ 1.5
where
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (474/628) [(4.30 + 0.3 × 5.0)/13.38](61.1/55.9)
= 434.8 × 0.75 × 0.43 × 1.09
= 153 MPa
Cl. 7.4.2,
Exp. (7.17)
& NA: Table NA.5
F3 = 310/ s
s
= 310/153 = 2.03 therefore, say = 1.50

= Permissible l/d = 26.8 × 1.5 × 0.8 × 0.77 × 1.50 = 37.1
Actual l/d = 9000/257 = 35 = OK
=Use 2 H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5

Both A
s,prov
/A
s,req
and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or
Exp. (7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA.
62
3.3.7 Design for shear
10
C
L
C
L
b = 150
1
a) Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface
Shear at solid/rib interface = 29.3 kN/rib
Taking solid area as the support, at d from face of support
V
Ed
= 29.3 − 0.232 × 0.90 × 13.38 = 26.5 kN/rib
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Cl. 6.2.2(1) & NA
Resistance
V
Rd,c
= (0.18/g
C
)k (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
b
w
d
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2
= 1 + (200/257)
0.5
= 1.88
r
l
= A
sl
/b
w
d
where
A
sl
= assume only 1 H20 anchored = 314 mm
2
b
w
= min. width between tension and compression chords.
At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib:
= 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10
= 159 mm
d = 257 mm as before
r
l
= 314/(159 × 257) = 0.0077
f
ck
= 35
=V
Rd,c
= (0.18/1.5) 1.88 (100 × 0.0077 × 35)
0.333
× 159 × 257
= 0.68 × 159 × 257 = 27.8 kN/rib
= No shear links required.
But use nominal links to allow prefabrication.
Cl. 6.2.1(5)
b) Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface
Shear at solid/rib interface = 40.9 kN/rib [max(B
A
; B
C
)]
At d from face of support
V
Ed
= 40.9 − 0.245 × 13.38 × 0.9 = 37.9 kN/rib
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
63
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
Resistance:
V
Rd,c
= (0.18/ g
C
)k (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
b
w
d
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2
= 1 + (200/245)0.5
= 1.90
r
l
= A
sl
/b
w
d
where
A
sl
= 2 H16 = 402 mm
2
b
w
= 159 mm as before
d = 245 mm as before
r
l
= 0.0103
f
ck
= 35 MPa
= V
Rd,c
= (0.18/1.5) 1.9 (100 × 0.0103 × 35)
0.333
× 159 × 245
= 0.75 × 159 × 245 = 29.2 kN/rib
= Shear links required.
Cl. 6.2.2(1) & NA
Shear links required for a distance:
(37.9 − 29.2)/(13.38 × 0.9) + 245 = 722 + 245 = 967 mm
from interface.
Check shear capacity:
V
Rd,max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/(cot y + tan y)
Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
a
cw
= 1.0
b
w
= 159 mm as before
z = 0.9d
v = 0.6 (1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.528
f
cd
= 35/1.5 = 23.3 MPa
y = angle of inclination of strut.
Rearranging formula above:
(cot y + tan y) = a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/V
Ed
= (1.0 × 159 × 0.9 × 245 × 0.528 × 23.3)
41.6 × 103
= 10.4
By inspection, cot
−1
y << 21.8. But cot y restricted to 2.5 and
= tan y = 0.4.
V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 159 × 0.9 × 245 × 0.528 × 20/(2.5 + 0.4) = 127.6 kN
= OK
Cl. 6.2.3(2) & NA
64
Shear links: shear resistance with links
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y ≤ V
Rd,max
where
A
sw
/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
f
ywd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
cot y = 2.5 as before
= for V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,s
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/z f
ywd
cot y
≥ 37.9 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 245 × 434.8 × 2.5) ≥ 0.158
Exp. (6.8)
Maximum spacing of links = 0.75d = 183 mm
= Use H8 @ 175 cc in 2 legs (A
sw
/s = 0.57) for min. 967 mm into rib
Cl. 9.2.2(6)
3.3.8 Indirect supports
As the ribs of the slab are not supported at the top of the
supporting beam sections (A, B, C, D), additional vertical
reinforcement should be provided in these supporting beams and
designed to resist the reactions. This additional reinforcement
should consist of links within the supporting beams (see Beams
design, Section 4.3.9).
Cl. 9.2.5, Fig. 9.7
Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface:
V
Ed
= 26.5 kN/rib
A
s,req
= 26.3 × 1000/(500/1.15) = 60 mm
2
This area is required in links within h/6 = 300/6 = 50 mm of the
ribbed/solid interface and within h/2 = 300/2 = 150 mm of the
centreline of the rib.
Fig. 9.7
Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface:
V
Ed
= 37.9 kN/rib
A
s,req
= 37.9 × 1000/(500/1.15) = 87 mm
2
placed similarly
3.3.9 Other checks
Check shear between web and flange
By inspection, V
Ed
≤ 0.4 f
ct,d
= OK
Cl. 6.4.2 (6) & NA
65
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
3.3.10 Summary of design
2H16 + 3H12/rib
H8 links in 2 legs
@ 175cc
A
550 550 1050
7500
f
ck
= 35 MPa
c
nom
= 25 mm
7500 9000
1000 1000 1050 1050 1000 1000 1050
B C D
2H20/rib 2H20/rib 2H20/rib
2H16 + 3H12/rib
Figure 3.15 Summary of design
Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the above
design and detail the slab to normal best practice. As stated
in

Section 3.2.9, the detailer’s responsibilities, standards and
timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the
detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement
but all the reinforcement required to provide a buildable solution.
The work would usually include checking the following aspects and
providing appropriate detailing:
Minimum areas t
Curtailment lengths t
Anchorages t
Laps t
U-bars t
Rationalisation t
Details and sections t
The determination of minimum reinforcement areas, curtailment
lengths and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown in
detail in the following calculations. In practice these would be
determined from published tables of data or by using reference
texts
[12, 21]
. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing
for design intent and compliance with standards. It is therefore
necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles
of the details used.
3.3.11 Detailing checks
a) Minimum areas
i) Minimum area of reinforcement in flange
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
) b
t
d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
d Cl. 9.3.1.1
66
where
b
t
= width of tension zone
Cl. 9.2.1.1,
Exp. (9.1N)
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
Table 3.1
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 35
0.666
× 1000 × 100/500 = 166 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.17%)
= Use A142 in flange (say OK) BS 8666
[19]
ii) Secondary reinforcement
Not applicable.
iii) Maximum spacing of bars
Maximum spacing of bars < 3 h < 400 mm
By inspection. OK Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
iv) Crack control
Loading is the main cause of cracking = use Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N for Cl. 7.3.3(2)
w
max
= 0.3 mm and max. s
s
= 200 MPa (see deflection check) Cl. 7.3.1.5
Max. bar size = 25 mm Table 7.2N
or max. spacing = 250 mm Table 7.3N
OK by inspection
v) Effects of partial fixity
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of A
s
is required
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
A
s,req
= 15% × 525 = 79 mm
2
/rib
For the rib in tension:
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 159 × 257/500 = 55 mm
2
/rib
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
b) Curtailment
Wherever possible simplified methods of curtailing reinforcement
would be used. The following is intended to show how a rigorous
assessment of curtailment of reinforcement might be undertaken.
i) End support A: bottom steel at support
Check anchorage.
As simply supported, 25% of A
s
should be anchored in support.
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.3.1.2(1) &
Note,
25% × 595 = 148 mm
2
Use 1 no. H20/rib (314 mm
2
/rib)
Cl. 9.2.1.4(1)
& NA
ii) Check anchorage length
Envelope of tensile force:
To resist envelope of tensile force, provide reinforcement to a
l
or l
bd
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.3(1),
beyond centreline of support.
For members without shear reinforcement, a
l
= d = 232
By inspection, s
sd
= 0, l
bd
= l
bd,min
= max(10f, 100 mm)
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
9.2.1.3(3), Fig. 9.2
Cl. 9.2.1.3
iii) Indirect support
As anchorage may be measured from face of indirect support, check
force to be resisted at solid/rib interface:
F
s
= M
Ed
/z + F
E
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.4(2),
9.2.1.4(3),
Fig. 9.3b
67
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
where
M
Ed
= 18.3 kNm/rib
z = 220 as before
F
E
= V
Ed
× a
l
/z
Exp. (9.3)
where
V
Ed
= 29.3 kN/rib
a
l
= z cot y/2
= F
E
= V
Ed
cot y/2
= 29.3 × 1.25 = 36.6 kN/rib
F
s
= 18.6 × 10
6
/(220 × 10
3
) + 36.6 = 121.1 kN
Cl. 9.2.1.3,
Exp. (9.2)
iv) Anchorage length:
l
bd
= al
b,rqd
≥ l
b,min
where
Cl. 8.4.4,
Exp. (8.4)
a = conservatively 1.0
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
)
where
f = 20
s
sd
= design stress in the bar at the ULS
= 121.1 × 1000/314 = 385 MPa
f
bd
= ultimate bond stress
Exp. (8.3)
= 2.25 n
1
n
1
f
ct,d
where
n
1
= 1.0 for good bond conditions
n
2
= 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
Cl. 8.4.2(2)
f
ct,d
= a
ct
f
ct,k
/g
C
= 1.0 × 2.2/1.5
= 1.47 MPa
f
bd
= 2.25 × 1.47 = 3.31 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6(2),
Tables 3.1,
2.1 & NA
= l
b,rqd
= (20/4) (385/3.31) = 581 mm
l
b,min
= max[10f; 100 mm] = 200 mm
= l
bd
= 581 mm measured from solid/rib intersection.
i.e. 31 mm beyond centreline of support

.
Fig. 9.3
v) End support A: top steel
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of A
s
is required
to extend at least 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span
§
.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
A
s,req
= 15% × 525 = 79 mm
2
/rib
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 35
0.666
× 159 × 257/500 = 68 mm
2
/rib
Cl. 9.3.1.1
Cl. 9.2.1.1(1),
Use 2 no. H12 T1/rib in rib and 2 no. H10 T1/rib between ribs
(383 mm
2
/rib)
Exp. (9.1N)

Whilst this would comply with the requirements of Eurocode 2, it is common practice
to take bottom bars 0.5 × a tension lap beyond the centreline of support
(= 250 mm beyond the centreline of support; see model detail MS1 in SMDSC
[9]
).
§
It is usual to curtail 50% of the required reinforcement at 0.2l and to curtail the
remaining 50% at 0.3l or line of zero moment (see model detail MS2 in SMDSC
[9]
).
68
vi) Support B (and C): top steel
At the centreline of support (2 no. H16 T + 3 no. H12 T)/rib are
required. The intention is to curtail in two stages, firstly to 2 no.
H16 T/rib then to 2 no. H12 T/rib.
Curtailment of 2 no. H16 T/rib at support
(capacity of 2 no. H12 T/rib + shift rule):
Assume use of 2 no. H12 T throughout in midspan:
Assuming z = 211 mm as before,
M
R2H12T
= 2 × 113 × 434.8 × 211
= 20.7 kNm/rib (23.0 kNm/m)
(Note: section remains under-reinforced)
From analysis M
Ed
= 23.0 kNm/m occurs at 2250 mm (towards A)
and 2575 mm (towards B).
Shift rule: a
l
= z cot y/2
Assuming z = 211 mm as before
a
l
= 1.25 × 211 = 264 mm
= 2 no. H12 T are adequate from 2250 + 264 = 2513 mm from B
towards A and 2575 + 263 = 2838 mm from B towards C.
= Curtail 2 no. H16 T @ say 2600 from B
A
and 2850 from B
C
Curtailment of 3 no. H12 T/rib at support (capacity of 2 no. H16
T/rib + shift rule):
M
R2H16T
= 2 × 201 × 434.8 × 211
= 36.9 kNm/rib (41.0 kNm/m)
(Note: section remains under-reinforced)
From analysis M
Ed
= 41.0 kNm/m occurs at 1310 mm (towards A)
and 1180 mm
(towards C).
Shift rule: a
l
= 263 mm as before
= 2 no. H16 T are adequate from 1310 + 263 = 1573 mm from B
towards A and 1180 + 263 = 1443 mm from B towards C.
= Curtail 3 no. H12 at say 1600 from B (or C).
(See Figure 3.16)
vii) Support B (and C): bottom steel at support
At the support 25% of span steel required
0.25 × 628 = 157 mm
2
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1),
9.2.1.4(1)
Try 1 no. H16 B/rib (201)
This reinforcement may be anchored into indirect support or carried
through.
Fig. 9.4
69
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
2H12/rib
2H16/rib
2H16 + 3H12
per rib
‘Shift’ moment
a) Design moments and moment resistance
b) Curtailment of reinforcement
264
264
264
2H12 3H12 2H12
2H16
1600 1600
2600 2850
264
2250 2575
1310 1180
B
A C
l
bd
a
1
= 264 M
Ed
= 77.1 x 0.9 = 60.4 kNm/rib
M
Ed
= 20.7 kNm/rib
M
Ed
= 36.79 kNm/rib
M
Ed
M
R
= A
s
(f
yk
/g
S
)z
p p
viii) Support B (and C): bottom steel curtailment BA and BC
To suit prefabrication 2 no. H20/rib will be curtailed at solid/rib
interface, 1000 mm from B
A
(B towards A) and B
C
.
From analysis, at solid/rib interface sagging moment = 0.
From analysis, at a
1
from solid/rib interface, i.e. at 1000 + 1.25 × 244
= 1303 mm
at 1305 mm from B
A
sagging moment = say 5 kNm/rib
at 1305 mm from B
C
sagging moment = 0
Use 1 no. H16 B/rib (201)
c) Laps
At A
B
, check lap 1 no. H20 B to 2 no. H20 B in rib full tension lap:
l
0
= a
1
a
6
l
b,rqd
> l
0,min
Exp. (8.10)
where
a
1
= 1.0 (c
d
= 45 mm, i.e. < 3f)
a
6
= 1.5 (as > 50% being lapped)
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
)
where
f = 20
s
sd
= 434.8
f
bd
= 3.0 MPa as before
Table 8.2
70
l
0,min
= max. 10f or 100 = 200
l
0
= 1.0 × 1.5 × (20/4) × 434.8/3.0
Exp. (8.6)
= 1087 mm, say = 1200 mm SMDSC
[9]
At B
A
and B
C
, check lap 2 no. H12 T to 2 no. H16 T in rib – full tension lap:
l
0
= a
1
a
6
l
b,rqd
> l
0,min
where
a
1
= 0.7 (c
d
= 45 mm, i.e. > 3f)
a
6
= 1.5 (as > 50% being lapped)
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
)
where
f = 20
s
sd
= 434.8
f
bd
= 2.1 (3.0 MPa as before but n
1
= 0.7 for “not good bond
conditions”)
l
0,min
= max. 10f or 100 = 120
Exp. (8.10)
Table 8.2
Cl. 8.4.2
l
0
= 0.7 × 1.5 × (12/4) × 434.8/2.1
= 651 mm, say = 700 mm
But to aid prefabrication take to solid/rib intersection 1000 mm
from centre of support.
SMDSC
[9]
At B
A
and B
C
, check lap 1 no. H16 B to 2 no. H20 B in rib:
By inspection, nominal say, 500 mm SMDSC
[9]
d) RC detail of ribbed slab
Links not shown for clarity. Cover 25 mm to links.
200 200 1500
2H12T in rib
and 2H1OT
between
2H16 + 3H12/rib
2H16 + 3H12/rib
A143
fabric
2H12 3H12 2H16 2H12 3H12 2H16 2H12
150 550 500
7500 9000
500 1000 1000 500 1000 1000 1200
2H12 + 2H1O 2H16 3H12 2H12
2H12T/rib 2H12T
1H20B 2H20B/rib 2H20B/rib 1H16B/rib 1H16B/rib
1000 1000 1000
600 600 600
1000 1250 1250
Figure 3.17 Curtailment of flexural reinforcement in ribbed slab
71
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
The slab is for an office where the specified load is 1.0 kN/m
2
for
finishes and 4.0 kN/m
2
imposed (no partitions). Perimeter load is
assumed to be 10 kN/m. Concrete is C30/37. The slab is 300 mm
thick and columns are 400 mm square. The floor slabs are at 4.50 m
vertical centres. A 2 hour fire rating is required.
E
D
C
A
4.0
8.0
9.6
200 x 200
hole
200 x 200
hole
300 mm flat slabs
All columns 400 mm sq.
8.6
8.0
4.0 4.0
6
.0
1
2
3
B Bb
Figure 3.18 Part plan of flat slab p
3.4.1 Actions
kN/m
2
Permanent:
EC1-1-1:
Table A1
Self-weight 0.30 × 25 = 7.5
Finishes = 1.0
Total g
k
= 8.5
Variable:
Offices ¡
k
= 4.0


Client requirement. See also BS EN 1991–1–1, Tables 6.1, 6.2, Cl. 6.3.2.1(8) & NA.
3.4 Flat slab
¹h|s exemp|e |s ¦or the des|gn o¦ e re|n¦orced concrete ¦|et s|e| w|thout co|umn heeds ¹he s|e|
|s pert o¦ e |erger ¦|oor p|ete end |s te|en ¦rom Oa/Je |o |/e Je·/qn onJ con·|·ac|/on o| ·e/n|o·ceJ
conc·e|e |/o| ·/o/·
|?/|
, where ¦|n|te e|ement ene|ys|s end des|gn to lurocode ? |s |||ustreted As
w|th the Oa/Je, gr|d ||ne C w||| |e des|gned |ut, ¦or the se|e o¦ |||ustret|on, coe¦¦|c|ents w||| |e
used to este|||sh des|gn moments end sheers |n th|s cr|t|ce| eree o¦ the s|e|
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Flat slab
72
3.4.2 Cover
c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
; 10 mm]
where
c
min,b
= 20 mm, assuming 20 mm diameter reinforcement
c
min,dur
= 15 mm for XC1 and using C30/37
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
Exp. (4.1)
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Table A4.
Fire:
For 2 hours resistance, a
min
= 35 mm = not critical
= c
nom
= 20 + 10 = 30 mm
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.9
3.4.3 Load combination and arrangement
q
k
= 4.0 kN/m
2
g
k
= 8.5 kN/m
2
9600 8600
2 3 1
Figure 3.19 Panel centred on grid C
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical.
n = 1.25 × 8.50 + 1.5 × 4.0 = 16.6 kN/m
2
Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases and
coefficients

.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA:
Table NA.1
(option b)
3.4.4 Analysis grid line C
Consider grid line C as a bay 6.0 m wide. (This may be conservative
for grid line C but is correct for grid line D etc.)
M
Ed
Effective spans:
9600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 9500 mm
8600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 8500 mm
Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
Check applicability of moment coefficients:
8500/9500 = 0.89 = as spans differ by less than 15% of larger
span, coefficients are applicable.
Tables C2 & C3

The all-spans-loaded case with 20% redistribution of support moments would
also have been acceptable but would have involved some analysis. The use of Table
5.9 in BS EN 1992–1–2 (Fire resistance of solid flat slabs) is restricted to where
redistribution does not exceed 15%; the coefficients presume 15% redistribution
at supports.
Cl. 5.3.1 & NA
Table C3
73
34 l|et s|e|
As two span, use table applicable to beams and slabs noting
increased coefficients for central support moment and shear.
Table C3
Design moments in bay.
Spans:
M
Ed
= (1.25 × 8.5 × 0.090 + 1.5 × 4.0 × 0.100)× 6.0 × 9.5
2
= 842.7 kNm
Support:
M
Ed
= 16.6 × 0.106 × 6.0 × 9.5
2
= 952.8 kNm
C D
Column
strip
Column
strip
Column strip Column strip
Middle
strip
Middle strip
6000
1500
1500
1500
15001500 1500 3000 1500
1
2
Figure 3.20 Column and middle strips p
Apportionment of moments between column strips and middle strips:
Apportionment (as %)
Column strip Middle strip
–ve (hogging) Long span = 70%
§

Short span = 75%
Long span = 30%
Short span = 25%
+ve (sagging) 50% 50%
Table I.1;
CS Flat slab
guide
[27]
Table I.1
NA.3
[1a]
; Fig. I.1
Parallel to grid C, column strip is l
y
/2 = 3 m wide. The middle strip is
also 3 m wide.
Long span moments:
M
Ed
Column strip, 3 m wide Middle strip, 3 m wide
–ve (hogging) 0.70 × 952.8/3.0 = 222.3 kNm/m 0.30 × 952.8/3.0 = 95.3 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) 0.50 × 842.7/3.0 = 140.5 kNm/m 0. 50 × 842.7/3.0 = 140.5 kNm/m
§
The Concrete Society’s TR 64
[27]
recommends a percentage, k
1
, based on l
y
/l
z

Assuming l
y
/l
z
= 1.5 the distribution of moments in the long span between column
strips and middle strips is given as 70% and 30%.
74
Punching shear force, V
Ed
VV :
At C2,
V
Ed
VV = 16.6 × 6.0 × 9.6

× 0.63 × 2 = 1204.8 kN Table C3 Table C3
At C1 (and C3)
V
Ed
VV = 16.6 × 6.0 × 9.6 × 0.45 + (10 + 0.2 × 0.3 × 25)
§
× 1.25 × 6.0
= 516.5 kN
Table C3 Table C3
3.4.5 Design grid line C
Effective depth, d:
d = 300 − 30 − 20/2 = 260 mm d
a) Flexure: column strip and middle strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 140.5 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
f = 140.5 × 10
6
/(1000 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.069
z/ zz d = 0.94 d Table C5 Table C5
z = 0.94 × 260 = 244 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
ff z = 140.5 × 10 z
6
/(244 × 500/1.15) = 1324 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.51%) r
Try H20 @ 200 B1 (1570 mm
2
/m)
b) Deflection: column strip and middle strip
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B Appendix B
Allowable l/ ll d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
Appendix C Appendix C
N = 20.3 ( N r = 0.51%, r f
ck
f = 30)
Tables C10–C13 Tables C10–C13
K = 1.2 (flat slab)
F1 = 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
bb = 1.0)
w
F2 = 1.0 (no brittle partitions)
#
F3 = 310/s
s
s ≤ 1.5
Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N, &
NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
Fig. C3 Fig. C3
where*
s
s
s = s
su
s (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) 1/d
where
s
su
s = (500/1.15) × (8.5 + 0.3 × 4.0)/16.6 = 254 MPa
(or ≈ 253 MPa; from Figure C3
G
k
/Q
k
= 2.1, c
2
cc = 0.3 and g
G
gg = 1.25)
d = redistribution ratio = 1.03 d
= s
s
s ≈ 253 × (1324/1570)/1.03 = 207
= F3 = 310/207 = 1.50

= Allowable l/ ll d = 20.3 × 1.2 × 1.50 = 36.5 d
Fig. C14 Fig. C14

As punching shear force (rather than a beam shear force) ‘effective’ span is not
appropriate.
§
Cladding and strip of slab beyond centre of support.
#
Otherwise for flat slabs 8.5/9.5 = 0.89 as span > 8.5 m.
* See Appendix B1.5

In line with Note 5 to Table NA.5, 1.50 is considered to be a maximum for 310/s
s
s .
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
75
34 l|et s|e|
Actual l/d = 9500/260 = 36.5 = OK

Use H20 @ 200 B1 (1570)
§
c) Flexure: column strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 222.3 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 222.3 × 10
6
/(1000 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.109
z/d = 0.89
z = 0.89 × 260 = 231 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 222.3 × 10
6
/(231 × 500/1.15) = 2213 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.85%)
Try H20 @ 125 T1 (2512 mm
2
/m)
#
Table C5
d) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 95.3 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 95.3 × 10
6
/(1000 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.069
z/d = 0.95
z = 0.95 × 260 = 247 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 95.3 × 10
6
/(247 × 500/1.15) = 887 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.34%)
Try H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm
2
/m)
Table C5
e) Requirements
i) In column strip, inside middle 1500 mm
There is a requirement to place 50% of A
t
within a width equal to
0.125 of the panel width on either side of the column.
Cl. 9.4.1(2)
Area required = (3 × 2213 + 3 × 887)/2 mm
2
= 4650 mm
2
Over width = 2 × 0.125 × 6.0 m = 1500 mm
i.e. require 4650/1.5 = 3100 mm
2
/m for 750 mm either side of the
column centreline.
Use H20 @ 100 T1 (3140 mm
2
/m)
750 mm either side of centre of support (16 no. bars)
(r = 0.60%)
ii) In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm
Area required = 3.0 × 2213 – 16 × 314 mm
2
= 1615 mm
2
Over width = 3000 – 2 × 750 mm = 1500 mm
i.e. 1077 mm
2
/m
Use H20 @ 250 T1 (1256 mm
2
/m)
in remainder of column strip

Note: Continuity into columns will reduce sagging moments and criticality of
deflection check (see Figures 3.26 and 3.27).
§
Note requirement for at least 2 bars in bottom layer to carry through column.
#
The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce the
amount of reinforcement required.
Cl. 9.4.1(3)
76
iii) In middle strip Use H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm
2
/m)
iv) Perpendicular to edge of slab at edge column
Design transfer moment to column M
t
= 0.17 b
e
d
2
f
ck
where
Cl. 9.4.2(1),
I.1.2(5)
b
e
= c
z
+ y = 400 + 400 = 800 mm
M
t
= 0.17 × 800 × 260
2
× 30 × 10
−6
= 275.8 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 275.8 × 10
6
/(800 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.170
z/d = 0.82
z = 0.82 × 260 = 213 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 275.8 × 10
6
/(213 × 500/1.15) = 2978 mm
2
/m
This reinforcement to be placed within c
x
+ 2c
y
= 1100 mm
Fig. 9.9
SMDSC
[9]
Try 10 no. H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200 (3140 mm
2
) local to column
(max. 200 mm from column)
Note:
Where a 200 × 200 hole occurs on face of column, b
e
becomes 600 mm
and pro rata, A
s,req
becomes 2233 mm
2
i.e. use 4 no. H20 each side
of hole (2512 mm
2
).
v) Perpendicular to edge of slab generally
Assuming that there is partial fixity along the edge of the slab, top
reinforcement capable of resisting 25% of the moment in the
adjacent span should be provided
0.25 × 2213 = 553 mm
2
/m OK
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2),
9.2.1.4(1) & NA
vi) Check minimum area of reinforcement
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
) b
t
d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
d
where
b
t
= width of tension zone
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 260/500 = 390 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Use H12 @ 200 (565 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Table 3.1
The reinforcement should extend 0.2h from edge = 600 mm Cl. 9.3.1.4(2)
3.4.6 Analysis grid line 1 (grid 3 similar)
Consider grid line 1 as being 9.6/2 + 0.4/2 = 5.0 m wide with
continuous spans of 6.0 m. Column strip is 6.0/4 + 0.4/2 = 1.7 m
wide. Consider perimeter load is carried by column strip only. Cl. 5.1.1(4)
77
34 l|et s|e|
q
k
slab = 20.0 kN/m
g
k
cladding = 10.0 kN/m
g
k
slab = 42.5 kN/m
6000 6000 6000
F E D C
p
Actions:
Permanent from slab g
k
= 5 × 8.5 kN/m
2
= 42.5 kN/m
Variable from slab q
k
= 5 × 4.0 kN/m
2
= 20.0 kN/m
Permanent perimeter load g
k
= 10.0 kN/m
Load combination and arrangement:
As before, choose to use all-spans-loaded case and coefficients
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option c)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical. Fig. 2.5
n = 1.25 × (42.5 +10) + 1.5 × 20 = 95.6 kN/m EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Perimeter load, 10 × 1.25 = 12.5 kN/m
Effective span, l
eff
Effective span = 6000 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 5900 Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
Design moments in bay, M
Ed
:
In spans (worst case, end span assuming pinned support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 83.0 × 5.9
2
= 248.5 kNm Table C2
At supports (worst case 1st support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 83.0 × 5.9
2
= 248.5 kNm
Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load,
spans (and supports, worst case)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 12.5 × 5.9
2
= 37.4 kNm
Table C2
Apportionment to column strips and middle strips: NA.3
[1a]
: Fig. I.1
Apportionment (as %)
Column strip, 1.7 m wide Middle strip
–ve (hogging) Short span = 75% Short span = 25%
+ve (sagging) 50% 50%
Table I.1
CS Flat slab
guide
[27]
Short span moments:
M
Ed
Column strip, 1.7 m wide Middle strip, 3.3 m wide
–ve (hogging) (0.75 × 248.5 + 37.4)/1.70
= 131.6 kNm/m
0.25 × 248.5/3.3
= 18.8 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) (0.50 × 248.5 + 37.4)/1.70
= 95.1 kNm/m
0.50 × 248.5/3.3
= 37.6 kNm/m
78
Punching shear force, V
Ed
For internal supports, as before = 516.5 kN
For penultimate support, 516.5 × 1.18 = 609.5 kN Table C3
3.4.7 Design grid line 1 (grid 3 similar)
Cover:
c
nom
= 30 mm as before
d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm
a) Flexure: column strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 95.1 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 95.1 × 10
6
/(1000 × 240
2
× 30) = 0.055 Table C5
z/d = 0.95
z = 0.95 × 240 = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 95.1 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 959 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.40%)
Try H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm
2
/m)
b) Deflection: column strip
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
Appendix C7
Tables C10–C13
N = 26.2 (r = 0.40%, f
ck
= 30) Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
K = 1.2 (flat slab)
F1 = 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
= 1.0)
F2 = 1.0 (no brittle partitions)
F3 = 310/ s
s
≤ 1.5
where
s
s
= s
su
(A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) 1/d
where
s
su
≈ 283 MPa (from Figure C3 and G
k
/Q
k
= 3.6, c
2
= 0.3, g
G
= 1.25)
d = redistribution ratio = 1.08
Fig. C3
= s
s
≈ 283 × (959/1005)/1.08 = 250 Table C14
= F3 = 310/250 = 1.24 Fig. C3
=Allowable l/d = 26.2 × 1.2 × 1.24 = 39.0
Actual l/d = 5900/240 = 24.5 = OK
Use H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm
2
/m)
c) Flexure: middle strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 37.6 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 37.6 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 379 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.56%)
79
34 l|et s|e|
By inspection, deflection OK.
Check minimum area of reinforcement.
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
) b
t
d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
d Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
where
b
t
= width of tension zone
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
Table 3.1
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
d) Flexure: column strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 131.6 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 131.6 × 10
6
/(1000 × 240
2
× 30) = 0.076
z/d = 0.928
z = 0.928 × 240 = 223 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 131.6 × 10
6
/(223 × 500/1.15) = 1357 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.56%)
Try H20 @ 200 T2 (1570 mm
2
/m)

Table C5
e) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 18.8 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm Table C5
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 18.8 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 190 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.08%)
A
s,min
as before = 361 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Try H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
f) Requirements
There is a requirement to place 50% of A
t
within a width equal to 0.125
of the panel width on either side of the column. As this column strip is
adjacent to the edge of the slab, consider one side only:
Area required = (1.5 × 1357 + 3.3 × 190)/2 mm
2
= 1334 mm
2
Within = 0.125 × 6.0 m = 750 mm of the column centreline,
i.e. require 1334/0.75 = 1779 mm
2
/m for 750 mm from the column
centreline.
Cl. 9.4.1(2)

The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce
the amount of reinforcement required. This should be balanced against the
effect of the presence of a 200 × 200 hole at some supports which would
have the effect of increasing K but not unduly increasing the total amount of
reinforcement required in the column strip (a 1.5% increase in total area would
been required).
80
Allowing for similar from centreline of column to edge of slab:
Use 6 no. H20 @ 175 T2(1794 mm
2
/m)
(r = 0.68%)
between edge and to 750 mm from centre of support
In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm, requirement is for
1.7 × 1357 – 6 × 314 = 422 mm
2
in 750 mm, i.e. 563 mm
2
/m
Use H12 @ 175 T2 (646 mm
2
/m) in remainder of column strip
In middle strip Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
3.4.8 Analysis grid line 2
Consider panel on grid line 2 as being 9.6/2 + 8.6/2 = 9.1 m wide
and continuous spans of 6.0 m. Column strip is 6.0/2 = 3.0 m wide.
(See Figure 3.20).
q
k
slab = 36.4 kN/m
g
k
slab = 77.4 kN/m
6000 6000 6000
F E D C
Figure 3.22 Internal panel on grid 2 p
Slab g
k
= 9.1 × 8.5 kN/m
2
= 77.4 kN/m
Slab q
k
= 9.1 × 4.0 kN/m
2
= 36.4 kN/m
Actions, load combination and arrangement:
Choose to use all-spans-loaded case.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option c)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical.
n = 1.25 × 77.4 + 1.5 × 36.4 = 151.4 kN/m
Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Effective span, l
eff
:
Effective span = 5900 mm as before.
Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
Design moments in bay, M
Ed
:
Spans (worst case, end span assuming pinned support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 151.4 × 5.9
2
= 453.2 kNm Table C2
Support (worst case 1st support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 151.4 × 5.9
2
= 453.2 kNm
Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load.
Table C2
81
34 l|et s|e|
Apportionment to column strips and middle strips:
M
Ed
Column strip, 3.0 m wide Middle strip, 6.1 m wide
–ve (hogging) 0.75 × 453.2/3.0
= 113.3 kNm/m
0.25 × 453.2/6.1
= 18.5 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) 0.50 × 453.2/3.0
= 75.5 kNm/m
0.50 × 453.2/6.1
= 37.1 kNm/m
Punching shear force, V
Ed
, as before.
3.4.9 Design grid line 2
Effective depth, d
d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm
a) Flexure: column strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 75.5 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 75.5 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 761 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.32%)
Try H16 @ 250 B2 (804 mm
2
/m)
Table C5
Deflection: column strip
By inspection, OK.
b) Flexure: column strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 37.1 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 37.1 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 374 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.55%)
By inspection, deflection OK. Try H10 @ 200 B2 (393 mm
2
/m)
c) Flexure: column strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 113.3 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 113.3 × 10
6
/(1000 × 240
2
× 30) = 0.065
z/d = 0.94
z = 0.928 × 240 = 225 mm
Table C5
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 113.3 × 10
6
/(225 × 500/1.15) = 1158 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.48%)
Try H20 @ 250 T2 (1256 mm
2
/m)

d) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 18.5 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm

The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce
the amount of reinforcement required.
82
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 18.5 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 187 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.08%) Table C5
As before minimum area of reinforcement governs
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Try H12 @ 300 B2 (376 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
e) Requirements
Regarding the requirement to place 50% of A
t
within a width equal
to 0.125 of the panel width on either side of the column:
Area required = (3.0 × 1158 + 6.1 × 187)/2 mm
2
= 2307 mm
2
Within = 2 × 0.125 × 6.0 m = 1500 mm centred on the column
centreline,
i.e. require 2307/1.5 = 1538 mm
2
/m for 750 mm either side of the
column centreline.
Use H20 @ 200T2 (1570 mm
2
/m)
750 mm either side of centre of support
(r = 0.60%)
In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm, requirement is for
3.0 × 1158 – 1.5 × 1570 = 1119 mm
2
in 1500 mm, i.e. 764 mm
2
/m
Use H16 @ 250 T2 (804 mm
2
/m) in remainder of column strip
In middle strip: Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
3.4.10 Punching shear, central column, C2
At C2, applied shear force, V
Ed
= 1204.8 kN

a) Check at perimeter of column
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
where
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.15
V
Ed
= applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear adjacent to interior columns Cl. 6.4.5(3)
u
0
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) = 1600 mm
d = mean effective depth = (260 + 240)/2 = 250 mm Exp. (6.32)
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1204.8 × 10
3
/1600 × 250 = 3.46 MPa
v
Rd,max
= 0.5vf
cd
Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note

Column C2 is taken to be an internal column. In the case of a penultimate
column, an additional elastic reaction factor should have been considered.
83
34 l|et s|e|
where
v = 0.6(1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.528
f
cd
= a
cc
lf
ck
/g
C
= 1.0 × 1.0 × 30/1.5 = 20
= 0.5 × 0.528 × 20 = 5.28 MPa = OK Table C7
§
b) Check shear stress at control perimeter u
1
(2d from face of column)
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
b, V
Ed
and d as before
Cl. 6.4.2
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear at 2d from interior columns
u
1
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) + 2Q × 2d = 4741 mm
Fig. 6.13
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1204.8 × 10
3
/4741 × 250 = 1.17 MPa
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/ g
C
k (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2 k = 1 + (200/250)
0.5
= 1.89
r
l
= (r
ly
r
lz
)0.5 = (0.0085 × 0.0048)
0.5
= 0.0064 Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
where
r
|y
, r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column
#
f
ck
= 30
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0064 × 30)
0.333
= 0.61 MPa
= Punching shear reinforcement required Table C5*
c) Perimeter at which punching shear links are no longer required
u
out
= V
Ed
× b/(d v
Rd,c
)
u
out
= 1204.8 × 1.15 × 10
3
/(250 × 0.61) = 9085 mm
Exp. (6.54)
Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm
Radius to u
out
= (9085 – 1600)/2Q = 1191 mm from face of column
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1191 – 1.5 × 250 = 816 m
from face of column Cl. 6.4.5(4) & NA
Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links):
s
r,max
= 250 × 0.75 = 187, say = 175 mm Cl. 9.4.3(1)
§
At the perimeter of the column, v
Rd,max
assumes the strut angle is 45°, i.e. that
cot y = 1.0. Where cot y = < 1.0, v
Rd,max
is available from Table C7.
#
The values used here for r
ly
, r
lz
ignore the fact that the reinforcement is
concentrated over the support. Considering the concentration would have given a
higher value of V
Rd,c
at the expense of further calculation to determine r
ly
, r
lz
at
3d from the side of the column.
* v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
84
Inside 2d control perimeter, s
t,max
= 250 × 1.5 = 375, say 350 mm Cl. 9.4.3(2)
Outside control perimeter s
t,max
= 250 × 2.0 = 500 mm
Assuming vertical reinforcement:
At the basic control perimeter, u
1
, 2d from the column

:
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
) Exp. (6.52)
where
f
ywd,ef
= effective design strength of reinforcement
= (250 + 0.25d) < f
yd
= 312 MPa Cl. 6.4.5(1)
For perimeter u
1
A
sw
= (1.17 – 0.75 × 0.61) × 175 × 4741/(1.5 × 312)
= 1263 mm
2
per perimeter
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08f
ck
0.5
(s
r
s
t
)/(1.5 f
yk
sin a + cos a) Exp. (9.11)
where
A
sw,min
= minimum area of a single leg of link
a = angle between main reinforcement and shear
reinforcement; for vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08 × 30
0.5
(175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm
2
= Try H8 legs of links (50 mm
2
)
A
sw
/u
1
≥ 1263/4741 = 0.266 mm
2
/mm
Using H8 max. spacing = min[50/0.266; 1.5d]
= min[188; 375] = 188 mm cc
= Use min. H8 legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeter u
1
Cl. 9.4.3
Perimeters at 0.75d = 0.75 × 250 = 187.5 mm
say = 175 mm centres
Cl. 9.4.3(1)
d) Check area of reinforcement > 1263 mm
2
in perimeters inside u
1
§
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d from face of column. Say
0.4d = 100 mm from face of column.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 10 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 10 no. H10 = 1570 mm
2
.
Fig. 9.10,
Cl. 9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 18 locations are
available at 1.15d from column therefore try 18 no. H10 = 1413 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 20 locations are available
at 1.90d from column therefore try 20 no. H10 = 1570 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 beyond u
1
to u
out
grid of H10 at 175 x 175 OK.

Clause 6.4.5 provides Exp. (6.52), which by substituting v
Ed
for v
Rd,c
, allows
calculation of the area of required shear reinforcement, A
sw
, for the basic control
perimeter, u
1
.
§
The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or
outside perimeter u
1
. See Commentary on design, Section 3.4.14. Punching shear
reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and
spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3).
Cl. 6.4.5
Exp. 6.5.2
Cl. 9.4.3
85
34 l|et s|e|
e) Summary of punching shear refreshment required at column C2
175 u
out
Punching shear reinforcement
no longer required
1.5d = 375
S = 112 H10 legs of links
u
1
at 2d
from column
u
out
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
375 716
7
1
6
7
1
6
1
0
0
1
0
0
4
0
0
716 100 400 100
175 175 175 175 175 175 175 200 200 200
C
2
Figure 3.23 Punching shear links at column C2 (112 no. links)
(column D2 similar)
3.4.11 Punching shear, edge column
Assuming penultimate support,
V
Ed
= 1.18 × 516.5 = 609.5 kN Table C3
a) Check at perimeter of column
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
where
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.4
V
Ed
= applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear adjacent to edge columns
u
0
= c
2
+ 3d < c
2
+ 2c
1
= 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm
= 1150 mm
Cl. 6.4.5(3)
d = as before 250 mm
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 609.5 × 10
3
/1150 × 250 = 2.97 MPa
Exp. (6.32)
v
Rd,max
, as before = 5.28 MPa = OK Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note
86
b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u
1
(2.0d from face of column) Cl. 6.4.2
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
b, V
Ed
and d as before
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear at 2d from edge column columns
u
1
= c
2
+ 2c
1
+ Q × 2d = 2771 mm
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 609.5 × 10
3
/2771 × 250 = 1.23 MPa
Fig. 6.15
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/ g
C
× k × (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
where
Exp. (6.47) & NA
g
C
= 1.5
k = as before = 1 +(200/250)
0.5
= 1.89
r
l
= (r
ly
r
lz
)
0.5
where
r
|y
, r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and z direction
in a width of the column plus 3d each side of column.
r
ly
: (perpendicular to edge) 10 no. H20 T2 + 6 no. H12
T2 in 2 × 750 + 400, i.e. 3818 mm
2
in 1900 mm
=r
ly
= 3818/(250 × 1900) = 0.0080
r
lz
: (parallel to edge) 6 no. H20 T1 + 1 no. T12 T1 in 400 +
750 i.e. 1997 mm
2
in 1150 mm.
=r
lz
= 1997/(250 × 1150) = 0.0069
r
l
= (0.0080 × 0.0069)
0.5
= 0.0074
f
ck
= 30
Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0074 × 30)
0.333
= 0.64 MPa
= Punching shear reinforcement required
Table C6

3d = 750
H12 @ 200 U-bars
H12 @ 175T1
6H20T1 @175 10H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc
3d = 750 400
4
0
0
3
d

=

7
5
0
C
1
Figure 3.24 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns
C1 (and C3)


v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
87
34 l|et s|e|
c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required
u
out
= 609.5 × 1.4 × 10
3
/(250 × 0.64) = 5333 mm
Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm
= radius to u
out
from face of column
= say (5333 − 1200)/Q = 1315 mm from face of column
Exp. (6.54)
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1370 – 1.5 × 250
= 940 mm from face of column.
Cl. 6.4.5(4)
& NA
d) Shear reinforcement
As before, s
r,max
= 175 mm; s
t,max
= 350 mm and
f
ywd,ef
= 312 MPa
For perimeter u
1
Cl. 9.4.3(1),
9.4.3(2)
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
= (1.23 – 0.75 × 0.64) × 175 × 2771/(1.5 × 312)
= 777 mm
2
per perimeter
Exp. (6.52)
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08 × 30
0.5
(175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm
2
A
sw
/u
1
≥ 777/2771 = 0.28 mm
2
/mm
Using H8 max. spacing = 50/0.28 = 178 mm cc
=Use min. H8 (50 mm
2
) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters:
perimeters at 175 mm centres
Exp. (9.11)
e) Check area of reinforcement > 777 mm
2
in perimeters inside u
1
§
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d from face of column. Say
0.4d = 100 mm from face of column
Fig. 9.10,
Cl. 9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no. H10 = 942 mm
2
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 12 locations are
available at 1.15d from column therefore try 12 no. H10 = 942 mm
2
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 14 locations are
available at 1.90d from column therefore try 14 no. H10 = 1099 mm
2
By inspection of Figure 3.27 beyond u
1
to u
out
grid of
H10 at 175 x 175 OK.
3.4.12 Punching shear, edge column with hole
Check columns D1 and D3 for 200 × 200 mm hole adjacent to column.
As previously described use 4 no. H20 U-bars each side of column for
transfer moment.
Assuming internal support, V
Ed
= 516.5 kN
§
See Commentary on design Section 3.4.14. Punching shear reinforcement is
also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear
reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3).
Cl. 9.4.3
88
a) Check at perimeter of column
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
where
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.4
V
Ed
= applied shear force
Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
adjacent to edge columns u
0
= c
2
+ 3d < c
2
+ 2c
1
= 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm
= 1150 mm
Allowing for hole, u
0
= 1150 – 200 = 950 mm
Cl. 6.4.5(3)
d = 250 mm as before Exp. (6.32)
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 516.5 × 10
3
/950 × 250 = 3.06 MPa
v
Rd,max
as before = 5.28 MPa = OK Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note
b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u
1
(2.0d from face of column) Cl. 6.4.2
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
b, V
Ed
and d as before
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
at 2d from edge column columns
Fig. 6.15
u
1
= c
2
+ 2c
1
+ Q × 2d = 2771 mm
Allowing for hole
200/(c
1
/2): x/(c
1
/2 + 2d)
200/200: x/( 200 + 500)
= x = 700 mm
u
1
= 2771 – 700 = 2071 mm
Fig. 6.14
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 516.5 × 10
3
/2071 × 250 = 1.40 MPa
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/g
C
× k × (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = as before = 1 + (200/250)
0.5
= 1.89
r
l
= (r
l y
r
l z
)
0.5
where
r
|y
, r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
r
ly
: (perpendicular to edge) 8 no. H20 T2 + 6 no. H12
T2 in 2 × 720 + 400 − 200, i.e. 3190 mm
2
in 1640 mm.
=r
l y
= 3190/(240 × 1640) = 0.0081
r
lz
: (parallel to edge) 6 no. H20 T1 (5 no. are
effective) + 1 no. T12 T1 in 400 + 750 – 200, i.e.
1683 mm
2
in 950 mm.
=r
l z
= 1683/(260 × 950) = 0.0068
89
34 l|et s|e|
r
l
= (0.0081 × 0.0068)
0.5
= 0.0074
f
ck
= 30
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0074 × 30)
0.33
= 0.64 MPa
Table C6

= punching shear reinforcement required
3d = 750
H12 @ 200 U-bars
H12 @ 175T1
6H20T @ 175 8H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc
3d = 750 400
4
0
0
3
d

=

7
5
0
3
D
Figure 3.25 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns
D1 and D3
c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required Exp. (6.54)
u
out
= 516.5 × 1.4 × 10
3
/(250 × 0.64) = 4519 mm
Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm
Angle subtended by hole from centre of column D1 (See Figures 3.25
& 3.27) = 2
tan
−1
(100/200) = 2 × 26.5° = 0.927 rads.
= radius to u
out
from face of column
= say (4519 − 1200)/(Q − 0.927) = 1498 mm from face of column
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1498 – 1.5 × 250
= 1123 mm from face of column
Cl. 6.4.5(4)
& NA
d) Shear reinforcement
As before, s
r,max
= 175 mm; s
t,max
= 350 mm and f
ywd,ef
= 312 MPa Cl. 9.4.3(1)
9.4.3(2)
For perimeter u
1
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
) per perimeter
= (1.40 – 0.75 × 0.64) × 175 × 2071/(1.5 × 312)
= 712 mm
2
per perimeter
Exp. (6.52)
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08 × 30
0.5
(175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm
2
A
sw
/u
1
≥ 712/2071 = 0.34 mm
2
/mm

v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
90
Using H8 (50 mm
2
) max. spacing = min[50/0.3; 1.5d]
= min[147; 375] = 147 mm cc No good
Try using H10, max. spacing = 78.5/0.34 = 231 mm cc, say 175 cc
= Use min. H10 (78.5 mm
2
) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters:
perimeters at 175 mm centres
Check min. 9 no. H10 legs of links (712 mm
2
) in perimeter u
1
, 2
d
from
column face.
e) Check area of reinforcement > 712 mm
2
in perimeters inside u
1


1st perimeter to be 100 mm from face of column as before. Fig. 9.10,
Cl. 9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no. H10 = 942 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 10 locations are
available at 1.15d from column therefore try 10 H10 = 785 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.27 beyond 1.15d to u
out
grid:
H10 at 175 x 175 OK.
3.4.13 Summary of design
Grid C flexure
End supports:
Column strip: (max. 200 mm
from column) 10 no. H20 U-bars in pairs
(where 200 × 200 hole use 8 no. H20
T1 in U-bars in pairs)
Middle strip: H12 @ 200 T1
Spans 1–2 and 2–3:
Column strip and middle strip: H20 @ 200 B
Central support:
Column strip centre: for 750 mm
either side of support: H20 @ 100 T1
Column strip outer: H20 @ 250 T1
Middle strip: H16 @ 200 T1
Grid 1 (and 3) flexure
Spans:
Column strip: H16 @ 200 B2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 B2

See Commentary on design Section 3.4.14. Punching shear reinforcement is
also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear
reinforcement.
Cl. 9.4.3
91
34 l|et s|e|
Interior support:
Column strip centre: 6 no. H20 @ 175 T2
Column strip outer: H12 @ 175 T2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 T2
Grid 2 flexure
Spans:
Column strip: H16 @ 250 B2
Middle strip: H10 @ 200 B2
Interior support:
Column strip centre: H20 @ 200 T2
Column strip outer: H16 @ 250 T2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 T2
See Figure 3.26
Punching shear
Internal (e.g. at C2):
Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres, but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, s
t,max
= 270 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 767 mm
See Figure 3.26
Edge (e.g. at C1, C3 assuming no holes):
Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, s
t,max
= 175 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 940 mm
Edge (e.g. at D1, D3 assuming 200 × 200 hole on face of column):
Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, s
t,max
= 175 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 1123 mm
See Figure 3.27
92
Commentary on design
a) Method of analysis
The use of coefficients in the analysis would not usually be
advocated in the design of such a slab. Nonetheless, coefficients
may be used and, unsurprisingly, their use leads to higher design
moments and shears, as shown below.
Method Moment in
9.6 m span per
6 m bay (kNm)
Centre support
moment per
6 m bay (kNm)
Centre support
reaction V
Ed
(kN)
Coefficients 842.7 952.8 1205
Continuous beam 747.0 885.6 1103
Plane frame columns
below
664.8 834.0 1060
Plane frame columns
above and below
616.8 798.0 1031
3.4.14
10H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200
6H20 - 175 T2
H12 - 200 T1 U-bars
8H20 T1
U-bars in pairs
@ 200
H16 @ 175 B2*
5H12 @ 175 T2
H12 @ 300 B2
H10 @ 200 T2
H16 @ 175 B2*
9H20 @ 175 T2*
3H20 @
250 T1
H20 @ 200 B1
H12 @ 200 T1 U-bars
16H20 @ 100 T1
3H20 @ 250 T1
H16 @ 200 T1
3H20 @ 250 T1
16H20 @ 100 T1
4H16 @ 250 T2
C D
1
2
Note:* Spacing rationalised to suit punching shear links
Figure 3.26 Reinforcement details bay C–D, 1–2
93
34 l|et s|e|
u
out
u
out
u
1
1123
500
8H20 T1 U-bars in pairs
H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars
6H20 @ 175 T2
1.5d
6H16 @ 175 B2
H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars
375
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 200
100 100
C
L
200
S = 152 H10 legs of links
@ 175 mm centres
Ineffective area
1 1
D
Note: For internal column see Figure 3.23
Figure 3.27 Punching shear links at column D1 (and D3)
(penultimate support without hole similar)
These higher moments and shears result in rather more reinforcement
than when using other more refined methods. For instance, the finite
element analysis used in Guide to the design and construction of
reinforced concrete flat slabs
[27]
for this bay, leads to:
H16 @ 200 B1 in spans 1–2 (cf. H20 @ 200 B1 using coefficients) t
H20 @ 125 T1 at support 2 (cf. H20 @ 100 T1 using coefficients) t
3 perimeters of shear links at C2 for t V
Ed
= 1065 kN (cf. 5 perimeters
using coefficients)
2 perimeters of shear links at C3 (cf. 7 perimeters using coefficients) t
b) Effective spans and face of support
In the analysis using coefficients, advantage was taken of using
effective spans to calculate design moments. This had the effect of
reducing span moments.
Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
At supports, one may base the design on the moment at the face of
support. This is borne out by Guide to the design and construction of
reinforced concrete flat slabs
[27]
that states that hogging moments
greater than those at a distance h
c
/3 may be ignored (where h
c
is the
effective diameter of a column or column head). This is in line with BS
8110
[7]
and could have been used to reduce support moments.
Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
94
c) Punching shear reinforcement
Arrangement of punching shear links
According to the literal definition of /
sw
in Exp. (6.52), the same
area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or
outside perimeter a
!
(rather than (/
sw
/a
!
)/s
r
being considered as the
required density of shear reinforcement on and within perimeter a
!
).
For perimeters inside a
!
, it might be argued that Exp. (6.50)
Exp. 6.52
Exp. 6.50
(enhancement close to supports) should apply. However, at the time
of writing, this expression is deemed applicable only to foundation
bases. Therefore, large concentrations of shear reinforcement
are required close to the columns – in this example, this included
doubling up shear links at the 1st perimeter.
Similar to BS 8110
[7]
figure 3.17, it is apparent that the requirement
for punching shear reinforcement is for a punching shear zone 1.5d
wide. However, in Eurocode 2, the requirement has been ‘simplified’ in
Exp. (6.52) to make the requirement for a perimeter (up to 0.75d
wide). It might appear reasonable to apply the same 40%:60% rule
(BS 8110 Cl. 3.7.7.6) to the first two perimeters to make doubling
of punching shear reinforcement at the first perimeter unnecessary:
in terms of Eurocode 2 this would mean 80% A
sw
on the first
perimeter and 120% A
sw
on the second. Using this arrangement it
would be possible to replace the designed H10 links in the first two
perimeters with single H12 links.
BS 8110:
Fig. 3.17
BS 8110:
Cl. 3.7.7.6
Outside u
1
, the numbers of links could have been reduced to
maintain provision of the designed amount of reinforcement A
sw
.
A rectangular arrangement of H12 links would have been possible
(within perimeter u
1
, 350 × 175; outside u
1
, 500 × 175). However, as
the grid would need to change orientation around each column (to
maintain the 0.75d radial spacing) and as the reinforcement in B2
and T2 is essentially at 175 centres, it is considered better to leave
the arrangement as a regular square grid.
Cl. 9.4.3(1)
Use of shear reinforcement in a radial arrangement, e.g. using stud
rails, would have simplified the shear reinforcement requirements.
V
Ed
/V
Rd,c
In late 2008, a proposal was made for the UK National Annex to
include a limit of 2.0 or 2.5 on V
Ed
/V
Rd,c
(or v
Ed
/v
Rd,c
) within punching
shear requirements. It is apparent that this limitation could have
major effects on flat slabs supported on relatively small columns. For
instance in Section 3.4.12, edge column with hole, V
Ed
/V
Rd,c
= 2.18.
Curtailment of reinforcement
In this design, the reinforcement would be curtailed and this would be
done either in line with previous examples or, more practically, in line
with other guidance
[20, 21]
.

95
3S Ste|r ¦||ght
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Stair flight
600 600 9 @250
3450
1750
Figure 3.28 Stair flight

3.5.1 Loads
kN/m
2
Permanent (worse case flight)
Assume 160 waist 0.160 × 305/250 × 25 = 4.88
Treads 4 × 0.25 × 0.175/2 × 25 = 2.19
50 mm screed 0.5 × 22 = 1.10
Finishing = 0.03
g
k
= 8.20
Variable action: crowd loading q
k
= 4.00 EC1-1-1: Table 6.1,
6.2 & NA.3
3.5.2 Moment
M
Ed
= (8.20 × 1.25 + 4.00 × 1.5) × 3.45
2
/8
= 24.2 kNm/m
3.5.3 Design
d = 160 – c
nom
– f/2
where
c
nom
= 25 mm (for XC1)
f = 12 mm (assumed)
Concise: Table 4.2;
BS 8500
= d = 129 mm
Stair flight
¹h|s exemp|e |s ¦or e typ|ce| ste|r ¦||ght
3.5
96
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 24.2 × 10
6
/(1000 × 129
2
× 30)
= 0.048
z/d = 0.95 Table C5
z = 0.95 × 129
= 122 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 24.2 × 10
6
/[(500/1.15) × 122]
= 456 mm
2
/m (r = 0.35%)
Try H12 @ 250 (452 mm
2
/m) = OK)
3.5.4 Check deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7,
Table C10
where
N = 32.7
K = 1.0 Table C11
F1 = 1.0
F2 = 1.0
F3 = 1.0 (say)
= Allowable l/d = 32.7
Actual l/d = 3450/129
= 26.7 = OK
=Provide H12 @ 250 B.
4! Cont|nuous |eem on p|n supports
97
Beams
General
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s Sect|on ere presented |n the ¦o||ow|ng perts
4! Cont|nuous |eem on p|n supports ÷ e s|mp|y supported cont|nuous |eem show|ng whet
m|ght |e deemed typ|ce| hend ce|cu|et|ons
4? A heev||y |oeded l-|eem
43 A cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem ¹h|s exemp|e |s ene|ysed end des|gned str|ct|y |n eccordence
w|th the prov|s|ons o¦ lurocode ?
¹hey ere |ntended to |e |||ustret|ve o¦ the Code end not necesser||y |est prect|ce
A genere| method o¦ des|gn|ng |eems |s shown |e|ow ln prect|ce, severe| o¦ these steps mey
|e com||ned
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA
Table NA.2.1
Assess ect|ons on the |eem N EC1 & NAs
Assess dure||||ty requ|rements end determ|ne concrete N
strength
Table 4.1
BS 8500–1:
Tables A4, A5
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eppropr|ete ¦|re N
res|stence per|od
EC2–1–2:
Tables 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11
Ce|cu|ete m|n|mum cover ¦or dure||||ty, ¦|re end |ond N
requ|rements
Cl. 4.4.1
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons epp|y N EC0 & NA
Tables NA.A1.1, NA.A1.2 (B)
Leterm|ne |oed|ng errengements N Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
Ane|yse structure to o|te|n cr|t|ce| moments end sheer N
¦orces
Cl. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6
Les|gn ¦|exure| re|n¦orcement N Cl. 6.1
Chec| de¦|ect|on N Cl. 7.4
Chec| sheer cepec|ty N Cl. 6.2
Other des|gn chec|s N
Chec| m|n|mum re|n¦orcement
Chec| crec||ng (s|.e or spec|ng o¦ |ers)
Chec| e¦¦ects o¦ pert|e| ux|ty
Chec| secondery re|n¦orcement
Cl. 9.3.1.1(1), 9.2.1.1(1)
Cl. 7.3, Tables 7.2N, 7.3N
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1(2), 9.3.1.4(1)
Chec| curte||ment N Cl. 9.3.1.1(4), 9.2.1.3,
Fig. 9.2
Chec| enchorege N Cl. 9.3.1.2, 8.4.4, 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1), 9.2.1.5(2)
Chec| |eps N Cl. 8.7.3
4
4.0

98
4.1
A 450 mm deep × 300 mm wide rectangular beam is required
to support office loads of g
k
= 30.2 kN/m and q
k
= 11.5 kN/m
over 2 no. 6 m spans. f
ck
f = 30 MPa, f
yk
f = 500 MPa. Assume 300
mm wide supports, a 50-year design life and a requirement for a
2-hour resistance to fire in an external but sheltered environment.
q
k
= 11.5 kN/m
g
k
= 30.2 kN/m
6000 6000
Figure 4.1 Continuous rectangular beam
450
300
Figure 4.2 Section through beam
4.1.1 Actions
Permanent g
k
= 30.2 kN/m and variable q
k
= 11.5 kN/m
4.1.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond
= diameter of bar. Assume 25 mm main bars
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC3 (moderate humidity or cyclic wet
and dry) and secondarily XF1 (moderate water
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous beam on pin
supports
Continuous beam on pin supports
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show e typ|ce| hend ce|cu|et|on ¦or e cont|nuous s|mp|y
supported |eem us|ng coe¦uc|ents to determ|ne moments end sheers
4! Cont|nuous |eem on p|n supports
99
saturation without de-icing salt) using C30/37
concrete,
c
min,dur
= 25 mm
Table C3
BS 8500-1
[14]
:
Table A4;
How to: Building
structures
[8]
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover, Dc
dev
= 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance (i.e. REI = 120)
For b
min
= 300 mm, minimum axis distance, a = 35 mm = OK
c
nom
= 35 mm
EC2-1-2:
5.6.3(1),
Table 5.6
4.1.3 Load combination (and arrangement)
Load combination:
By inspection, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs
= n = 1.25 × 30.2 + 1.5 × 11.5 = 50.8 kN/m
Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases, i.e. use
coefficients.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
Table NA.1
(option b)
Table C3
The coefficients used assume 15% redistribution at supports. As the
amount of redistribution is less than 20%, there are no restrictions
on reinforcement grade. The use of Table 5.6 in BS EN 1992–1–2 is
restricted to where redistribution does not exceed 15%.
Table C3
Cl. 5.5(4) & NA
EC2-1-2:
5.6.3(1),
Table 5.6
4.1.4 Analysis
Design moments:
Spans
M
Ed
= (1.25 × 30.2 × 0.090 + 1.5 × 11.5 × 0.100) × 6.0
2
= 122.3 + 62.1 = 184.4 kNm
Appendix C1,
Table C3
Support
M
Ed
= 50.8 × 0.106 × 6.0
2
= 193.8 kNm Table C3
Shear force:
V
AB
= 0.45 × 6.0 × 50.8 = 137.2 kN
V
AB
= 0.63 × 6.0 × 50.8 = 192.0 kN
4.1.5 Flexural design
Effective depth:
Assuming 10 mm links:
d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm
100
Flexure in span:
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 184.4 × 10
6
/(300 × 392
2
× 30) = 0.133 Fig. 3.5
z/d = 0.864
Appendix A1
z = 0.864 × 392 = 338 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 184.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 338) = 1255 mm
2
Try 3 no. H25 B (1473 mm
2
)
(r = 1.25%)
Table C5
Check spacing:
Spacing of outer bars = 300 – 2 × 35 − 2 × 10 – 25 = 185 mm
Assuming 10 mm diameter link,
= spacing = 98 mm
Steel stress under quasi-permanent loading:
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= f
yd
× (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) × (g
k
+ c
2
q
k
)/(g
G
g
k
+ g
Q
q
k
) (1/d)
= (500/1.15) × (1255/1473) × [(30.2 + 0.3 × 11.5)/50.8] (1/1.03)
= 434.8 × 0.91 × 0.66 × 0.97 = 237 MPa Cl. 7.3.3(2)
As exposure is XC3, max. crack width w
max
= 0.3 mm Cl. 7.3.1(5) & NA
= Maximum bar size = 16 mm or max. spacing = 200 mm = OK
= Use 3 H25 B (1473 mm
2
)
Table 7.2N & NA
Deflection:
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Basic span: effective depth ratio for r = 1.25%: Table 7.4N & NA
l/d = 18 + [(1.25 – 0.5)/(1.5/0.5)] × (26 – 18) = 24.0
Max. span = 24.0 × 392 = 9408 mm = OK
Flexure, support:
M
Ed
= 193.8 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm
K = 193.8 × 10
6
/(300 × 392
2
× 30) = 0.142
By inspection, K ≤ K' (0.142 × 0.168

)
= no compression reinforcement required.
z = 0.85d
= 0.85 × 392 = 333 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 193.8 × 10
6
/434.8 × 333 = 1338 mm
2
Try 3 no. H25 T (1473 mm
2
)
(r = 1.13%)
Appendix A1
Table C5

K' is limited to 0.208. However, if, as is usual practice in the UK, x/d is limited to
0.45, z/d is as a consequence limited to 0.82 and K' to 0.168.
4! Cont|nuous |eem on p|n supports
101
4.1.6 Shear
a) Support B (critical)
Shear at central support = 192.0 kN
At d from face of support
§
V
Ed
= 192.0 − (0.300/2 + 0.392) × 50.8 = 164.50 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
v
Ed
= V
Ed
/bd
= 164.5 × 10
3
/(392 × 300) = 1.40 MPa
Maximum shear capacity:
Assuming f
ck
= 30 MPa and cot y = 2.5
#
v
Rd,max
* = 3.64 MPa Table C7
v
Rd,max
> v
Ed
= OK
Shear reinforcement:
Assuming z = 0.9d Cl. 6.2.3(1)
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/(0.9d × f
ywd
× cot y)
≥ 164.5 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 392 × (500/1.15) × 2.5) = 0.429
Cl. 6.2.3(3),
Exp. (6.8)
More accurately,
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/(z × f
ywd
× cot y)
≥ 164.5 × 10
3
/(333 × 1087) = 0.454
Cl. 6.2.3(3),
Exp. (6.8)
Minimum shear links,
A
sw,min
/s = 0.08b
w
f
ck
0.5
/f
yk
= 0.08 × 300 × 30
0.5
/500 = 0.263. Not critical
Cl. 9.2.2(5)
Max. spacing = 0.75d = 0.75 × 392 = 294 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
Use H8 @ 200 (A
sw
/
s
= 0.50)
b) Support A (and C)
Shear at end support = 137.2 kN
At face of support,
V
Ed
= 137.2 − (0.150 + 0.392) × 50.8 = 109.7 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
By inspection, shear reinforcement required and cot y = 2.5 Fig. C1a)
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/(z × f
ywd
× cot y)
≥ 109.7 × 10
3
/[353 × (500/1.15) × 2.5] = 0.285
Use H8 @ 200 (A
sw
/
s
= 0.50) throughout

Appendix C5.3
§
Where applied actions are predominantly uniformly distributed, shear may be
checked at d from the face of support. See also Section 4.2.11.
#
The absolute maximum for v
Rd,max
(and therefore the maximum value of v
Ed
)
would be 5.28 MPa when cot y would equal 1.0 and the variable strut angle would
be at a maximum of 45°.
*

For determination of V
Rd,max
see Section 4.2.10.

As maximum spacing of links is 294 mm, changing spacing of links would appear
to be of limited benefit.
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
102
4.1.7 Summary of design
A B C
3H25B 3H25B
3H25
H8 @ 200 centres in 2 legs
Figure 4.3 Continuous rectangular beam: Summary of design
Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design
summarised above and detail the beam to normal best practice
[8,9]
.
The design would go no further where standard detailing is all that
is required. Where the element is non-standard (e.g. where there
are point loads), it should be incumbent on the designer to give
the detailer specific information about curtailment, laps, etc. as
illustrated below. The detailer’s responsibilities, standards and
timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the
detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement
but all the reinforcement required to provide a compliant and buildable
solution. The work would usually include the checking the following
aspects and providing appropriate detailing:
Minimum areas t
Curtailment lengths t
Anchorages t
Laps t
U-bars t
Rationalisation t
Critical dimensions t
Details and sections t
The determination of minimum reinforcement areas and curtailment
lengths, using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown below. In practice
these would be determined from published tables of data or by using
reference texts
[8,9]
. Nonetheless, the designer should check the
drawing for design intent and compliance with the standards. It is
therefore necessary for the designer to understand and agree the
principles of the detailing used.
4.1.8 Detailing checks
a) Minimum areas
A
s,min
= 0.26(f
ctm
/f
yk
)b
t
d ≥ 0.0013b
t
d
where
Cl. 9.2.1.1
4! Cont|nuous |eem on p|n supports
103
b
t
= width of tension zone
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 300 × 392/500 = 177 mm
2
Table 3.1
b) Curtailment of main bars How to: Detailing
Bottom: curtail
75% main bars 0.08l from end support = 480 mm say 450 mm from A
70% main bars 0.30l – a
l
= 0.3 × 6000 − 1.125 × d
= 1800 − 1.125 × 392
= 1359 mm say 1350 from A
Top: curtail
40% main bars 0.15l + a
l
= 900 + 441
= 1341 mm say 1350 from B
65% main bars 0.30l + a
l
= 1800 + 441
= 2241 mm say 2250 from B
At supports:
25% of A
s
to be anchored at supports
Cl. 9.2.1.2.(1),
9.2.1.4(1) & NA
25% of 1225 mm
2
= 314 mm
2
Use min. 2 no. H16 (402 mm
2
) at supports A, B and C
Cl. 9.2.1.5(1)
In accordance with SMDSC
[9]
detail MB1 lap U-bars tension lap with
main steel
= 780 mm (in C30/37 concrete, H12, ‘poor’ bond condition) How to: Detailing
= say 800 mm
c) Summary of reinforcement details
750 450
2H16B
2H16 U-bars
2H12T
Links omitted for clarity
2H12T
2H12 2H12
2H12 2H12 2H25 2H25 1H25 1H25
3H25 2H16 2H12 2H12 2H16 2H25 2H25 2H25 1H25 1H25
2H16 U-bars
3H25B
3H25B
B A C
600 600
800 800 1350 1250 1350
100 100
800 800 800
800
750
450
3H25
Figure 4.4 Continuous rectangular beam: reinforcement details

Note Subsequent detailing checks may find issues with spacing rules especially if
the 'cage and splice bar' method of detailing were to be used. 2H32s T&B would be a
suitable alternative to 3H25s T&B.
104
4.2 Heavily loaded L-beam
g
k1
= 46.0
q
k1
= 63.3
C B A
9000 8000
2000
G
k2
= 88.7
Q
k2
= 138.7
Figure 4.5 Heavily loaded L-beam

This edge beam supports heavy loads from storage loads. The
variable point load is independent of the variable uniformly
distributed load. The beam is supported on 350 mm square
columns 4000 mm long. f
ck
= 30 MPa; f
yk
= 500 MPa. The
underside surface is subject to an external environment and a
2-hour fire resistance requirement. The top surface is internal
and subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement. Assume that
any partitions are liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.
750
350
b
eff
Figure 4.6 Section through L-beam
4.2.1 Actions
Permanent:
UDL from slab and cladding g
k
= 46.0 kN/m
Point load from storage area above = 88.7 kN
Variable:
From slab q
k
= 63.3 kN/m
Point load from storage area above = 138.7 kN
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Heavily loaded L-beam
105
4.2.2 Cover
a) Nominal cover, c
nom
, underside and side of beam
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC3/XC4 exposure (moderate
humidity or cyclic wet and dry); secondarily XF1
exposure (moderate water saturation without
de-icing salt, vertical surfaces exposed to rain and
freezing) and C30/37 concrete,
c
min,dur
= 25 mm
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1:
Table A4
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm
= c
nom
= 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links
Use c
nom
= 35 mm to links (giving c
nom
= 45 mm to main bars)
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
b) Fire
Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance REI 120. EC2-1-2: 5.6.3
By inspection, web thickness OK. EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
Axis distance, a, required = 35 mm OK by inspection. EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
= Try 35 mm nominal cover bottom and sides to 10 mm link.
Nominal cover, c
nom
, top:
By inspection,
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
Exp. (4.1)
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC1 and C30/37 concrete,
c
min,dur
= 15 mm
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1:
Table A4
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem
106
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links
Use c
nom
= 35 mm to links (giving c
nom
= 45 mm to main bars)
4.2.3 Idealisation, load combination and arrangement
Load combination:
As loads are from storage, Exp. (6.10a) is critical.
Table 2.5;
ECO: A1.2.2, NA
& Exp. (6.10a)
Idealisation:
This element is treated as a continuous beam framing into
columns 350 × 350

× 4000 mm long columns below.
Cl. 5.3.1(3)
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option b)
4.2.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer (spreadsheet TCC 41 Continuous Beam (A+D).xls
in RC spreadsheets V.3
[28]
assuming frame action with 350 mm square
columns 4 m long fixed at base. Beam inertia based on T-section, b
eff

wide) with 15% redistribution at central support, limited redistribution
of span moment and consistent redistribution of shear.
ECO:
A1.2.2 & NA;
Cl. 5.3.1 (6)
Table 4.2 Elastic and redistributed moments, kNm
Span number 1 2
Elastic M 1168 745
Redistributed M 1148 684
d 0.98 0.92
2000
1394 kNm
195 kNm 108 kNm
– 684 kNm
–1148 kNm
1500
1000
500
–500
–1000
–1500
0
A B C
Figure 4.7 Redistributed envelope, kNm

Note: 350 × 350 is a minimum for columns requiring a fire resistance of 120
minutes.
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.2a
107
1000
646 kN 794 kN
– 499 kN
– 1098 kN
500
– 500
– 1000
– 1500
0
A B C
4.2.5 Flexural design, support A
M
Ed
= 195 kNm in hogging
M
Ed,min
= 1148 × 0.25 in hogging and in sagging
Cl. 9.2.1.2(1),
9.2.1.4(1) & NA
= 287 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2
l
0
= nominal: assume 0
§
= b
eff1
= 0 mm = b
eff2
Fig. 5.2
=b = b
w
= 350 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support.
f
ck
= 30 MPa
K = 287 × 10
6
/(350 × 689
2
× 30)
= 0.058
Restricting x/d to 0.45 Appendix A1
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement
required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (689/2) (1 + 0.89) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 652 ≤ 654 = z = 652 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
Appendix A1
§
The distance l
0
is described as the distance between points of zero moment,
‘which may be obtained from Figure 5.2’. In this case l
0
= 0. (see Figure 4.11).
Cl. 5.3.2.1(2)
Fig. 5.2
Fig. 4.11
108
where
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 287 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 652) = 1012 mm
2
Try 2 no. H32 U-bars (1608 mm
2
)
Check anchorage of H32 U-bars.
Bars need to be anchored distance ‘A’ into column SMDSC: 6.4.2
U-bar
A
Figure 4.9 Distance A
Assuming column uses 35 mm cover, 10 mm links and 32 mm bars:
Distance A = 2 [350 − 2 (35 + 10) ] − 32/2 − 32/2 + 750 – [2 (35
+ 10)] − 2 × 32/2 – (4 − π) (3.5 + 0.5) × 32
SMDSC
[9]
,
BS 8666
[19]
:
= 488 + 628 – 110 = 1006 mm Table 2
Anchorage length,
l
bd
= al
b,rqd
≥ l
b,min
Cl. 8.4.4,
Exp. (8.4)
where
a = conservatively 1.0
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
) Exp. (8.3)
where
f = 32
s
sd
= design stress in the bar at the ULS
= 434.8 × 1012/1608 = 274 MPa
f
|d
= ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n
1
n
2
f
ct,d
Cl. 8.4.2 (2)
109
where
n
1
= 1.0 for good bond conditions
n
2
= 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
f
ct,d
= a
ct
f
ctk
/ g
C
= 1.0 × 2.0/1.5
= 1.33 MPa
f
bd
= 2.25 × 1.33 = 3.0 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6 (2),
Tables 3.1 & 2.1,
& NA
l
b,rqd
= (32/4) (274/3.0) = 731 mm

l
b,min
= max[10f; 100 mm] = 250 mm
= l
bd
= 731 mm i.e. < 1006 mm = OK
Use 2 no. H32 U-bars
4.2.6 Flexural design, span AB
a) Span AB – Flexure
M
Ed
= 1148 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm
l
0
= 0.85 × l
1
= 0.85 × 9000 = 7650 mm
§
Fig. 5.2
b
eff
b
w
b
w
b
1
b
1
b
2
b
2
b
b
eff,1
b
eff,2
Figure 4.10 Effective flange width b
eff
b
Fig. 5.3

Anchorage lengths may be obtained from published tables. In this instance, a
figure of 900 mm may be obtained from Table 13 of Section 10 of How to design
concrete structures using Eurocode 2.
§
The distance l
0
is described as the distance between points of zero shear, which
may be obtained from Figure 5.2’. From the analysis, l
0
could have been taken as
7200 mm.
How to:
Detailing
[8]
Cl. 5.3.2.1(2)
Figure 5.2
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem
110
I
0
= 0.85 I
1
I
0
= 0.15 (I
1
+I
2
) I
0
= 0.15 (I
2
+I
3
)
I
3
I
2
I
1
I
0
= 0.7 I
2
l
0
for calculation of
flange width
Fig. 5.2
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 7650 ≤ 0.2 × 7650 ≤ 3325
= 1430 ≤ 1530 ≤ 3325
= 1430 mm
b
w
= 350 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= 0 mm
b
eff2
= 0 mm
b = 1430 + 350 + 0 = 1780 mm
d = effective depth
= 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span
f
ck
= 30 MPa
K = 1148 × 10
6
/(1780 × 689
2
× 30)
= 0.045
Restricting x/d to 0.45, Appendix A1
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
z = lever arm
= (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (689/2) (1 + 0.917) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 661 ≤ 654 = z = 654 mm
Appendix A1
But z = d – 0.4x
= by inspection, neutral axis is in flange and as x < 1.25 h
f
, design as
rectangular section.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
where
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 1148 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 654) = 4037 mm
2
Try 5 no. H32 B (4020 mm
2
) (say OK)
Appendix A1
Check spacing of bars.
Spacing of bars = [350 – 2 × (35 + 10) – 32]/(5 – 1)
= 57
Clear spacing = 57 – 32 mm = 25 mm between bars
111
Minimum clear distance between bars
= max[bar diameter; aggregate size + 5 mm]
= max[32; 20 + 5]
= 32 mm i.e. > 25 mm
= 5 no. H32 B no good
For 4 bars in one layer, distance between bars = 44 mm so
Try 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3
Cl. 8.2(2) & NA
d
300
350
35 cover
32 bar
32 spacers
32 bar
10 link
35 cover
400
Figure 4.12 Span AB bottom
reinforcement
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 – 0.333 × 2 × 32 = 668 mm
K = 1148 × 10
6
/(1780 × 668
2
× 30) = 0.048
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement
required. Appendix A1
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (668/2) (1 + 0.911) ≤ 0.95 × 668
= 639 ≤ 635 = z = 635 mm
Appendix A1
= by inspection, neutral axis in flange so design as rectangular
section.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 1148 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 635) = 4158 mm
2
= 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3 (4824 mm
2
) OK
Appendix A1
b) Span AB – Deflection
Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
Appendix C7
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r
0
and whether to use Exp.
(7.16a) or (7.16b)
Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Exp. (7.16a),
Exp. (7.16b)
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem
112
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
] PD 6687
[6]
= 4158/[350 × 668 + (1780 – 350) × 300]
= 4158/662800
= 0.63%
r
0
= f
ck
0.5
/1000 = 30
0.5
/1000 = 0.55%
r > r
0
= use Exp. (7.16b)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r
0
/(r – r' ) + f
ck
0.5
(r' /r
0
)
0.5
/12
= 11 + 1.5 (30
0.5
× 0.055/(0.063 – 0) + 30
0.5
(0/0.55)
1.5
= 11 + 7.2 + 0 = 18.2
Exp. (7.16b)
K = (end span) = 1.3 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 1780/350 = 5.1) = 0.80 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
(span > 7.0 m) Cl. 7.4.2(2)
where
l
eff
= 9000 mm Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
F2 = 7.0/9.0 = 0.77
F3 = 310/s
s
≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where
s
s
in simple situations = (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/
ULS loads) (1/d). However in this case separate analysis
at SLS would be required to determine s
s
. Therefore as a
simplification use the conservative assumption:
Appendix B
310/s
s
= (500/f
yk
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
)
= (500/500) × (4824/4158) = 1.16
Exp. (7.17)
= Permissible l/d = 18.2 × 1.3 × 0.80 × 0.77 × 1.16 = 16.9
Actual l/d = 9000/668 = 13.5
Permissible more than actual
= OK
= 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3 (4824 mm
2
) OK
4.2.7 Flexural design, support B
At centreline of support B,
M = 1394 kNm
From analysis, at face of support
M
EdBA
= 1209 kNm
M
EdBC
= 1315 kNm
K = M
Ed
/b
w
d
2
f
ck
Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)

2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area
of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
113
where
b
w
= 350 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 12 – 32/2 = 687 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support but allowing for
H12 T in slab
f
ck
= 30 MPa
= K = 1315 × 10
6
/(350 × 687
2
× 30) = 0.265
for d = 0.85, K' = 0.168: to restrict x/d to 0.45, K' = 0.167
= Compression steel required
Appendix A1
Table C4
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K' )
0.5
]
= (687/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.167)
0.5
]
= (687/2) (1 + 0.64) < 0.95d
= 563 mm
A
s2
= (K – K' )f
ck
bd
2
/f
sc
(d − d
2
)
where
d
2
= 35 + 10 + 32/2 = 61 mm
f
sc
= 700(x − d
2
)/x < f
yd
where
x = 2.5 (d – z) = 2.5 (687 – 563) = 310 mm
f
sc
= 700 × (310 − 61)/310 < 500/1.15
= 562 MPa but limited to ≤ 434.8 MPa
=A
s2
= (0.265 – 0.167) × 30 × 350 × 687
2
/[434.8(687 − 61) ] = 1784 mm
2
Try 4 no. H25 B (1964 mm
2
)
Fig. 3.5,
Appendix A1,
How to: Beams
A
s
= M'/f
yd
z + A
s2
f
sc
/f
yd
= K' f
ck
bd
2
/(f
yd
z) + A
s2
f
sc
/f
yd
= 0.167 × 30 × 350 × 687
2
/(434.8 × 563) + 1570 ×
434.8/434.8
= 3380 + 1784 = 5164 mm
2
Try 4 no. H32 T + 4 no. H25 T (5180 mm
2
)
Appendix A1
This reinforcement should be spread over b
eff
.
b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
Fig. 9.1
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2.
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm
l
0
= 0.15 × (l
1
+ l
2
) Fig. 5.2
= 0.15 × (9000 + 8000) = 2550 mm
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem
114
=b
eff1
= 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 2550 ≤ 0.2 × 2550 ≤ 3325
= 920 ≤ 510 ≤ 3325
= 510 mm
b
w
= 350 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= 0 mm
b
eff2
= 0 mm
= b
eff
= 510 + 350 + 0 = 860 mm
Use 4 no. H32 T + 4 no. H25 T (5180 mm
2
) @ approx 100 mm cc
b
w
= 350 mm
4H25
4H25 4H32
b
eff
= 860 mm
Figure
4.13 Support B reinforcement pp
4.2.8 Flexural design, span BC
a) Span BC – Flexure
M
Ed
= 684 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1, Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2.
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm Fig. 5.2
l
0
= 0.85 × l
1
= 0.85 × 8000 = 6800 mm
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 6800 ≤ 0.2 × 6800 ≤ 3325
= 1345 ≤ 1360 ≤ 3325
= 1360 mm
115
b
w
= 350 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= 0 mm
b
eff2
= 0 mm
= b = 1360 + 350 + 0 = 1710 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span.
f
ck
= 30 MPa
= K = 684 × 10
6
/ (1710 × 689
2
× 30)
= 0.028
By inspection, K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
Appendix A1
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (689/2) (1 + 0.95) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 672 > 655 = z = 655 mm
Appendix A1
By inspection, x < 1.25 h
f
; design as rectangular section
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 684 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 655) = 2402 mm
2
Try 2 no. H32 B + 2 no. H25 B (2590 mm
2
)
Appendix A1
b) Span BC – Deflection
By inspection, compared with span AB OK
4.2.9 Flexural design, support C
By inspection, use 2 no. H25 U-bars as support A.
Use 2 no. H25 U-bars
4.2.10 Design for beam shear, support A
At d from face of support
V
Ed
= 646 − (350/2 + 0.689) × (1.35 × 46.0 + 1.5 × 63.3) Cl. 6.2.1(8)
ECO: A1.2.2, NA
& Exp. (6.10a)
= 646 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 510.3 kN
Check maximum shear resistance.
V
Rd, max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/(cot y + tan y) Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
a
cw
= 1.0 Cl. 6.2.3 & NA
b
w
= 350 mm as before
z = 0.9d Cl. 6.2.3(1)
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem
116
v = 0.6 (1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.6 (1 − 30/250) = 0.528 Cl. 6.2.3(3)
Note 1, Exp.
(6.6N) & NA
f
cd
= 30/1.5 = 20.0 MPa Cl. 2.4.2.4(1) & NA
y = angle of inclination of strut.
= 0.5 sin
−1
{v
Ed,z
/[0.20 f
ck
(1 – f
ck
/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5
Exp. (6.9),
Appendix A2
where
v
Ed,z
= V
Ed
/b
z
= V
Ed
/(b × 0.9d)
= 510.3 × 10
3
/(350 × 0.9 × 689) = 2.35 MPa
y = 0.5 sin
−1
{2.35/[0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 sin
−1
(0.445) ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 × 26.4° ≥ 21.8°
= 21.8°
= V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 350 × 0.90 × 689 × 0.528 × 20.0/(2.5 + 0.4) = 790 kN
= OK
Shear reinforcement:
Shear links: shear resistance with links
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y
= A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/z f
ywd
cot y
Exp. (6.8)
where
A
sw
/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
f
ywd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
Cl. 2.4.2.4(1)
& NA
cot y = 2.5 as before
A
sw
/s ≥ 510.3 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 689 × 434.8 × 2.5) = 0.76
Minimum A
sw
/s = r
w,min
b
w
sin a Cl. 9.2.2(5),
Exp. (9.4)
where
r
w,min
= 0.08 × f
ck
0.5
/f
yk
= 0.08 × 30
0.5
/500
Exp. (9.5N) & NA
= 0.00088
b
w
= 350 mm as before
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal
axis. For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
= Minimum A
sw
/s = 0.00088 × 350 × 1 = 0.03
But,
maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0.75d = 516 mm
= Try H10 @ 200 cc in 2 legs (A
sw
/s = 0.78)
Cl. 9.2.2(6)
4.2.11 Design for high beam shear, support B
As uniformly distributed load predominates consider at d from
face of support. Cl. 6.2.1(8)
117
V
Ed
= 1098 − (350/2 + 0.689) × (1.35 × 46.0 + 1.5 × 63.3)
= 1098 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 962.3 kN
By inspection, shear reinforcement required and cot y < 2.5.
Check V
Rd, max
(to determine y)
Check maximum shear resistance.
As before,
V
Rd, max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/(cot y + tan y). Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
a
cw
, b
w
, z, v and f
cd
as before
y = 0.5 sin
−1
{v
Ed,z
/[0.20 f
ck
(1 – f
ck
/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5 Exp. (6.9)
where
v
Ed,z
= V
Ed
/bz = V
Ed
/(b0.9d)
= 962.3 × 10
3
/(350 × 0.9 × 687) = 4.45 MPa
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
y = 0.5 sin
−1
{4.45/[0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 sin
−1
(0.843) ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 × 57.5° ≥ 21.8°
= 28.7°
Exp. (6.9)
cot y = 1.824 i.e. > 1.0 =OK Cl. 6.2.3(2) & NA
tan y = 0.548
= V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 350 × 0.90 × 687 × 0.528 × 20.0/(1.824 + 0.548)
= 963.4 kN OK
(i.e. V
Rd,max
≈ V
Ed
)
Shear reinforcement:
Shear links: shear resistance with links
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s)zf
ywd
cot y
= A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/zf
ywd
cot y
Exp. (6.8)
A
sw
/s ≥ 962.3 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 687 × 434.8 × 1.824) = 1.96
= Use H10 @ 150 cc in 4 legs (A
sw
/s = 2.09)
4.2.12 Design for beam shear (using design chart),
support B
C
At d from face of support,
V
Ed
= 794 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 658.3 kN
v
Ed,z
= V
Ed
/bz = V
Ed
/(b0.9d)
= 658.3 × 10
3
/ (350 × 0.9 × 687) = 3.04 MPa
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
From chart A
sw
/s
reqd
/m width = 2.75
A
sw
/s
reqd
= 2.75 × 0.35 = 0.96
= Use H10 in 2 legs @ 150 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 1.05)
Fig. C1b)
4? leev||y |oeded l-|eem
118
4.2.13 Check shear capacity for general case
In mid span use H10 in 2 legs @ 300 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 0.52)
z A
sw
/s
reqd
/m width = 1.48 and an allowable v
Ed,z
= 1.60 MPa
z 1.60 × 350 × 0.90 × 687 = V
Ed
= 346 kN
From analysis, V
Ed
= 346.2 kN occurs at:
(646 − 346)/157.1 = 1900 mm from A,
(1098 – 346 − 1.25 × 88.7 – 1.5 × 138.7)/157.1 = 2755 mm from B
A
,
(794 − 346)/157.1 = 2850 mm from B
C

and
(499 − 346)/157.1 = 970 mm from C
Fig. C1b)
4.2.14 Summary of design
2H32 U-bars
A
4H32 + 4H25T 2H25 U-bars
H10 links in 2 legs
4H32 B1 + 2H32 B3
@ 300 @ 300 @ 150 @ 150 @ 150 @ 150
H10 links in 2 legs @ 150cc
1
1
4H25B 2H32 + 2H25B
1050 2850 2850 1950
B C
Figure 4.14 Summary of L-beam design
350 510
4H25 4H32
H10 in 4 legs
@ 150
Figure 4.15 L-beam section 1–1
119

q
k
= 45.8 kN/m
g
k
= 47.8 kN/m
A B C D E
7500 7500 7500 7500
Figure 4.16 Continuous wide T-beam
This central spine beam supports the ribbed slab in Example 3.3.
The 300 mm deep ribbed slab is required for an office to support
a variable action of 5 kN/m
2
. The beam is the same depth as the
slab and is supported on 400 mm square columns, see Figure
4.17. f
ck
= 35 MPa; f
yk
= 500 MPa. A 1-hour fire resistance is
required in an internal environment. Assume that partitions are
liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.
C
L
100
200
200 800 1000
Figure 4.17 Section through T-beam
4.3 Continuous wide T-beam
4.3.1 Actions
Permanent, UDL

:
From analysis of slab, g
k
= 47.8 kN/m
Variable:
From analysis of slab, q
k
= 45.8 kN/m

The actions may also have been estimated assuming an elastic reaction factor
of 1.1 for the slab viz:
kN/m
Permanent: UDL
Loads from ribbed slab (7.50 + 9.0)/2 × 4.30 × 1.1 = 39.0
Self-weight/patch load extra over solid 2.0 × 4.17 = 8.3
47.3
Variable:
Imposed (7.50 + 9.0)/2 × 5.00 × 1.1 = 45.4
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous wide T-beam
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
120
4.3.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 25 mm main bars and
8 mm links
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete, c
min,dur
= 15 mm
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1;
Table A4
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to main bars
Use 10 mm diameter links to give c
nom
= 35 mm to main bars
and 25 mm to links (as per ribbed slab design).
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for REI 60.
EC2-1-2: 5.6.3
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
Axis distance required:
Minimum width b
min
= 120 mm with a = 25 mm
or b
min
= 200 mm with a = 12 mm
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
= at 2000 mm wide (min.) a < 12 mm
By inspection, not critical.
Use 25 mm nominal cover to links
4.3.3 Idealisation, load combination and arrangement
Load combination:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical.
47.8 × 1.25 + 45.8 × 1.5 = 128.5 kN/m

Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Idealisation:
This element is treated as a beam on pinned supports.
The beam will be provided with links to carry shear and to
accommodate the requirements of Cl. 9.2.5 – indirect support of
the ribbed slab described in Section 3.3.8.
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option b)

cf. 126.7 kN/m from analysis of slab (63.2 kN/m + 63.5 kN/m). See Figure 3.12.
121
4.3.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer, assuming simple supports and including
15% redistribution at supports (with in this instance consequent
redistribution in span moments).
EC0: A1.2.2 &
NA;
Cl. 5.3.1 (6)
5.3.1(6)
Table 4.3 Elastic and redistributed moments, kNm
Span number 1 2 3 4
Elastic M 641.7 433.0 433.0 641.7
Redistributed M 606.4 393.2 393.2 606.4
d 0.945 0.908 0.908 0.945
800
657.4 kNm 657.4 kNm
516.0 kNm
– 606.4 kNm – 606.4 kNm
– 393.2 kNm – 393.2 kNm
600
400
200
– 200
– 400
– 800
– 600
0
A B C D E
Figure 4.18 Redistributed envelope, kNm
800
394.6 kN
569.1 kN
462.6 kN
517.9 kN
– 517.9 kN
– 569.1 kN
– 395.6 kN
– 462.6 kN
600
400
200
– 200
– 400
– 800
– 600
0
A B C D E
Figure 4.19 Redistributed shears, kN
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
122
4.3.5 Flexural design, span AB
a) Span AB (and DE) – Flexure
M
Ed
= 606.4 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l
0
= 0.85 × l
1
= 0.85 × 7500 = 6375 mm Fig. 5.2
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 6375 ≤ 0.2 × 6375 ≤ 2975
= 1232 ≤ 1275 ≤ 2975
= 1232 mm
b
w
= 2000 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= distance between webs/2.
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (9000 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 3725 mm
l
0
= 6375 mm as before
b
eff2
= 0.2 × 3725 + 0.1 × 6375 ≤ 0.2 × 6375 ≤ 3725
= 1382 ≤ 1275 ≤ 3725
= 1275 mm
b = 1232 + 2000 + 1275 = 4507 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 10 – 25/2 = 252 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span.
f
ck
= 35 MPa
K = 606.4 × 10
6
/(4507 × 252
2
× 35)
= 0.061
K' = 0.207 Appendix A1
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1
= (252/2) (1 + 0.886) ≤ 0.95 × 252
= 238 ≤ 239 = z =238 mm
123
But z = d – 0.4 x Appendix A1
= x = 2.5(d – z) = 2.5( 252 − 236) = 32 mm
= neutral axis in flange.
A
s
x < 1.25h
f
design as rectangular section.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
where
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 606.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 239) = 5835 mm
2
Try 12 no. H25 B (5892 mm
2
)
b) Span AB – Deflection
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r
0
and whether to use Exp.
(7.16a) or (7.16b)
Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Exp. (7.16a),
Exp. (7.16b)
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
] PD 6687
[6]
= 5835/[2000 × 252 + (4507 – 2000) × 100]
= 5835/754700
= 0.77%
r
0
= f
ck
0.5
/1000 = 30
0.5
/1000 = 0.59%
r > r
0
= use Exp. (7.16b)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r
0
/(r – r') + f
ck
0.5
(r'/r
0
)
0.5
/12
= 11 + 1.5 (35
0.5
× 0.059/(0.077 – 0) + 35
0.5
(0/0.59)
1.5
= 11 + 6.8 + 0 = 17.8
Exp. (7.16b)
K = (end span) = 1.3 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 4057/2000 = 2.03) = 0.90 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
(span > 7.0 m)
where
l
eff
= 7100 + 2 × 300/2 = 7400 mm
F2 = 7.0/7.4 = 0.95
Cl. 7.4.2(2),
5.3.2.2(1)
F3 = 310/s
s
≤1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where
§
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (5835/5892) [(47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/(1.25 ×
47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8)] × (1/0.945)
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.48 × 1.06
= 219 MPa

2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area
of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
§
See Appendix B1.5
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
124
F3 = 310/s
s
= 310/219 = 1.41
= Permissible l/d = 17.8 × 1.3 × 0.90 × 0.95 × 1.41 = 27.9
Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.8 = no good
Try 13 no. H25 B (6383 mm
2
)
F3 = 310/s
s
= 310/219 × 13/12 = 1.53

= say 1.50
= Permissible l/d = 17.8 × 1.3 × 0.90 × 0.95 × 1.50 = 29.7
Actual l
eff
/d = 7400/252 = 29.4 Say OK
Use 13 no. H25 B (6383 mm
2
)
4.3.6 Flexural design, support B (and D)
At centreline of support:
M = 657.4 kNm
At face of support:
M
Ed
= 657.4 – 0.2 × 517.9 + 0.202 × 128.5/2
= 657.4 – 101.0
= 556.4 kNm
K = M
Ed
/b
w
d
2
f
ck
where
b
w
= 2000 mm
d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link – 16 bar − 25/2 bar
= 226 mm
Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
25 cover
8 link
8 link
20 bar
25 cover
12 fabric
16 bar
25 cover
8 link
25 bar
16 bar
Figure 4.20 Section at rib-beam interface
K = 556.4 × 10
6
/(2000 × 226
2
× 35) = 0.156
By inspection, K < K'
K' = 0.167 maximum (or for d = 0.85, K' = 0.168)
= No compression steel required.
Appendix A1
Table C.4

Both A
s,prov
/A
s,req
and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or Exp.
(7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA.
NA, Table NA.5
125
z = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 K' )
0.5
]
= (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.156)
0.5
]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.67) < 0.95d
= 189 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 556.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 189) = 6770 mm
2
Try 14 no. H25 T (6874 mm
2
)
To be spread over b
eff
Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
Fig. 9.1
b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
referring to Figure 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l
0
= 0.15 × (l
1
+ l
2
) = 0.15 × (7500 + 7500) = 2250 mm
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 2250 ≤ 0.2 × 2250 ≤ 2975
= 820 ≤ 450 ≤ 2975 Fig. 5.2
= 450 mm
b
w
= 2000 mm
b
eff2
= 450 mm as before
= b
eff
= 450 + 2000 + 450 = 2900 mm
Check cracking:
Spacing = 2900 – 2 × (25 – 10 – 25/2)/(14 − 1) = 216 mm
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (6770/6874) [ (47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/
(1.25 × 47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8) × (1/0.85)
= 434.8 × 0.98 × 0.48 × 1.18 = 241 MPa
Cl. 7.3.3
As loading is the cause of cracking satisfy either Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N Cl. 7.3.3(2) &
Note
For w
k
= 0.4 and s
s
= 240 MPa max. spacing = 250 mm = OK Table 7.3N
4.3.7 Flexural design, span BC (and CD similar)
a) Flexure
M
Ed
= 393.2 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1

43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
126
where
b
1
referring to Figure 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l
0
= 0.70 × l
2
= 0.7 × 7500 = 5250 mm
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 5250 ≤ 0.2 × 5250 ≤ 2975 Fig. 5.2
= 1120 ≤ 1050 ≤ 2975
= 1050 mm
b
w
= 2000 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= distance between webs/2
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (9000 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 3725 mm
l
0
= 5250 mm as before
b
eff2
= 0.2 × 3725 + 0.1 × 5250 ≤ 0.2 × 5250 ≤ 3725
= 1270 ≤ 1050 ≤ 3725
= 1270 mm
b = 1050 + 2000 + 1270 = 4320 mm
d = 252 mm as before
assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span
f
ck
= 30
K = 393.2 × 10
6
/(4320 × 252
2
× 35)
= 0.041
By inspection, K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
Appendix A1
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 – 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d
= (252/2) (1 + 0.924) ≤ 0.95 × 252
= 242 > 239 = z = 239 mm
Appendix A1
By inspection, x < 1.25 h
f
= design as rectangular section Appendix A1
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 393.2 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 239) = 3783 mm
2
Try 8 no. H25 B (3928 mm
2
)
b) Deflection
By inspection, compared to span AB OK
But for the purposes of illustration:
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether to use Exp. (7.16a) or (7.16b) Cl. 7.4.2(2)
127
r
0
= 0.59% (for f
ck
= 35)
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
]
where
b
w
= 2000 mm
r = 3783/(2000 × 252 + (4320 – 2000) × 100)
= 3783/736000
= 0.51%
r < r
0
= use Exp. (7.16a)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2f
ck
0.5
(r
0
/r – 1)1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 35
0.5
× 0.059/0.051 + 3.2 × 35
0.5
(0.059/0.051 – 1)
1.5
= 11 + 10.2 + 23.5 = 17.8
= 44.7
Exp. (7.16a)
K = (internal span) = 1.5 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 4320/2000 = 2.16) = 0.88 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
= 7.0/7.4 = (span > 7.0 m) = 0.95 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/s
s
≤1.5 Cl. 7.4.2,
Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N, &
NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where
§
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (3783/3828) [(47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/(1.25 ×
47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8)] × (1/0.908)
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.48 × 1.10
= 227 MPa
F3 = 310/ s
s
= 310/227 = 1.37
= Permissible l/d = 44.7 × 1.37 × 0.88 × 0.95 × 1.37 = 70.1
Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.8 = OK
Use 8 no. H25 B (3928 mm
2
)
#
c) Hogging
Assuming curtailment of top reinforcement at 0.30l + a
l
, How to: Detailing
From analysis M
Ed
at 0.3l from BC (& DC) = 216.9 kNm
at 0.3l from CB (& CD) = 185.6 kNm
K = 216.9 × 10
6
/(2000 × 226
2
× 35) = 0.061
By inspection, K < K'

2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area
of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
§
See Appendix B1.5
#
12 no. H20 B (3768 mm
2
) used to suit final arrangement of links.
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
128
z = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 K')
0.5
]
= (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.061)
0.5
]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.89) < 0.95d
= 214 mm < 215 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 216.9 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 214) = 2948 mm
2
Use 12 no. H20 T (3748 mm
2
)
(to suit links and bottom steel)
Top steel at supports may be curtailed down to 12 no. H20 T at
0.3l + a
l
= 0.3 × 7500 + 1.25 × 214 = 2518 say 2600 mm from
centreline of support.
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2)
4.3.8 Flexural design, support C
At centreline of support,
M = 516.0 kNm
At face of support, Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
M
Ed
= 516.0 – 0.2 × 462.6 + 0.20
2
× 128.5/2
= 516.0 – 90.0
= 426.0 kNm
K = M
Ed
/b
w
d
2
f
ck
where
b
w
= 2000 mm
d = 226 mm as before
K = 426.0 × 10
6
/(2000 × 226
2
× 35) = 0.119
By inspection, K < K'
z = (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
]
= (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.119)
0.5
]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.76) < 0.95d
= 199 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 426.0 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 199) = 4923 mm
2
Try 10 no. H25 T (4910 mm
2
)

4.3.9 Design for beam shear
a) Support A (and E)
At d from face of support,
V
Ed
= 394.6 − (0.400/2 + 0·252) × 128.5 = 336.5 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Maximum shear resistance:
By inspection, V
Rd,max
OK and cot y = 2.5

12 no. H25 used to suit final arrangement of links.
129
However, for the purpose of illustration: check shear capacity,
V
Rd,max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/ (cot y + tan y)
where Exp. (6.9) & NA
a
cw
= 1.0
b
w
= 2000 mm as before
z = 0.9d
v = 0.6 [1 − f
ck
/250] = 0.516 Cl. 6.2.3(1)
f
cd
= 35/1.5 = 23.3 MPa
y = angle of inclination of strut.
By inspection, cot
−1
y << 21.8. But cot y restricted to
2.5 and = tan y = 0.4.
Cl. 6.2.3(2)
& NA
V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 2000 × 0.90 × 252 × 0.516 × 23.3/(2.5 + 0·4)
= 2089.5 kN
= OK
Shear links: shear resistance with links
\
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y ≥ V
Ed
Exp. (6.8)
= for V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,s
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/z f
ywd
cot y
where
A
sw
/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
f
ywd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
cot y = 2.5 as before
A
sw
/s ≥ 336.5 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 252 × 434.8 × 2.5) = 1.36
Minimum A
sw
/s = r
w,min
b
w
sin a
Cl. 9.2.2(5),
Exp. (9.4)
where
r
w,min
= 0.08 × f
ck
0.5
/f
yk
= 0.08 × 35
0.5
/500 = 0.00095
Exp. (9.5N) & NA
b
w
= 2000 mm as before
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal axis.
For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
Minimum A
sw
/s = 0.00095 × 2000 × 1 = 1.90
But,
maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0.75d = 183 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
Maximum spacing of links laterally = 0.75d ≤ 600 mm = 183 mm
H10s required to maintain 35 mm cover to H25
= Use H10 @ 175 cc both ways
i.e. H10 in 12
§
legs @ 175 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 5.38)
Cl. 9.2.2(8)
§
(2000 mm – 2 × 25 mm cover − 10 mm diameter)/175 = 11 spaces, = 12 legs.
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
130
b) Support B (and C and D)
By inspection, the requirement for minimum reinforcement and, in
this instance, for H10 legs of links will outweigh design requirements.
Nonetheless check capacity of A
sw
/s = 5.38
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y Exp. (6.8)
= 5.38 × 0.9 × 252 × 434.8 × 2.5 = 1326.3 kN
Maximum shear at support = 517.9 kN
i.e. capacity of minimum links not exceeded.
By inspection, the requirement for indirect support of the ribs of the
slab using 87 mm
2
/rib within 150 mm of centreline of ribs (at 900 mm
centres) and within 50 mm of rib/solid interface is adequately catered
for and will not unduly effect the shear capacity of the beam.
Use 150 mm centres to tie in with 900 mm centres of ribs
= Use H10 in 12 legs @ 150 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 6.28) throughout beam
Cl. 9.2.5,
Section 3.4.8
4.3.10 Check for punching shear, column B
As the beam is wide and shallow it should be checked for punching shear.
At B, applied shear force, V
Ed
= 569.1 + 517.9 = 1087.0 kN.
Check at perimeter of 400 × 400 mm column:
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
where
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.15
V
Ed
= applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
adjacent to interior columns u
0
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) = 1600 mm
Cl. 6.4.5(3)
d = mean d = (245 + 226)/2 = 235 mm Exp. (6.32)
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1087.0 × 10
3
/1600 × 235 = 3.32 MPa
v
Rd,max
= 0.5vf
cd
Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note
where
v = 0.6(1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.516 Exp. (6.6) & NA
f
cd
= a
cc
lf
ck
/g
C
= 1.0 × 1.0 × 35/1.5 = 23.3
v
Rd,max
= 0.5 × 0.516 × 23.3 = 6.02 MPa = OK Table C7

Check shear stress at basic perimeter u
1
(2.0d from face of column):
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
Cl. 6.4.2
b, V
Ed
and d as before Fig. 6.13
‡ In this case, at the perimeter of the column, it is assumed that the strut angle
is 45°, i.e. that cot y = 1.0. In other cases, where cot y < 1.0, v
Rd,max
is available
from Table C7.
131
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
at 2d from interior columns
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) + 2π × 2d
= 1600 + 2π × 2 × 235 = 4553 mm
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1087.0 × 10
3
/4553 × 235 = 1.17 MPa
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/ g
C
× k × (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2
= 1 +(200/235)
0.5
= 1.92
r
l
= (r
ly,
r
lz
)
0.5
Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
where
r
ly,
r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column.
= 6874/(2000 × 226) = 0.0152
r
lz
= 741/(900 × 245) = 0.0036
r
l
= (0.0152 × 0.0036)
0.5
= 0.0074
f
ck
= 35
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.92 × (100 × 0.0074 × 35)
0.333
= 0.68 MPa
§
Table C6
#
= punching shear reinforcement required
Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links):
At the basic control perimeter, u
1
, 2d from the column:
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
) Exp. (6.52)
where
s
r
= 175 mm Cl. 9.4.3(1)
f
ywd,ef
= effective design strength of reinforcement
= (250 + 0.25d) < f
yd
= 309 MPa Cl. 6.4.5(1)
For perimeter u
1
A
sw
= (1.17 – 0.75 × 0.68) × 175 × 4553/(1.5 × 309) = 1135 mm
2
per
perimeter
Try 15 no. H10 (1177 mm
2
)
§
See Section 3.4.14 with respect to possible limit of 2.0 or 2.5 on V
Ed
/V
Rd,c

within punching shear requirements.
#
v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
132
Check availability of reinforcement

:
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d, i.e between 70 mm and 117
mm from face of column. Say 0.4d = 100 mm from face of column.
Fig. 9.10,
9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 4.21. the equivalent of 14 locations are
available between 70 mm and 117 mm from face of column therefore
say OK.
150
470 200 200 470
C
L
C
L
u
1
s = 150 mm
24 H10 legs
in u
1
perimeter
H10 legs
of links
150 150 150 150 150
900
600
70
58
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
Figure 4.21 Shear links and punching shear perimeter u
1
Perimeter at which no punching shear links are required:
u
out
= V
Ed
× b/(d × v
Rd,c
)
u
out
= 1087 × 1.15 × 10
3
/(235 × 0.68) = 7826 mm
Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm
Radius to u
out
= (7823 – 1600)/2π = 990 mm
from face of column i.e. in ribs, therefore beam shear governs

The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or
outside perimeter u
1
. See Section 3.4.13.
Punching shear reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum
reinforcement and spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3). The centre of
links from the centreline of the column shown in Figure 4.21 have been adjusted to
accommodate a perimeter of links at between 0.3d and 0.5d from the column face.
133
4.3.11 Summary of design
A
14H25T
H10 links in
12 legs @ 150 cc
13H25B 13H25B 12H20B 12H20B
B C D E
X
X
14H25T 12H25T
12H20T 12H20T
Figure 4.23 Section X–X
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
134
Columns
General
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s sect|on |||ustrete
S! Les|gn o¦ e non-s|ender edge co|umn us|ng hend ce|cu|et|on
S? Les|gn o¦ e per|meter co|umn us|ng |teret|on o¦ equet|ons to determ|ne re|n¦orcement
requ|rements
S3 Les|gn o¦ en |nterne| co|umn w|th h|gh ex|e| |oed
S4 Les|gn o¦ e s|ender co|umn requ|r|ng e two-hour ure res|stence
ln genere|, ex|e| |oeds end urst order moments ere essumed to |e eve||e||e ¹he des|gns cons|der
s|enderness |n order to determ|ne des|gn moments, /
ld
¹he co|umns ere des|gned end chec|ed
¦or ||ex|e| |end|ng ¹he e¦¦ects o¦ e||ow|ng ¦or |mper¦ect|ons ere |||ustreted
A genere| method o¦ des|gn|ng co|umns |s es ¦o||ows ln prect|ce, severe| o¦ these steps mey |e
com||ned
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA Table NA 2.1
Assess ect|ons on the co|umn N EC1 (10 parts) & UK NAs
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons epp|y N EC0 & NA Tables NA A1.1
& NA A1.2(B)
Assess dure||||ty requ|rements end determ|ne concrete N
strength
BS 8500–1
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eppropr|ete ¦|re N
res|stence per|od
Approved Document B,
EC2–1–2
Leterm|ne cover ¦or ¦|re, dure||||ty end |ond N Cl. 4.4.1
Ane|yse structure ¦or cr|t|ce| com||net|on moments N
end ex|e| ¦orces
Section 5
Chec| s|enderness end determ|ne des|gn moments N Section 5.8
Leterm|ne eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red N Section 6.1
Chec| spec|ng o¦ |ers end ||n|s N Sections 8 & 9
5
5.0
Co|umns
135
A 300 mm square column on the edge of a flat slab structure
supports an axial load of 1620 kN and first order moments of
38.5 kNm top and −38.5 kNm bottom in one direction only

. The
concrete is grade C30/37, f
ck
f = 30 MPa and cover, c
nom
, = 25 mm.
The 250 mm thick flat slabs are at 4000 mm vertical centres.
N
Ed
= 1620 kN
38.5 kNm
– 38.5 kNm
Figure 5.1 Forces in edge column
5.1.1 Check slenderness, l
Effective length
§
, l
0
= factor × l Cl. 5.8.3.2
where
factor = from Table C16, condition 2 each end Table C16, Table C16,
= 0.85 PD 6687: 2.10
l = clear height = 3750 mm l
= l
0
= 0.85 × 3750 = 3187 mm
Slenderness l = l
0
/i Exp. (5.14)

For examples of load take-downs and 1st order moment analysis see Section
5.3.2
§
Effective lengths are covered in Eurocode 2 Cl. 5.8.3.2 and Exp. (5.15). The
effective length of most columns will be l /2< l
0
l < l (see Eurocode 2 Figure 5.7f). l
PD 6687
[6]
Cl. 2.10 suggests that using the procedure outlined in Eurocode 2
(5.8.3.2(3) and 5.8.3.2(5)) leads to similar effective lengths to those tabulated
in BS 8110
[7]
and reproduced in Table 5.1 of Concise Eurocode 2
[5]
and in this
publication as Table C16. For simplicity, tabular values are used in this example.
However, experience suggests that these tabulated values are conservative.
Fig. 5.7
PD 6687
[6]
:
Cl. 2.10
Cl. 5.8.3.2(3)
5.8.3.2(5)
Table C16 Table C16
5.1 Edge column
¹he |ntent|on o¦ th|s ce|cu|et|on |s to show e typ|ce| hend ce|cu|et|on thet me|es re¦erence
to des|gn cherts
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Edge column
136
where
i = radius of gyration
= h/12
0.5
for rectangular sections
l = 3187 × 3.46/300 = 36.8
5.1.2 Limiting slenderness, l
lim
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
Exp. (5.13N)
where
A = 0.7 (default) Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
B = 1.1 (default)
C = 1.7 − r
m
= 1.7 − M
01
/M
02
= 1.7 − 38.5/(−38.5) = 2.7
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1620 × 10
3
/(300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 1.06
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.7/1.06
0.5
In this example l
lim
= 40.4 i.e. > 36.8 = Column not slender
5.1.3 Design moments
M
Ed
= max[M
02
; M
0Ed
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
] Cl. 5.8.8.2(1)
where
M
02
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2, 6.1.4
where
M = 38.5 kNm
e
i
= l
0
/400
e
0
= max[h/30; 20] = max[300/30; 20] = 20 mm
Cl. 5.2.7, 5.2.9
Cl. 6.1.4
M
02
= 38.5 + 1620 × 3.187/400 ≥ 0.02 × 1620
= 38.5 + 12.9 ≥ 32.4 kNm
= 51.4 kNm
M
0Ed
= 0.6M
02
+ 0.4M
01
≥ 0.4M
02
= 0.6 × 51.4 + 0.4 × (−38.5 + 12.9) ≥ 0.4 × 51.4
= 20.6 ≥ 20.6
= 20.6
M
2
= 0 (column is not slender)
M
01
= M
02
= max[M
02
; M
0Ed
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
] = 51.4 kNm = M
Ed
= 51.4 kNm
5.1.4 Design using charts (see Appendix C)
d
2
= c
nom
+ link + f/2 = 25 + 8 + 16 = 49
d
2
/h = 49/300 = 0.163
= interpolating between d
2
/h = 0.15 and 0.20 Figs. C5c), C5d)
for
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 1620 × 10
3
/(300
2
× 30) = 0.60
137
S! ldge co|umn
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 51.4 × 10
6
/(300
3
× 30) = 0.063
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.24
A
s
= 0.24 × 300
2
× 30/500 = 1296 mm
2
Try 4 no. H25 (1964 mm
2
)
5.1.5 Check for biaxial bending
l
y
/l
z
≈ 1.0 Cl. 5.8.9
i.e. l
y
/l
z
≤ 2.0 = OK but check Exp. (5.38b) Exp. (5.38a)
As a worst case M
Edy
may coexist with e
0
N
Ed
about the orthogonal axis: Cl. 6.1(4)
e
y
/h
eq

=
(M
Edz
/N
Ed
)/h
=
M
Edz
e
z
/b
eq
(M
Edy
/N
Ed
)/b M
Edy
Exp. (5.38b)
Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only.
= As a worst case for biaxial bending
Cl. 5.8.9(2)
M
Edz
= M + 0 = 38.5 kNm
M
Edy
= e
0
N
Ed
= 32.4 kNm
M
Edz

=
38.5
= 1.19 i.e. > 0.2 and < 5.0
M
Edy
32.4
Exp. (5.38b)
= Biaxial check required Cl. 5.8.9(4)
Check whether
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0 Exp. (5.39)
where
M
Edz
= 38.5 kNm
M
Edy
= 32.4 kNm
M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
Figs. C5c), C5d)
To determine M
Rdz
, find M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
(and therefore
moment capacity) by interpolating between d
2
/h = 0.15
(Figure C5c) and 0.20 (Figure C5d) for the proposed
arrangement and co-existent axial load.
Assuming 4 no. H25,
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 1964 × 500/(300
2
× 30) = 0.36
Interpolating for N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.6,
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.094
= M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
= 0.094 × 300
3
× 30 = 76.1 kNm
a is dependent on N
Ed
/N
Rd
where
N
Ed
= 1620 kN as before
Cl. 5.8.9(4),
Notes to Exp.
(5.39)
138
N
Rd
= A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
= 300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 1964 × 500/1.15
= 1530.0 + 853.9
= 2383.9 kN
N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 1620/2383.9 = 0.68
=a = 1.48 by interpolating between values given for N
Ed
/N
Rd
=
0.1, (1.0) and N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 0.7, (1.5)
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
= (38.5/76.1)
1.48
+ (32.4/76.1)
1.48

= 0.36 + 0.28
= 0.64 = OK.
= 4 no. H25 OK
Exp. (5.39)
5.1.6 Links
Diameter min. f/4 = 25/4 = 8 mm Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Max. spacing = 0.6 × 300 = 180 mm Cl. 9.5.3(3),
Cl. 9.5.3(4)
Links at say 175 mm cc
5.1.7 Design summary
4 H25
H8 links @ 175 cc
25 mm cover
f
ck
= 30 MPa
Figure 5.2 Design summary: edge column
139
S? ler|meter co|umn
This 300 × 300 mm perimeter column is in an internal environment
and supports three suspended floors and the roof of an office block.
It is to be designed at ground floor level where the storey height
is 3.45 m and the clear height in the N–S direction (z direction) is
3.0 m and 3.325 m in the E–W direction (y direction). One-hour fire
resistance is required and f
ck
= 30 MPa.
250
325
300 × 300
Column under
consideration
3575
M
02yy
Figure 5.3 Perimeter column
(internal environment)
From first order analysis, load case 1:
N
Ed
= 1129.6 kN; M
02yy
= 89.6 kNm; M
02zz
= 0
Load case 2:
N
Ed
= 1072.1 kN; M
02yy
= 68.7 kNm; M
02zz
= 6.0 kNm
5.2.1 Cover
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= 32 mm to main bars, 32 − 8 = 24 mm to links
= say 25 mm
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assume XC1.
c
min,dur
= 15 mm
c
min
= 25 mm
Dc
dev
= 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.3(3)
Therefore c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links c
nom
= 35 mm to links.
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Perimeter column
(internal environment)
5.2 Perimeter column (internal environment)
¹h|s exemp|e |s |ntended to show e hend ce|cu|et|on ¦or e non-s|ender per|meter co|umn
us|ng |teret|on (o¦ \) to determ|ne the re|n¦orcement requ|red
140
5.2.2 Fire resistance
Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.2a of BS EN 1992–1–2: EC2-1-2: 5.3.2,
Table 5.2a
l
0,fi
≈ 0.7 × 3.325 i.e. < 3.0 m = OK. EC2-1-2:
5.3.3(3)
e = M
02yy
/N
Ed
= 89.6 × 10
6
/1129.6 × 10
3
= 79 mm EC2-1-2:
5.3.2 & NA
e
max
= 0.15h = 0.15 × 300 = 45 mm = no good.
Check validity of using Method B and Table 5.2b:
e
max
= 0.25b = 75 mm = no good.
EC2-1-2:
5.3.3
Use BS EN 1992–1–2 Annex C Tables C1–C9. EC2-1-2:
Annex C
Assume min. 4 no. H25 = 1964 mm
2
(z 2.2%)

w = A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
= 0.022 × (500/1.15)/(0.85 × 30/1.5)
EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= 0.56
e ≈ 0.25b and ≤ 100 mm
l = l
0
/i
where
l
0
= 0.7 × 3.325 = 2327 mm
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)
0.5
= h/12
0.5
EC2-1-2:
5.3.3(2),
5.3.3(3)
where
I = inertia = bh
3
/12
A = area = bh
h = height of section
b = breadth of section
= 300/12
0.5
= 87 mm
l = 2327/87 = 276
n = N
0Ed,fi
/0.7(A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
) EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= 0.7 × 1129.6/0.7(300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 1964 × 500/1.15)
= 1129.6/2383.9
= 0.47
= interpolate for l = 30 and n = 0.47 between
from Table C.5 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 0.5, e = 0.25b):
EC2-1-2:
Table C.5
minimum dimension, b
min
= 235, and axis distance, a = 35 mm
and
from Table C.8 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 1.0, e = 0.25b):
EC2-1-2:
Table C.8
‡ Using 4 no. H20 gives w = 0.34, n = 0.54 and b
min
= 310 mm = no good.
141
S? ler|meter co|umn
b
min
= 185, and
a = 30 mm
= for w = 0.56,
b
min
= 228, and
a = 35 mm
OK to use Method B but use min. 4 no. H25
5.2.3 Structural design: check slenderness
Effective length, l
0
:
l
0
= 0.5l [1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
) ]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
) ]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where
k
1
, k
2
= relative stiffnesses top and bottom
But conservatively, choose to use tabular method
§
. For critical
direction, the column is in condition 2 at top and condition 3 at
bottom (pinned support).
l
0
= 0.95 × 3325 = 3158 mm
Table C16
Slenderness ratio, l:
l = l
0
/i
where
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)
0.5
= h/12
0.5
l = 3158 × 12
0.5
/300 = 36.5 l = 36.5
Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
& NA
where
A = 1/(1 + 0.2 f
ef
). Assume 0.7 Cl. 5.8.4
B = (1 + 2 A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
)
0.5
= (1 + 2w)
0.5
Assuming min. 4 no. H25 (for fire)
w = 0.56 as before
B = (1 + 2 × 0.56)
0.5
= 1.46
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
C = 1.7 – r
m
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
where
r
m
= M
01
/M
2
Assuming conservatively that M
01
= 0
r
m
= 0
C = 1.7
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1129.6 × 10
3
/(300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 0.74
§
See footnote to Section 5.1.1.
142
l
lim
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.46 × 1.7/0.74
0.5
= 40.4 l
lim
= 40.4
= as l < l
lim
column is not slender and 2nd order moments are not
required.
Column is not slender
5.2.4 Design moments, M
Ed
M
Ed
= M
OEd
+ M
2
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
5.8.8.2(3)
But as column is not slender, M
2
= 0, = Cl. 6.1.4
M
Ed
= M
Oed
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
e
i
N
Ed
= effect of imperfections

where
e
i
= l
0
/400 Cl. 5.2(7), 5.2.9,
5.8.8.2(1)
e
0
= h/30 > 20 mm Cl. 6.1.4
Load case 1:
M
Edy
= 89.6 + (3158/400) × 1129.6 × 10
−3
> 0.02 × 1129.6
= 89.6 + 8.9 > 22.6 = 98.5 kNm
Load case 2:
M
Edy
= 68.7 kNm
M
Edz
= 6.0 + (l
0
/400) × 1072.1 × 10
−3
> 0.02 × 1072.1
where
l
0
= 0.9 × 3000
= 13.2 > 21.4 = 21.4 kNm
Table C16
5.2.5 Design using iteration of x
For axial load:
A
sN
/2 = (N
Ed
– a
cc
nf
ck
bd
c
/g
C
)/(s
sc
– s
st
)
Concise:
Section 6.2.2,
Appendix A3
For moment:
A
sM
/2 =
[M
Ed
– a
cc
nf
ck
bd
c
(h/2 – d
c
/2)/ g
C
]
(h/2 – d
2
) (s
sc
– s
st
)
Appendices A3,
C9.2,
where
M
Ed
= 98.5 × 10
6
N
Ed
= 1129.6 × 10
3
a
cc
= 0.85 Cl. 3.1.6(1) & NA
n = 1.0 for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa Exp. (3.21)

The effects of imperfections need only be taken into account in the most
unfavourable direction. Cl. 5.8.9(2)
143
S? ler|meter co|umn
f
ck
= 30
b = 300
h = 300
d
c
= depth of compression zone
= lx Exp. (3.19)
= 0.8x < h
where
x = depth to neutral axis
d
2
= 35 + 8 + 25/2 = 55 mm assuming H25
g
C
= 1.5
s
sc
, (s
st
) = stress in reinforcement in compression (tension) Table 2.1N
a) Strain diagram b) Stress diagram
s
st
f
cd
= a
cc
nf
ck
/g
C
d
2
h
x
d
c
d
2
A
s2
A
s1
o
o o
o
n. axis
s
sc
e
sc
e
cu2
e
y
Figure 5.4 Section in axial compression and bending Fig. 6.1
Try x = 200 mm
e
cu
= e
cu2
= 0.0035
e
sc
=
0.0035 × (x – d
2
)
=
0.0035 × (200 – 55)
x 200
= 0.0025
s
sc
= 0.0025 × 200000 ≤ f
yk
/g
S
= 500 ≤ 500/1.15
= 434.8 MPa
e
st
= 0.0035(h – x – d
2
)/x = 0.0035(300 – 200 – 55)/200
= 0.0008
s
st
= 0.0008 × 200000 ≤ 500/1.15
= 160 MPa
A
sN
/2 =
1129.6 × 10
3
– 0.85 × 1.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.8/(1.5 × 10
3
)
434.8 – 160
= (1129.6 – 816.0) × 10
3
= 1141 mm
2
274.8
144
A
sM
/2 =
98.5 × 10
6
– 0.85 × 1.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.8 (300/2 – 200 × 0.8/2)/(1.5 × 10
3
)
(300/2 – 55) (434.8 + 160)
=
(98.5 – 57.1) × 10
6

= 733 mm
2
95 × 594.8
Similarly for x = 210 mm
e
cu
= 0.0035
e
sc
= 0.0026 = s
sc
= 434.8
e
st
= 0.0006 = s
st
= 120 MPa
A
sN
/2 =
(1129.6 – 856.8) × 10
3
= 866 mm
2
434.8 – 120
A
sM
/2 =
(98.5 – 56.5) × 10
6

= 796 mm
2
95 × 554.8
Similarly for x = 212 mm
s
sc
= 434.8
e
st
= 0.00054 =e
st
= 109 MPa
A
sN
/2 =
(1129.6 – 865.0) × 10
3

= 812 mm
2
434.8 – 109
A
sM
/2 =
(98.5 – 56.3) × 10
6

= 816 mm
2
95 × 543.8
= as A
sN
/2 ≈ A
sM
/2, x = 212 mm is approximately correct and
A
sN
≈ A
sM
, ≈ 1628 mm
2
= Try 4 no. H25 (1964 mm
2
)
5.2.6 Check for biaxial bending
By inspection, not critical. Cl. 5.8.9(3)
[Proof:
Section is symmetrical and M
Rdz
> 98.5 kNm.
Assuming e
y
/e
z
> 0.2 and biaxial bending is critical, and assuming
exponent a = 1 as a worst case for load case 2: Exp. (5.39)
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
= (21.4/98.5)
1
+ (68.7/98.5)
1
= 0.91 i.e. < 1.0 = OK.]
5.2.7 Links
Minimum size links = 25/4 = 6.25, say 8 mm
Spacing: minimum of
a) 0.6 × 20 × 25 = 300 mm,
b) 0.6 × 300 = 180 mm or
c) 0.6 × 400 = 240 mm
Use H8 @ 175 mm cc
Cl. 9.5.3(3),
9.5.3(4)
145
S? ler|meter co|umn
5.2.8 Design summary
4 H25
H8 links @ 175 cc
c
nom
= 35 mm to links
Figure 5.5 Design summary: perimeter column
146
The design forces need to be determined. This will include the
judgement of whether to use Exp. (6.10) or the worse case of
Exp. (6.10a) and (6.10b) for the design of this column.
The suspended slabs (including the ground floor slab) are 300
mm thick flat slabs at 4500 mm vertical centres. Between ground
and 5th floors the columns at C2 are 500 mm square; above 5th
floor they are 465 mm circular. Assume an internal environment,
1-hour fire resistance and f
ck
= 50 MPa.
E
D
C
A
4.0
8.0
9.6
200 x 200
hole
200 x 200
hole
300 mm flat slabs
All columns 400 mm sq.
8.6
8.0
4.0 4.0
6
.0
1
2
3
B Bb
5.3.1 Design forces
In order to determine design forces for this column it is first
necessary to determine vertical loads and 1st order moments.
5.3.2 Load take-down
Actions:
Roof:
g
k
= 8.5, q
k
= 0.6
EC1-1-1:
6.3.4, NA &
Table NA.7
5.3 Internal column
¹he ¦et s|e| shown |n lxemp|e 34 (reproduced es l|gure S6) |s pert o¦ en S-storey structure
e|ove ground w|th e |esement |e|ow ground ¹he pro||em |s to des|gn co|umn C? |etween
ground ¦oor end !st ¦oor
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Internal column
Figure 5.6 Part plan of flat slab
147
S3 lnterne| co|umn
Floors:
g
k
= 8.5, q
k
= 4.0 Section 3.4
In keeping with Section 3.4 use coefficients to determine loads in
take-down.
Section 3.4
Consider spans adjacent to column C2:
Along grid C, consider spans to be 9.6 m and 8.6 m and C2 to be
the internal of 2 - span element.
Therefore elastic reaction factor = 0.63 + 0.63 = 1.26
Along grid 2 consider spans to be 6.0 m and 6.2 m and internal of
multiple span.
Elastic reaction factor = 0.5 + 0.5 = 1.00
Table C3
Load take-down for column C2.
Item Calculation
G
k
Q
k
From
item
Cumulative
total
From
item
Cumulative
total
Roof = [erf
y
× (l
z1
+ l
z2
)/2 ] × [erf
z
× (l
y1
+ l
y2
)/2 ] ×
(g
k
+ q
k
)
= [1.0 × (6.0 + 6.2)/2 ] × [1.26 × (9.6
+ 8.6)/2 ] × (8.5 + 0.6)
= 69.9 × (8.5 + 0.6) = 594.5 42.0
Col 8 – R = π (0.465/2)
2
× (4.5 − 0.3) × 25 = 17.9 612.4 42.0
8th = 1.0 × (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 1.26 × (9.6 +
8.6)/2 × (8.5 + 4.0) =
594.5 279.7
Col 7 – 8 as before 17.9 1224.8 321.7
7th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 6 – 7 a.b. 17.9 1837.2 601.4
6th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 5 – 6 a.b. 17.9 2449.6 881.1
5th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 4 – 5 = 0.5 × 0.5 × (4.5 − 0.3) × 25 = 26.3 3070.4 1160.8
4th as before 594.5 279.7
Col 3 – 4 a.b. 26.3 3691.2 1440.5
3rd a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 2 – 3 a.b. 26.3 4312.0 1720.2
2nd a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 1 – 2 a.b. 26.3 4932.8 1999.7
1st a.b. 594.5 279.8
Col G – 1 a.b. 26.3 5553.6 2279.5
At above ground floor
÷
5553.6
÷
2279.5
148
5.3.3 Design axial load, ground– 1st floor, N
Ed
a) Axial load to Exp. (6.10)
N
Ed
= g
G
G
k
+ g
Q
Q
k1
+ c
0
g
Q
Q
ki
EC0:
Exp. (6.10) & NA
where
g
G
= 1.35
g
Q
= 1.50
c
0,1
= 0.7 (offices)
Q
k1
= leading variable action (subject to reduction factor a
A
or a
n
)
EC0:
A1.2.2 & NA
Q
ki
= accompanying action (subject to a
A
or a
n
) EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10),
6.3.1.2 (11), & NA
where
a
A
= 1 – A/1000 ≥ 0.75
= 1 – 9 × 69.9/1000 = 0.37 ≥ 0.75
= 0.75
a
n
= 1.1 – n/10 for 1 ≤ n ≤ 5
= 0.6 for 5 ≤ n ≤ 10 and
= 0.5 for n > 10
where
n = number of storeys supported
a
n
= 0.6 for 8

storeys supported
= as a
n
< a
A
, use a
n
= 0.6
Assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable
action:
N
Ed
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × (2279.5 − 42.0) × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × 2237.5 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 7497.4 + 2013.8 + 44.1
= 9555.3 kN
To Exp. (6.10), N
Ed
= 9555.3 kN
b) Axial load to Exp. (6.10a)
N
Ed
= g
G
G
k
+ c
0,1
g
Q
Q
k1
+ c
0,1
g
Q
Q
ki
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 0.6 ( 279.8 + 1999.7)
= 7497.4 + 1436.1
= 8933.4 kN
To Exp. (6.10a), N
Ed
= 8933.4 kN
EC0:
Exp. (6.10a)
& NA
c) Axial load to Exp. (6.10b)
N
Ed
= jg
G
G
k
+ g
Q
Q
k1
+ c
0,1
g
Q
Q
ki
EC0:
Exp. (6.10)
& NA

According to BS EN 1991–1–1 6.3.1.2
[11]
the imposed load on the roof is category
H and therefore does not qualify for reduction factor a
n
.
149
S3 lnterne| co|umn
assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable
action:
= 0.925 × 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × (2279.5 − 42.0) × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 1.25 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × 2237.5 × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 6942.1 + 2013.8+ 44.1
= 9000.0 kN
To Exp. (6.10b), N
Ed
= 9000.0 kN
5.3.4 First order design moments, M
a) Grid C
Consider grid C to determine M
yy
in column (about grid 2)
300 thick ave 6100 wide 500 sq
q
k
= 6.1 x 4.0 = 24.4 kN/m g
k
= 6.1 x 8.5 = 51.9 kN/m
4500
4500
1 2 3
8600 9600
Actions:
g
k
= (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 8.5 = 51.9 kN/m
q
k
= (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 4.0 = 24.4 kN/m
Relative stiffness of lower column:
Assuming remote ends of slabs are pinned, relative stiffness

=
b
lc
d
lc
3
/L
lc
b
lc
d
lc
3
/L
lc
+ b
uc
d
uc
3
/L
uc
+ 0.75b
23
d
23
3
/L
23
+ 0.75b
21
d
21
3
/L
21
where
b = breadth
d = depth
L = length

lc
= lower column,
uc
= upper column

23
= beam 23, similarly
21
= beam 21

=
0.5
4
/4.5
2 × 0.5
4
/4.5 + 0.75 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/8.6 + 0.75 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/9.6
= 0.0139/(0.0278 + 0.0144 + 0.0129) = 0.252
150
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10)
FEM 23

= 1.35 × 51.9 × 8.6
2
/12 = 431.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.35 × 51.9 + 1.5 × 24.4) × 9.6
2
/12
= 106.7 × 9.6
2
/12 = 819.5 kNm
M
lower,yy
= 0.252 × [819.5 – 431.8] = 97.7 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10a)
FEM 23 = 1.25 × 51.9 × 8.6
2
/12 = 399.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.25 × 51.9 + 1.5 × 24.4) × 9.6
2
/12
= 101.5 × 9.6
2
/12 = 779.5 kNm
M
lower,yy
= 0.252 × (779.5 – 399.8) = 95.7 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10b)
FEM 23 = 1.35 × 51.9 × 8.6
2
/12 = 431.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.35 × 51.9 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 24.4 ) × 9.6
2
/12
= 95.7 × 9.6
2
/12 = 735.0 kNm
M
lower,yy
= 0.252 × (735.0 – 431.8) = 76.4 kNm
= Exp. (6.10a) critical
b) Grid 2
Consider grid 2 to determine M
zz
in column (about grid C)
300 thick ave 11470 wide 500 sq
g
k
= 97.5 kN/m q
k
= 45.9 kN/m
4500
4500
D C B
6200 6000
Figure 5.8 Subframe on column C2 along grid 2
Actions:
g
k
= 0.63 × (8.6 + 9.6) × 8.5
= 11.47 × 8.5 = 97.5 kN/m
q
k
= 11.47 × 4.0 = 45.9 kN/m
Relative stiffness of lower column:
Assuming remote ends of slabs are fixed, relative stiffness
Cl. 5.8.3.2(4)
PD 6687

FEM 23 = Fixed end moment in span 23 at grid 2.
151
S3 lnterne| co|umn

=
0.5
4
/4.5
2 × 0.5
4
/4.5 + 11.47 × 0.3
3
/6.2 +11.47 × 0.3
3
/6.0
= 0.0139/(0.0278 + 0.0500 + 0.0516) = 0.107
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10)
FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.2
2
/12
= 200.5 × 6.2
2
/12 = 642.3 kNm
FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.0
2
/12 = 394.9 kNm
M
lower,zz
= 0.107 × (642.3 – 394.9) = 26.5 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10a)
FEM CB = 1.25 × 97.5 × 6.0
2
/12 = 365.6 kNm
FEM CD = (1.25 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12
= 190.7 × 6.22/12 = 611.0 kNm
M
lower,zz
= 0.107 × (611.0 – 365.6) = 26.3 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10b)
FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.2
2
/12
= 190.7 × 6.2
2
/12 = 576.0 kNm
FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.0
2
/12 = 394.9 kNm
M
lower,zz
= 0.107 × (576.0 – 394.9) = 19.4 kNm
= Exp. (6.10a) critical again
5.3.5 Summary of design forces in column C2 ground–1st
Design forces
Method N
Ed
M
yy
about grid 2
M
zz
about grid C
Using Exp. (6.10) 9555.3 kN 97.7 kNm 26.5 kNm
Using Exp. (6.10a) 8933.4 kN 95.7 kNm 26.3 kNm
Using Exp. (6.10b) 9000.0 kN 76.4 kNm 19.4 kNm
Notes:
1) To determine maximum 1st order moments in the column, maximum out-of-
balance moments have been determined using variable actions to one side of
the column only. The effect on axial load has, conservatively, been ignored.
2) It may be argued that using coefficients for the design of the slab and
reactions to the columns does not warrant the sophistication of using Exps
(6.10a) and (6.10b). Nevertheless, there would appear to be some economy
in designing the column to Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) rather than Exp.
(6.10). The use of Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) is perfectly valid and will be
followed here.
To avoid duplicate designs for both Exps (6.10a) and (6.10b), a worse
case of their design forces will be used, thus:
N
Ed
= 9000 kN, M
yy
= 95.7 kNm, M
zz
= 26.3 kNm
152
5.3.6 Design: cover
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links.
= 32 – 8 = 24 mm to link
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assume XC1.
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
c
min,dur
= 15 mm BS 8500-1:
Table A4
c
min
= 24 mm, say 25 mm to link
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
= c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm Cl. 4.4.1.3 & NA
5.3.7 Design: fire resistance
Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.2a EC2-1-2:
5.3.2, Table 5.2a
a) Check l
0,fi
≤ 3.0 m
where
l
0
= effective length of column in fire
= 0.5 × clear height
= 0.5 × (4500 – 300)
= 2100 mm OK
b) Check e ≤ e
max
= 0.15h = 0.15 × 500 = 75 mm
e = M
0Ed,fi
/N
0Ed,fi
= M
0
/N
Ed
= 99.5 × 10
6
/8933 × 10
3
= 11 mm OK
EC2-1-2: 5.3.2(2)
c) Check amount of reinforcement ≤ 4% OK
Assuming m

= 0.7
b
min
= 350 with
a
min
= 40 mm OK
For fire using Method A and Table 5.2a is valid
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.2a
5.3.8 Structural design: check slenderness
Effective length, l
0
:
l
0
= 0.5l [1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
)]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
)]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where
k
1
and k
2
are relative flexibilities at top and bottom of the
column.
k
i
= (EI
col
/l
col
)/S(2EI
beam
/l
beam
) ≥ 0.1 PD 6687
[6]‡

PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking, the contribution of each beam
should be taken as 2EI/l
beam
153
S3 lnterne| co|umn
Critical direction is where k
1
and k
2
are greatest i.e. where slab spans
are greater

k
1
= k
2
=
b
lc
d
lc
3
/L
lc
2b
23
d
23
3
/L
23
+ 2b
21
d
21
3
/L
21
= (0.5
4
/4.5)/(2 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/8.6 + 2 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/9.6)
= (0.0625)/(0.0383 + 0.0343)
= 0.86
How to
[8]
:
Columns
l
0
= 0.5 (4500 – 300) [1 + 0.86/(0.45 + 0.86)]
0.5
[1 + 0.86/(0.45
+ 0.86)]
0.5
l
0
= 0.5 × 4200 × 1.66
= 0.828 × 4200 = 3478 mm
Slenderness ratio, l: Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
l = l
0
/i
where
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)
0.5
= h/12
0.5
= l = 3478 × 12
0.5
/500 = 24.1
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
: Cl. 5.8.3.1(1) & NA
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
where
A = 1/(1 + 0.2 f
ef
). Assume 0.7 as per default
B = (1 + 200)
0.5
. Assume 1.1 as per default
C = 1.7 – ·
m
where
·
m
= M
01
/M
2
= –84.9/109.3 = –0.78
C = 1.7 + 0.78 = 2.48
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 8933 × 10
3
/(500
2
× 0.85 × 50/1.5)
= 1.26
= l
lim
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.48/1.26
0.5
= 34.0
= as l < l
lim
column is not slender
and 2nd order moments are not required
Exp. (5.13N)
5.3.9 Design moments, M
Ed
M
Ed
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
6.1(4)
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
e
i
N
Ed
= effect of imperfections Cl. 5.8.8.2(1)
154
where
e
i
= l
0
/400 Cl. 5.2.7
e
0
N
Ed
= minimum eccentricity Cl. 6.1(4)
where
e
0
= h/30 ≥ 20 mm
M
Edyy
= 95.7 + (3570/400) × 8933 × 10
−3
≥ 0.02 × 8933
= 95.7 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7
= 175.4 < 178.7 kNm
M
Edzz
= 18.8 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7
= 178.7 kNm = Both critical.
However, imperfections need only be taken in one direction – where
they have the most unfavourable effect
= Use M
Edzz
= 178.7 with M
Edyy
= 95.7 kNm Cl. 5.8.9(2)
5.3.10 Design using charts
M
Edyy
/bh
2
f
ck
= 178.9 × 10
6
/(500
3
× 50) = 0.03
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 9000 × 10
3
/(500
2
× 50) = 0.72
Choice of chart based on d
2
/h
where
d
2
= depth to centroid of reinforcement in half section assuming
12 bar arrangement with H32s
d
2
= 35 + 8 + (32/2) + (2/6) [500 + 2 × (35 + 8 + 32/2 )/3]
= 59 + (1/3) × 127
= 101
= d
2
/h = 101/500 = 0.2 Use Figure C5d)
Figs C5a) to C5e)
d
2
C
L
d
2
, to centroid of reinforcement in half section
From Figure C5d) Fig. C5d)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.30
A
s
= 0.29 × 500 × 500 × 50/500
= 7500 mm
2
Try 12 no. H32 (9648 mm
2
)


Using design actions to Exp. (6.10) would have resulted in a requirement for
8500 mm
2
.

155
S3 lnterne| co|umn
5.3.11 Check biaxial bending
Cl. 5.8.9
Slenderness: l
y
≈ l
z
= OK.
Eccentricities: as h = b check e
y
/e
z
M
Edz
critical. (Imperfections act in z direction.)
e
y
/e
z
=
95.7 × 10
6
/9000 × 10
3
178.7 × 10
6
/9000 × 10
3
Cl. 5.8.9(3)
= 0.54 i.e. > 0.2 and < 5
= Design for biaxial bending.
Cl. 5.9.3(3),
Exp. (5.38b)
e
y
e
z
M
Edy
Centre of
reaction
M
Edz
b
h
z
y
*
C
2
Figure 5.10 Eccentricities
5.3.12 Design for biaxial bending
Check (M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0 Cl. 5.9.3(4),
Exp. (5.39)
For load case 2
where
M
Edz
= 178.7 kNm
M
Edy
= 95.7 kNm
M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
= moment resistance. Using charts:
From Figure C4d), for d
2
/h = 0.20 and
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 9648 × 500/500 × 500 × 50
= 0.39
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 9000 x 10
3
/(500
2
x 50)
= 0.72
M
Rd
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.057 Fig. C5d)
= M
Rd
≈ 0.057 × 500
3
× 50
= 356.3 kNm
156
a = exponent dependent upon N
Ed
/N
Rd
Cl. 5.8.3(4)
where
N
Rd
= A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
= 500 × 500 × 0.85 × 50/1.5 + 9648 × 500/1.15
= 7083 + 3216
= 10299 kN
N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 9000/10299 = 0.87.
Interpolating between values given for N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 0.7
(1.5) and for N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 1.0 (2.0)
Notes to
Exp. (5.39)
= a = 1.67
Check (M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0
(178.7/356.3)
1.67
+ (95.7/356.3)
1.67
= 0.32 + 0.11
= 0.43 i.e. < 1.0 = OK
Use 12 no. H32
5.3.13 Links
Minimum diameter of links: = f/4 = 32/4
= 8 mm
Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Spacing, either:
a) 0.6 × 20 × f = 12 × 32 = 384 mm,
b) 0.6 × h = 0.6 × 500 = 300 mm or
c) 0.6 × 400 = 240 mm.
= Use H8 links at 225 mm cc
Cl. 9.5.3(3),
9.5.3(4)
Number of legs:
Bars at 127 mm cc i.e. < 150 mm = no need to restrain bars in face
but good practice suggests alternate bars should be restrained.
= Use single leg on face bars both ways @ 225 mm cc
Cl. 9.5.3(6)
SMDSC: 6.4.2
5.3.14 Design summary
12 H32
H8 links @ 225 cc
35 mm to link
500 mm sq
f
ck
= 50 MPa
Figure 5.11 Design summary: internal column
157
S4 Sme|| per|meter co|umn
5.4
The middle column, B, in Figure 4.5, supports two levels of storage
loads and is subject to an ultimate axial load of 1824.1 kN

. From
analysis it has moments of 114.5 kNm in the plane of the beam and
146.1 kNm perpendicular to the beam (i.e. about the z axis).
The column is 350 mm square, 4000 mm long, measured from top
of foundation to centre of slab. It is supporting storage loads, in
an external environment (but not subject to de-icing salts) and is
subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement on three exposed
sides. Assume the base is pinned.
Slab
300
450
4000
350 x 350
column
Paving
Foundation
Figure 5.12 Perimeter column
5.4.1 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
Exp. (4.1)

G
k
= 562.1; Q
k
= 789.1; as column supports loads from 2 levels a
n
= 0.9; as
imposed loads are from storage c
0
= 1.0 =g
Q
= 1.50 and g
Q
= 1.35. = Ultimate
axial load, N
Ed
= 1.35 × 562.1 + 1.5 × 0.9 × 789.1 = 1824.1 kN.
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Small perimeter column
subject to two-hour fire resistance
Small perimeter column subject to two-hour fire
resistance
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show e sme|| s|ender co|umn su||ect to e requ|rement ¦or
?-hour ure res|stence lt |s |esed on the exemp|e shown |n Sect|on 4?
158
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC3/XC4, secondarily XF1,
c
min,dur
= 25 mm
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation
= 10 mm
= Try c
nom
= 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to 8 mm links
Try c
nom
= 35 mm to 8 mm links.
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
BS 8500-1
[14]
:
Table A4
5.4.2 Fire resistance
a) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method A
Axis distance available = 43 mm + f/2
Required axis distance to main bars, a for 350 mm square column EC1-1-2: 5.3.1(1) &
For m

= 0.5, a = 45 mm; and NA 5.3.2,
Table 5.2a
for m

= 0.7, a = 57 mm, providing:
8 bars used – OK but check later t
l t
0,fi
≤ 3 m – OK but check
e t ≤ e
max
= 0.15h = 0.15 × 350 = 52 mm
but e = M
0Ed,fi
/N
0Ed,fi
= 0.7 × 146.1 × 10
6
/0.7 × 1824.1 × 10
3
= 80 mm = no good
Try Method B
b) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method B EC2-1-2: 5.3.3,
Determine parameters n, w, and e, and check l

.
Assume 4 no. H32 + 4 no. H25 = (5180 mm
2
: 4.2%)
Table 5.2b
(say 4.2% OK – integrity OK) Cl. 9.5.2(3)
n = N
0Ed,fi
/0.7(A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
) EC2-1-2: Exp.
(5.8a)
= 0.7 × 1824.1 × 10
3
/0.7 (350 × 350 × a
cc
× f
ck
/ g
C
+ 5180 × 500/g
S
)
= 1276.9 × 10
3
/0.7 (350 × 350 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 5180 × 500/1.15)
= 1276.9 × 10
3
/0.7 (2082.5 + 2252.0)
= 0.42 OK
w = mechanical ratio EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
≤ 1.0
= 2252/2082
= 1.08 ≥ 1
But say within acceptable engineering tolerance =use w = 1.0 OK
e = first order eccentricity EC2-1-2: Exp.
= M
0Ed,fi
/N
0Ed,fi
(5.8b)
159
S4 Sme|| per|meter co|umn
= 0.7 × 146.1 × 10
6
/0.7 × 1824.1 × 10
3
EC2-1-2: 2.4.2(3)
= 80 mm as before z 0.23h. OK
l

= slenderness in fire
= l
0,fi
/i
where
l
0,fi
= effective length of column in fire
EC2-1-2: 5.3.2(2)
= 0.7l = 0.7 × 4000 = 2800 mm
i = radius of gyration
= h/3.46 for a rectangular section
Note 2
= l

= 2800/(350/3.46)
= 27.7 < 30 = OK
Table 5.2b valid for use in this case.
Interpolating from BS EN 1992–1–2 Table 5.2b for n = 0.42 and
w = 1.0, column width = 350 mm and axis distance = say, 48 mm
= Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK
c) As additional check, check adequacy of section to Annex B3 and
Annex C
Using BS EN 1992–1–2 Table C.8
EC2-1-2:
5.3.3(1), Annex C
& NA
For w = 1.0, e = 0.25b, R120, l = 30 EC2-1-2:
and interpolating between n = 0.3 and n = 0.5,
b
min
= 350 mm, a
min
= 48 mm.
= Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. H25 with 35 mm cover to 8 mm links
(a = 55 mm min.) OK
Annex C(2)
5.4.3 Structural design: check slenderness about z axis
Effective length, l
0
, about z axis:
l
0z
= 0.5l [1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
) ]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
) ]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where PD 6687: 2.10
l = clear height between restraints
= 4000 – 300/2 = 3850 mm
k
1
, k
2
= relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1
and 2 respectively
k
1
= [EI
col
/l
col
]/[2EI
beam1
/l
beam1
+ 2EI
beam2
/l
beam2
] ≥ 0.1 Cl. 5.8.3.2(3)
where
Treating beams as rectangular and cancelling E throughout:
I
col
/l
col
= 3504/(12 × 3850) = 3.25 × 10
5
I
beam1
/l
beam1
= 8500 × 300
3
/12 × 6000
= 31.8 × 10
5
I
beam2
/l
beam2
= 0
PD 6687
k
1
= 3.25/(2 × 31.8) = 0.051 ≥ 0.1
k
1
= 0.1
k
2
= by inspection (pinned end assumed) = ∞
160
= l
0z
= 0.5 × 3850 × [1 + 0.1/(0.45 + 0.1) ]
0.5
[1 + ∞/(0.45 + ∞)]
0.5
= 0.5 × 3850 × 1.087 × 1.41
= 0.77 × 3850 = 2965 mm
Slenderness ratio, l
z
: Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
l
z
= l
0z
/i
where
i = radius of gyration = h/3.46
l
z
= 3.46l
0z
/h = 3.46 × 2965/350 = 29.3
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
: Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
l
lim,z
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
where
A = 0.7
B = 1.1

C = 1.7 – r
m
where
r
m
= M
01
/M
02

say M
01
= 0 (pinned end) =r
m
= 0
C = 1.7 – 0 = 1.7
n = relative normal force = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1824.1 × 10
3
/(350
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 0.88
= l
lim,z
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 1.7/0.88
0.5
= 27.9
= As l
z
> l
lim,z
column is slender about z axis.
Exp. (5.13N)
5.4.4 Check slenderness on y axis
Effective length, l
0
, about z axis:
l
0y
= 0.5l
y
[1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
) ]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
) ]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where
l
y
= clear height between restraints
= 4000 + 300/2 – 750 = 3400 mm
k
1
= relative column flexibility at end 1
= ( I
col
/I
col
)/[S2(I
beam
/I
beam
)]
where
I
col
/I
col
= 350
4
/12 × 3400 = 3.68 × 10
5

On first pass the default value for B is used. It should be noted that in the
final design w = A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
= 6432 × (500/1.15) / (350
2
× 30 × 0.85/1.5) =
2796/2082 = 1.34. So B = (1 + 2 w)
0.5
= (1 + 1.34)
0.5
= 1.92 and the column
would not have been deemed ‘slender’. B = 1.1 relates approximately to a column
with f
ck
= 30 MPa and r = 0.4%.
* PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking, the contribution of each beam
should be taken as 2EI/l
beam
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1),
& NA,
EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
PD 6687*
161
S4 Sme|| per|meter co|umn
Treating beams as rectangular
I
beamAB
/l
beamAB
= 350 × 750
3
/[12 × (9000 – 350)]
= 14.2 × 10
5
I
beamBC
/l
beamBC
= 350 × 750
3
/[12 × (8000 – 350)]
= 16.1 × 10
5
k
1
= 3.68/(2 × (16.1 + 14.2) = 0.060 ≥ 0.1
k
1
= 0.1
k
2
= ∞ (pinned end assumed)
=l
0y
= 0.5 × 3400 [1 + 0.1/(0.45 + 0.1) ]
0.5
[1 +Ƹ/(0.45 + ∞) ]
0.5
= 0.5 × 3400 × 1.087 × 1.41
= 0.77 × 3400 = 2620 mm
Exp. (5.15)
Slenderness ratio, l
y
:
l
y
= 3.46l
0y
/h = 3.46 × 2620/350 = 25.9
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
:
l
lim,y
= l
lim,z
= 27.9
As l
y
< l
lim,y
, column not slender in y axis.
5.4.5 Design moments: M
Edz
about z axis
M
Edz
= max[M
02
; M
0Ed
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
] Cl. 5.8.8.2
where
M
02
= M
z
+ e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
where
M
z
= 146.1 kNm from analysis
e
i
N
Ed
= effect of imperfections
where
e
i
= l
0
/400
6.1.4
Cl. 5.2.7
e
0
= 20 mm
= M
02
= 146.1 + (2965/400) × 1824.1 ≥ 0.02 × 1824.1
= 146.1 + 13.4 > 36.5
= 159.5 kNm
M
0Ed
= equivalent 1st order moment at about z axis at about
mid-height may be taken as M
0ez
where
M
0ez
= (0.6M
02
+ 0.4M
01
) ≥ 0.4M
02
= 0.6 × 159.5 + 0.4 × 0 ≥ 0.4 × 159.5 = 95.7 kNm
Cl. 5.8.8.2(2)
M
2
= nominal 2nd order moment = N
ld
e
2
Cl. 5.8.8.2(3)
where
e
2
= (1/r) l
0
2
/10
Cl. 5.8.8. 3
where
1/r = curvature = K
v
K
h
[f
yd
/(E
s
× 0.45d)] Exp. (5.34)
where
K
v
= a correction factor for axial load
= (n
u
– n)/(n
u
– n
bal
)
162
where
n
u
= 1 + w
where
w = mechanical ratio
= A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
d
= 1.08 as before
n
u
= 2.08
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1824.1/2082 = 0.88
n
bal
= the value of n at maximum moment
resistance
= 0.40 (default)
K
v
= (2.08 – 0.88)/(2.08 – 0.40)
= 1.20/1.68 = 0.71
K
h
= a correction factor for creep
= 1 + bh
ef
where
b = 0.35 + (f
ck
/200) – (l/150)
= 0.35 + 30/200 – 29.3/150
= 0.35 + 0.15 – 0.195
= 0.305
h
ef
= effective creep coefficient

Cl. 5.8.4(2)
= h
(∞,t0)
M
0,Eqp
/M
0Ed
where
h
(∞,t0)
= final creep coefficient Cl. 3.1.4(2)
= from Figure 3.1 for inside conditions
h = 350 mm, C30/37, t
0
= 15
Fig. 3.1a
ƺ 2.4
M
0,Eqp
= 1st order moment due to quasi-
permanent loads


G
k
+ h
2
Q
k

× M
z
+ e
i
N
Ed
jg
G
G
k
+ h
0
g
Q
Q
k

=
63.3 + 0.8 × 46.0
× M
z
+ e
i
N
Ed
1.35 × 63.3 + 1.5 × 46.0

=
100.1
× 146.1 + 13.4
154.5
= 108.1 kNm
M
0Ed
= M
02
= 159.5 kNm

With reference to Exp. (5.13N), h
ef
may be taken as equal to 2.0. However, for the
purpose of illustration the full derivation is shown here. Exp. (5.1.3N)
163
S4 Sme|| per|meter co|umn
K
h
= 1 + 0.305 × 2.4 × 108.1/159.5
= 1.50
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
E
s
= 200000 MPa Cl. 3.2.7(3)
d = effective depth
= 350 – 35 – 8 – 16 = 291 mm
1/r = 0.71 × 1.50 × 434.8/(200000 × 0.45 × 291)
= 0.0000177
l
0
= 2965 mm as before
e
2
= (1/r) l
0
2
/10
= 0.0000177 × 2965
2
/10 = 15.6 mm
=M
2
= N
Ed
e
2
= 1824.1 × 10
3
× 15.6 = 28.4 kNm
M
01
= 0
= M
Edz
= max[M
02z
; M
0Edz
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
]
= max[159.5; 95.7 + 28.4; 0 + 28.4/2] = 159.5 kNm
a) 1st order moments
from analysis
M
z
= 146.1 kNm
M
2
= 28.4 kNm
M
2
/2 = 14.2 kNm
M
OEdz
= 95.8 kNm
M
z
= 0
M
Edz
= 159.5 kNm
M
z
= 0
e
i
N
Ed
= 13.4 kNm
b) Including 2nd order moments:
M
Edz
= max [M
02
, M
OEd
+ M
2
, M
01
= 0.5M
2
]
c) Design moments: M
Edz
about z axis
+ =
Figure 5.13 Design moments
M
Edz
5.4.6 Design moments: M
Edy
about y axis
M
Edy
= max[ M
02y
; M
0Edy
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
]
where
M
02y
= M
y
+ e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
= 114.5 + 13.4
§
≥ 36.7 kNm
= 127.9 kNm
M
0Edy
= (0.6M
02y
+ 0.4 M
01y
) ≥ 0.4M
02y
= 0.6 × 114.5 + 0.4 × 0
§
Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only. Cl. 5.8.9(2)
164
= 68.7 kNm
M
2
= 0 (as column is not slender not slender about y axis).
= M
Edy
= 127.9 kNm
5.4.7 Design in each direction using charts
In z direction: N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 1824.1 × 10
3
/(350
2
× 30)
= 0.50
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 159.5 × 10
6
/(350
3
× 30)
= 0.124
Assuming 8 bar arrangement, centroid of bars in half section:
d
2
≥ 35 + 8 + 16 + (350/2 – 35 –8 – 16) × 1/4 Fig. C4e)
ƽ 59 + 29 = 88 mm
d
2
/h = 0.25
From Figure C4e)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
A
s
= 0.50 × 350
2
× 30/500 = 3675 mm
2
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. T25 (5180 mm
2
) OK.
Fig. C4e)
In y direction: M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 127.9 × 10
6
/(350
3
× 30)
= 0.10
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
From Figure C4e)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.34
A
s
= 0.34 × 3502 × 30/500 = 2499 mm
2
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. T25 (5180 mm
2
) OK.
5.4.8 Check biaxial bending
l
y
≈ l
z
= OK. Exp. (5.38a)
e
z
= M
Edy
/N
Ed
e
y
= M
Edz
/N
Ed
e
y
/h
eq

=
M
Edz

=
159.5
= 1.25
e
z
/b
eq
M
Edy
127.9
Exp. (5.38b)
= need to check biaxial bending
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0
where
Exp. (5.39)
M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
= moment resistance=
Using Figure C4e)
Fig. C4e)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 5180 × 500/(350
2
× 30)
= 0.70
for N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.160
= M
Rd
= 0.160 × 350
3
× 30
165
S4 Sme|| per|meter co|umn
= 205.8 kNm
a depends on N
Ed
/N
Rd

where
N
Rd
= A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
= 350
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 5180 × 500/1.15
= 2082.5 + 2252.2
= 4332.7 kN
N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 1824.1/4332.7 = 0.42
= a = 1.27
(159.5/205.8)
1.27
+ (114.5/205.8)
1.27
= 0.72 + 0.47
= 1.19
= No good
= Try 8 no. T32 (6432 mm
2
)
Cl. 5.8.9(4)
For A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 6432 × 500/(350
2
× 30)
= 0.88
for N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.187 Fig. C4e)
= M
Rd
= 240.5 kNm
Check biaxial bending
(159.5/245.7)
1.27
+ (114.5/245.7)
1.27
= 0.59 + 0.39 = 0.98 OK
5.4.9 Check maximum area of reinforcement
A
s
/bd = 6432/350
2
= 5.2% > 4% Cl. 9.5.2(3) & NA
However, if laps can be avoided in this single lift column then the
integrity of the concrete is unlikely to be affected and 5.2% is
considered OK. OK PD 6687: 2.19
5.4.10 Design of links
Diameter min. = 32/4 = 8 mm Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Spacing max. = 0.6 × 350 = 210 mm Cl. 9.5.3(3),
9.5.3(4)
= Use H8 @ 200 mm cc
5.4.11 Design summary
8 H32
H8 links @ 200 cc
35 mm cover to link
No laps in column section
Note
The beam should be checked for torsion.
Figure 5.14 Design summary: small perimeter column
166
Walls
General
ve||s ere deuned es |e|ng vert|ce| e|ements whose |engths ere ¦our t|mes greeter then the|r
th|c|nesses ¹he|r des|gn does not d|¦¦er s|gn|ucent|y ¦rom the des|gn o¦ co|umns |n thet ex|e|
|oeds end moments e|out eech ex|s ere essessed end des|gned ¦or
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s sect|on |||ustrete the des|gn o¦ e s|ng|e sheer we||
Cenere||y, the method o¦ des|gn|ng we||s |s es ¦o||ows ln prect|ce, severe| o¦ these steps mey |e
com||ned
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA Table NA 2.1
Assess ect|ons on the we|| N EC1 (10 parts) & UK NAs
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons epp|y N EC0 & NA: Tables NA A1.1 &
NA: A1.2(B)
Assess dure||||ty requ|rements end determ|ne concrete N
strength
BS 8500–1
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eppropr|ete ¦|re N
res|stence per|od
Approved Document B
EC2–1–2
Leterm|ne cover ¦or ¦|re, dure||||ty end |ond N Cl. 4.4.1
Ane|yse structure ¦or cr|t|ce| com||net|on moments N
end ex|e| ¦orces
Section 5
Chec| s|enderness end determ|ne des|gn moments N Section 5.8
Leterm|ne eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red N Section 6.1
Chec| spec|ng o¦ |ers N Sections 8 & 9
6
6.0
ve||s
167
6.1 Shear wall
lxemp|e 6! shows the des|gn o¦ e s|mp|e ||neer sheer we|| es typ|ce||y used |n med|um-
r|se |u||d|ngs S|m||er pr|nc|p|es mey |e epp||ed to we||s thet ere sheped es C, l, ¹, ? end
recteng|es |n-p|en, |ut |ssues o¦ ||m|t|ng ¦enge d|mens|ons end sheer et corners need to |e
eddressed ¹he exemp|e shows on|y 0lS des|gn es, epert ¦rom m|n|mum erees o¦ stee| to
contro| crec||ng, SlS |ssues ere genere||y non-cr|t|ce| |n med|um-r|se structures lor sheer
we||s |n h|gh-r|se structures, re¦erence shou|d |e mede to spec|e||st ||tereture
|?9|

¹he exemp|e |s |ntended to show how e sheer we|| prov|d|ng pert o¦ the |etere| ste||||ty |n one
d|rect|on |n e med|um r|se structure m|ght |e des|gned |y hend
Ax|e| |oeds end urst order moments ere determ|ned ¹he des|gn cons|ders s|enderness |n order
to determ|ne des|gn moments, /
ld
, |n the p|ene perpend|cu|er to the we|| ¹he e¦¦ects o¦
e||ow|ng ¦or |mper¦ect|ons ere e|so |||ustreted
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |y chg ¦o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |y web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Shear wall
Wall A is 200 mm thick and, in addition to providing vertical support
to 200 mm flat slabs at roof level and floors 1 to 3, it helps to
provide lateral stability to the four-storey office block. Assuming the
stair itself provides no lateral stability, the wall is to be designed for
the critical section at ground and first floor level using BS EN 1990
Exp. (6.10). The concrete is C30/37. The wall is supported on pad
foundations and the ground floor is ground bearing.
Wall A
1300
4400
1500
7200
300 3600 6000 6000 6000 6000 2500 300
300
4800
4800
4800
300
30700
N
X
X
Figure 6.1 Typical floor plan Figure 6 1 Typical floor plan
900
Roof
3rd
2nd
1st
Gnd
4@3300
600
900
Figure 6.2 Section X–X
168
6.1.1 Actions
Permanent
actions
Variable
actions
g
k
q
k
kN/m
2
Roof Paving 40 mm
Waterproofing
Insulation
Suspended ceiling
Services
Self-weight 200 mm slab
Imposed load
1.00
0.50
0.10
0.15
0.30
5.00
7.05
0.60
Section 2.8
Section 2.4.2
Floor
slabs
Carpet
Raised floor
Suspended ceiling
Services
Self-weight 200 mm slab
Imposed load
0.03
0.30
0.15
0.30
5.00
5.78
2.50
Section 2.8
Section 2.4.2
Ground
floor
slab
(ground
bearing)
Carpet
Raised floor
Services
Self-weight 200 mm slab
Imposed load
0.03
0.30
0.15
5.00
5.48
3.00
Section 2.4.2
Stairs 150 waist @ 30
Treads 0.15 × 0.25 × 25 × 4/2 =
Screed 0.05 × 22 =
Plaster
Tiles and bedding
Imposed load
4.40
1.88
1.10
0.21
1.00
8.59
2.50
Section 2.8
Section 2.4.2
Cavity
wall
102 mm brickwork
50 mm insulation
100 mm blockwork
Plaster
2.37
0.02
1.40
0.21
4.00
Section 2.8
RC wall 200 mm wall
Plaster both sides
5.00
0.42
5.42
Section 2.8
Wind w
k
= 1.10
EC1-1-4 & NA
169
6! Sheer ve||
6.1.2 Load take-down
Consider whole wall. G
k
Q
k
Item Calculation From item Cum. total From item Cum. total
Roof (6.0/2 + 2.5/2) × (4.4 + 1.5/2) × (7.05
+ 0.6) = 154.3 13.1
Roof (6.0/2) × (1.3/2) × (7.05 + 0.6) = 13.7 1.2
Wall 3.3 × 4.4 × 5.42 = 78.7
246.7 14.3
At above 3rd floor 246.7 14.3
3rd floor (6.0/2) × (1.3/2 + 4.4 + 1.5/2) ×
(5.78 + 2.5) = 100.6 43.5
Landing (2.5/2 × 1.5/2) × (5.78 + 2.5) 11.6 5.0
Wall a. b. 78.7
Stair say 1.1 × 4.4 (8.59 + 2.5) 41.6 12.1
232.5 60.6
At above 2nd floor 479.2 74.9
2nd floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. 232.5 60.6
At above 1st floor 711.7 135.5
1st floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. 232.5 60.6
At above ground floor 944.2 196.1
Ground floor assume 1 m all round =
2 × (1.3/2 + 4.40 + 1.5/2) × (5.48 + 3.0) = 63.6 34.8
250 mm wall to foundation 4.4 × 0.2 × 0.6 × 25 = 13.2
76.8
At above foundation 1021.0 230.9
6.1.3 Design actions due to vertical load at ground–1st
G
k
= 944.2 G
k
/m = 944.2/4.4 = 214.6 kN/m
Q
k
= a
n
× 196.1
where
a
n
= 1.1 – n/10
where
n = no. of storeys qualifying for reduction

= 3
= 1.1 – 3/10 = 0.8
= Q
k
= 0.8 × 196.1 = 156.9 kN Q
k
/m = 156.9/4.4 = 35.7 kN/m
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2(11) & NA

Includes storeys supporting Categories A (residential and domestic), B (office),
C (areas of congregation) and D (shopping), but excludes E (storage and
industrial), F (traffic), G (traffic) and H (roofs).
170
6.1.4 Vertical loads from wind action: moments in plane
Consider wind loads, N–S
Wall A
Lift shaft
200 thick
walls
300 3600 6000 6000 6000 6000 2500 300
2400 o/a
2400
4400
30700
N
w
k
= 1.10 kN/m
2
Figure 6.3 Lateral stability against wind loads N–S
Check relative stiffness of lift shaft and wall A to determine share
of load on wall A.
Lift shaft: I
LS
= 2.4
4
/12 – 2.0
4
/12 – 0.2 × 1.6
3
/12
= 1.36 m
4
Wall A: I
WallA
= 0.2 × 4.4
3
/12
= 1.41 m
4
where I = inertia
= Wall A takes 1.41/(1.41 + 1.36) = 51% of wind load.
Check shear centre to resolve the effects of torsion.
Determine centre of gravity, CoG
L
of the lift shaft.
Area, A Lever arm, x Ax
2.4 × 2.4 = 5.76 1.2 6.912
–2.0 × 2.0 = –4.00 1.2 –4.800
–1.6 × 0.2 = –0.32 2.3 –0.732
1.44 1.38
2400
CoG
L
x
2
4
0
0
1
6
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
Figure 6.4 Lift shaft
171
6! Sheer we||
x = Ax/A = 1.38/1.44 = 0.956 m
i.e. from face of lift shaft to CoG of shaft
= 2.40 – 0.956 = 1.444 m
Shear centre, C
w
of walls, from centreline of wall A

=
I
LS
× (1.44 + 24.00 + 0.05

)
=
1.36 × 25.49
= 12.56 m from wall A
I
LS
+ I
WallA
1.36 + 1.41
or = 12.56 + 2.80 – 0.05 = 15.31 from east end of building.
1.45 24.00 2.80
C Wall A

15.31
15.35
W
k
CoG
L
* C
w
*
L
Wall A
Figure 6.5 Shear centre, C
w
CC and centre of action,
w
W
k
WW
Centre of action (30.7/2 = 15.35 m from end of building) and shear
centre (almost) coincide. = there is no torsion to resolve in the
stability system for wind in a N–S direction.
#

900
Roof
3rd
2nd
1st
Gnd
3300
3300
3300
3300
900
600
1
4
1
0
0
w
k
= 17.2 kN/m
300 4400 300
Figure 6.6 Wall A
– wind loads N–S
= Wall A takes 51% of wind load, so characteristic wind load on wall A,
w
k, wall A
= 51% × w
k
× L
x
= 51% × 1.1 × 30.7 = 17.2 kN/m

Assuming centreline of wall A is 50 mm to right hand side of grid.
#
Had there been significant torsion this would have been resolved into +/– forces
in a couple based on the shear walls.

172
= at just above ground floor, characteristic in-plane moment
in wall A, M
k
, due in this case to wind
= 17.2 × 14.1
2
/2 = 1709.8 kNm
Resolving into couple using 1 m either end of wall

, characteristic wind
load in each end, W
k
= 1709.8/3.4 = ±502.9 kN
6.1.5 Effects of global imperfections in plane of wall A
H
IG
H
I1
H
I2
H
I3
H
IR y
I
Roof
3rd
2nd
1st
Gnd
Figure 6.7 Global imperfections
Global imperfections can be represented by forces H
i
at floor level
where
H
i
= y
i
(N
b
– N
a
) Exp. (5.4)
where
y
i
= (1/200) a
h
a
m
Cl. 5.2(1), 5.2(5),
5.2(8) & NA
where
a
h
= 0.67 ≤ 2/l
0.5
≤ 1.0
= 0.67 ≤ 2/14.7
0.5
≤ 1.0
= 0.67 ≤ 0.52 ≤ 1.0
= 0.67
a
m
= [0.5(1 + 1/m)]
0.5
where
m = no. of members contributing to the total effect
= 25 vertical elements on 4 floors
= 100

For medium-rise shear walls there are a number of methods of design. Cl. 9.6.1
suggests strut-and-tie (see Volume 2 of these worked examples
[30]
). Another
method
[26]
is to determine elastic tensile and compression stresses from N
Ed
/bL
+/– 6M
Ed
/bL
2
and determine reinforcement requirements based on those maxima.
The method used here assumes a couple, consisting of 1.0 m of wall either end of
the wall. The reinforcement in tension is assumed to act at the centre of one end
and the concrete in compression (with a rectangular stress distribution) acts at
the centre of the other end. The forces generated by the couple add or subtract
from the axial load in the 1 m ends of the walls. The method is useful for typical
straight shear walls of say 2.5 to 5.0 m in length.
Vol. 2
173
6! Sheer we||
= a
m
= 0.71
= y
i
= 0.67 × 0.71/200
= 0.0024
N
b
, N
a
= axial forces in members below and above
(N
b
– N
a
) = axial load from each level
At roof level
Area = 30.4 × 14.5 – 1.3 × 2.5 – 3.6 × 4.8 = 420.3 m
3
Perimeter = 2 × (30.4 + 14.5) = 89.8 m
(N
a
– N
b
) = axial load from roof level
= 420.3 × (7.05 + 0.6) + 89.8 × 0.9 × 4.0 = 3286.4 + 252.2 kN
At 3rd floor
(N
a
– N
b
) = 420.3 × (5.78 + 2.5) + 89.8 × 3.3 × 4.0 = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
At 2nd floor
(N
a
– N
b
) = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
At 1st floor
(N
a
– N
b
) = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
H
iR
= 0.0024 × (3286.4 + 252.2) = 7.9 + 0.6 = 8.5 kN
H
i3
= H
i2
= H
i1
= 0.0024 × (3615.7 + 1050.8) = 8.7 + 2.5 = 11.2 kN
Characteristic design moment at ground floor,
M
k
= 8.5 × 13.2 + 11.2 × (9.90 + 6.60 + 3.30)
= 112.2 + 221.8 = 334.0 kNm
As before, wall A resists 51% of this moment. Resolving into couple
using 1 m either end of wall,
= G
kH
§
= 0.51 × 334.0/3.4 = ± 50.1 kN
i.e. G
kH
= ±50.1 kN/m
6.1.6 Check for global second order effects
To check whether the building might act as a sway frame check Cl. 5.8.3.3(1)
F
V,Ed
≤ k
l

n
s

=
SE
cd
I
c

n
s
+ 1.6 L
2
Exp. (5.18)
where
F
V,Ed
= Total vertical load (on braced and bracing members)
where
Floor area = (30.7 – 2 × 0.15) × 14.4 – (2 × 0.15) – 3.6
× 4.8 – 1.3 × 2.5
= 428.6 – 20.5 = 408.1
§
As H
i
derives mainly from permanent actions its resulting effects are
considered as being a permanent action too.
174
Loads G
k
Q
k
from roof: 408 (7.05 + 0.6) =
3–1 floors: 3 × 408 (5.78 + 2.5) =
Allow cavity wall at 1st floor and above
2876
7075
245
3060
(3 × 3.30 + 0.9) × 2 × (30.4 + 14.1) × 4.0 =
Imposed load reduction 20% (see 6.2.3)
3845
13705
13705
3305
661
2644
=F
V,Ed
≈ 13705 × 1.35 + 1.5 × 2644
= 22468 kN
k
l
= 0.31
n
s
= number of storeys
= 4 (including roof)
E
cd
= E
cm
/g
CE
= 33/1.2 = 27.5 GPa
Cl. 5.8.2(6) & NA
Table 3.1,
5.8.6(3) & NA
I
c
= Inertia of bracing members
in N–S direction
I
c
= 1.36 + 1.41 = 2.77 m
4
(See Section 6.1.4)
in E–W direction
I
LS
, with reference to Figure 6.4
h × d Area, A × Ax Ax
2
I
2.4 × 2.4 = 5.76 1.2 6.912 8.294 2.765
–2.0 × 2.0 = –4.00 1.2 –4.800 –5.760 –1.333
–1.6 × 0.2 = –0.32 2.3 –0.732 –1.683 –0.001
1.44 1.38 0.851 1.431
as before (6.1.4), x = 1.38/1.44
= 0.956 m
I
LS
= I
NU
= Ax
2
+ I – Ax
2
= 0.851 + 1.431 – 1.44 × 0.956
= 0.965 m
4
L = total height of building above level of moment restraint
= 14.7 (see Figure 6.6)
Check
k
l

n
s


×

SE
cd
I
c

on weak E–W axis:
n
s
+ 1.6 L
2
= 0.31 × [4/(4 + 1.6)] × 27500 × 10
3
× (0.965/14.7
2
)
= 27200 kN
i.e. > F
V,Ed
= no need to design for 2nd order effects.
175
6! Sheer we||

6.1.7 Design moments – perpendicular to plane of wall
1
3
5
0
6
5
0
4
4
0
0
7
5
0
C
L
C
L
C
L
150
B
A A
B
up
200
1st
Gnd
Figure 6.8 Plan of wall A and location
of sections A–A and B–B
Figure 6.9 Section A–A
Section A–A @ 1st floor
The slab frames into the wall. For the purposes of assessing fixed
end moments, the width of slab contributing to the moments in the
wall is assumed to be the length of the wall plus distances half way
to adjacent supports either end. Therefore, consider the fixed end
moment for 1.50/2 + 4.40 + 1.30/2 = 5.8 m width of adjoining slab
framing into the 4.4 m long shear wall (see Figure 6.8).
n
k
s
k
w
k
w
Figure 6.10 Subframe section A–A @ 1st floor
FEM

: assuming imposed load is a leading variable action:
= nl
2
/8
= 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 1.5 × 2.5) × 6.0
2
/8
= 5.8 × 11.6 × 6
2
/8 = 302.8 kNm
EC0: Exp. (6.10)
& NA

FEM: fixed end moment
176
k
w
= EI/l = E × 4400 × 200
3
/(12 × 3300)
= E × 8.88 × 10
5
k
s
= EI/2l = E × 5800 × 200
3
/(2 × 12 × 6000)
= E × 3.22 × 10
5
M = 302.8 × 8.88/(2 × 8.8 + 3.22)
= 302.8 × 0.42 = 121.2 kNm
i.e. 121.2/4.40 = 27.5 kNm/m @ ULS
Similarly, assuming imposed load is an accompanying action:
FEM = 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 2.5) × 6
2
/8
= 5.8 × 10.4 × 6
2
/8 = 271.4 kNm
=M = 271.4 × 0.42/4.40 = 25.9 kNm/m @ ULS
Section A–A @ ground floor
By inspection not critical – nominal moment.
Section B–B @ 1st
Consider the landing influences half of wall (2.2 m long) and that
this section of wall is subject to supporting half the slab considered
before at 1st floor level at Section A–A.
1
6
5
0
1st
Landing
Gnd
Figure 6.11 Section B–B
FEM = 302.8/2 = 151.4 kNm
k
w
= I/l
= 2200 × 200
3
/(12 × 1650) = 8.88 × 10
5
k
s
= 3.22 × 10
5
/2 = 1.61 × 10
5
M = 151.4 × 8.88/(2 × 8.88 + 1.61)
= 151.4 × 0.46
= 69.6 kNm
i.e. 63.8/2.2 = 31.6 kNm/m @ ULS
177
6! Sheer we||
Similarly, assuming imposed load is an accompanying action:
FEM = 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 2.5) × 6
2
/8
= 5.8 × 10.4 × 6
2
/8 = 271.4 kNm
=M = 271.4 × 0.46/(2 × 2.2) = 28.4 kNm/m @ ULS
Section B–B @ landing level and ground floor
By inspection not critical
6.1.8 Consider slenderness of wall at ground floor
To derive maximum slenderness (at south end of wall), ignore effect
of landing.
Effective length, l
0
= 0.75 × (3300 – 200) = 2325 Table C16
l = 3.46 × l
0
/h = 3.46 × 2325/200 = 40.2 Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
Limiting slenderness, l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1),
Exp. (5.13N)
where
A = 0.7
B = 1.1
C = 1.7 – r
m
where
r
m
= M
01
/M
02
= say = –0.25
C = 1.95
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
d
where
N
Ed
= 214.6 × 1.25 + 31.2 × 1.5 × 0.7 + 502.9 × 1.5 +
98.2 × 1.5 × 0.7

= 268.3 + 32.8 + 754.4 + 103.1
= 1158.6 kN
A
c
f
d
= 200 × 1000 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 = 3400 kN
= n = 0.34
= l
lim
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 1.95/0.34
0.5
= 51.5
= As l < l
lim
wall is not slender and = no secondary moments
6.1.9 Summary: design forces on wall, ground–1st floor
At ground to 1st consider maxima.
Vertical loads G
k
= 214.6 kN/m
Q
k
= 35.7 kN/m
Vertical load due to in-plane bending and wind W
k
= ±502.9 kN/m
Vertical load due to in-plane bending and imperfections
G
kH
= ±50.1 kN/m
Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as leading action
M = 31.6 kN/m @ ULS
Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as accompanying action
M = 28.4 kN/m @ ULS

Assuming wind load is lead variable action.
178
6.1.10 Combinations of actions at ground–1st floor
a) At ULS, for maximum axial load, W
k
is leading variable action
N
Ed
= 1.35G
k
+ 1.5Q
k1
+ 1.5c
0
Q
ki
= 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 × 502.9 + 1.5 × 0.7 × 35.7
= 357.3 + 754.4 + 37.5
= 1149.2 kN/m
M
Ed
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
6.1.4
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
= 28.4 kNm/m
e
i
= l
0
/400 = 2325/400 = 5.8 mm Cl. 5.2(7), 5.2(9)
e
0
= h/30 ≥ 20 mm = 20 mm Cl. 6.1.4
M
Ed
= 28.4 + 0.0058 × 1149.2.1 ≥ 0.020 × 1149.2
= 28.4 + 6.7 ≥ 23.0 = 35.1 kNm/m
b) At ULS, for minimum axial load, W
k
is leading variable action
N
Ed
= 1.0 × 214.6 – 1.35 × 50.1 – 1.5 × 502.9 + 0 × 35.7
= –607.4 kN/m (tension)
M
Ed
= 28.4

+ 0.0058 × 607.4 ≥ 0.020 × 602.4
= 28.4 + 3.5 ≥ 23.0
= 31.9 kNm/m
c) At ULS, for maximum out of plane bending assuming Q
k
is leading
variable action
N
Ed
= 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 × 35.7 + 1.5 × 0.5 × 502.9
= 357.3 + 53.6 + 377.2
= 788.1 kN/m
M
Ed
= 31.6 + 0.0058 × 788.1 ≥ 0.020 × 788.1
= 31.6 + 4.6 ≥ 15.8
= 36.2 kNm/m
or
N
Ed
= 1.0 × 214.6 – 1.35 × 50.1 – 0 × 31.2 – 1.5 × 0.5 × 502.9
= 214.6 – 67.6 – 0 – 377.2
= –230.2 kN/m (tension)
M
Ed
= 31.6 + 0.0058 × 230.2
= 33.0 kNm/m
d) Design load cases
Consolidate c) into a) and b) to consider two load cases:
N
Ed
= 1149.4 kN/m,
M
Ed
= 36.2 kN/m (out of plane)
and N
Ed
= –607.4 kN/m,
M
Ed
= 36.2 kN/m (out of plane)

Strictly incompatible with Q
k
= 0. However, allow Q
k
= 0.
179
6! Sheer we||
6.1.11 Design: cover above ground
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
] Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar = 20 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers
c
min,dur
= for XC1 = 15 mm
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
=c
nom
= 15 + 10 = 25 mm to lacers
(35 mm to vertical bars)
6.1.12 Fire resistance
Assuming 1-hour fire resistance required for, as a worst case, μ

= 0.7
and fire on both sides.
Min. thickness = 140 mm, min. axis distance = 10 mm i.e. not critical EC2-1-2: Table 5.4
6.1.13 Design using charts
For compressive load:
d
2
/h = (25 + 10 + 16/2)/200 = 0.215
= interpolate between charts C5d) and C5e) for Figs C5d), C5e)
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 1149.4 × 10
3
/(200 × 1000 × 30) = 0.192
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 36.2 × 10
6
/(200
2
× 1000 × 30) = 0.030
Gives:
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0 = minimum area of reinforcement required
= 0.002 A
c
Cl. 9.6.2 & NA
= 0.002 × 200 × 1000
= 400 mm
2
/m
= 200 mm
2
/m each face
max. 400 mm cc, min. 12 mm diameter
Try T12 @ 400
Cl. 9.6.2(3);
SMDSC
A
s
/2
Moment
0 0 0 0
Tension Combined
+
e e e s
s
st2
s
st1


+
=
=
Combined
A
s
/2
Figure 6.12 Stresses and strains in wall subject to tension and
out of plane moment p
180
For tensile load and moment:
Working from first principles, referring to Figure 6.12 and ignoring
contribution from concrete in tension,
N
Ed
= (s
st1
+ s
st2
) × A
s
/2
and M
Ed
= (s
st1
– s
st2
) × A
s
/2 × (d – d
2
)
so s
st1
+ s
st2
= 2N
Ed
/A
s
and s
st1
– s
st2
= 2M
Ed
/[(d – d
2
)A
s
]
= 2s
st1
= 2N
Ed
/A
s
+ 2M
Ed
/[(d – d
2
)A
s
]
= A
s
= (N
Ed
/s
st1
) + M
Ed
/(d – d
2
)s
st1
s
st1
= f
yk
/g
S
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
= A
s
= 607.4 × 10
3
/434.8 + 36.2 × 10
6
/[(157 – 43) × 434.8]
= 1397 + 730
= 2127 mm
2
s
st2
= 2N
Ed
/A
s
– s
st1
= 571.7 – 434.8 = 136 MPa
By inspection all concrete is in tension zone and may be ignored.
Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc both sides for at least
1 m each end of wall (2412 mm
2
).
6.1.14 Horizontal reinforcement
A
s, hmin
= 0.001A
s
or 25% A
s vert
= 200 mm
2
or 0.25 × 2036 = 509 mm
2
/m
= requires 254 mm
2
/m each side
Cl. 9.6.3(1) & NA
Spacing ≤ 400 mm Cl. 9.6.3(2)
Links not required.
Use H10 @ 300 (262 mm
2
/m) both sides.
Cl. 9.6.4(1)
6.1.15 Check for tension at top of foundation
Permanent and variable:
G
k
= 1021.0/4.4 = 232.0 kN/m
Q
k
= 230.9/4.4 = 52.5 kN/m
Section 6.1.2
Wind:
M
k
= 17.2 × 14.1 × [14.1/2 + 0.6] = 1855.3 kN/m
Resolved into couple 1 m either end of wall
W
kw
= 1855.3/3.4 = ±545.7 kN/m
Section 6.1.4
Global imperfections:
M
k
= 8.5 × 13.8 + 11.2 × (10.5 + 7.2 + 3.9 + 0.6)
= 365.9 kNm
G
kH
= 365.9 × 0.51/3.4 = 54.9 kN/m
Section 6.1.5
181
6! Sheer we||
At ULS for maximum axial tension W
k
is lead imposed load:
N
Ed
= 1.0 × 232.0 – 1.35 × 54.9 – 1.5 × 545.7 + 0 × 52.5
= –660.7 kN/m
M
Ed
= nominal = e2N
Ed
= 0.02 × 660.7 Cl. 6.1.4
= 13.2 kNm/m
As before
A
s
=
N
Ed

+
M
Ed
f
yk
/g
M
(d – d
2
)f
yk
/g
M
= 660.7 × 10
3
/434.8 + 13.2 × 10
6
/[(157 – 43) × 434.8]
= 1520 + 266
= 1786 mm
2
i.e. not critical
= Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc b.s. for at least 1 m either end of wall
(2412 mm
2
).
6.1.16 Check for axial compression at top of foundation
At ULS for maximum axial compression W
k
is lead imposed load:
N
Ed
= 1.35 × 232.0 + 1.35 × 54.9 + 1.5 × 545.7 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 52.5
= 1261.0 kN/m
M
Ed
= nominal = e2N
Ed
= 0.02 × 1261.0 Cl. 6.1.4
= 25.2 kNm/m
By inspection not critical (minimum reinforcement required). Section 6.1.13
= tension critical as above.
6.1.17 Design: cover below ground
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
] Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar = 16 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers
c
min,dur
= for assumed Aggressive Chemical Environment for
Concrete (ACEC) class AC1 ground conditions
= 25 mm
BS 8500-1
Annex A
[14]
,
How to: Building
structures
[8]
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm to lacers
(45 mm to vertical bars)
In order to align vertical bars from foundation into Gnd–1st floor lift
as starter bars, locally increase thickness of wall to say
250 mm thick with c
nom
= 50 mm
182
6.1.18 Check stability
Assume base extends 0.3 m beyond either end of wall A, i.e. is 5.0 m long
and is 1.2 m wide by 0.9 m deep.
Overturning moments
Wind (see Figure 6.6)
EC0: Table
A1.2(A) & NA
Fig. 6.6
M
k
= 17.2 × 14.1 × [14.1/2 + 1.5]
= 2073.5 kNm
Global imperfections (see Section 6.1.5) Fig. 6.7
M
k
= 0.51 x [8.5 × 14.7 + 11.2 × (11.4 + 8.1 + 4.8 + 1.5)]
= 0.51 x [125.0 + 11.2 × 25.8]
= 0.51 x 414.0
= 211 kNm
Restoring moment
M
k
= (1021.0 + 5.0 x 1.2 x 0.9 x 25 + 0 x 230.9 ) x (0.3 + 2.2)
= 2890 kNm
At ULS of EQU,
Overturning moment
= fn(g
Q,1
Q
k1
+ g
G,sup
G
k
)
= 1.5 x 2073.5 + 1.1 x 211.0 = 3342.4 kNm
EC0: Table
A1.2(A) & NA
Restoring moment
= fn(g
G,inf
G
k
)
= 0.9 x 2890 = 2601 kNm i.e. > 1818.4 kNm
= no good
EC0:
Table A1.2(A)
& NA
Try 1.05 m outstand
Restoring moment
M
k
= 2890 (1.05 + 2.2) / (0.3 + 2.2)
= 3757.0 kNm
At ULS, restoring moment = 0.9 x 357.0
= 3381.3 kNm
=OK. Use 1.05 m outstand to wall.
6.1.19 Design summary
H12 @ 400 b.s
12 12
1st
1050 1050
25 mm cover to 200 mm
wall above ground floor
24H16 @ 200
(12NF, 12FF)
Gnd
50 mm cover
to 250 wall
below ground floor
Lacers H10 @
300 m outside
183
/ ke¦erences end ¦urther reed|ng
7 References and further reading

References
1 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99?÷!÷!, lurocode ? ÷ lert !÷! /e·/qn o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· onJ ·a/e· |o· /a//J/nq· bSl, ?004
1a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert !÷! bSl, ?00S
2 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99?÷!÷?, lurocode ? ÷ lert !÷? /e·/qn o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· - ´|·ac|a·o/ |/·e Je·/qn bSl, ?004
2a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert !÷? bSl, ?00S
3 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99?÷?, lurocode ? ÷ lert ? /e·/qn o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - S·/Jqe· bSl, ?00S
3a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert ? bSl, ?00/
4 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99?÷3, lurocode ? ÷ lert 3 /e·/qn o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - //¡a/J-·e|o/n/nq onJ con|o/nmen| ·|·ac|a·e· bSl, ?006
4a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert 3 bSl, ?00/
5 k S NAkA¥ANAN 8 C l COOLClllL ¹he Concrete Centre Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
CCll-00S ¹CC, ?006
6 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON lL 66S/ Soc/q·oanJ oooe· |o |/e c/ /o|/ono/
/nne\e· S´ // '99?-' bSl, ?006
7 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS S!!0 ´|·ac|a·o/ a·e o| conc·e|e - /o·| ' CoJe o|
o·oc|/ce |o· Je·/qn onJ con·|·ac|/on bSl,!99/
8 bkOOllk, O et e| /ou |o Je·/qn conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/nq /a·ocoJe ? CCll-006
¹he Concrete Centre, ?006 0pdeted ¦or down|oed on|y ?009
9 ¹ll lNS¹l¹0¹lON Ol S¹k0C¹0kAl lNClNllkS/¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥/L¹l ´|onJo·J
me|/oJ o| Je|o///nq ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ¹h|rd ld|t|on lStructl, ?006
10 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !990, lurocode So·/· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/qn
bSl, ?00?
10a Net|one| Annex to lurocode bSl, ?004
11 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99!, lurocode ! /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
(!0 perts) bSl, ?00?÷?006
11a Net|one| Annexes to lurocode ! bSl, ?00S÷?00S end |n preperet|on
12 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99/÷!, lurocode / Oeo|ec/n/co/ Je·/qn
Oene·o/ ·a/e· bSl, ?004
12a Net|one| Annex to lurocode / bS lN !99/÷! bSl, ?00/
13 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99S÷!, lurocode S /e·/qn o| ·|·ac|a·e· |o·
eo·|/¡ao/e ·e·/·|once Oene·o/ ·a/e· ´e/·m/c oc|/on· |o· /a//J/nq· bSl, ?004
13a Net|one| Annex to lurocode S bS lN !99S÷! bSl, ?00S
14 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS SS00÷! Conc·e|e - Como/emen|o·, S·/|/·/
´|onJo·J |o S´ // ?06-' /e|/oJ o| ·oec/|,/nq onJ qa/Jonce |o |/e ·oec/|/e· bSl, ?00?
15 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS 4449 ´|ee/ |o· |/e ·e/n|o·cemen| o| conc·e|e -
we/Jo//e ·e/n|o·c/nq ·|ee/ - So· co// onJ Jeco//eJ o·oJac| - ´oec/|/co|/on bSl, ?00S
16 CONS¹k0C¹ /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/nq con·|·ac|/on ¹h|rd
ld|t|on, CS !S? ¹he Concrete Soc|ety on |ehe|¦ o¦ Construct, ?004
17 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !36/0 /\eca|/on o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - /o·| '
Common bSl, |n preperet|on, due ?0!0
18 CONS¹k0C¹ /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/nq con·|·ac|/on lourth
ed|t|on, |n preperet|on
184
19 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS S666 ?00S, ´c/eJa//nq J/men·/on/nq /enJ/nq
onJ ca||/nq o| ·|ee/ |o· ·e/n|o·cemen| ´oec/|/co|/on bSl, ?00S
20 ¹ll Q0llN'S lklN¹lk Ol AC¹S Ol lAkllAMlN¹, I/e Sa//J/nq /eqa/o|/on· ?000 ¹he
Stet|onery O¦¦|ce l|m|ted, ?000
21 ¹ll S¹A¹lONlk¥ OlllCl llMl¹lL (¹SO), Sa//J/nq ¸/menJmen|j ¸/o ?j /eqa/o|/on· ?00?
onJ |/e Sa//J/nq ¸/oo·o.eJ /n·oec|o·· e|cj ¸/menJmen|j /eqa/o|/on· ?00? ¹SO, ?00?
22 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON LL lNV !36/0÷! ?000 /\eca|/on o| conc·e|e
·|·ac|a·e· Common bSl, ?000
23 COOl, N /e·/qne·· qa/Je |o // '99'-4 /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· w/nJ oc|/on· ¹homes
¹e|¦ord, london, ?00/
24 LClC Oa/Je |o |/e a·e o| // '99'-'-4 - w/nJ oc|/on· LClC lu|||cet|ons, ?006
wwwcommun|t|esgovu|/p|enn|ngend|u||d|ng/p|enn|ng|u||d|ng/
|u||d|ngregu|et|onsreseerch/|u||d|ngd|v|s|onreseerch/
25 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN !99!÷!÷4 lurocode ! /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
Oene·o/ oc|/on· w/nJ oc|/on· bSl, ?00S
25a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ! ÷ lert !÷4 bSl, ?00S
26 bkOOllk, O Conc·e|e /a//J/nq· ·c/eme Je·/qn monao/ (lC? ed|t|on) CCll-0S! ¹he
Concrete Centre, ?009
27 ¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥ ¹echn|ce| keport 64, Oa/Je |o |/e Je·/qn onJ con·|·ac|/on o| /C
|/o| ·/o/·, CCll-0?? ¹he Concrete Soc|ety, ?00/
28 COOLClllL, C l 8 vlbS¹lk, k M /C ·o·eoJ·/ee|· .3, CCll-00SCL c·e· qa/Je |o /C
·o·eoJ·/ee|· \3, CCll-00S ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
29 lkvlN, A v /e·/qn o| ·/eo· uo// /a//J/nq· keport k!0? ClklA, !9S4
30 ¹ll CONCkl¹l ClN¹kl wo·/eJ e\omo/e· |o /a·ocoJe ? \o/ame ? CCll-04? ln
preperet|on
31 MOSlll¥, b, b0NCl¥, ¦ 8 l0lSl, k /e/n|o·ceJ conc·e|e Je·/qn |o /a·ocoJe ?, S|xth
ld|t|on le|greve McM|||en, ?00/
32 ¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥ /e|/ec|/on· /n conc·e|e ·/o/· onJ /eom· ¹k SS ¹he Concrete
Soc|ety, ?00S
33 bllb¥, A /oJ/|/eJ o·ooo·o/· |o· con|·o///nq Je|/ec|/on· /, meon· o| ·o|/o· o| ·oon |o e||ec|/.e
Jeo|/ ¹echn|ce| keport 4S6, Cement end Concrete Assoc|et|on, vexhem Spr|ngs, !9/!
34 AlllN, A l /e/n|o·ceJ conc·e|e Je·/qn |o S´ S''0 ·/mo/, e\o/o/neJ Spon, london, !9SS
35 lNS¹l¹0¹lON Ol S¹k0C¹0kAl lNClNllkS /onao/ |o· |/e Je·/qn o| conc·e|e /a//J/nq
·|·ac|a·e· |o /a·ocoJe ? lStructl, ?006
Further reading
N bllb¥ A v 8 NAkA¥ANAN k S Les|gners gu|de to the lurocodes ÷ lN !99?÷!÷!
end lN !99?÷!÷? lurocode ? /e·/qn o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· Oene·o/ ·a/e· onJ ·a/e· |o·
/a//J/nq· onJ ·|·ac|a·o/ |/·e Je·/qn ¹homes ¹e|¦ord, ?00S
N bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON ll !990?00/ ´|·ac|a·o/ /a·ocoJe· /\|·oc|· |·om
|/e ·|·ac|a·o/ /a·ocoJe· |o· ·|aJen|· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/qn second ed|t|on bSl, london,
?00/
N llNL¥ C k 8 SMl¹l L A, Les|gners gu|de to the lurocodes ÷ lN !99?÷? lurocode ?
/e·/qn o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· /o·| ? Conc·e|e /·/Jqe·, ¹homes ¹e|¦ord, ?00/
N ¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥ ¹echn|ce| keport 64, Oa/Je |o |/e Je·/qn onJ con·|·ac|/on o| /C
|/o| ·/o/·, CCll-0?? ¹he Concrete Soc|ety, ?00/
185
Append|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
Appendix A: Derived formulae
Flexure: beams and slabs
Singly reinforced sections
¹he rectengu|er stress ||oc| shown |e|ow |n l|gure A! mey |e used
h
A
s2
A
s
d
a) Section b) Strain c) Forces
neutral axis
d
2
e
c
e
sc
lx
e
s
x
nf
cd
F
c
z
F
st
F
sc
Figure A1
Strains and forces in a section
Fig. 3.5
lor gredes o¦ concrete up to CS0/60, e
cu
0003S, n ! end l 0S
|
cd
a
cc
|
c|
/g
C
0SS |
c|
/!S
3.1.6(1), 2.4.2.4(1)
& NA
|
yd
|
y|
/ g
S
|
y|
/!!S 0S/|
y|
2.4.2.4(1) & NA
lor s|ng|y re|n¦orced sect|ons, the des|gn equet|ons cen |e der|ved es ¦o||ows
Lever arm, z
z = d – 0.4x
F
st
F
c
0.8x
Figure A2
Beam lever arm
/
c
(0SS |
c|
/!S) / (0S\) 04S3|
c|
/\
/
st
0S//
s
|
y|
Cons|der moment

, /, e|out the centre o¦ the tens|on ¦orce
/ 04S3|
c|
/\·
Now · J ÷ 04\
= \ ?S(J ÷ ·)
/ 04S3|
c|
/?S(J ÷ ·)·
!!333 (|
c|
/·J ÷ |
c|
/ ·
?
)
let / ///J
?
|
c|
!!333 (|
c|
/·J ÷ |
c|

?
)//J
?
|
c|
!!333(·J ÷ ·
?
)/J
?
= 0 !!333|(·/J)
?
÷ (·/J)| ÷ /
(·/J)
?
÷ (·/J) ÷ 0SS?3S/

ln prect|ce the des|gn moment, /
ld
wou|d |e used
A1
A1.1
186
So|v|ng the quedret|c equet|on
·/J |! ÷ (! ÷ 3S?9/)
0S
|/?
· J|! ÷ |! ÷ 3S?9/)
0S
|/?
Table C5
/| /· con·/Je·eJ qooJ o·oc|/ce /n |/e c/ |o //m/| ·/J |o o mo\/mam o| 09'J ¸I//· qao·J· oqo/n·|
·e/,/nq on .e·, |//n ·ec|/on· o| conc·e|e u//c/ o| |/e e\|·eme |oo o| o ·ec|/on mo, /e o|
¡ae·|/ono//e ·|·enq|/j Io//e· q/./nq .o/ae· o| ·/J onJ \/J |o· .o/ae· o| / mo, /e a·eJ
Area of reinforcement, A
s
¹e||ng moments e|out the centre o¦ the compress|on ¦orce
/ 0S//
s
|
y|
·
/
s
//(0S/|
y|
·)
Limiting value of relative flexural compressive stress, K'
Assum|ng no red|str||ut|on te|es p|ece, e ||m|t|ng ve|ue (on the strength o¦ concrete |n
compress|on) ¦or / cen |e ce|cu|eted (denoted /) es ¦o||ows
e
cu3
concrete stre|n 0003S
e
s
re|n¦orcement stre|n
S00/(!!S × ?00 × !0
3
) 000??
lrom stre|n d|egrem, l|gure A!
\ 0003SJ/(0003S ÷ 000??)
06J
lrom equet|ons e|ove
/ 04S3|
c|
/\·
/ 04S3|
c|
/ 06J (J ÷ 04 × 06 J)
0?0/|
c|
/ J
?
= / 0?0/
lt |s o¦ten cons|dered good prect|ce to ||m|t the depth o¦ the neutre| ex|s to evo|d 'over-
re|n¦orcement' (|e to ensure thet the re|n¦orcement |s y|e|d|ng et ¦e||ure, thus evo|d|ng |r|tt|e
¦e||ure o¦ the concrete) O¦ten \/J |s ||m|ted to 04S ¹h|s |s re¦erred to es the |e|enced sect|on
|eceuse et the u|t|mete ||m|t stete the concrete end stee| reech the|r u|t|mete stre|ns et the
seme t|me
|3!|
¹h|s |s not e lurocode ? requ|rement end |s not eccepted |y e|| eng|neers
Nonethe|ess ¦or \ 04SJ
lrom equet|ons e|ove
/ 04S3|
c|
/\·
/ 04S3|
c|
/ 04SJ (J ÷ 04 × 04SJ)
0!6/|
c|
/J
?
= / 0!6/
Cl. 5.5(4)
\/J |s e|so restr|cted |y the emount o¦ red|str||ut|on cerr|ed out lor |
c|
< S0 Mle
d ~ 04 ÷ (06 ÷ 000!4e
cu
)\
u
/J
where
J red|str||uted moment/e|est|c |end|ng moment |e¦ore red|str||ut|on
\
u
depth o¦ the neutre| ex|s et 0lS e¦ter red|str||ut|on
e
cu
compress|ve stre|n |n the concrete et 0lS
¹h|s g|ves the ve|ues |n ¹e||e A!

Table 3.1
187
Append|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
A1.2
A2
A2.1
Table A1
Limits on D with respect to redistribution ratio, d
d 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7
% redistribution 0 S !0 !S ?0 ?S 30
K' 0?0S 0!9S 0!S? 0!6S 0!S3 0!3/ 0!?0
l¦ / > / the sect|on shou|d |e res|.ed or compress|on re|n¦orcement |s requ|red ln ||ne w|th
cons|deret|on o¦ good prect|ce out||ned e|ove, this publication adopts a maximum value
of K' = 0.167
Compression reinforcement, A
s2
¹he me|or|ty o¦ |eems used |n prect|ce ere s|ng|y re|n¦orced, end these |eems cen |e des|gned us|ng
the ¦ormu|e der|ved e|ove ln some ceses, compress|on re|n¦orcement |s edded |n order to
lncreese sect|on strength where sect|on d|mens|ons ere restr|cted, |e where N / > /
¹o reduce |ong term de¦|ect|on N
¹o decreese curveture/de¦ormet|on et u|t|mete ||m|t stete N
A
s2
A
s
Figure A3
Beam with compression reinforcement
v|th re¦erence to l|gure A!, there |s now en extre ¦orce
/
sc
0S//
s?
|
y|
¹he eree o¦ tens|on re|n¦orcement cen now |e cons|dered |n two perts, the ¦|rst pert to |e|ence
the compress|ve ¦orce |n the concrete, the second pert to |e|ence the ¦orce |n the compress|on
stee| ¹he eree o¦ tens|on re|n¦orcement requ|red |s there¦ore
/
s
/' |
cu
/J
?
/(0S/|
y|
·) ÷ /
s?
where
· |s ce|cu|eted us|ng /' |nsteed o¦ /
/
s?
cen |e ce|cu|eted |y te||ng moments e|out the centre o¦ the tens|on ¦orce
/ / ÷ 0S/|
y|
/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)
/ / |
cu
/J
?
÷ 0S/|
y|
/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)
keerreng|ng
/
s?
(/ ÷ /) |
c|
/J
?
/|0S/ |
y|
(J ÷ J
?
)|
Shear
Shear resistance (without shear reinforcement), V
Rd,c
\
kd,c
|C
kd,c
/(!00r! |
c|
)
!/3
÷ /
!
s
cp
| /
w
J ~ (.
m|n
÷ /
!
s
cp
) /
w
J Exp. (6.2)
where
C
kd,c
0!S/g
C
0!S/!S 0!?
NA
/ !÷ (?00/J)
0S
< ?0
188
A2.2
A2.3
r
!
/
s
/(/
w
J) < 00?
/
!
0!S
s
cp
0 ¦or non-prestressed concrete
.
m|n
003S/
!S
|
c|
0S
=\
kd,c
0!?/(!00 r
!
|
c|
)
!/3
/
w
J ~ 003S/
!S
|
c|
0S
/
w
J
Shear capacity
Exp. (6.9)
¹he cepec|ty o¦ e concrete sect|on w|th vert|ce| sheer re|n¦orcement to ect
es e strut, \
kd,mex

\
kd,mex
a
cw
/
w
?v
!
|
cd
/(cot y ÷ ten y)
Cl. 6.2.3(3) Note 1,
Exp. (6.6N) & NA
where
a
cw
!0
v
!
v 06 |! ÷ |
c|
/?S0|
|
cd
a
cc
|
c|
/g
C
!00 × |
c|
/!S
=\
kd,mex
040 /
w
· |
c|
|! ÷ |
c|
/?S0|/(cot y ÷ ten y)
keerreng|ng th|s equet|on g|ves
y 0S s|n
÷!
|.
ld.
/(0?0|
c|
|! ÷ |
c|
/?S0|)| ~ cot
÷!
?S
where
.
ld.
\
ld
//· \
ld
/(/09J)
ln most ceses, where cot y ?S, y ?!S°
.
kd,mex,cot y ?S
0!3S/
w
· |
c|
|! ÷ |
c|
/?S0|
or
.
kd,mex,cot y ?S
0!3S|
c|
|! ÷ |
c|
/?S0|
where
.
kd,mex,cot y ?S
\
kd,mex,cot y ?S
/(/·)
\
kd,mex,cot y ?S
/(09/J)
vhere cot y > ?S, the eng|e o¦ the strut end .
kd,mex
shou|d |e ce|cu|eted, or .
kd,mex
mey |e
|oo|ed up |n te||es or cherts (eg ¹e||e C/ or l|gure C!)
Shear reinforcement
Exp. (6.13) \
kd,s
(/
sw
/·)·|
ywd
(cot y ÷ cot a)s|n a ~ \
ld
where
/
sw
cross-sect|one| eree o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
· spec|ng
· |ever erm (epprox|mete ve|ue o¦ 09J mey norme||y |e used)
|
ywd
|
yw|
/g
S
des|gn y|e|d strength o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
a eng|e o¦ the ||n|s to the |ong|tud|ne| ex|s lor vert|ce| ||n|s,
cot a 0 end s|n a !0
keerreng|ng ¦or vert|ce| ||n|s
/
sw
/· ~ \
ld
/·|
ywd
cot y
or
/
sw
/· ~ .
ld,.
/
w
/ |
ywd
cot y
M|n|mum eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
Exp. (9.5N) & NA
/
sw,m|n
/(·/
w
s|n a) ~ 00S|
c|
0S
/|
y|
where
· |ong|tud|ne| spec|ng o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
/
w
|reedth o¦ the we|
189
Append|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
A3

a eng|e o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement to the |ong|tud|ne| ex|s o¦ the mem|er lor vert|ce|
||n|s s|n a !0
keerreng|ng ¦or vert|ce| ||n|s
A
sw,m|n
/· ~ 00S/
w
s|n a |
c|
0S
/|
y|
Columns
a) Strain diagram b) Stress diagram
n ex|s
|
cd
a
cc
n|
c|
/g
C
J
?
J
c
\
/
J
?
s
sc
s
st
e
cu?
e
sc
e
y
e
c
/
s!
/
s?
Figure A4
Section in axial
compression and
bending
Fig. 6.1
lor ex|e| |oed
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
÷ /
s?
s
sc
÷ /
s!
s
st
but es /
s?
/
s!
/
sN
/?
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
÷ /
sN
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)/?
/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
/
sN
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)/?
(/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
) /
sN
/?
/
sN
/? (/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)
=/
sN
/? (/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
/g
C
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)
lor moment e|out centre o¦ co|umn
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?) ÷ /
s?
s
sc
(//? ÷ J
?
) ÷ /
s!
s
st
(//? ÷ J
?
)
but es /
s?
/
s!
/
sM
/?
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?) ÷ /
sM
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
)/?
/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?) /
sM
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
)/?
|/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?)|/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
) /
sM
/?
= /
sM
/? |/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?)/g
C
|/|(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
)|
So|ut|on
lterete \ such thet /
sN
/
sM
Note
lor sect|ons who||y |n compress|on, the stre|n |s ||m|ted such thet everege stre|n
≤ e
cs
000!/S (essum|ng ||||neer stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|p)
Cl. 6.1(6), Fig. 6.1,
Table 3.1
190
B1
B1.1
B1.2
B1.3
Appendix B: Serviceability limit state
Deflection
ln meny ceses, pert|cu|er|y w|th s|e|s, de¦|ect|on |s cr|t|ce| to des|gn
lurocode ?, C| /4 e||ows ¦or de¦|ect|on to |e contro||ed |y us|ng spendepth ret|o (//J) chec|s
|n eccordence w|th C| /4? or |y ce|cu|et|on |n eccordence w|th C| /43 lt |s |mportent to
d|¦¦erent|ete |etween the ver|ous methods used |n chec||ng de¦ormet|on es they w||| eech g|ve
d|¦¦erent enswers ¹hree popu|er methods ere d|scussed |e|ow On|y thet descr||ed |n Sect|on
b!! |e|ow |s su|te||e ¦or hend ce|cu|et|on
TCC method
[5,19]
¹he |n-serv|ce stress o¦ re|n¦orcement, s
s
, |s used to determ|ne e ¦ector, 3!0/s
s
, wh|ch |s used
to mod|¦y the |es|c spen e¦¦ect|ve depth ret|o es e||owed |n C| /4?(?) o¦ lurocode ?
|?|
end
modereted |y the Net|one| Annex
|?e|
¹h|s method, h|gh||ghted es ¦ector l3 |n Conc/·e /a·ocoJe
?
|S|
, |s |ntended to |e used |n hend ce|cu|et|ons to der|ve (conservet|ve) ve|ues o¦ s
s
¦rom
eve||e||e 0lS moments ln eccordence w|th Note S o¦ ¹e||e NAS o¦ the 0l NA
|?e|
, the ret|o ¦or
/
s,prov
//
s,req
|s restr|cted to !S |n e¦¦ect th|s ||m|ts the ¦ector 3!0/s
s
to !S
where

s
s
(|
y|
/g
S
) (u
qp
/u
u|t
) (/
s,req
//
s,prov
) /d < 3!0/!S
where
|
y|
cherecter|st|c strength o¦ re|n¦orcement S00 Mle
g
S
pert|e| ¦ector ¦or re|n¦orcement !!S
u
qp
ques|-permenent |oed (0Ll essumed)
u
perm
u|t|mete |oed (0Ll essumed)
/
s,req
eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red
/
s,prov
eree o¦ re|n¦orcement prov|ded
d red|str||ut|on ret|o
RC Spreadsheets method
[28]
¹he kC spreedsheets ¹CCxxx|s
|?S|
use the spen depth method o¦ chec||ng de¦ormet|on |ut use
en eccurete method ¦or determ|n|ng s
s
(see b3? |e|ow), wh|ch ege|n |s used to determ|ne the
moderet|ng ¦ector 3!0/s
s
Age|n, |n eccordence w|th Note S o¦ ¹e||e NAS o¦ the 0l NA
|?e|
,
the ret|o ¦or /
s,prov
//
s,req
|s restr|cted to !S |n e¦¦ect th|s ||m|ts the ¦ector 3!0/s
s
to !S
Seperete ene|yses us|ng ques|-permenent |oeds need to |e cerr|ed out lor eech spen, en SlS
neutre| ex|s depth |s determ|ned, then s
c
end s
s
ere der|ved ¦or the ques|-permenent |oed
cond|t|ons ¹he ¦ector s
s
|s used |n eccordence w|th lurocode ?
|?|
end the current Net|one|
Annex
|?e|
, to mod|¦y the |es|c spen e¦¦ect|ve depth ret|o
vh||st th|s method g|ves e more eccurete end |ess conservet|ve essessment o¦ s
s
, |t |s on|y
su|te||e ¦or computer spreedsheet epp||cet|ons See e|so Append|x bS
ln the ene|ys|s o¦ s|e|s end |eems, supports ere usue||y essumed to |e p|nned ln ree||ty supports
heve some cont|nu|ty, espec|e||y et end supports 0sue||y, nom|ne| top stee| |s essumed end
prov|ded |n the top o¦ spens end |s used |n the determ|net|on o¦ sect|on propert|es
Rigorous analysis
k|gorous ene|ys|s, such es thet used |n the ser|es o¦ kC Spreedsheets ¹CCxxkx|s mey |e used to
essess de¦ormet|on |n eccordence w|th lurocode ?, C| /43

See Append|x b!S
191
Append|x b Serv|cee||||ty ||m|t stete
ln the spreedsheets, sect|ons et !/?0th po|nts e|ong the |ength o¦ e spen ere chec|ed to
determ|ne whether the ¦|exure| tens||e stress |n the sect|on |s |||e|y to exceed the tens||e strength
o¦ the concrete dur|ng e|ther construct|on or serv|ce ||¦e seperete ene|yses ere underte|en us|ng
¦requent |oeds, ques|-permenent end temporery |oeds l¦ the ¦|exure| tens||e strength |s exceeded
under ¦requent |oeds, then the sect|on |s essumed to |e crec|ed end reme|n crec|ed crec|ed
sect|on propert|es ere used to determ|ne the red|us o¦ curveture ¦or thet !/?0th o¦ spen l¦
¦|exure| tens||e strength |s not exceeded, un-crec|ed sect|on propert|es ere used
ked|| o¦ curveture ere ce|cu|eted ¦or eech !/?0th spen |ncrement o¦ the e|ement us|ng the re|event
propert|es end moments der|ved ¦rom ene|ys|s o¦ ques|-permenent ect|ons Le¦ormet|on |s ce|cu|eted
¦rom the |ncrements' curvetures v|e numer|ce| |ntegret|on over the |ength o¦ eech spen
¹he method |s |n eccordence w|th ¹he Concrete Soc|ety's pu|||cet|on ¹kSS
|3?|
Age|n the method
|s su|te||e on|y ¦or computer epp||cet|ons end not ¦or hend ce|cu|et|on
Differing results
Lur|ng ?00S, |t |eceme |ncrees|ng|y epperent thet there ere |ncons|stenc|es |etween the resu|ts
g|ven |y the r|gorous ce|cu|et|on method end spendepth methods descr||ed |n lurocode ?
0s|ng the r|gorous method g|ves de¦|ect|ons thet ere greeter then wou|d |e expected ¦rom
the essumpt|ons steted ¦or //J methods |e de¦|ect|on ||m|ts o¦ //?S0 overe|| (see C| /4!(4))
or //S00 e¦ter construct|on (see C| /4!(S)) lt |s suspected thet th|s d|sper|ty |s the seme es
thet exper|enced |etween spendepth end ce|cu|et|on methods |n bS S!!0 e d|sper|ty thet
wes recogn|sed es |ong ego es !9/!
|33|
¹he r|gorous method descr||ed e|ove re||es on meny
essumpt|ons end |s |erge|y unce|||reted ege|nst ree| structures As noted |n ¹kSS, there |s en
urgent need ¦or dete ¦rom ectue| structures so thet methods mey |e ce|||reted lt shou|d |e
noted thet the r|gorous ene|ys|s method o|servet|ons were mede us|ng ¦requent |oeds where, |n
eccordence w|th lurocode ?, ques|-permenent |oeds ere ce||ed ¦or
lnd spens ere usue||y cr|t|ce| v|th respect to the r|gorous ene|ys|s method, |t hes |een suggested thet
¦or end-spens, the ¹CC end kC-spreedsheet methods resu|t |n de¦|ect|ons c|ose to the ||m|ts steted
|n lurocode ?, prov|ded thet e nom|ne| end-support restre|n|ng moment |s present where none |s
essumed |n ene|ys|s Ceut|on |s there¦ore necessery |n true p|nned end-support s|tuet|ons |ut where
some cont|nu|ty ex|sts, th|s d|sper|ty mey |e eddressed |y ensur|ng thet eppropr|ete emounts o¦
re|n¦orcement, |n eccordence w|th the Code end Net|one| Annex, ere prov|ded et end supports
¹he NLl ¦or C| 9?!?(!) |n the 0l NA
|?e|
to bS lN !99?÷!÷? st|pu|etes thet ?S% o¦ end spen
moment shou|d |e used to determ|ne end support re|n¦orcement ¹h|s |s usue||y eccommodeted
|y prov|d|ng ?S% o¦ end spen |ottom stee| es top stee| et end supports lt |s on th|s |es|s thet
the ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s pu|||cet|on ere cons|dered es |e|ng ¦urther su|stent|eted
Note regarding factor 310/s
s
(factor F3)
At the t|me o¦ pu|||cet|on (Lecem|er ?009) the euthors were ewere o¦ e pro|e||e chenge to
0l NA
|?e|
¹e||e NAS wh|ch, |n e¦¦ect, wou|d meen thet the ¦ector 3!0/s
s
(l3) /
s,prov
//
s,req

≤ !S, thus d|se||ow|ng the eccurete method out||ned |n Sect|ons 3!, 3?, 33, 34, 43 end
Append|ces b!!, b!? end C/
Neutral axis at SLS
¹o ¦|nd \, neutre| ex|s, end serv|ces stresses s
c
end s
s
¦or e concrete sect|on, et SlS, cons|der the
crec|ed sect|on |n l|gure b!
B1.4
B1.5
B2
192

d
2
d
x
A
s2
A
s
a
e
– 1
a
e
E/E
c
Relative modulus
Where a
e
= modular ratio E
s
/E
c
1
Figure B1
Cracked concrete section at SLS
lrom ¦|rst pr|nc|p|es, ¦or e ¦u||y crec|ed trens¦ormed sect|on,
¹ote| eree o¦ sect|on / /\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)
!st moment o¦ eree, /
y
/\
?
/? ÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)
lor e s|e|, / !000, there¦ore
/ !000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)
/
y
S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)
Neutre| ex|s depth, \
\ /
y
//
|S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)|/|!000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)|
¹here¦ore
\|!000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)| |S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)|
0 |S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)| ÷ \|!000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)|
S00\
?
÷ \|!000\| ÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)| ÷ \|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)|
÷ S00\
?
÷ \|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)| ÷ |/
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)|
So|v|ng the quedret|c
\ ÷/ ± /
?
÷ 4ac)
0S
|/?o
\
÷|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !) ± [|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ !)|
?
÷ 4 × S00 × |/
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ !)|¦
0S
|
(? x S00)
or trenspos|ng,
\
|÷(a
e
÷ !)/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
÷ [|(a
e
÷ !)/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
|
?
÷ ?000|(a
e
÷!)/
s?
J
?
÷ a
e
/
s
J|¦
0S
|
!000
or
\
|÷(a
e
÷ !)/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
÷ [|(a
e
÷ !)/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
|
?
÷ ?/|(a
e
÷ !)/
s?
J
?
÷ a
e
/
s
J|¦
0S
|
/
¹h|s express|on |s used |n the kC spreedsheets
|?S|

193
Append|x b Serv|cee||||ty ||m|t stete
SLS stresses in concrete, s
c
, and reinforcement, s
s
Singly reinforced section
Cons|der the s|ng|y re|n¦orced sect|on |n l|gure b?
a) Section b) Dimensions and forces
M
qp
A
s
F
c
F
s
x/ 3
x
z
b
Figure B2
SLS stresses: singly
reinforced section
Cons|der moments e|out /
c

/
qp
/
s
· /
s
(J ÷ \/3)
/
s
/
qp
/(J ÷ \/3)
s
s
/
qp
/|/
s
(J ÷ \/3)|
s
s
/
s
/
qp
/(J ÷ \/3) \/s
c
/?
s
c
?s
s
/
s
/\/
Doubly reinforced section
Cons|der the s|ng|y re|n¦orced sect|on |n l|gure b3
a) Section b) Dimensions, modular
ratios and stresses
M
qp
d
2
A
s
A
s2
E/E
c
= a
e
– 1
s = s
c
(a
e
– 1)(x – d
2
)/x
E/E
c
= a
e
s = s
c
E/E
c
= a
e
s = s
s
x
d
b
Figure B3
SLS stresses
Cons|der moment, /
qp
, e|out |ottom re|n¦orcement, /
s
|34|

/
qp
/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)(a
e
÷ !)[(\ ÷ J
?
)/\¦ s
c
÷ s
c
/(\/?)(J ÷ \/3)
¹here¦ore
s
c
/
qp
/ |/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)(a
e
÷ !) )[(\ ÷ J
?
)/\¦ ÷ /(\/?)(J ÷ \/3)|
And ¦rom stress d|egrem
s
s
s
c
a
e
(J ÷ \)/\
B3
B3.1
B3.2
194
Appendix C: Design aids
¹he ¦o||ow|ng te||es, text end ¦|gures heve |een der|ved ¦rom lurocode ? end ere prov|ded
es des|gn e|ds ¦or des|gners |n the 0l ¹hese des|gn e|ds heve |een re¦erenced |n the text end
genere||y heve |een te|en ¦rom Sect|on !S o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
|S|

Design values of actions
lor the 0lS o¦ strength (S¹k) where there |s e s|ng|e ver|e||e ect|on use e|ther
!3S N O
|
÷ !SÇ
|
lxp (6!0) ¦rom bS lN !990
|!0|
or the worse cese o¦
!3S N O
|
÷ c
0
!SÇ
|
lxp (6!0e)
end
!?S N O
|
÷ !SÇ
|
lxp (6!0|)
where c
0
!0 ¦or storege, 0S ¦or snow |ut otherw|se 0/, see ¹e||e ??
ln most ceses lxp (6!0|) w||| |e eppropr|ete, except ¦or storege where the use o¦ lxp (6!0e)
|s |||e|y to |e more onerous
lor the SlS o¦ de¦ormet|on, ques|-permenent |oeds shou|d |e epp||ed ¹hese ere !0O
|
÷ c
?
Ç
|

where c
?
|s dependent on use, eg 03 ¦or o¦¦|ces end res|dent|e| end 0/ ¦or storege
Values of actions
¹he ve|ues o¦ ect|ons (|e |oeds) ere de¦|ned |n lurocode !
|!!|
¹he perts o¦ lurocode ! ere g|ven
|n ¹e||e C! ¹hese ve|ues ere te|en es cherecter|st|c ve|ues At the t|me o¦ pu|||cet|on, the 0l
Net|one| Annexes to these perts ere |n ver|ous stetes o¦ reed|ness
As lL 66S/
|6|
me|es c|eer, unt|| the eppropr|ete luropeen stenderds |ecome eve||e||e, des|gners
mey cons|der us|ng current prect|ce or current br|t|sh Stenderds |n con|unct|on w|th lurocode ?,
prov|ded they ere compet|||e w|th lurocode ? end thet the resu|t|ng re||e||||ty |s eccepte||e
bS lN !99!÷!÷! stetes thet the dens|ty o¦ concrete |s ?4 |N/m
3
, re|n¦orced concrete, ?S |N/m
3

end wet re|n¦orced concrete, ?6 |N/m
3

Table C1
The parts of Eurocode 1
[11]
Reference Title
BS EN 1991-1-1 Lens|t|es, se|¦-we|ght end |mposed |oeds
BS EN 1991-1-2 Act|ons on structures exposed to ¦|re
BS EN 1991-1-3 Snow |oeds
BS EN 1991-1-4 v|nd ect|ons
BS EN 1991-1-5 ¹herme| ect|ons
BS EN 1991-1-6 Act|ons dur|ng execut|on
BS EN 1991-1-7 Acc|dente| ect|ons due to |mpect end exp|os|ons
BS EN 1991-2 ¹re¦¦|c |oeds on |r|dges
BS EN 1991-3 Act|ons |nduced |y crenes end mech|nery
BS EN 1991-4 Act|ons |n s||os end ten|s
C1
C2
195
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
Analysis
Ane|ys|s |s dee|t w|th |n Sect|on S o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ? vhere eppropr|ete the coe¦¦|c|ents
g|ven |n ¹e||es C? end C3 cen |e used to determ|ne des|gn moments end sheer ¦or s|e|s end
|eems et 0lS
Table C2
Coefficients for use with one-way spanning slabs to Eurocode 2
Coefficient Location
End support/slab connection Internal supports and spans
Pinned end support Continuous
Outer
support
Near
middle of
end span
Outer
support
Near
middle of
end span
At 1st
interior
support
At
middle of
interior
spans
At
interior
supports
Moment
00 00S6 ÷ 004 00/S ÷ 00S6 0063 ÷ 0063
Shear
040 ÷ 046 ÷ 060060 ÷ 0S00S0
Notes
1 App||ce||e to one-wey spenn|ng s|e|s where the eree o¦ eech |ey exceeds 30 m
?
, Ç
|
< !?SO
|
end ¡
|
< S
|N/m
?
, su|stent|e||y un|¦orm |oed|ng (et |eest 3 spens, m|n|mum spen ~ 0SS mex|mum (des|gn) spen
2 Les|gn moment coe¦¦ x n x spen
?
end des|gn sheer coe¦¦ x n x spen where n |s e 0Ll w|th e s|ng|e ver|e||e
ect|on g
C
q
|
÷ cg
Q
¡
|
where q
|
end ¡
|
ere cherecter|st|c permenent end ver|e||e ect|ons |n |N/m
3 bes|s ¥|e|d ||ne des|gn (essumed ?0% red|str||ut|on
|/|
)
Table C3
Coefficients for use with beams (and one-way spanning slabs) to Eurocode 2
Coefficient Location
Outer support Near middle
of end span
At 1st interior
support
At middle of
interior spans
At interior
supports
Moment `
k

and j
k
?S% spen
a
÷ 0094 ÷ 00/S
Moment `
k
÷ 0090 ÷ 0066 ÷
Moment j
k
÷ 0!00 ÷ 00S6 ÷
Shear
04S ÷ 0630SS ÷ 0S00S0
b
Notes
1 lor |eems end s|e|s, 3 or more spens (¹hey mey e|so |e used ¦or ?-spen |eems |ut support
moment coe¦¦|c|ent 0!06 end |nterne| sheer coe¦¦|c|ent 063 |oth s|des)
2 Cenere||y Ç
|
< O
|
, end the |oed|ng shou|d |e su|stent|e||y un|¦orm|y d|str||uted Otherw|se spec|e|
curte||ment o¦ re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
3 M|n|mum spen ~ 0SS x mex|mum (end des|gn) spen
4 Les|gn moment et supports coe¦¦ x n x spen
?

or |n spens (coe¦¦ q
|
x g
C
q
|
÷ coe¦¦ ¡
|
x cg
Q
¡
|
) x spen
?

5 Les|gn sheer et centre||ne o¦ supports coe¦¦ x n x spen where n |s e 0Ll w|th e s|ng|e ver|e||e ect|on
g
C
q
|
÷ cg
Q
¡
|
where q
|
end ¡
|
ere cherecter|st|c permenent end ver|e||e ect|ons |n |N/m
g
C
end cg
Q
ere dependent on use o¦ bS lN !990, lxpress|ons (6!0), (6!0e) or (6!0|) See Sect|on C!
6 bes|s A||- end e|ternete-spens-|oeded ceses es 0l Net|one| Annex end !S% red|str||ut|on et
supports
Key
a At outer support '?S% spen' re|etes to the 0l Net|one||y Leterm|ned leremeter ¦or lurocode ?,
C| 9?!?(!) ¦or m|n|mum percentege o¦ spen |end|ng moment to |e essumed et supports |n |eems
|n mono||th|c construct|on !S% mey |e eppropr|ete ¦or s|e|s (see lurocode ?, C| 93!?)
b lor |eems o¦ ¦|ve spens, 0SS epp||es to centre spen
Cl. 9.2.1.2
Cl. 9.3.1.2
C3
196
Design for bending
Leterm|ne whether N / < / or not (|e whether under-re|n¦orced or not)
where
/ /
ld
/(/J
?
|
c|
)
where
J e¦¦ect|ve depth / ÷ cover ÷ f/?
/ w|dth o¦ sect|on |n compress|on
/ mey |e determ|ned ¦rom ¹e||e C4 end |s dependent on the red|str||ut|on ret|o used
Table C4
Values for D
Redistribution ratio, d s/] for D
a
D
a
1 – d
1.00 0/6 (0S?) 0?0S (0!6S) 0%
0.95 0/S (0S?) 0!9S (0!6S) S%
0.90 0S0 (0S?) 0!S? (0!6S) !0%
0.85 0S? 0!6S !S%
0.80 0S4 0!S3 ?0%
0.75 0S6 0!3/ ?S%
0.70 0SS 0!?0 30%
Note
C|ess A re|n¦orcement |s restr|cted to e red|str||ut|on ret|o, d < 0S
Key
a lt |s recommended thet \/J |s ||m|ted to 04S
|3S|
As e consequence ·/J |s ||m|ted to e m|n|mum o¦
0S?0 end / to e m|n|mum o¦ 0!6S
l¦ N / < /, sect|on |s under-reinforced
lor rectengu|er sect|ons
/
s!
/
ld
/|
yd
·
where
/
s!
eree o¦ tens||e re|n¦orcement
/
ld
des|gn moment
|
yd
|
y|
/g
S
S00/!!S 434S Mle
· J|0S ÷ 0S(! ÷ 3S3/)
0S
| < 09SJ
Ve|ues o¦ ·/J (end \/J) mey |e te|en ¦rom ¹e||e CS
lor ¦|enged |eems where x < !?S/
¦
,
/
s!
/
ld
/|
yd
·
where \ depth to neutre| ex|s Ve|ues o¦ \/J mey |e te|en ¦rom ¹e||e CS
/
¦
th|c|ness o¦ ¦|enge
How to: Beams
[8]
lor ¦|enged |eems where \ ~ !?S/
¦
, re¦er to /ou |o Je·/qn conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/nq /a·ocoJe ?
|S|

l¦ N / > /, sect|on |s over-reinforced end requ|res compress|on re|n¦orcement
/
s?
(/
ld
÷ /)/|
sc
(J ÷ J
?
)
where
/
s?
compress|on re|n¦orcement
l¦ J
?
/x > 03/S then the term /
s?
shou|d |e rep|eced |y the term
!6(! ÷ J
?
/\) /
s?
/ //J
?
|
c|

|
sc
/00(\
u
÷ J
?
)/\
u
< |
yd
where
J
?
e¦¦ect|ve depth to compress|on re|n¦orcement
C4
197
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
\
u
(d ÷ 04)J
where
d red|str||ut|on ret|o
¹ote| eree o¦ stee| /
s!
//(|
yd
·) ÷ /
s?
|
sc
/|
yd
Table C5
Values of s/] and q/] for singly reinforced rectangular sections
D s/] q/] (1 – d)
max
a
0.04 09S0
b
0!?S 30%
0.05 09S0
b
0!?S 30%
0.06 0944 0!40 30%
0.07 0934 0!6S 30%
0.08 09?4 0!9! 30%
0.09 09!3 0?!/ 30%
0.10 090? 0?4S 30%
0.11 0S9! 0?/? 30%
0.12 0SS0 030! 30%
0.13 0S6S 033! ?/%
0.14 0SS6 036! ?4%
0.15 0S43 0393 ?!%
0.16 0S30 04?S !S%
0.17 0S!6
c
0460
c
!4%
0.18 0S0?
c
049S
c
!!%
0.19 0/S/
c
0S33
c
/%
0.20 0//!
c
0S/?
c
3%
0.208 0/SS
c
0606
c
0%
Note
|
c|
< S0 Mle
Key
a Mex|mum e||owe||e red|str||ut|on
b lrect|ce| ||m|t
c lt |s recommended thet \/J |s ||m|ted to 04S0
|3S|
As e consequence ·/J |s ||m|ted to e m|n|mum o¦
0S?0 end / to 0!6S
Design for beam shear
Requirement for shear reinforcement
l¦ .
ld
> .
kd,c
then sheer re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
where
.
ld
\
ld
//
w
J, ¦or sect|ons w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement (|e s|e|s)
.
kd,c
sheer res|stence w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement, ¦rom ¹e||e C6
C5
C5.1
198
C5.2
Table C6
Shear resistance without shear reinforcement, o
Rd,c
(MPa)
r
l
= :
sl
/
[
w
]
Effective depth ] (mm)
G 200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750
< 0.25%
0S4 0S? 0S0 04S 04/ 04S 043 04! 040 03S 036
0.50%
0S9 0S/ 0S6 0SS 0S4 0S? 0S! 049 04S 04/ 04S
0.75%
06S 066 064 063 06? 0S9 0SS 0S6 0SS 0S3 0S!
1.00%
0/S 0/? 0/! 069 06S 06S 064 06? 06! 0S9 0S/
1.25%
0S0 0/S 0/6 0/4 0/3 0/! 069 06/ 066 063 06!
1.50%
0SS 0S3 0S! 0/9 0/S 0/S 0/3 0/! 0/0 06/ 06S
1.75%
090 0S/ 0SS 0S3 0S? 0/9 0// 0/S 0/3 0/! 06S
~ 2.00%
094 09! 0S9 0S/ 0SS 0S? 0S0 0/S 0// 0/4 0/!
Notes
1 ¹e||e der|ved ¦rom lurocode ? end 0l Net|one| Annex
2 ¹e||e creeted ¦or |
c|
30 Mle essum|ng vert|ce| ||n|s
3 lor r
|
~ 04% end
|
c|
?S Mle, epp|y ¦ector o¦ 094 |
c|
40 Mle, epp|y ¦ector o¦ !!0 |
c|
S0 Mle, epp|y ¦ector o¦ !!9
|
c|
3S Mle, epp|y ¦ector o¦ !0S |
c|
4S Mle, epp|y ¦ector o¦ !!4 Not epp||ce||e ¦or |
c|
> S0 Mle
Section capacity check
l¦ .
ld,.
> .
kd,mex
then sect|on s|.e |s |nedequete
where
.
ld,.
\
ld
//
w
· \
ld
//
w
09J, ¦or sect|ons u/|/ sheer re|n¦orcement
.
kd,mex
cepec|ty o¦ concrete struts expressed es e stress |n the vert|ce| p|ene
\
kd,mex
//
w
·
\
kd,mex
//
w
09J
.
kd,mex
cen |e determ|ned ¦rom ¹e||e C/, |n|t|e||y chec||ng et cot y ?S Shou|d |t |e requ|red,
e greeter res|stence mey |e essumed |y us|ng e |erger strut eng|e, y
Table C7
Capacity of concrete struts expressed as a stress, o
Rd,max
_
ck
o
Rd,max
(MPa) Strength
reduction
factor, v cot y 2.50 2.14 1.73 1.43 1.19 1.00
y 2.18° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45°
20
?S4 ?S? 3!9 346 36? 36S 0SS?
25
3!0 34S 390 4?3 443 4S0 0S40
30
364 404 4S/ 496 S?0 S?S 0S?S
35
4!S 46! S?! S66 S93 60? 0S!6
40
463 S!S SS? 63! 66? 6/? 0S04
45
S09 S6S 639 693 /?/ /3S 049?
50
SS? 6!3 693 /S? /SS S00 04S0
Notes
1 ¹e||e der|ved ¦rom lurocode ? end 0l Net|one| Annex essum|ng vert|ce| ||n|s, |e cot a 0
2 v 06|! ÷ (|
c|
/?S0)|
3 .
kd,mex
v|
cd
(cot y ÷ cot a)/(! ÷ cot
?
y)
199
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
C5.3 Shear reinforcement design
/
sw
/· ~ .
ld,.
/
w
/|
ywd
cot y
where
/
sw
eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement (vert|ce| ||n|s essumed)
· spec|ng o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
.
ld,.
\
ld
//
w
·, es |e¦ore
/
w
|reedth o¦ the we|
|
ywd
|
yw|
/g
S
des|gn y|e|d strength o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
Cenere||y /
sw
/· ~ .
ld,.
/
w
/!0S/
where |
yw|
S00 Mle, g
S
!!S end cot y ?S
A|ternet|ve|y, /
sw
/· per metre w|dth o¦ /
w
mey |e determ|ned ¦rom l|gure C!e) or C!|) es
|nd|ceted |y the ||ue errows |n l|gure C!e) ¹hese ¦|gures mey e|so |e used to est|mete the
ve|ue o¦ cot y
beems ere su||ect to e m|n|mum sheer ||n| prov|s|on Assum|ng vert|ce| ||n|s,
/
sw,m|n
/·/
w
~ 00S |
c|
0S
/|
y|
(see ¹e||e CS)
Table C8
Values of :
sw,min
/l[
w
for beams for vertical links and _
yk
= 500 MPa and compatible resistance, o
Rd
Concrete class C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60
A
sw,min
/sb
w
for beams (x 10
3
) 0/? 0S0 0SS 09S !0! !0/ !!3
v
Rd
for A
sw,min
/sb
w
(MPa) 0/S 0S/ 09S !03 !!0 !!/ !?3
4.0
3.0
2.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
C35/45
C40/50
C45/55
0.0
1.0
2.14 1.73 1.43
1.19
1.00
See Fig. C1b)
A
sw
/s required per metre width of b
w
f
ywk
= 500 MPa
v
Rd,max
for cot y = 2.5
v
E
d
,
z

(
M
P
a
)
C30/37
C20/25
C25/30
C50/60
Figure C1a)
Diagram to determine :
sw
/l required (for beams with high shear stress)
200
C6 Design for punching shear
Leterm|ne |¦ punch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |s requ|red, |n|t|e||y et a
!
, then |¦ necessery et
su|sequent per|meters, a
|
l¦ .
ld
> .
kd,c
then punch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
where
.
ld
b\
ld
/a
|
J
where
b ¦ector dee||ng w|th eccentr|c|ty
\
ld
epp||ed sheer ¦orce
a
|
|ength o¦ the per|meter under cons|deret|on
J meen e¦¦ect|ve depth
.
kd,c
sheer res|stence w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement (see ¹e||e C6)
lor vert|ce| sheer re|n¦orcement
(/
sw

r
) a
!
(.
ld
÷ 0/S .
kd,c
)/(!S |
ywd,e¦
)
where
/
sw
eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement |n one per|meter eround the co|umn
lor /
sw,m|n
see Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?, Sect|on !04? end ¦or |eyout see Sect|on !?43
·
r
red|e| spec|ng o¦ per|meters o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
Concise: 10.4.2,
12.4.3
a
!
|es|c contro| per|meter ?J ¦rom co|umn ¦ece
|
ywd,e¦
e¦¦ect|ve des|gn strength o¦ re|n¦orcement (?S0 ÷ 0?SJ) < |
ywd
lor Crede
S00 sheer re|n¦orcement see ¹e||e C9
Table C9
Values of _
ywd,ef
for grade 500 reinforcement
] 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
f
ywd,ef ?S/S 300 3!?S 3?S 33/S 3S0 36?S
At the co|umn per|meter, chec| .
ld
≤ \
kdmex
¦or cot y !0 g|ven |n ¹e||e C/
C20/25
C25/30
C30/37
C30/37
C35/45
C40/50
C45/55
C50/60
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0 1 2 3 4
f
ywk
= 500 MPa
A
sw,min
/s
for beams
Range of v
Rd,c
for range
d = 200 mm, r = 2.0%
to d = 750 mm, r = 0.5%
C
2
5
/3
0
A
sw
/s required per metre width of b
w
v
E
d
,
z

(
M
P
a
)
C20/25
Figure C1b)
Diagram to determine :
sw
/l required (for slabs and beams with low shear stress)
201
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
C7 Check deflection
ln genere|, the SlS stete o¦ de¦|ect|on mey |e chec|ed |y us|ng the spen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-depth
epproech More cr|t|ce| eppre|se| o¦ de¦ormet|on |s outs|de the scope o¦ th|s pu|||cet|on ¹o use
the spen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-depth epproech, ver|¦y thet
A||owe||e //J / x / x l! x l? x l3 ~ ectue| //J
where
/ |es|c spen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-depth ret|o der|ved ¦or / !0 end r' 0 ¦rom Sect|on !0S?
o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ? or ¹e||e C!0 or l|gure C?
Concise: 10.5.2
/ ¦ector to eccount ¦or structure| system See ¹e||e C!!
l! ¦ector to eccount ¦or ¦|enged sect|ons vhen /
e¦¦
//
w
!0, ¦ector l! !0
vhen /
e¦¦
//
w
|s greeter then 30, ¦ector l! 0S0
lor ve|ues o¦ /
e¦¦
//
w
|etween !0 end 30, |nterpo|et|on mey |e used (see ¹e||e C!?)
where
/
e¦¦
|s de¦|ned |n Sect|on S?? o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
/
w
w|dth o¦ we|
ln l |eems /
w
m|n|mum w|dth o¦ we| |n tens||e eree
ln tepered we|s /
w
w|dth o¦ we| et centro|d o¦ re|n¦orcement |n we|
Concise: 5.2.2
l? ¦ector to eccount ¦or |r|tt|e pert|t|ons |n essoc|et|on w|th |ong spens Cenere||y l?
!0 |ut |¦ |r|tt|e pert|t|ons ere ||e||e to |e demeged |y excess|ve de¦|ect|on, l?
shou|d |e determ|ned es ¦o||ows
e) |n ¦|et s|e|s |n wh|ch the |onger spen |s greeter then SS m, l? SS//
e¦¦
|) |n |eems end other s|e|s w|th spens |n excess o¦ /0 m, l? /0//
e¦¦
Ve|ues o¦ l? mey |e te|en ¦rom ¹e||e C!3
l3 ¦ector to eccount ¦or serv|ce stress |n tens||e re|n¦orcement 3!0/s
s
< !S
Conservet|ve|y, |¦ e serv|ce stress, s
s
, o¦ 3!0 Mle |s essumed ¦or the des|gned eree
o¦ re|n¦orcement, /
s,req
then l3 /
s,prov
//
s,req
< !S
More eccurete|y,

the serv|cee||||ty stress, s
s
, mey |e est|meted es ¦o||ows
s
s
|
y|
/g
S
|(O
|
÷ c
?
Ç
|
)/(!?SO
|
÷ !SÇ
|
)| |/
s,req
//
s,prov
| (!/d)
or
s
s
s
su
|/
s,req
//
s,prov
| (!/d)
where
s
su
the unmod|¦|ed SlS stee| stress, te||ng eccount o¦ g
M
¦or
re|n¦orcement end o¦ go|ng ¦rom u|t|mete ect|ons to serv|cee||||ty
ect|ons
S00/g
S
(O
|
÷ c
?
Ç
|
)/(!?SO
|
÷ !SÇ
|
)
s
su
mey |e est|meted ¦rom l|gure C3 es |nd|ceted |y the ||ue
errow
/
s,req
//
s,prov
eree o¦ stee| requ|red d|v|ded |y eree o¦ stee| prov|ded
(!/d) ¦ector to 'un-red|str||ute' 0lS moments so they mey |e used |n
th|s SlS ver|¦|cet|on (see ¹e||e C!4)
Actue| //J ectue| spen d|v|ded |y e¦¦ect|ve depth, J


See Append|x b!S
202
Table 7.4N
Table C10
Basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth, G, for members without axial compression
Required
reinforcement, r
_
ck
20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0.30% ?S9 3?? 39? 466 S46 630 /!S
0.40% !9! ??4 ?6? 304 3S0 39S 4S0
0.50% !/0 !SS ?0S ?30 ?SS ?SS 3?0
0.60% !60 !/3 !SS !9S ?!3 ?3! ?S?
0.70% !S3 !64 !/4 !SS !96 ?06 ?!/
0.80% !4S !S/ !66 !/6 !SS !94 ?04
0.90% !43 !S? !60 !6S !// !SS !93
1.00% !40 !4S !SS !63 !/0 !/S !SS
1.20% !3S !4! !4S !S4 !60 !66 !/3
1.40% !3! !3/ !4? !4S !S3 !SS !64
1.60% !?9 !33 !3S !43 !4S !S? !S/
1.80% !?/ !3! !3S !39 !43 !4S !S?
2.00% !?S !?9 !33 !36 !40 !44 !4S
2.50% !?? !?S !?S !3! !34 !3/ !40
3.00% !?0 !?3 !?S !?S !30 !33 !3S
3.50% !!9 !?! !?3 !?S !?/ !?9 !3!
4.00% !!S !!9 !?! !?3 !?S !?/ !?9
4.50% !!/ !!S !?0 !?? !?3 !?S !?/
5.00% !!6 !!S !!9 !?! !?? !?4 !?S
Reference
reinforcement ratio, r
0
04S% 0S0% 0SS% 0S9% 063% 06/% 0/!%
Notes
1 vhere r /
s
//J
2 lor ¹-sect|ons r |s the eree o¦ re|n¦orcement d|v|ded |y the eree o¦ concrete e|ove the centro|d o¦
the tens|on re|n¦orcement
3 ¹he ve|ues ¦or spen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-depth heve |een |esed on ¹e||e /4N |n lurocode ?, us|ng / !
(s|mp|y supported) end r 0 (no compress|on re|n¦orcement requ|red)
4 ¹he spen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-depth ret|o shou|d |e |esed on the shorter spen |n two-wey spenn|ng s|e|s end
the |onger spen |n ¦|et s|e|s
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
32
12
0.40% 0.60% 0.80% 1.00% 1.20% 1.40% 1.60% 1.80% 2.00%
Design tension reinforcement (100A
s,req
/bd)
B
a
s
i
c

s
p
a
n
-
t
o
-
e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
-
d
e
p
t
h

r
a
t
i
o

N

(
l
/
d
)
f
ck
= 50
f
ck
= 45
f
ck
= 40
f
ck
= 35
f
ck
= 30
f
ck
= 25
f
ck
= 20
Figure C2
Basic span-to-effective depth ratios, G, for D = 1, r' = 0

203
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
Table C11
D factors to be applied to basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth
Structural system D
Beams Slabs
S|mp|y supported |eems One- or two-wey spenn|ng s|mp|y supported s|e|s !0
lnd spen o¦ cont|nuous |eems lnd spen o¦ one-wey spenn|ng cont|nuous s|e|s, or
two-wey spenn|ng s|e|s cont|nuous over one |ong edge
!3
lnter|or spens o¦ cont|nuous |eems lnter|or spens o¦ cont|nuous s|e|s !S
÷ l|et s|e|s (|esed on |onger spen) !?
Cent||evers Cent||ever 04
Table C12
Factor F1, modifier for flanged beams
[
eff
/[
w
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 ~ 3.0
Factor
!00 09S 090 0SS 0S0

Table C13
Factor F2, modifier for long spans supporting brittle partitions
Span, m e
eff
< 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0
Flat slabs 8.5/e
eff
!00 !00 !00 !00 094 0SS 0// 0/! 06S 06! 0S/ 0S3
Beams and other slabs 7.0/e
eff
!00 093 0SS 0S? 0/S 0/0 064 0SS 0S4 0S0 04/ 044
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
U
n
m
o
d
i
f
i
e
d

s
t
e
e
l

s
t
r
e
s
s

s
s
u
Ratio G
k
/Q
k
y
2
=
0
.6
, g
G
=
1
.2
5
y2

=

0
.3
,
g G

=

1
.2
5
y 2

=

0
.2
,
g G

=

1
.2
5
y
2
= 0.8, g
G
= 1.35
y
2
= 0.6, g
G
= 1.35
y
2
=
0
.3
, g
G
=
1
.3
5
y
2
= 0.2, g
G
= 1.35
Figure C3
Determination of unmodified SLS, stress in reinforcement, s
su
204
C8
Table C14
(1/d) factor to be applied to unmodified s
su
to allow for redistribution used
Average redistribution used
20% 15% 10% 5% 0% –5% –10% –15% –20% –25% –30%
Redistribution ratio used, d
1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70
(1/d) S3% S/% 9!% 9S% !00% !0S% !!!% !!S% !?S% !33% !43%
Notes
1 vhere coe¦¦|c|ents ¦rom ¹e||e C? heve |een used |n des|gn end where Ç
|
&!?SO
|
, the coe¦¦|c|ents |n ¹e||e C? mey |e cons|dered to
represent moment d|str||ut|on o¦
÷S% neer m|dd|e o¦ end spen w|th p|nned end support
÷??% et ¦|rst |nter|or support, es e worst cese
÷3% neer m|dd|e o¦ |nterne| spens, es e worst cese
÷?S% et |nter|or supports, es e worst cese
2 vhere coe¦¦|c|ents ¦rom ¹e||e C3 heve |een used |n des|gn end where Ç
|
&O
|
, the coe¦¦|c|ents |n ¹e||e C3 mey |e cons|dered to represent
moment red|str||ut|on o¦
÷3% neer m|dd|e o¦ end spen w|th p|nned end support, es e worst cese
÷9% neer m|dd|e o¦ |nterne| spens, es e worst cese
÷!S% et e|| |nter|or supports
Control of cracking
Crec||ng mey |e contro||ed |y restr|ct|ng e|ther mex|mum |er d|emeter or mex|mum |er
spec|ng to the re|event d|emeters end spec|ngs g|ven |n ¹e||e C!S ¹he eppropr|ete SlS stress |n
re|n¦orcement, s
s
, mey |e determ|ned es out||ned ¦or l3 |n Sect|on C/
M|n|mum erees end espects o¦ dete|||ng shou|d |e chec|ed
Table C15
Maximum bar diameters f or maximum bar spacing for crack control
Steel stress (MPa) s
s
Maximum bar size (mm)
OR
Maximum bar spacing (mm)
p
k
= 0.3 mm p
k
= 0.4 mm p
k
= 0.3 mm p
k
= 0.4 mm
160
3? 40 300 300
200
?S 3? ?S0 300
240
!6 ?0 ?00 ?S0
280
!? !6 !S0 ?00
320
!0 !? !00 !S0
360
S !0 S0 !00
Notes
1 ¹he 'norme|' ||m|t o¦ 03 mm mey |e re|exed to 04 mm ¦or `O end `C! exposure c|esses |¦ there |s
no spec|¦|c requ|rement ¦or eppeerence
2 ¹e||e essumpt|ons |nc|ude c
nom
?S mm end |
ct,e¦¦
( |
ctm
) ?9 Mle

205
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
C9
C9.1
C9.2
Design for axial load and bending
General
ln co|umns, des|gn moments /
ld
end des|gn epp||ed ex|e| ¦orce /
ld
shou|d |e der|ved ¦rom ene|ys|s,
cons|deret|on o¦ |mper¦ect|ons end, where necessery, ?nd order e¦¦ects
lt |s necessery to ce|cu|ete e¦¦ect|ve |engths |n order to determ|ne whether e co|umn |s s|ender
(see lurocode ?, C| SS3? end lxpress|on (S!S)) ¹he e¦¦ect|ve |ength o¦ most co|umns w||| |e
//?< /
0
< / (see lurocode ? l|gure S/¦) lL 66S/
|6|
C| ?!0 suggests thet us|ng the procedure
out||ned |n lurocode ? (SS3?(3) end SS3?(S)) |eeds to s|m||er e¦¦ect|ve |engths to those
te|u|eted |n bS S!!0
|/|
es reproduced |e|ow es ¹e||e C!6 lxper|ence suggests thet these
te|u|eted ve|ues ere conservet|ve
Table C16
Effective length e
0
: conservative factors for braced columns
End condition
at top
End condition at bottom
1 2 3
1
0/S 0S0 090
2
0S0 0SS 09S
3
090 09S !00
Key
Cond|t|on ! Co|umn connected mono||th|ce||y to |eems on eech s|de thet ere et |eest es deep es the
overe|| depth o¦ the co|umn |n the p|ene cons|dered
vhere the co|umn |s connected to e ¦oundet|on th|s shou|d |e des|gned to cerry moment
|n order to set|s¦y th|s cond|t|on
Cond|t|on ? Co|umn connected mono||th|ce||y to |eems on eech s|de thet ere she||ower then the
overe|| depth o¦ the co|umn |n the p|ene cons|dered |y genere||y not |ess then he|¦ the
co|umn depth
Cond|t|on 3 Co|umn connected to mem|ers thet do not prov|de more then nom|ne| restre|nt to
rotet|on
Note
¹e||e te|en ¦rom /onao/ |o· |/e Je·/qn o| conc·e|e /a//J/nq ·|·ac|a·e· |o /a·ocoJe ?
|3S|
¹he ve|ues ere
those used |n bS S!!0 lert ! !99/
|/|
¦or |reced co|umns ¹hese ve|ues ere c|ose to those ve|ues thet
wou|d |e der|ved |¦ the contr||ut|on ¦rom ed|ecent co|umns were |gnored
Design by calculation
Assum|ng two |eyers o¦ re|n¦orcement, /
s!
end /
s?
, the tote| eree o¦ stee| requ|red |n e co|umn,
/
s
, mey |e ce|cu|eted es shown |e|ow
lor ex|e| |oed N
/
sN
/? (/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
/g
C
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)
where
/
sN
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red to res|st ex|e| |oed us|ng th|s method
/
sN
/
s!
÷ /
s?
end /
s!
/
s?
where
/
s!
(/
s?
) eree o¦ re|n¦orcement |n |eyer ! (|eyer ?)
/
ld
des|gn epp||ed ex|e| ¦orce
a
cc
0SS
n ! ¦or < CS0/60
/ |reedth o¦ sect|on
Concise:
Fig. 6.3
J
c
e¦¦ect|ve depth o¦ concrete |n compress|on l\ < /
Concise:
Fig. 6.4
206
C9.3

where
l 0S ¦or < CS0/60
\ depth to neutre| ex|s
/ he|ght o¦ sect|on
s
sc
, (s
st
) stress |n compress|on (end tens|on) re|n¦orcement
lor moment N
/
sM
/? |/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?)/g
C
|/|(//? ÷ J
?
)(s
sc
÷ s
st
)|
where
/
sM
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red to res|st moment us|ng th|s method
/
sM
/
s!
÷ /
s?
end /
s!
/
s?
vhere re|n¦orcement |s not concentreted |n the corners, e conservet|ve epproech |s to ce|cu|ete
en e¦¦ect|ve ve|ue o¦ J
?
es |||ustreted |n l|gures C4e) to e)
So|ut|on |terete N \ such thet /
sN
/
sM
Rectangular column charts
A|ternet|ve|y /
s
mey |e est|meted ¦rom co|umn cherts
l|gures C4e) to C4e) g|ve non-d|mens|one| des|gn cherts ¦or symmetr|ce||y re|n¦orced rectengu|er
co|umns where re|n¦orcement |s essumed to |e concentreted |n the corners
ln these cherts
a
cc
0SS
|
c|
< S0 Mle
|
y|
< S00 Mle
S|mp||¦|ed stress ||oc| essumed
/
s
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red
(/
s
|
y|
///|
c|
)//|
c|
/|
y|
where
(/
s
|
y|
///|
c|
) |s der|ved ¦rom the eppropr|ete des|gn chert |nterpo|et|ng es necessery
|etween cherts ¦or the ve|ue o¦ J
?
// ¦or the sect|on
/ |reedth o¦ sect|on
/ he|ght o¦ sect|on
vhere re|n¦orcement |s not concentreted |n the corners, e conservet|ve epproech |s to ce|cu|ete
en e¦¦ect|ve ve|ue o¦ J
?
es |||ustreted |n l|gures C4e) to e)
J
?
e¦¦ect|ve depth to stee| |n |eyer ?
207
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
Centroid of bars in
half section
d
2
/h = 0.05
Figure C4a)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.05
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
K
r
= 1
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.10
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4b)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.10
208
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
K
r
= 1
K
t
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.15
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4c)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.15
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
K
r
= 1
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.20
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4d)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.20
209
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
C9.4
C9.5
C9.6
Biaxial bending in rectangular columns
As e ¦|rst step, seperete des|gn |n eech pr|nc|pe| d|rect|on, d|sregerd|ng ||ex|e| |end|ng, mey |e
underte|en No ¦urther chec| |s necessery |¦ 0S < l
y
/l
.
< ?0 end, ¦or rectengu|er sect|ons, 0?
~ (e
y
//
eq
)/(e
.
//
eq
) or (e
y
//
eq
)/(e
.
//
eq
) ~ S0 Otherw|se see Sect|on S63 o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
lor squere co|umns (e
y
//
eq
)/(e
.
//
eq
) /
ldy
//
ld.

Concise: 5.6.3
Circular column charts
ln e s|m||er menner to C93, the eree o¦ re|n¦orcement ¦or c|rcu|er co|umns /
s
mey |e est|meted
¦rom the cherts |n l|gures CSe) to CSd)
ln these cherts
a
cc
0SS
|
c|
< S0 Mle
|
y|
S00 Mle
/
s
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red
(/
s
|
y|
//
?
|
c|
)/
?
|
c|
/|
y|
where (/
s
|
y|
//
?
|
c|
) |s der|ved ¦rom the eppropr|ete des|gn chert |nterpo|et|ng es necessery
J// e¦¦ect|ve depth/overe|| d|emeter
Links
l|n|s |n co|umns shou|d |e et |eest S mm or mex|mum d|emeter o¦ |ong|tud|ne| |ers/4 |n
d|emeter end ed|ecent to |eems end s|e|s speced et the |eest o¦
!? t|mes the m|n|mum d|emeter o¦ the |ong|tud|ne| |er, N
60% o¦ the |esser d|mens|on o¦ the co|umn, or N
?40 mm N
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
K
r
= 1
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.25
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4e)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.25
210
K
r
=1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
0.9
d
h
Ratio d/h = 0.6
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2 f c
k
Figure C5a)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.6
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
0.10
0.12
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
d
h
Ratio d/h = 0.7
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
K
r
=1
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f c
k
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f c
k
Figure C5b)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.7
211
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds
d
h
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Ratio d/h = 0.8
K
r
=1
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f
c
k
Figure C5c)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.8
d
h
0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

0.7
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
Ratio d/h = 0.9
K
r
=1
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f c
k
Figure C5d)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.9
212
Eurocode 2 resources
Publications
Concise Eurocode 2
CCll-00S, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
A hend|oo| ¦or the des|gn o¦ |n-s|tu concrete |u||d|ngs to lurocode ? end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2
CCll-004, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
Cu|dence ¦or the des|gn end dete|||ng o¦ e |roed renge o¦ concrete e|ements to lurocode ?
Economic concrete frame elements to Eurocode 2
CCll-0?S, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?009
A se|ect|on o¦ re|n¦orced concrete ¦reme e|ements |n mu|t|-storey |u||d|ngs
Precast Eurocode 2: Design manual
CCll-0!4, br|t|sh lrecest Concrete lederet|on, ?00S
A hend|oo| ¦or the des|gn o¦ precest concrete |u||d|ng structures to lurocode ? end |ts Net|one| Annex
Precast Eurocode 2: Worked examples
CCll-034, br|t|sh lrecest Concrete lederet|on, ?00S
vor|ed exemp|es ¦or the des|gn o¦ precest concrete |u||d|ngs to lurocode ? end |ts Net|one| Annex
Concrete buildings scheme design manual
CCll-0S!, ¹he Concrete Centre ?009
A hend|oo| ¦or the lSructl chertered mem|ersh|p exem|net|on, |esed on lC?
Properties of concrete for use in Eurocode 2
CCll-0?9, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?00S
low to opt|m|.e the eng|neer|ng propert|es o¦ concrete |n des|gn to lurocode ?
Standard method of detailing structural concrete
lnst|tut|on o¦ Structure| lng|neers/ ¹he Concrete Soc|ety, ?006
A menue| ¦or |est prect|ce
Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2
lnst|tut|on o¦ Structure| lng|neers, ?006
A menue| ¦or the des|gn o¦ concrete |u||d|ngs to lurocode ? end |ts Net|one| Annex
BS EN 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1: Design of concrete structures –
General rules and rules for buildings
br|t|sh Stenderds lnst|tut|on, ?004
National Annex to Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1
br|t|sh Stenderds lnst|tut|on, ?00S
Software
RC spreadsheets: V3. User guide and CD
CCll-00S ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
lxce| spreedsheets ¦or des|gn to bS S!!0 end lurocode ? end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
Websites
Eurocode 2 – www.eurocode2.info
Eurocodes Expert – www.eurocodes.co.uk
The Concrete Centre – www.concretecentre.com
Institution of Structural Engineers – www.istructe.org
3
Mombors of tho Stooring Croup
¦ohn Meson A|en bexter 8 Assoc|etes (Che|rmen)
Stuert A|exender vSl Croup p|c
le| Chene M|nere| lroducts Assoc|et|on ÷ Cement
Cher|es Coodch||d ¹he Concrete Centre
¹ony ¦ones Arup
Andy ly|e NkM Consu|tents
k|cherd Moss lowe|| ¹o|ner Assoc|etes
Nery Nereyenen C|er| Sm|th lertnersh|p
k|cherd Sh|pmen LClC
ko|ert Vo||um lmper|e| Co||ege, 0n|vers|ty o¦ london
kuss vo|stenho|me vS At||ns 8 L¹l lro|ect O¦ucer
kod ve|ster Concrete lnnovet|on end Les|gn
Mombors of tho Concroto |ndustry £urocodo 2 Croup {C|£C}
¦ohn Moore Consu|tent (Che|rmen)
C||ve budge br|t|sh lrecest Concrete lederet|on
le| Chene M|nere| lroducts Assoc|et|on ÷ Cement
¦ohn C|er|e ¹he Concrete Soc|ety
Co||n C|ever|y Construct
Cher|es Coodch||d ¹he Concrete Centre
le|g Cu|veness|en bkl
Ceo¦¦ lerd|ng LClC
¹om lerr|son M|nere| lroducts Assoc|et|on ÷ Concrete
¹ony ¦ones Arup
¦ohn Meson A|en bexter 8 Assoc|etes
k|cherd Moss lowe|| ¹o|ner Assoc|etes
Nery Nereyenen C|er| Sm|th lertnersh|p
k|cherd Sh|pmen LClC
Mert|n Southcott Consu|tent
kuss vo|stenho|me vS At||ns
kod ve|ster Concrete lnnovet|on end Les|gn
|nitia| soction drafts
! lntroduct|on Nery Nereyenen
? Ane|ys|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements Nery Nereyenen
3 S|e|s Cher|es Coodch||d
4 beems Cher|es Coodch||d, kod ve|ster
S Co|umns ¹ony ¦ones, ¦ens ¹end|er
6 ve||s ¹ony ¦ones, ¦ens ¹end|er
Append|x A Ler|vet|on o¦ ¦ormu|ee Cher|es Coodch||d, kod ve|ster, Owen broo|er
Append|x b Serv|cee||||ty ||m|t stete Cher|es Coodch||d, Nery Nereyenen
Append|x C Les|gn e|ds Cher|es Coodch||d, kod ve|ster
4
workod £xamp|os to £urocodo 2: Vo|umo 1
1his pub|ication givos oxamp|os of tho dosign to
£urocodo 2 of common roinforcod concroto o|omonts
in roinforcod concroto framod bui|dings.
v|th extens|ve c|euse re¦erenc|ng, reeders ere gu|ded
through des|gn exemp|es to lurocode ? end other re|event
lurocodes end re¦erences ¹he pu|||cet|on, wh|ch |nc|udes
des|gn e|ds, e|ms to he|p des|gners w|th the trens|t|on to
des|gn to lurocodes
\o/ame ' wo·/eJ /\omo/e· |o /a·ocoJe ? |s pert o¦ e renge
o¦ resources eve||e||e ¦rom ¹he Concrete Centre to ess|st
eng|neers w|th des|gn to lurocodes lor more |n¦ormet|on
v|s|t www.ourocodo2.info
Char|os Coodchi|d |s pr|nc|pe| structure| eng|neer
¦or ¹he Concrete Centre where he promotes e¦uc|ent
concrete des|gn end construct|on bes|des pro|ect
meneg|ng end euthor|ng th|s pu|||cet|on he hes
underte|en meny pro|ects to he|p w|th the |ntroduct|on
o¦ lurocode ? to the 0l
CCll-04!
lu|||shed Lecem|er ?009
lSbN !-904S!S-S4-/
lr|ce Croup l
© MlA ÷ ¹he Concrete Centre
k|vers|de louse, 4 Meedows bus|ness ler|,
Stet|on Approech, b|ec|weter, Cem|er|ey, Surrey C0!/ 9Ab
¹e| ÷44( (0)!?6 606S00 lex ÷44 (0)!?/6 606S0!
wwwconcretecentrecom

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