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© M J Cook 2005 Permission granted to reproduce for personal and educational use only. Commercial copying, hiring, lending is prohibited.

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These notes may be downloaded and printed free of charge for personal and educational use only. Currently, the notes can be found at www.freewebs.com/mikecook The notes are loosely based on the current AQA A-level pure maths syllabus which can be found at the AQA website, www.aqa.org.uk The material found in the notes should be useful for people studying for exams set by other UK exam boards. I cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information contained in these notes; use them at your own risk! These notes are not intended to serve as a self-study course, they should be used under the guidance of a teacher. If you have found these notes useful for yourself or your students, let me know! If you spot any mistakes or have any suggestions or comments, you can email me mike_cook_1982@yahoo.co.uk I hope that you find these notes useful. I wish you well in your studies.

The picture on the cover of these notes shows a Möbius strip. For more information, see the end of these notes. Mike Cook, 2005

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to multiply surds. …). 25. for example 2 = 1.8 ! &2 . is a surd + There are three important rules to remember when working with surds. they are: a × b = ab a a = b b a c ± b c = (a ± b) c $ 5 @ 8 × 2 = 16 = 4 24 24 = = 3 8 8 9 5 − 4 5 = (9 − 4) 5 = 5 5 " @ Simplify the following as much as possible using some or all of the three rules stated above: 20 ( 3 × 3 × 9 − 16 8× 2 ) ( 9× 9 ) Recall the first rule of surds above. Factorising surds can lead to simplifications. We can use this rule in two ways. 36. 9. )# A surd is a square root that cannot be expressed as a rational number (a quotient of real numbers). $ 5 @ ' 27 = 9 × 3 = 9 × 3 = 3 3 When faced with a surd.2.. but also to factorise surds.414213562.. as we did in example 1. look to see whether the surd can be factorised using square numbers (square numbers are 4. . 49. 16. 64.

This technique is an illustration of the factorisation of a difference of squares.9 6 + 0 6 Any real number. like $ 5 " @ 512 − 15 2 = 2 × 256 − 15 2 = 16 2 − 15 2 = 2 @ ' Using any of the results so far.e. Recall: ( a + b )( a − b ) = a 2 − b 2 . Of course. For example. then using the first rule of surds. This is an advantage. simplify the following as much as possible: 75 + 2 3 + # When dealing with expressions where surds appear in the denominator. it is usual to eliminate all surds in the denominator where possible. Returning to our example. 49 etc. we multiply numerator and denominator by 2+ 5 2 − 5 . like 3. first by expressing the real number as a root. To rationalise the denominator of 2 . given 2 . This means that we can multiply a surd by a real number. if we wish to add various fractions involving surds. for example. but it is standard practice to favour surds in the numerator over surds in the denominator. multiplying numerator and denominator by 3 . we 3 3 3× 3 now have a surd appearing in the numerator. For example. can be expressed as a root by remembering that a = a 2 . 5 × 5 = 25 Do not get confused and write an incorrect statement. we would eliminate the 3 3 term in the denominator by 2 2× 3 2 3 = = . we can write 5 = 52 = 25 . i. 7. we have: .

Let’s do this: 2 3+ 2 3 2− 3 2 3+ 2 = 3 2+ 3 3 2+ 3 3 2− 3 = ( ( )( )( ) ) 6 6 −2 9 +3 4 − 6 9 4− 9 6 6 − 2 × 3 + 3× 2 − 6 9× 2 − 3 " @ Simplify the following expression as much as possible: 3 + 24 . Keep at the front of your mind all of the rules and methods we have covered. 3 2+ 3 In this case. (Start by rationalising the 2+ 6 denominator). we multiply numerator and @ * Rationalise the denominator in the following expression: 2 3+ 2 .10 2 2− 5 2 4−2 5 = = = 2 5−4 4−5 2+ 5 2+ 5 2− 5 ( ( )( ) ) In general. we can write 112 as 4 7 (Check!). = = 5 6 −6+6 15 6 3 = $ 5 The general process for simplifying surds is to rationalise the denominator where appropriate. for example. . write the expression involving as few roots as possible and write the roots as small as possible. we can rationalise the denominator by multiplying numerator and denominator by 3 2 − 3 . to rationalise the denominator of denominator by a b c d . $ 5 ( ) ( 1 a b ±c d ) .

Where does the parabola cross the x- . and sketch. We know that the shape of this graph is a parabola (bucket shape). the following function: f ( x) = 8 x 2 − 14 x + 3 . We can also factorise quadratic equations of this form where possible to find the roots (zeros) or use the quadratic formula for finding the roots when factorisation is not possible. 2 −1 The obvious thing to do here is to rationalise the denominator: 2 +1 = 2 −1 ( ( 2 +1 )( 2 − 1)( 2 +1 ) 2 + 1) = 2 + 2 + 2 +1 2 −1 = 3+ 2 2 So we see that a = 2 and b = 3 . let us find the roots.11 $ 5 @ Simplify each of the following: b) a) 5 20 + 2 45 3 5 2 6 b) a) 5 20 + 2 45 = 5 4 × 5 + 2 5 × 9 3 5 3 5× 6 = 2×6 2 6 = 3 30 12 30 4 = 5× 2 5 + 2× 3 5 = 10 5 + 6 5 = 16 5 $ 5 @ / Express = 2 +1 in the form a 2 + b where a and b are integers. As a reminder. ) % We are already familiar with the graphs of quadratic functions of the form f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c . The parabola is the ‘right war round’ because the x 2 term is positive.

1. on the simplest quadratic parabola .1. as shown in fig.1 2 . In this case we can factorise as follows: 8 x 2 − 14 x + 3 = 0 ( 4 x − 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 4 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 3 = 0 x= 1 3 or x = 4 2 fig.a vertical line that cuts through the vertex. These correspond the value(s) of x satisfying 8 x 2 − 14 x + 3 = 0 . 1. This is illustrated in fig1. 2. this property is seen in all quadratic parabolas.f ( x) = x 2 .1 So the roots of the quadratic (the points where the quadratic graph crosses the x-axis) are 1 3 at x = and x = . 4 2 7 . we will learn how to calculate this in a later 8 chapter.12 axis? We call the point(s) where the parabola crosses the x-axis the roots (or zeros) of the quadratic. Notice that the graph has a line of symmetry . Of course. The minimum of this graph occurs at x = l i n e o f s y m m e t r y fig. The point on the graph at where the minimum (or maximum in other cases) occurs is called the vertex.

of course.13 0 Consider the function f ( x) = x 2 . We write f (3) = 9 to say ‘the value of the function f when x = 3 is 9’. use the quadratic formula. $ 5 @ ! Find the (real) solutions of the following: . then 2a = −5 ± 109 this is approximately equal to x = 0. or to factorise a quadratic polynomial. for example clearing fractions where possible. then x = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac . try the following methods: First. write 2 x 2 = 7 in the form 2 x 2 − 7 = 0 . If ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .573 . x = 0 or x = − 1 4 iii. When asked to find the roots of a quadratic polynomial. 9. It may be necessary to do some manipulation first. If the quadratic does not factorise. 1 1 1 x 2 = x + 3x 2 x 2x + 2x2 + x = 0 =0 2 2 2 x = 0 or 2 x + 1 =0 2 ii. For example 6 x 2 = 12 − 6 x 6 x 2 + 6 x − 12 = 0 ( 2 x + 4 )( 3x − 3) = 0 2 x + 4 = 0 or 3 x − 3 = 0 x = −2 or x = 1 iv. For example. For example. If there is only one term involving x – the equation can be solved by algebraic 147 147 manipulation. If the quadratic contains x 2 and x and constant terms. write the quadratic in the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . 3 = 2 x2 = = 49 x = ± 49 = ±7 x 3 If there is one term involving x 2 and one term involving x and no constant terms – then factorise out an x. What is the value of f ( x) when x = 3 ? The answer is. For example. try to factorise into two linear factors. For example 3 x 2 + 5 x − 7 = 0 .906 6 −5 ± 5 2 − 4 × 3 × ( −7 ) 2×3 or x = −2. i.

but we can make it look like a quadratic equation by factoring out one of the x terms. x = −2 or x = 1 . Multiplying throughout by x to clear the fraction gives: 6 x 2 + 6 x = 12 6 x 2 + 6 x − 12 = 0 Now. we have not changed it in any way. make this look like a quadratic equation by setting a = m 2 .e. Doing this gives: 2 x 4 + x3 − 6 x 2 = 0 x2 2 x2 + x − 6 = 0 3 . just written it slightly differently. We are asked to find the solutions. factorising out x 2 will not work so well. so we must give our answer . We can factorise this easily as ( a − 4 )( a − 6 ) = 0 so that a = 4 or a = 6 . find the values of x such that when we substitute in those values. we get a true statement. not a.e. We can. remember that a = m 2 . Making this simple substitution gives: a 2 − 10a + 24 = 0 . Then we can factorise completely. however. But. 2 ( ) x ( 2 x − 3)( x + 2 ) so we have that x = 0 or x = −2 or x = $ 5 @ 2 Find the (real) solutions of the following: m 4 − 10m 2 + 24 = 0 Here. because of the constant term.14 6x + 6 = 12 x This expression is a quadratic polynomial in disguise! First we need to do a bit of manipulation to get this into the standard form. this is exactly the same polynomial as before.the original question was in terms or m. This is just a case of factorising and reading off the roots in the usual way. $ 5 2 x + 4 = 0 or 3x − 3 = 0 @ Find the (real) solutions of the following: 2 x 4 + x3 − 6 x 2 = 0 Now this may not look like a quadratic equation. i. We factorise to get: ( 2 x + 4 )( 3x − 3) = 0 i.

m 2 = 4 or m 2 = 6 These four roots are shown in fig. But we can write it as f ( x) = ( x − 3 ) + 1 .3 Consider the function f ( x) = x 2 − 6 x + 9 . This can be factorised as f ( x) = ( x − 3 )( x − 3) = ( x − 3) . is yes. b = −2 ). we can: g ( x) = ( x − 2 ) − 2 ( a = −2. we write. So. 2 What about g ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 2 . i. METHOD To complete the square of x 2 + bx + c . In general. once again. 1. Can we write any quadratic 2 polynomial of the form h( x) = x 2 + bx + c in the form h( x) = ( x + A ) + B ? The answer.3 m = ±2 or m = ± 6 .1. it is a perfect square. of course. f ( x) = m 4 − 10m 2 + 24 " @ Solve each of the following for x: b) x 2 − x = 0 a) 2 x + 7 = 4 x 6 c) x + 7 = 2x − 2 fig. no. Before we construct a general method. 2 What about the function f ( x) = x 2 − 6 x + 10 can this be factorised as a perfect square? The answer is. .15 in terms of m.e. this technique is called completing the square. 2 ( x + a) • • • 2 = x 2 + 2ax + a 2 The first term (x) gets squared The two terms (x and a) get multiplied together and doubled The last term (a) gets squared Completing the square is essentially the reverse of this process. (Don’t forget ± ). Can we write this in the form g ( x) = ( x + a ) + b ? Yes. let us first think carefully about what we are doing when we 2 expand an expression like ( x + a ) .

1 Now x + b 2 2 1 = x 2 + bx + b 2 . 2 4 It is better to remember the method. x + 5 x − 7 = 0 2 5 x+ 2 2 − 53 =0 4 x+ 5 53 =± 2 4 x=± 53 5 − 4 2 or x = 1. $ 5 @ (Express x 2 + 5 x − 7 in the form ( x + A) + B and hence solve the 2 equation x 2 + 5 x − 7 = 0 . For example. So we have 4 1 B = c − b2 4 1 x 2 + bx + c = x 2 + bx + b 2 + B 4 1 1 2 SUMMARY: x 2 + bx + c = ( x + A ) + B where A = b and B = c − b 2 .14 . x + 5 x − 7 = x + 2 2 2 25 5 −7− = x+ 4 2 2 − 53 . 5 We complete the square.14 or x = −6. rather than memorise the result. so we have x 2 + bx + c = x + b 2 2 2 +B.e. if we want to complete the square for 3 p 2 − 7 p + 8 . 2 1 To find A: Half the coefficient of x. What about expressions of the form ax 2 + bx + c ? The solution to this problem is to factor out the a first. we first .16 x 2 + bx + c = ( x + A ) + B . 4 Now. we have only completed the square for expressions of the form x 2 + bx + c . i. A = b 2 To find B: expand the bracket and see what needs to be added or subtracted to get equality. 1 1 We have established that A = b . So far.

since ( x + B ) ≥ 0 (anything squared is never negative.17 7 8 7 8 p + . make sure everything gets multiplied by the 2. However. factor out the 3 to get 3 p 2 − $ 5 @ Express 2 x 2 − 3 x + 1 in the form A ( x + B ) + C . that is we can say what the minimum value of the quadratic is. Why is completing the square useful? As we have seen in example 10. Once we have 2 2 expressed a quadratic in the form A ( x + B ) + C . but remember that everything is multiplied by 3. 2 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 = 2 x 2 − 3 1 x+ 2 2 2 =2 3 x− 4 3 x− 4 3 4 2 − 9 1 + 16 2 1 16 Be careful with the brackets here. We can gain a useful piece of information by completing the square of a quadratic equation. although in practice quadratic equations are not normally solved in this way. the minimum value must be C. 4 8 " @ * Express 3 x 2 − x + 10 in the form A ( x + B ) + C and hence show 2 that the equation 3 x 2 − x + 10 = 0 has no real root. i. . 2 =2 − = 2 x− − 1 8 3 1 i. always greater than or equal to zero). A = 2. a generalisation of this method is used to prove the quadratic equation formula (see later).e. The minimum (or maximum) point of a quadratic function is called the turning point of the function.e. we can solve a quadratic equation by completing the square. Now we complete the square of p 2 − p + in 3 3 3 3 the usual way. C = − . B = − .

1. Here we considered a quadratic equation which had two distinct (different) roots.7. This is left as an exercise. y = x 2 + 16 x + 63 Turning point fig. so the turning point is a minimum turning point. the minimum value of y = x 2 + 16 x + 63 occurs 2 at y = −1 .1. 4. −1) . Recall the quadratic formula: If ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . So the minimum point occurs at ( −8. as shown in fig. . This can be 2a proved by completing the square of ax 2 + bx + c and using it to solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .18 $ 5 @ ' Find the turning point ( x. namely x = −2 or x = 1 .4 " −b ± b 2 − 4ac . This function is a parabola (right way round). We can find this by completing the square: x 2 + 16 x + 63 = ( x + 8 ) − 1 2 Since the minimum value of ( x + 8 ) is 0. We find the x value at this point by substituting y = −1 into the equation and solving for x: x 2 + 16 x + 63 = −1 x 2 + 16 x + 64 = 0 ( x + 8) 2 =0 x = −8 . y ) on the function y = x 2 + 16 x + 63 . then x = " # $ Look back at example 1.

Here we came across the quadratic x 2 + 16 x + 64 = 0 . 7) . This will not factorise. Recall. the equation cuts the x-axis in two different places. one or no root(s) is contained in the term b 2 − 4ac . In the case where the quadratic has one root. In the case where the quadratic has no (real) roots. then x = In the case where the quadratic has two distinct roots. once again the quadratic formula: If ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .5) If b 2 − 4ac = 0 then the equation has one root (two repeated roots) (fig. the equation never crosses the x-axis. any quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has either: two different roots. x= In summary. one root (two repeated roots) or no (real) roots.1. So we say that this quadratic has no (real) roots. which we found had only one root (or sometimes we say two repeated roots). This presents us with a problem – we do not know how to 2 2 find the square root of a negative number. can we tell which category it will fall into without going through the whole process of solving the equation? −b ± b 2 − 4ac . 6) If b 2 − 4ac < 0 then the equation has no (real) roots (fig. the equation is tangent to the x-axis at one point (just touches but does not cross). Given any quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . 1.19 Look back at example 12. This term is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation. 2a It turns out that the information about whether the quadratic has two.1. • • • If b 2 − 4ac > 0 then the equation has two distinct roots (fig. Now consider the quadratic x 2 + x + 6 = 0 . If we try to use the quadratic formula we get: −1 ± 1 − 18 −1 ± −23 = .

where the graph crosses the x-axis (if at all).7 could be a plot 1 of y = x 2 + 4 x + 8 ? 2 $ 5 @ Does the equation 1 1 We need to calculate b 2 − 4ac . To find where the graph crosses the y-axis. two repeated or no (real) roots? b) Given that ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has two repeated roots. 1. so fig. 1. so x 2 + 4 x + 8 = 0 has two 2 2 1 2 repeated roots. two repeated or no (real) roots? % & If we are asked to sketch a quadratic equation. we first find the roots to see where it will cross the x-axis (if at all).does not cross x-axis fig. where the minimum (or maximum) value occurs and where the graph cuts the y-axis. b 2 − 4ac = 4 2 − 4 × × 8 = 0 .6 could be a 2 1 plot of y = x 2 + 4 x + 8 .7 1 2 x + 4 x + 8 = 0 have any roots? If so. se simply set x = 0 and calculate the value of y.crosses x-axis twice b 2 − 4ac = 0 . 2 " @ a) Does p 2 − 5 p + 6 = 0 have two distinct.tangent to xaxis b 2 − 4ac < 0 . 1. does 2ax 2 − 4bx + c = 0 have two distinct. . y = x + 4 x + 8 is tangent to the x-axis at one point. 1.6 fig. 1. so that we can find the coordinates of the minimum value. 1. Then 2 we express the quadratic in the form A ( x + B ) + C .5 fig.20 b 2 − 4ac > 0 .5.6. To sketch a given quadratic. 1. there are four basic pieces of information we need to know: ‘which way round’ the quadratic equation is. depending on whether the x 2 term is positive or negative. does it 2 have two repeated roots or two distinct roots? Which of fig.

fig. We can then solve the problem.8 $ We are already familiar with solving two linear simultaneous equations in two unknowns. 8. 2 the minimum value of y = 2 x 2 + 4 x − 6 occurs when y = −8 . we set x = 0 . We then substitute for this unknown into the other equation and solve.1. one of the unknowns is eliminated. Therefore. We can write 2 x 2 + 4 x − 6 = 0 as 2 ( x + 1) − 8 = 0 (check).21 $ 5 @ * Sketch the function y = 2 x 2 + 4 x − 6 . −8 ) . The substitution method relies on us being able to rearrange one of the equations to make one of the unknowns the subject. Recall also that there is a line of symmetry parallel to the y-axis that cuts through the minimum point. to get y = −6 . ( 2 x + 6 )( x − 1) = 0 So the y = 2 x 2 + 4 x − 6 cuts the x-axis at x = −3 and x = 1 . To find where the graph crosses the y-axis. substitute y = −8 into y = 2 x 2 + 4 x − 6 to get: 2x2 + 4x + 2 = 0 ( 2 x + 2 )( x + 1) = 0 x = −1 . The elimination method relies on us being able to rewrite the equations so that after we add the two equation or subtract the two equations. Let us remind ourselves with some examples. y ) = ( −1. we factorise 2 x 2 + 4 x − 6 = 0 to get: x = −3 or x = 1 . Next we find the minimum point of the graph. The plot is shown in fig. Recall that there are two methods of solving simultaneous linear equations: by elimination or by substitution. So the minimum point is at ( x. 1. To find the roots. y = 2 x2 + 4 x − 6 " @ / Sketch the function 2 y = x − 4x + 6 . . We now have all the information we need to sketch a plot. To find the x coordinate of the minimum point.

22

$ 5

2 x + 6 y = 16 x − 18 y = −49

@

Solve the following simultaneous equations: …………….(1) …………….(2) Here, we can use the elimination method. We can eliminate either x or y. We will choose to eliminate x.

**Multiplying (2) by 2 and subtracting the two equations gives:
**

42 y = 114 y= 114 19 = = 2.714 42 7

We can now substitute for y in either (1) or

(2).

**Substituting for y in (1) gives:
**

2x + 6 × 19 = 16 7 2x = 16 − 114 7 x= 1 114 16 − 2 7

x = −0.1429

$ 5

@ / Solve the following simultaneous equations:

x 2 + y 2 = 13

2x + y = 7

…………….(1) …………….(2)

The best way to solve these is to rearrange (2) in terms of either x or y and then substitute into (1). We will rearrange (2) for y.

From (2) we have:

y = 7 − 2x

…………….(3)

Now we can substitute this into (1) and solve the resulting equation for x. Substituting into (1) gives:

x 2 + ( 7 − 2 x ) = 13

2

x 2 + 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 13

5 x 2 − 28 x + 36 = 0 x= 18 or x = 2 5

**We can factorise this quadratic as: Now we substitute for x in (3): If x =
**

18 18 1 , then y = 7 − 2 × = − 5 5 5

( 5 x − 18 )( x − 2 ) = 0

If x = 2 , then y = 7 − 2 × 2 = 3

Substitute these answers back into (1) and (2) to check that both pairs are valid solutions.

23

f ( x) = these −x + 2x + 8 What do results correspond to graphically? We have solved simultaneously 18 1 x 2 + y 2 = 13 and 2 x + y = 7 . The points ( x, y ) = and ( x, y ) = ( 2,3) correspond ,− 5 5 to points where the two graphs are simultaneously equal, i.e. where they have the same value, i.e. where they cross. This is illustrated in fig. 1.9.

2

y

2x + y = 7

( x, y ) = ( 2,3)

x 2 + y 2 = 13

x

( x, y ) =

18 1 ,− 5 5

fig. 1.9

" @ ! Solve the following simultaneous equations. Illustrate the results graphically.

"

@ Solve the simultaneous

equations 2 x 2 − xy + y 2 = 32 and y = −

5 x

y = x2 − 2 x + 2

y = 4x − 7 .

g ( x) = x 2 − 3x − 4

" @ 2 fig. 1.10 shows plots for the functions f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x + 8 and g ( x) = x 2 − 3x − 4 . Find the coordinates of the two points where the graphs of f ( x) and g ( x) cross.

f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x + 8

fig. 1.10

24

) , )

An inequality is an expression similar to an equation, but rather than having an equals sign, we have an inequality sign. An example of an inequality is, 2 x + 3 ≥ 11 . We can solve and manipulate inequalities in a similar way as we do with equations. We can add an amount to both sides, divide both sides by an equal amount or multiply both sides by an equal amount, as we do with equations. However, there is one golden rule we must always remember when working with inequalities: If we multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a negative number, then we must reverse the inequality sign. This can be easily illustrated. Consider the inequality, 6 < 8 . This is a true statement. If we multiply both sides by −1 we get, −6 < −8 , which is false. Because we have multiplied both sides by a negative number, we must reverse the inequality sign to get −6 > −8 , which is true. If we divide both sides by −2 , for example, we must again reverse the inequality sign to get a true statement (check). So, while we can multiply and divide both sides of an equation by a negative number without worry, when multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number, we must reverse the inequality sign.

$ 5 @ ! Simplify the inequality 2 x + 3 ≥ 11 .

In this example, we work just as we would if this were an equation. First subtract 3 from both sides:

2 x ≥ 8 . Then divide both sides by 2:

x ≥ 4 . So we have discovered that 2 x + 3 ≥ 11 ⇔ x ≥ 4 , i.e. if we substitute any number greater than or equal to 4 for x in 2 x + 3 ≥ 11 , we will get a true statement.

$ 5

@

Simplify the inequality

1 x < 3x − 4 . 3

Again, this is very similar to how we solve linear equations. First, multiply both sides by 3 3 to get x < 9 x − 12 . Now subtract 9 x from both sides to get −8 x < −12 x> . 2

$ 5 @ 2 Find the set of integers which satisfy simultaneously both of:

6 x − 3 ≤ 7 ( x − 1) ………………(1)

The way to solve this is to simply sketch the graph of y = 8 x 2 + 24 x + 10 and read off the values. $ 5 @ '(Solve the inequality 8 x 2 + 24 x + 10 < 0 . The integers that satisfy (1) and (2) separately are illustrated in fig1. 11. 11. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Note: 4 is included in the range. We can now make a rough sketch of the graph. Now we are asked for integers that simultaneously satisfy both (1) and (2). 1. We can factorise 8 x 2 + 24 x + 10 as ( 4 x + 2 )( 2 x + 5 ) . so y = 8 x 2 + 24 x + 10 cuts the x-axis at x = − 1 5 and x = − . fig. Simplifying (2) leads to: 9 > x or x < 9 . 6. " @ (Find the range of values which satisfy simultaneously both of: 7 x ≤ 16 + 2 x 1 ( 3 x + 3) > 0 3 and Note: you are asked for a range of values here. The 2 2 plot is shown in fig.25 2 x > 3x − 9 ……………. Let us consider an example. ) When solving quadratic inequalities. 9 is not. Simplifying (1) leads to: 4 ≤ x or x ≥ 4 (check). 8..11 So the integers which satisfy both inequalities simultaneously are 4..(2) We start by simplifying each of (1) and (2) separately as normal. it is always advisable to make a sketch to see what is going on.. 5. not just integers. 7. .

The plot is shown in fig.e.13 y = 2 x2 y = 12 x fig.12 $ 5 @ ' Solve the inequality 2 2 x > 12 x . the regions x < 0 and x>6 fig.1.e.26 Now. 1.1. Now we plot The region x ( 2 x − 12 ) > 0 corresponds to x < 0 and x > 6 y = x ( 2 x − 12 ) Another way to illustrate this inequality is to work out where the graphs of y = 2 x 2 and y = 12 x cross. 13. 8 x 212 + 24 x + 10 < 0 corresponds to the region of the graph below 5 1 the x-axis.14 y = 2x2 + 4x − 6 $ 5 @ '' Solve the inequality 8 ≤2. the region fig. 2 2 y = 8 x 2 + 24 x + 10 y = x ( 2 x − 12 ) and read off the answer. i. 1. The plots of y = 2 x 2 and y = 12 x are shown in fig.15 . i. fig. 1. 14. We can plot these two graphs and write down the required range of values of x that satisfy the inequality. x+3 fig. 1. in the region − < x < − . We can rearrange 2 x 2 > 12 x to get x ( 2 x − 12 ) > 0 . The region 2 x 2 > 12 x corresponds to the region where the graph of y = 2 x 2 is above the graph of y = 12 x .

The remainder. Consider 32 divided by 5. For example. 5 Now. We write the linear term in the general form ax + b : 3x 2 + 12 x + 9 ≡ ( ax + b )( x + 2 ) + r . So. when faced with 3x 2 + 12 x + 9 we can write: x+2 3x 2 + 12 x + 9 ≡ ( linear term in x )( x + 2 ) + remainder .27 First we must clear the fraction. Note: identities cannot be solved like equations can. . Notice. This sign means ‘identically equal to’ and is used when the expression is valid for all values of x. in this case will be a constant. Before we tackle the problem of algebraic division. our aim is to understand how to divide a quadratic or cubic polynomial by a linear term. Doing this gives. we multiply by ( x + 3) . we expect the answer to be linear (When we divide an expression of order m by an expression of order n. Alternatively we can write 32 = 6 × 5 + 2 . Beware: we cannot multiply both sides by x + 3 . we expect the answer to be an expression of order m − n ). it will help us to first recall how we divide numbers. 8 ( x + 3) ≤ 2 ( x + 3) 2 2 x 2 + 4 x − 6 ≥ 0 (check!) ( 2 x + 6 )( x − 1) ≥ 0 . because this may be a negative quantity. one degree less that the ‘linear term’. how do we work out 3 x 2 + 12 x + 9 divided by x + 2 ? When we divide a quadratic by a linear expression. We can write: 32 = 6 remainder 2 . To ensure we are multiplying both sides by a positive 2 quantity. 8 ≤2 x+3 ⇔ x ≤ 3 or x ≥ 1 2x + 3 ≤ 3 for x. we use the symbol ‘ ≡ ’ instead of an equals sign. x −1 " @ Solve the inequality " 4 + 6 #% " In this section.

x+2 The term ( 3x + 6 ) is sometimes called the quotient. 3x 2 + 12 x + 9 ≡ ( 3x + 6 )( x + 2 ) − 3 . i. Because we have 3 lots of x 2 on the left of the identity sign. This means that a = 3 . " + " When the polynomial f ( x) is divided by x − a . Since a = 3 we have that b = 6 . −3 is the remainder. we must have 3 lots of x 2 on the right of the identity sign. Finally we can write down the answer to the original problem: 3x 2 + 12 x + 9 3 ≡ 3x + 6 − . x+2 x+2 From 3x 2 + 12 x + 9 we write. Next consider the x terms. the remainder is f (a ) This can be proved by the following argument. the only place where we will get x 2 terms is when we multiply ax by x : ( ax + b )( x + 2 ) i. Multiplying out the brackets.e. When x = a . On the LHS we have 12 lots of x. we will have 2a + b ax + b lots of x on the RHS. So now we can write: ( )( x + 2 ) 3x 2 + 12 x + 9 ≡ ( 3x + 6 )( x + 2 ) + r . Write f ( x) = ( x − a )( Quotient ) + Remainder . f (a ) = ( a − a )( Quotient ) + Remainder . . we can see that r = −3 .28 So the expression on the left of the identity sign is exactly the same as the expression on the right of the identity sign.e. Look at the expression on the RHS.e. we will have a lots of x 2 terms on the RHS. We also say that ( 3x + 6 ) is a factor of 3 x 2 + 12 x + 9 . On the RHS we will get x terms when we multiply ax by 2 and when we multiply b by x: i. so 12 = 2a + b . f (a ) = Remainder as stated.

Here we notice that f (1) = 0 .29 $ 5 @ ' Find the remainder when f ( x) = 3x 3 + 4 x 2 + x + 6 is divided by x − 3 . ( ( ) f ( x) = ( x − 1) x 2 + 5 x + 6 . i. ± 3 will reveal at least one of the The aim is to find a number a such that f (a ) = 0 . f ( x) = ( x − 1) ax 2 + bx + c . $ 5 @ '* Write f ( x) = x3 + 4 x 2 + x − 6 as a product of three linear factors. as illustrated in the next example. We have factorised f ( x) as a product of three linear factors as required. factors. Usually. x and constant terms reveals that a = 1. f ( x) = ( x − 1)( Quadratic factor ) . . this will give us one of the factors. b = 5. " @ ' Find the remainder when g (m) = 2m3 − 5m 2 − 37m + 60 is divided by x − 4 . ± 2. From the remainder theorem. We write the quadratic factor generally as ax 2 + bx + c . c = 6 . The quadratic term can be factorised to give ) f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x + 3) . This means that ( x − 1) is a factor of f ( x) .e. though not all examples are as obvious as this. this would have given us the three linear factors immediately. we have that the required remainder is: f (3) = 3 × 33 + 4 × 32 + 3 + 6 = 126 . Express g (m) as a product of three linear factors. We may have also noticed that f (−2) = 0 and f (−3) = 0 . The following is a corollary of the remainder theorem: f (a ) = 0 ⇔ ( x − a ) is a factor of f ( x) This is often used when factorising cubic equations. trying the numbers ±1. Now we can write: namely ( x − a ) . Comparing coefficients of x 2 .

this is because every point on the graph of f ( x) = x 2 has had 3 added to it. where the shape of the graph remains the same but the graph is moved relative to the axis. We call such a ‘shift’. fig. fig. sketch f ( x ) + 3 = x 2 + 3 and ‘shifted’ parallel to the y-axis.16 Hint: Look at where the graph cuts the xaxis Sketch the graph of f ( x) = x 2 . @ Suggest a possible equation for the curve in fig. On the same graph. f ( x ) − 3 = x 2 − 3 has a minimum at y = −3 . The transformation f ( x) → f ( x) − a is a translation by a units parallel to the y-axis in the negative direction.30 " 1. 17 . In general we can say that: f ( x ) − 3 = x 2 − 3 . but they are The transformation f ( x) → f ( x) + a is a translation by a units parallel to the y-axis in the positive direction. this is because every point on the graph of f ( x) = x 2 has had 3 subtracted from it. 1. The plots are shown in fig. 1.1.16. f ( x ) + 3 = x 2 + 3 has a minimum at y = 3 .17. We can see that the graphs all have the same basic shape. f ( x) = x 2 has a minimum at y = 0 . a translation.

The signs may cause us confusion. 2 f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2 ) has a minimum at x = −2 . fig. i. but they are translations of each other parallel to the x-axis. sketch f ( x − 2 ) = ( x − 2 ) and 2 means ‘substitute x − 2 for x in the expression f ( x) = x 2 ’ and f ( x + 2 ) means f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2 ) . On the same graph. it is a translation of f ( x) by 2 units parallel to the x-axis in the positive direction. We can see that the graphs all have the same basic shape. f ( x − 2 ) = ( x − 2 ) has a 2 f ( x) = x 2 f ( x − 2) = ( x − 2 ) 2 f ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 minimum at x = 2 .18. . i.19. The plots are shown in fig. it is a translation of f ( x) by 2 units parallel to the x-axis in the negative direction. What is the relationship between the two graphs? The plots are shown in fig. This seems counter intuitive. The transformation f ( x) → f ( x + a ) is a translation by a units parallel to the x-axis in the negative direction. in the positive direction and the translation f ( x) → f ( x + a ) moves the graph in the negative direction. The translation f ( x) → f ( x − a ) moves the graph Sketch the graph of f ( x) = x 2 .e. f ( x) = x 2 has a minimum at x = 0 . On the same graph sketch 3 f ( x) = 3x 2 .18 In general. 1.31 Sketch the graph of f ( x) = x 2 . 1. f ( x − 2 ) 2 ‘substitute x + 2 for x in the expression f ( x) = x 2 ’. 1. What are the relationships between the three graphs? Note.e. we can say that: The transformation f ( x) → f ( x − a ) is a translation by a units parallel to the x-axis in the positive direction.

19 In general we can say that: The transformation f ( x) → af ( x ) is a stretch. the graph of f ( x) = x 2 has been stretched parallel to the y-axis by a factor of 3 to make the graph of 3 f ( x) = 3x 2 .32 Here. Sketch the graph of f ( x) = x 2 . Here. (We may think of this as a ‘squash’ parallel to the xaxis). y ) = ( 0. What is the relationship between the two graphs? The plots are shown in fig. y ) are unaffected by this transformation. Note: Points ( x.1. by a factor a. the graph of f ( x) = x 2 has been stretched parallel to the x-axis 1 by a factor of to produce the 2 graph of f ( 2 x ) . The same is true for the following type of transformation. parallel to the y-axis. On the same graph sketch f (2 x) = 4 x 2 . the basic shape of the graph has changed. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 2 f ( x) = x 2 fig. In fact. 20 . 1. 1. In general we can say that: f (2 x) = 4 x 2 f ( x) = x 2 fig.20.

21 We first sketch the graph of f ( x) = x3 . x . " @ * The function f is defined by f ( x) = 1 . x ≠ 4 . The effect of subtracting 3 from f ( x) translates the graph parallel to the y-axis 3 units in the negative direction.1. The effect of multiplying f ( x) by 2 is to stretch the graph by a factor of 2 parallel to the y-axis. Sketch the 2 ( x − 4) graph of f. 1. On the same graph. sketch g ( x) = 2 x3 − 3 . x ∈ . We perform two transformations on this graph to get the graph of g ( x) = 2 x3 − 3 . by a factor $ 5 @ ' Sketch the function f ( x) = x3 . parallel to the x-axis. Combining these transformations leads to the plot shown in fig.33 1 . Hint: Start with the graph of 1 and perform transformations on it. We notice that g ( x) = 2 f ( x) − 3 . a The transformation f ( x) → f ( ax ) is a stretch. 21. f ( x) g ( x) fig.

y ) = ( −2. . To find c. 1. ∆y ∆x We can work out the equation of a straight line given any two points on the line. 22 $ 5 @ '/ Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the points ( −2. 6 ) .1. 6 ) . as illustrated in fig. So the required equation is y = 3 x − 6 ∆x fig. We can find the gradient from this information. because gradient = ∆y 18 = = 3 . We are familiar with straight lines of the form y = mx + c . Illustrated in fig. or the gradient of the line and one point on the line. We have the two points ( x. we substitute either one of the given points into the equation y = 3 x + c . gradient = ∆y =m ∆x intercept on y -axis = c .23 " @ * Find the equation of the straight line with gradient −2 and which passes through the point (1. where m is the gradient and c is the intercept on the y-axis. y ) = ( 4. Let us substitute in the point ( 4. 6 ) . −6 ) . ∆x 6 So the equation has the form y = 3 x + c . 1. −12 ) and ( 4.34 " . −12 ) and ( x. fig. 23.1. This ∆y gives us that 6 = 3 × 4 + c c = −6 .22.

The distance between points ( x1 . the (shortest) distance between the two points is 62 + 82 = 10 units. it is usually easiest to rearrange the equation into the standard form y = mx + c . " @ Find the gradient of the straight line 4 y + 12 x − 40 = 0 . " . Also find where this line 4 2 What is the distance between the points ( 2. y2 ) is fig. " @ / Find the gradient of the straight line crosses both axes.1. To find the midpoint.24 ( x1 − x2 ) + ( y1 − y2 ) 2 2 Look back at fig. the equation of a straight line may be given in the form Ax + By + C = 0 . 1. 1. What is the midpoint between ( 2. The horizontal distance between the two points in 6 units. We can rearrange this into standard form as y = −3 x + 10 . From Pythagoras’ Theorem. to find the gradient and intercept.24. 25.12 ) ? The midpoint lies on the straight line joining the two points and is equidistant to the two points.12 ) ? The points are plotted in fig..35 Sometimes. The vertical distance between the two points is 8 units. In this case. we imagine a vertical line bisecting the . # . $ 5 @ '/ Find the gradient and y intercept of the straight line 4 y + 12 x − 40 = 0 . Look at the triangle in fig. y1 ) and ( x2 . 1. 4 ) and ( 8. y x − = 3 . So the gradient is −3 and the y intercept is 10. Also find where this line crosses both axes.24. 4 ) and ( 8.

B = ( 5. When two straight lines are perpendicular. Distance = ( −1 − 6 ) + ( 3 − 27 ) 2 2 = 625 = 25 . −4 ) and B = ( −15. y2 ) is x1 + x2 y1 + y2 . Imagine a horizontal line bisecting the height of the triangle in half.36 base of the triangle in half. The coordinate of the midpoint of the line joining ( x1 . " @ C = ( 9. 1. .3) and ( 6. " . Find the coordinates of the midpoint of the straight line joining A and B.1) . . Prove that ABC is a right-angled triangle where A = ( 2. 27 ) .25 $ 5 @ '/ Find the distance between the points ( −1. 4 ) and ( 8. 2 2 fig. Where these two lines meet is the midpoint of ( 2. " @ ! Find the distance between the points A = ( −3.5 ) . y1 ) and ( x2 .12 ) . the product of their gradients is −1 . −1) .12 ) .

From the definition of the gradient.26 Hence m2 = − is −1 . So θ BC 1 m2 = tan θ = =− . as shown. − BC θ let us call this m1 . it must 2 1 have the form y = − x + c . 2 " @ Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the origin and is perpendicular to the line joining the points ( 4. . − @ '! Find the equation of the line which passes through the point 3 and is perpendicular to the line y = 2 x + 4 . Substituting in the given point which lies on this line allows 2 us to find c. Now. This shows two perpendicular lines. BD m1 fig. 1 . 4 ) . m2 = tan θ = . Let the gradient of l2 be m2 . So the required equation is y = − x − 3 . Hence. The angle that l1 makes with the y-axis is also θ .e. Let the angle that l2 makes with the x-axis be θ . 1. We also have that l2 BC BC tan θ = . l1 BD BD BD is the gradient of line l1 . it must have gradient − .26.1) and (1. − 3 1 = − × ( −3 ) + c 2 2 1 c = −3 . We have that. l1 and l2 . i. 2 1 If the line is to be perpendicular to the given line. we have that m2 = tan θ . So the product of the gradients of two perpendicular straight lines m1 $ 5 −3. 1.37 Look at fig.

This is the equation of a circle with centre at the origin and radius r. We can use Pythagoras’ Theorem here to write down a similar expression for the right angled triangle (in blue). x 2 + y 2 = r 2 . 1. we can write. or x2 + y 2 = 4 . We can see that.27. r = 2 .b) and radius r. and the height of the triangle is y – b units. ( x − a ) + ( y − b ) = r 2 . but this time. fig. A radius has been drawn from the centre (origin) to a point on the circumference ( x. We 2 2 have. y ) . 1.38 " Look at the circle in fig.b) and radius r is 2 2 ( x − a) + ( y − b) = r2 y b A circle with centre not at the origin can also be thought of as a translation of a circle with centre at the origin. x-a a x $ 5 @ ' Find the centre and radius of the following circle: x2 + 2 x + y 2 − 6 y − 6 = 0 . 27 is x 2 + y 2 = 22 . What is the equation of this circle? We need to write down an equation involving x and y (and r). Here we have a circle with centre (a.28. 27 y b r The equation of a circle with centre (a. The equation of a circle with centre at the origin and radius r is x 2 + y 2 = r 2 What about a circle whose centre is not at the origin? Study fig. 1.1. in this case. so the equation of the circle in fig. the base of the triangle has length x – a units.28 . From Pythagoras’ Theorem. fig .

" @ '(Find the centre and radius of the circle whose equation is x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 . Now all that remains is to find r. 2 2 To do this. we select the positive sign (we can’t have a circle with a negative radius). . that the circle passes through the point (1.e.e. y = 0 . when x = 1. So the required equation is: ( x − 1) + ( y + 2 ) 2 2 = 4. we need to complete the square. To do this. we use the other piece of information given. −2 ) . −2 ) and radius 4.3) and radius through the point (1. ( x − a ) + ( y − b ) = r 2 . we can immediately write: ( x − 1) + ( y + 2 ) 2 2 = r2 . @ '2 Find the equation of the circle with centre at (1. setting x = 1 and y = 0 we have: ( 0 + 2) 2 = r2 r2 = 4 r=2 Notice. x2 + 2 x + y 2 − 6 y − 6 = 0 ( x + 1) 16 = 4 . −2 ) and which passes Since we are told that the centre is at (1. so that we can read off the required information. So.39 Here we have to rewrite the equation above in the standard form. $ 5 2 − 1 + ( y − 3) − 9 − 6 = 0 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 3) 2 2 = 16 Now we can see that this is the equation of a circle with centre ( −1. " @ 2 Find the equation of the circle with centre ( −1. 0 ) . i. i. 0 ) .

29.29 the point ( −1. To find c. First we find the equation of the radius joining the points ( −3. The perpendicular from the centre to a chord bisects the chord The tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius at its point of contact Task: Draw pictures to illustrate the above circle properties. 1. to find the equation of the tangent. 2 ) and ( −1. see fig. 2 ) and ( −1.40 The angle in a semicircle is a right angle. which lies on the tangent.1) . plus the point ( −1. 2 2 point ( −3.1) . We will use the point ( −1. we must first find the equation of the radius joining the points ( −3. 2 ) ). Completing the square 2 2 gives the equation as ( x + 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 5 (check).1) is y = − x + . so it has the form y = − x + c . We then use one of the circle properties. So the equation 2 2 1 1 of the radius joining the points ( −3. as illustrated in fig.1) gives us that 1 = .1) . 2 ) and ( −1. We can easily see that fig.30 1 1 this line has gradient − . 1. A line that is at right angles to another line is said to be normal to it. $ 5 @ (Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x 2 + y 2 + 6 x − 4 y + 8 = 0 at Tangent fig. Substituting in ( −1. we use one on the 2 2 given points that lies on the line. x2 + y 2 + 6 x − 4 y + 8 = 0 In order to find the equation of the tangent.1) . Now let us make a sketch of the circle and the point ( −1. 1. 1.1) . namely that the tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius at its point of contact.30.1) (we could have used the 1 1 +c c = . Our first job is to write the equation of the circle in standard form. " 0 Normal A line that just touches a circle (or curve) but does not actually cross it is called a tangent.

Find p. 1. we have to talk about the gradient of a curve at a particular point. it has no steepness here.3) . which has a constant steepness. Substituting this in gives 1 = −2 + c the point ( −1. Does it make any sense to talk about the gradient of a curve? Look back at fig. f ( x) = x 2 is a curve and so has no fixed steepness. which is drawn again in fig. @ '' The point ( 9.1) . . Find the equation of the tangent to the circle at the point ( 9. What is the gradient of this curve at the point x = 3 ? One way to think about this is to draw a tangent to the curve at the point x = 3 . So the equation of the tangent at ( −1. p ) .3) lies on the circle x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 12 y + 51 = 0 . of course. we cannot give a constant gradient in the same way that we can for straight lines. the graph is ‘flat’. The gradient of a straight line is a measure of how steep the line is. so it has gradient 2 (product of the gradients is -1). @ ' Show that the point ( 6. Instead. To find c we use the given point that lies on the line. p ) lies on the circle x 2 + y 2 − 14 x + 8 y + 57 = 0 . 1. So the equation of the tangent has the form y = 2 x + c . which shows the plot of f ( x) = x 2 .41 Now the equation of the tangent is perpendicular to this line at the point of contact. What is the gradient of f ( x) = x 2 ? Unlike a straight line. ( −1. This tangent is. ) We are familiar with finding the gradients of straight lines. The graph is steeper at the point x = 4 than it is at the point x = 1 .1) .1) is y = 2 x + 3 . namely c = 3 . When working with curves. So how do we find the gradient of a curve at a particular point? Let us return to the graph of f ( x) = x 2 . " Find the equation of the tangent to the circle at the point ( 6.31. a straight line and so we can find its gradient. At the point x = 0 .2. " Find the equation of the normal of the tangent at the point ( 9. p ) .

point Q.31 In fact we define the gradient of the curve f ( x) = x 2 at the point x = 3 to be the gradient of the tangent of the curve at the point x = 3 . This line is called a chord. x = a + h . 1. We can see from the diagram that the gradient of the f (a + h) − f (a) chord PQ is h Imagine that the point Q slides down f ( x) so that it is closer to P. Instead we consider another point on f ( x) . 1. the gradient of f ( x) at the point x = a is the gradient of the tangent of f ( x) at x = a . x=a As we have seen. Drawing in a tangent by hand and measuring the gradient is a time consuming and inaccurate way to proceed. so the gradient of the curve at x = 0 is zero. " " . the tangent would be steeper.e. We want to find the gradient of f ( x) at the point P.32 shows an arbitrary function f ( x) . i. or df (a ) df ( x) or dx dx . and draw in the line joining Pand Q. The gradient of the curve at the point x = 0 is a horizontal line. The point Q has x-coordinate.42 f ( x) = x 2 fig. fig. Now we can see from the diagram that the gradient of the chord PQ is approximately equal to the gradient of the tangent at P. The derivative of f ( x) at x = a can be written as f ' (a ) . and so the gradient of the curve at the point x = 8 would be a higher value than the gradient of the curve at the point x = 3 . If we were to draw a tangent to the curve at the point x = 8 . 1.32 . We call the gradient of f ( x) at the point x = a the derivative of f ( x) at x = a . h decreases. where x = a . fig.

or h →0 . This means that we make h smaller and smaller (approach zero). Note is not a fraction. the gradient of the graph of y = x 2 at any point x. This means that as h decreases and Q gets closer to P. the closer the gradient of the chord PQ gets to the gradient of the tangent at P. y = x2 The gradient of the chord PQ is: ( x + h) (x+ h ) 2 2 − x2 h = x 2 + 2 xh + h2 − x 2 h 2 xh + h 2 = 2x + h h = x 2 x x+ h fig. Therefore. so Q and P become arbitrarily close together. We say that ‘in the limit as h tends to zero’. Let us consider the simplest quadratic equation y = x 2 . so 2 x + h becomes 2 x as h tends to zero. dt f' ( x) = Let us look at a particular example. so that Q and P are very close. the gradient of the chord PQ equals the gradient of the tangent at P. the gradient of the chord PQ gets very close to the gradient of the tangent at P. then the notation dy dy is often used. the gradient of the chord PQ gets closer to the gradient of the tangent at P.33 The gradient at the general point P is the limit of the gradient of the cord as h → 0 . if we had y = f ( t ) . is 2 x . 1. As we make h very small. We write: f' ( x ) = lim h →0 ( x + h ) − x2 ( x + h) − x 2 = lim ( 2 x + h ) = 2 x . the gradient of PQ becomes arbitrarily close to the gradient of the tangent at P. it is just a piece of notation to stand dx dx for the derivative of y with respect to x (‘with respect to x’ just means that the variable is dy x. Suppose we want to find the gradient of the graph of y = x 2 at a general point x. Another notation is often used for the derivative. As h is made arbitrarily small. We write: f' ( a ) = lim h →0 f (a + h) − f (a) h . We can make h as small as we like. If y = f ( x ) . We make h so small that it becomes insignificant. then the derivative would be written ).43 The closer Q gets to P.

It turns out that the dy derivative of y = x3 is = 3 x 2 We cal also use this argument to find the derivative of dx 4 y = x . however. From these few examples. that dy = 4 x3 . It turns out. So the gradient of the tangent at x = 2 is: dx dy dx = 15 × 24 = 240 . although this is more tricky. can you work out what dx dy the derivative of y = x5 is? The answer is = 5x4 . dx If y = ax n then dy = nax n−1 dx This result is valid for all a. the gradient of the tangent of the graph of y = x 2 at the point x = 4 is 2x = 2 × 4 = 8 . If you look back at the argument for y = x 2 . you will see that to find the derivative of y = x 4 from first principles. $ 5 x = 2. h →0 For example. @ Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = 3x 5 at the point Following the rule we have: dy = 3 × 5 x5−1 = 15 x 4 . More generally the derivative of y = ax n is dx The derivative of y = x n is dy = nax n−1 (where a and n are constants).44 dy = lim dx h→0 ( x + h ) − x2 ( x + h) − x 2 = lim ( 2 x + h ) = 2 x . dx the derivative of y = x 4 is " # % % dy = nx n−1 . we will have to expand ( x + h) 4 . n ∈ . which takes some time (unless you know a shortcut). x =2 . A similar argument can be make to find the derivative of y = x3 .

. then we differentiate the expression by differentiating each term If y = f1 ( x ) + f 2 ( x ) + . g ( m ) = −2m −3 1# individually. find g '81 ( ) . $ 5 @ ' Find the coordinates of the point P which lies on the curve 1 f ( x ) = 2 x such that the tangent to f ( x ) at P has gradient .e. f '9 ( )= 1 1 1 . " @ ' Given that g ( m ) = −2 . y ' = 2 × 2 x 2−1 − 1× 4 x 4−1 = 4 x − 4 x 3 = 4 x (1 − x 2 ) .. i. 2 x Now we want the gradient of the tangent to be must have that x = 9 . Also. . Hint: First write g ( m ) as m3 and then follow the rule. 9 3 When x = 9 . y = 2 x 2 − x 4 . for example.e.e. We can see why this is true. because y = a can be written as y = ax 0 (remember. so we 3 x 3 1 1 = . y = a . f ( 9 ) = 2 9 = 6 . i. Then we differentiate.. anything to the power zero is one) and following the rule we have y ' = 0 × ax 0−1 = 0 . x=2 evaluated at x = 2 ’. 3 1 2 First we write f ( x ) = 2 x as f ( x ) = 2 x . So the coordinates of the point P are ( 9.. 6 ) . i. If we have an expression which consists of a sum or difference of several terms. + f n ' ( x) # % % If a function simply consists of a constant term. then y ' =0. where a is a constant. + f n ( x ) then y ' = f1 ' ( x ) + f2 ' ( x ) + . 1 − 1 1 −1 1 f' ( x) = 2 × x2 = x 2 = . we want f ' ( x ) = = .45 dy dx The notation stands for ‘the derivative of y with respect to the variable x.

The gradient of the line tells us the rate at with y changes with respect to x. adding a constant to a function simply translates it. .e. the line y = 2 x has gradient 2. " @ '* Given that g ( d ) = 3d 2 + 1 − d − π find g ' (d ) . then the gradient of the line will give the velocity. d " @ ' The function y = 3x n + x . where a is a constant. find . If a body is moving with constant velocity. Look back at the section on graphical transformations. For example.46 the graph of y = a . $ 5 @ If p = 4 dp + 6 . p = 4t −1 + 6 . where n is an integer. Following the rules. has a tangent at the point x = 1 with gradient -8. if we plot distance traveled against time. remembering that the derivative of a constant is zero. then the velocity can be calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time taken. it does not change its gradient at any point. t dt First we write. This means that for every 2 units the line moves up in the y direction. the line moves 1 unit along in the x direction. dt t We see that adding any constant to a function does not change its derivative. The simplest way to consider a function as a rate of change is to consider a velocity function. i. ) + Suppose that y is a linear function of x. 1.34 shows the distance against time plots for two bodies A and B. fig. is a straight. Alternatively. horizontal line. We saw that the transformation f ( x) → f ( x) + a is a translation by a units parallel to the y-axis. Find n. we have: dp 4 = −1× 4t −1−1 + 0 = −4t −2 = − 2 . and so has zero gradient.

The tangent at t = 8 has gradient 16. The gradients of the tangents of line C are continuously increasing. 1.e. fig. it is not travelling at constant velocity. while the gradient of 1 line B is . 1. This means that when t = 8 . The gradient of the line represents the velocity. body A has a greater velocity than body B. 1. What is the velocity of body C? This question is essentially asking what is the gradient of line C.35 steeper here.47 Which body is travelling faster? The gradient of the lines represents the velocity (distance divided by time). i. i. Therefore. Tangents to C have been drawn at times t = 3 and t = 8 . 1. Now consider fig.36 shows a plot of y = 1 3 3 2 x + x − 18 x + 7 . the higher the rate of change of distance with respect to time. but the gradient of C is different at different points. Body C does not have a fixed velocity. body C has a greater velocity at t = 8 than it does at t = 3 .34 1 2 ms −1 . the rate of change of distance with respect to time is 6 ms −1 . There are two special points on this 3 2 curve where the gradient of the tangent is zero. This means that when t = 3 . . the rate of change of distance with respect to time is 16 ms −1 . Of course. line C does not have a fixed gradient. As we now know.e.35. the higher the velocity. These points are x = −6 and x = 3 . Body C as accelerating. The higher the gradient. and the gradients of the tangents increase as t increases. because the gradient of the tangent is fig. The gradient of the tangent at t = 0 is zero. This shows the distance – time plot for body C. Body A therefore has a velocity of 2 fig. The tangent at t = 3 has gradient 6. We can see that the gradient of line A is 2. whilst body B has a velocity of ms −1 2 (Assuming that distance is measured in metres and time is measured in seconds).

3 2 The derivative of this function is y' = x 2 + 3x − 18 . Stationary points occur when = 0 . where x 2 + 3 x − 18 = 0 . The points where the tangent of the curve has gradient zero are called stationary points. We need to differentiate y. y= 1 3 3 2 x + x − 18x + 7 3 2 fig. when: dx dx 1 1 1 . Now the stationary points occur where the derivative is zero. Notice. First.e.48 The tangents at these two points have been drawn on the graph. $ 5 @ * Find the coordinates of the stationary point of the function y = ( x − 3)( 2 x + 4 ) . x = −6 or x = 3 . 12 . These are the stationary points. we need to multiply the brackets out: y = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 12 dy dy = 4 x − 2 . Does each stationary point correspond to a local maximum or a 3 local minimum? .e. y = 2 × 2 2 2 2 4x − 2 = 0 x= 1 1 − 2 × − 12 = −12 . i. When x = . whereas the turning point at x = 3 corresponds to a local minimum. Factorising and solving this gives. the ( x + 6 )( x − 3) = 0 turning point at x = −6 corresponds to a local maximum. How do we find where the stationary points are on a curve? Let us 1 3 use the example y = x 3 + x 2 − 18 x + 7 . 1. 2 2 " @ '/ Find the x-coordinates of the stationary points of the curve 1 3 y = x + 2 x 2 − 32 x . 2 2 So the coordinates of the stationary point are 1 1 .36 i.

so the function is decreasing at x = 1 . ) # 1. A function that has a positive gradient everywhere is called a (strictly) increasing function. If a function has a negative gradient at a particular point. 1. dy = 9 x 2 − 14 x + 2 dx dy dx dy dx = 9 ×12 − 14 × 1 + 2 = −3 . we say that the function is decreasing at that point.37 fig. marking on where the function crosses the x-axis and the coordinates of the stationary point. fig.38 shows an example of an decreasing function. x =1 = 9 × 22 − 14 × 2 + 2 = 6 .38 If a function has a positive gradient at a particular point. Make a sketch of the function.37 shows an example of an increasing function. g ( x ) . fig. x = 2 ? What can you say about the graph between the points x = 1 and x = 2. we say that the function is increasing at that point. x =2 . so the function is increasing at x = 2 . 1. $ 5 @ Is the function y = 3x3 − 7 x 2 + 2 x − 9 increasing or decreasing at the points x = 1 . A function that has a negative gradient everywhere is called a (strictly) decreasing function. f ( x ) . fig.49 " @ '! Find the turning points of the function y = x 2 − 49 . 1.

39 4 3 x − 4 x + 5 . 1. as with . dy Differentiating this function once gives = 6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 . then there must be (at least one) turning point (at least a local minimum) between these two points. a piece of notation. Consider y = 2 x3 − x 2 + 3x − 4 . the symbol for the derivative is f ' ' ( x ) and the symbol for the second derivative is f ' ( x) . for example given a function f ( x ) . despite the appearance of ‘2’. dx 3 . We can differentiate the dx d2 y function a second time. Notice. is just a symbol. y x =1 x=2 x fig. Is this function increasing. When the function notation is used. nothing is squared! It is simply a symbol to say that we have differentiated twice. It 2 dx dx dx 2 is not a fraction and. 3 decreasing or stationary at the points x = 0. x = 1 and x = 2 ? Is the stationary point a local maximum or a local minimum? " @ ' Consider the function g ( t ) = 3 # % % We can differentiate a given function more than once. the symbol we use to denote the second derivative is 2 . 1. as illustrated in fig. $ 5 d2 y @ / Given y = ( 2 x + 3) . find 2 .50 If the function is decreasing at x = 1 and increasing at x = 2 .39. we dx 2 2 d y dy d y have that = 12 x − 2 .

or the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. If a function f ( x ) has a stationary point at x = a . then we have seen that the derivative represents the rate of change of distance with respect to time. the stationary point is a local minimum dx 2 d2 y < 0 at P. i. then if: d2 y > 0 at P. If a function y = f ( x ) has a stationary point at P. the velocity. find 2 dx 2 4 # 5 If a function d = f ( t ) represents the relationship between the distance traveled and time taken of a body. which is the acceleration. to determine whether this is a maximum or a minimum we compute f ' (a) . then the turning point is a local maximum. dy = 24 x 2 + 48 x + 36 . then the turning point is a local minimum. dx Differentiating a second time gives: d2 y = 48 x + 48 = 48 ( x + 1) dx 2 3 " @ '2 Given that f ( x ) = x ( 2 x − 1) . differentiation once gives: y = ( 2 x + 3) = ( 2 x + 3) 4 x 2 + 6 x + 9 3 ( ) = 8 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 18 x + 12 x 2 + 18 x + 27 = 8 x 3 + 24 x 2 + 36 x + 27 . find f ' ' ( x) " d2 y @ (Given that y = ( 2 x − 7 ) . The second derivative represents the rate of change of the rate of change of distance with respect to time.e. dx 2 f' ' ( a ) = 0 .51 First we expand the bracket: Now. If f ' ( a ) < 0 . the stationary point is a local maximum. We can use the second derivative to determine whether a stationary point is a local maximum or local minimum. If f ' ' ' ( a ) > 0 . .

40 . Differentiation gives. the surface area of the can is given by: S = 2π r 2 + 2π rh ………………………………(1) h The problem with this equation is that is has two variables. Varying the height and radius of the container will vary the amount of aluminium that is needed for each can. i. 3 Using the second derivative test. Stationary points occur when f' ( x ) = 3x 2 − 15 = 0 .52 d2 y d2 y Remember: > 0 corresponds to a minimum. we need to compute the second derivative. f ' ( x ) = 3x 2 − 15 . so at x = 5 we have a local minimum. fig. Determine whether these stationary points are maxima or minima. which is negative. f ' ' 5 = 6 5 . The container for the drink will be a can made from thin aluminium and is to have a capacity of 333 ml = 333 cm3 . which is positive. What should the height and radius of the can be so that the minimum amount of aluminium is needed? r Now. 1. determine whether these stationary points are maxima or minima. ( ) ( ) " @ ( Find the stationary points of the curve f ( x ) = 3 6 $ 5 @ A soft drinks manufacturer is designing new packaging for its fizzy drink. 4 3 x − 15 x 2 + 14 x − 10 . r and h. We need to eliminate one of them. f' '− 5 = −6 5 . while < 0 corresponds to a dx 2 dx 2 maximum. $ 5 @ ! Find the stationary points of the function f ( x ) = x 3 − 15 x + 2 . so at x = − 5 we have a local maximum. when x 2 = 15 3 x=± 5.e. To determine whether these stationary points are maxima or minima. f ' ' ( x) = 6x . Now we have that.

76 cm to three significant figures. We can substitute this into equation (2) and rearrange for h. From (2) we have: 333 = π r 2 h h= 333 π r2 Substituting for h in (1) gives: S = 2π r 2 + 2π r × 333 π r2 S = 2π r 2 + 666 r dS = 0. so when r = 3. dr r dS 666 = 0 when 4π r − 2 = 0 .. 2 πr π × 3. for r = 3... dS 666 = 4π r − 666r −2 = 4π r − 2 . Multiplying throughout by r 2 gives: dr r 4π r 3 − 666 = 0 r= 3 666 = 3. " @ where: At a speed of x km/hour. a vehicle can cover y km on 1 litre of fuel.76 reveals that the r optimized values are indeed minimum (check).762 We need to make sure that these optimized values correspond to minima and not maxima.50 cm to three significant figures. h = = 7.53 To do this we can use the equation for the volume of the can. dr The minimum / maximum surface area occurs when Now S = 2π r 2 + 666r −1 . 4π Now we use the rearranged form of equation (2) to find the corresponding value of h: h= 333 333 . 666 Performing the second derivative test on S = 2π r 2 + .. which is given by: V = π r 2h …………………………………………………………. y = 5+ x x2 x3 + − .. . We can then use this to eliminate h from equation (1).(2) We know that the volume of the can is to be 333 cm3 . so So.76 . 2 60 1800 Calculate the maximum distance which the vehicle can travel on 30 litres of fuel.

If we differentiate f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 . we get f ' ( x ) = 9 x2 . This constant of integration is necessary for the reason discussed above. and then subtract one form the exponent. we multiply the coefficient by the exponent. The symbol dx simply means that we are integrating with respect to the variable x. We must also add on a constant. where c is any constant. To reverse this process. " ) Integration can be thought of as the reverse process of differentiation. we do indeed get f ' ( x ) = 9 x 2 . To integrate y = ax n . The notation used to stand for the integral of a function f ( x ) with respect to a variable x is as follows: f ( x ) dx Integral sign Function to be integrated (called the integrand) Notation to state that the variable is x The symbol is the symbol for integration. where c is the constant of integration. following this rule. then f ( x ) = 2 +1 seems to be all well and good. if we differentiate f ( x ) = 3x3 + c . we must be aware that constant terms may have been eliminated by the differentiation process. differentiating eliminates constant terms and so when reversing this process. then this symbol would be replaced with dt . This constant is called the constant of integration. if f ' x = 3 x3 . There is a slight problem.e. we also get f ' ( x ) = 9 x 2 .54 ) Given that f ' ( x ) = 9 x 2 can we say what f ( x ) is? Look back at the rule for differentiating y = ax n . c. So. we simply add one on to the exponent and then divide the coefficient by the new 9 2+1 exponent. we add one to the index and divide the coefficient by the new index. we reverse the process for differentiation. This ( x ) = 9 x 2 . however. We write: n +1 . To differentiate an expression of this form. In fact. i. If the variable were t. The integral of ax n is a n +1 x + c . if we differentiate our suggestion for f ( x ) .

ax 0 dx = a 0+1 x + c = ax + c . + f n ( x ) dx = f1 ( x ) dx + f 2 ( x ) dx + . For example 2 dx = 2 x + c . can be written as ax 0 . 2 +1 3 +1 3 x− 1 dx . except for x = −1 . we simply integrate each term separately: f1 ( x ) + f 2 ( x ) + . we are −1 + 1 0 never allowed to divide by zero.. + f n ( x ) dx Note: A constant. .. Following the rule. 0 +1 $ 5 @ 2 Calculate 2 x 2 + 8 x 3 dx . a. following the rule we have: x2 . Then. then following this rule will give ax −1 dx = In a similar way to differentiation. If x = −1 . This is a special integral which will be dealt with later. we have: 2 x 2 + 8 x 3 dx = 2 2+1 8 3+1 2 x + x + c = x3 + 2 x4 + c . to integrate a sum or difference of terms.. and so integrating this gives. This result is valid for all a. x2 $ 5 @ *(Calculate First we rewrite x− 1 1 2 as x − x −2 .55 ax n dx = a n+1 x +c n +1 It is important not to miss out the constant of integration. n ∈ a a x −1+1 + c = + c ..

41 .e. The shaded area. as follows: First we integrate the function fig. x4 x9 4 7 % We know that the derivative of a function represents the gradient of the function (at a particular point). 3 4 1 2 x + 1 .41 shows part of a function f ( x ) . 1. with the limits at the top and bottom of the bracket on the right hand side. 1. This method is best illustrated by an example. is given by: b b f ( x ) dx = f ( b ) dx − f ( a ) dx The symbol a means we are integrating a between two limits.56 1 2 x −x −2 dx = 1 1 +1 2 x 1 +1 2 − 1 x −2+1 + c −2 + 1 = 1 3 x 2 + x −1 + c 3 2 2 3 = ( x) 3 + 1 +c x " @ ' Calculate 15 x 4 + 16 x 3 − x + 7 dx . the area bounded by the curve the x-axis and the lines x = a and x = b . The integral of a function represents the area under the curve of the function. 10 $ 5 @ * Calculate 1 2 x + 1 dx . i. This is usually denoted by putting square brackets around the integrated function. fig. a and b. " @ Calculate 1 1 − dx . then 3 we substitute in the limits.

9 9 = The constant of integration always cancels out in this way for definite integrals. we would have got: 10 1 2 1 x + 1 dx = x3 + x + c 3 9 4 10 4 = 103 43 + 10 + c − +4+c 9 9 1090 100 +c− − c = 110 . An integral which does not involve limits. This type of integral.42 = 4 103 43 + 10 − +4 9 9 1090 100 − = 110 .57 10 y= 1 2 x +1 3 4 1 2 1 x + 1 dx = x 3 + x 3 9 10 .39. 1. 1. Note: It is not necessary to add a constant of integration when working with definite integrals. as follows: 1 3 x +x 9 = 10 fig. If we had added a constant of integration when calculating example 41. We first substitute in x = 10 and subtract from this the value of x3 + x when x = 4 . 9 9 So the result is: 10 1 2 x + 1 dx = 110 3 4 This corresponds to the shaded area shown in fig. . is called an indefinite integral. 4 Next we substitute in the limits. like example 1. where we integrate between two limits. as this always cancels out. which is 110 units 2 . is called a definite integral.42.

43 is 78 units 2 . This occurs when x = ± 4 = ±2 . 1 4 4 3 2 x + 4 x + 2 dx = x + x + 2x 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 1 = 1 4 4 3 1 4 × 3 + × 3 + 2 × 3 − ×14 + × 13 + 2 × 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 (check). First. Thus. the shaded area is given by: fig. 1. when x 2 − 4 = 0 . that is.44. the area bounded by the line y = x 2 − 4 and wholly below the x-axis. Let us find the shaded area. the shaded area in fig. i.43 fig.e. 1.45. The line y = x 2 − 4 cuts the x-axis when y = 0 . y = x2 + 2 fig.45 .44 " @ @ Calculate 8 x3 − 3 x 2 + 4 x + 6 dx 1 2 $ 5 @ * Consider fig. Illustrate the area under the graph of 1 y = 2 x + 4 x + 2 that this integral represents.58 3 $ 5 3 2 @ *' Calculate 2 x3 + 4 x 2 + 2 dx . we must calculate where the line y = x 2 − 4 cuts the x axis. 1. @ * Calculate the shaded area in fig. 3 3 = 78 y = 2 x3 + 4 x 2 + 2 " 1. 1. to find the limits of integration. 1. So.

" @ / fig. the answer will be negative.59 2 x 2 − 4 dx = −2 1 3 x − 4x 3 2 −2 = 8 8 −8 − − +8 3 3 8 − 24 −8 + 24 − 3 3 32 2 = −10 3 3 = =− Notice that the answer is negative.46 shows part of the graph of y = ( x + 4 )( x + 1)( x − 5) .46 . y = ( x + 4 )( x + 1)( x − 5 ) fig. 1. 1. Whenever an integral represents an area that is wholly below the x-axis. Find the area of the shaded region.

but these functions are in fact valid for all x ∈ . In fact. )# " Use your calculator to find the values of the functions p ( x ) = sin ( x ) and q ( x ) = cos ( x ) at 10 intervals in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 360 .3 and fig. Notice that the graph of y = cos ( x ) is symmetrical about the y-axis. 2. for example an angle of 370 degrees is in fact an angle of 10 degrees.60 ! &2 . Notice that the graphs . 2. fig.1 and fig. 2. Notice that the period of the functions sin ( x ) and cos ( x ) is 360 . However. Use these results to plot smooth graphs of the functions p ( x ) = sin ( x ) and q ( x ) = cos ( x ) in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 360 .4. 2. they both have a minimum value of -1 and a maximum value of 1. We have plotted the functions in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 360 . they have the same shape (sometimes called sinusoidal). of sin ( x ) and cos ( x ) are quite similar. 2.2. we usually consider angles in the range 0 to 360 degrees. Your graphs should look like fig. 2. The graphs of sin ( x ) and cos ( x ) are shown over a greater domain in fig.1 fig.2 These graphs represent the basic shapes of the functions sin ( x ) and cos ( x ) .

Functions that have the property f ( − x ) = − f ( x ) are called odd functions. see fig. find sin ( −30 2 ) and With a little thought. 2. 2 fig. This can be seen directly from the graph. that is: sin ( − x ) ≡ − sin ( x ) . and a good sketch of the graph. Which can be seen directly from the graph. $ 5 sin 210 .61 fig.4 This gives rise to an interesting property of cos ( x ) . Functions that have the property f ( x ) = f ( − x ) are called even functions. 2. 2. The graph of y = sin ( x ) also has an interesting symmetrical property. 2.3 fig.5 . sin −30 = − sin 30 = − ( ) ( ) 1 2 1 and sin ( 210 ) = sin ( −30 ) = − . we can see that. '@ Given that sin 30 = 1 .5. without using a calculator. that is: cos( x) ≡ cos(− x) .

62

"

'@ Given that cos ( 60 ) =

1 , without using a calculator, find cos ( 240 ) . 2

"

"

The function f ( x ) = tan ( x ) has a more unusually shaped graph. This is shown in fig. 2.6. Note that, unlike sin ( x ) and cos ( x ) ,

tan ( x ) is not bounded. For example, as

**graph of f ( x ) = tan ( x ) repeats itself every
**

180 .

x → 90 , tan ( x ) → ∞ . Notice also that the

**The symmetry of the graph leads to the identity:
**

fig. 2.6 Note: radian measure used!

tan ( x ) ≡ ( x ± 180

)

"

'@ ' Given that tan 45 = 1 , use the symmetry of the graph of f ( x ) = tan ( x ) to

find the value of tan135 without using a calculator.

+

Up until now, we have measured angles in degrees, where one degree is turn. From now on, we will almost exclusively use radian measure.

1 of a full 360

r r r

Consider a circle with an angle θ subtended by two radii. One radian corresponds to the angle which gives the same arc length as the radius, as shown in fig. 2.6. If two radii subtend an angle , then the arc length, l, is given by l = rθ , as shown in fig. 2.7. We can see therefore, that the circumference of a circle divided by the radius of the circle will give the number of degrees in a circle, i.e. the number of degrees in a full turn.

fig. 2.6

**63 The number of degrees in a full circle is therefore given by:
**

Circumference 2π r = = 2π , Radius r

fig. 2.7

**i.e. 360 = 2π c , note a superscript ‘c’ is sometimes used to denote ‘radian’.
**

180 = π c

$ 5

'@ ' Convert

a) 45 into radians

b) 30 into radians.

a) Now, 180 = π c , so 45 =

πc

4

.

b) Now, 1 =

πc

180

, so 30 =

30π c 1 c = π . 180 6

"

'@ Convert 150 into radians.

It will often be necessary to work with radians. When working with radians on your calculator, make sure it is switched to radian mode.

" +

**Look at fig. 2.8. There is a relation involving the sine of the angles at A, B and C, with the
**

B

c A

a b C

**length of the sides a, b and c. The relation is as follows:
**

a b c = = sin A sin B sin C

fig. 2.8

and is called the sine rule.

64

4 +

**Look at fig. 2.9. From this diagram, we can see that,
**

sin A = h c h = c sin A

……………………..(1)

**We can also see that,
**

B c A X h b b fig. 2.9 a C

sin C =

h a

h = a sin C ………….…………………………(2)

**Since (1) = (2), we can see that,
**

c sin A = a sin C c a = …………………………..(3) sin C sin A

**By constructing a perpendicular form C to AB and giving a similar argument, we can deduce that,
**

a sin B = b sin A a b = . sin A sin B a c = , so, sin A sin C

But we know from (3) that

a b c . As required. = = sin A sin B sin C This is the sine rule. It relates the sides of any triangle to sine of its angles, whether the triangle is a right-angled triangle or not.

6 .75 (in fact. However.3 .11 C Using the sine rule.6 ) = 98. Look back at the graph of sin ( x ) . for example fig. (Another angle which would give a sine of 0.6 = 408.6 = 131.2 × sin 27 8.8 .8 sin 27 $ 5 '@ * Solve the triangle ABC. where AC = 30 cm . C = 180 − ( 33 + 48. BC = 20 cm and ∠CAB = 30 .3 PR = sin 27 sin122. 2. First make a rough sketch and mark on the given information.3 9. So.5. this is not the whole story. this is not a valid consideration). Let us continue under the assumption that B = 48.3 P = sin −1 0.8 PR = 15. We can see that there is more than one angle that gives a sine of 0.2 . Therefore. 8.3 × sin122. 2. but since the angles in a triangle add up to 180 . So. Then. 2. Q = 180 − ( 27 + 30.503 = 30. (Solve the triangle means find all the missing sides and angles) P 8.3 cm 27 R 9.65 $ 5 '@ Solve the triangle in fig. B 20 cm A 33 30 cm fig.6 .2 = sin 27 sin P sin P = 9.363 30 B = sin −1 0.363 = 21. 20 30 = sin 33 sin B sin B = 20 × sin 33 = 0. there are infinitely many such angles).75 is 360 + 48. .10. 2.2 cm fig.4 cm .2 ) = 122.4 . Now. shown in fig. 2.4 which we can deduce form the symmetry of the graph of sin ( x ) . the calculator tells us that B = 48.6 . PR = 8.10 Q 8. Another such angle would be 180 − 48.11.

and so can be factorised as ( AX + CX )( AX − CX ) . 2.(3) . if we had taken B = 131.6 and AB = 12.4 . + 4 Look back at fig.. 2 2 Now. There is a relation involving the length of all of the sides and one of the angles. ( AX ) − ( CX ) is a difference of squares. We can see form triangle ABX that. This problem is ambiguous.(2) 2 Rearranging (1) for h 2 and substituting into (2) gives: a 2 = c 2 − ( AX ) + ( CX ) 2 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + ( AX ) − ( CX ) .4 sin 30 But. a 2 = h 2 + ( CX ) ……………………………………………………………………….66 20 AB = sin 30 sin 98. c 2 = h 2 + ( AX ) …………………………………………………………………………(1) 2 And from triangle BCX we can see that. Both sets of solutions are equally valid. there are two possible solutions.8 cm (check).9. 2. The relation is as follows: c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos C and is called the cosine rule. then we would have C = 18.4 AB = 39.8.……………. where E = 81 . we have that: c 2 = a 2 + ( AX + CX )( AX − CX ) ……………………………………….. F = 62 and d = 4 m . Be aware of this eventuality! " '@ * Solve the triangle DEF.6 cm AB = 20 × sin 98. " + Look at fig. So.

5 m .222 + 7 2 − 82 2 × 5.…….12 C Using the cosine rule.……………. AX − CX = AX + CX − 2CX = b − 2CX .4 .(5) Substituting (4) and (5) into (3) gives: c 2 = a 2 + b ( b − 2a cos C ) c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2ab cos C as required.12.7 . BC = 8 cm and C = 40 .22 × 7 A = 80. But CX = a cos C . This can be rearranged to give an alternative form for finding an angle given all three sides: cos C = a 2 + b2 − c 2 2ab '@ Solve the triangle ABC. $ 5 First make a sketch and mark on the given information. we have: ( AB ) 2 = 82 + 7 2 − 2 × 8 × 7 × cos 40 AB = 27. YZ = 4 m and XZ = 7 m . Therefore. 2. so: AX − CX = b − 2a cos C ………………………………………….. " '@ Solve the triangle XYZ.35 ) = 59. where XY = 9.20 = 5.22 cm . . where AC = 7 cm . shown in fig. 2.222 + 7 2 − 2 × 5. Using the cosine rule a second time gives: 82 = 5. B = 180 − ( 40 + 80. B 8 cm A 40 7 cm fig.22 × 7 × cos A cos A = 5.67 But: AX + CX = b …………………………………………………………………………(4) and.

AC = 9 cm and C = 30 . The area of this triangle is write the area as: Area = 1 ab sin C 2 This formula allows us to find the area of any triangle given two sides and the included angle.13. we have that: b2 + c2 = a 2 . Dividing throughout by a 2 gives: b a 2 c + a 2 = 1 or equivalently. 1 bh . 2. a a c cos θ Look at fig. you should start with the most complicated side of the expression and. make it look like the other side of the expression. " '@ ! Calculate the area of triangle ABC. 2. cos θ = and tan θ = = . You may be asked to prove a trigonometric identity by using the above identities and some algebraic manipulation (see example 2. .68 '@ / Solve the triangle UVW.6). where VW = 88. by using algebraic manipulation and the standard identities above. sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 This is an important trigonometric identity. we can 2 " Look back at fig. where BC = 6 cm . We can see that sin θ = So we have the relationship: a b tan θ = sin θ cos θ c fig.9. As a general rule. 2. UV = 97 m and U = 37 .3 m .13 From Pythagoras’ Theorem. " ) b c b sin θ . But. since h = a sin C .

69

'@ / Prove the identity, sin θ tan θ ≡

1 − cos θ . cos θ

$ 5

Now, we should start with the most complicated side, and make it look like the other side. Here though, both sides of the identity look equally simple. One obvious thing to do sin θ . So let us work on the LHS: would be to rewrite tan θ as cos θ

LHS = sin θ tan θ = sin θ × sin θ cos θ

=

sin 2 θ . cos θ

Now, using the identity, sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 , we can see that, sin 2 θ = 1 − cos 2 θ . So we can write: LHS =

=

**1 − cos 2 θ 1 cos 2 θ = − cos θ cos θ cos θ
**

1 − cos θ = RHS . cos θ

So we have shown that the LHS equals the RHS, hence we have proved the identity, 1 sin θ tan θ ≡ − cos θ . cos θ

'@ Using the two previously established trigonometric identities and algebraic 1 1 1 manipulation, prove the identity, tan A + ≡ × . tan A cos A sin A "

%

"

$

**Trigonometric identities are also useful for solving trigonometric equations.
**

$ 5 '@ ! Solve the equation 2sin θ − cos θ = 0 for the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360 .

Rewrite the equation as, 2sin θ = cos θ . Divide both sides by sin θ to get, cos θ 1 2= = . So we have, sin θ tan θ

70

1 θ = 26.6 This is the answer that the calculator gives but beware, we 2 were asked to look in the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360 . Look back at the graph of tan θ in fig. 2.6, 1 we can see that there is another angle that has a tangent of in the given range, and it is 2 θ = 180 + 26.6 = 206.6 . tan θ =

**So the two answers are θ = 26.6 , 206.6 .
**

$ 5 '@ Solve 2 cos 2 θ − 3cos θ + 1 = 0 for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π .

This is a quadratic equation in cos θ . To make this look like a more familiar form, we can make the substitution, x = cos θ . Now the equation becomes:

2 x 2 − 3x + 1 = 0

**which can be factorised as ( 2 x − 1)( x − 1) = 0
**

x = cos θ , so we have: 1 θ = 1.05 or cos θ = 1 2 given domain. cos θ =

x=

1 or x = 1 . Now remember that 2

θ = 0 . These are the only solutions for the

" '@ 2 Solve 5sin θ = 2 cos θ for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π . Note: this question is set in radians. " '@ (Solve 2 sin 2 θ + 3sin θ = 2 for values of θ between 0 and 360 .

!"

,. )

#

$

#

**Recall the following rules of indices.
**

a m a n = a m+ n

am = a m− n n a

a n = n am

m

71

(a )

m

n

= a mn

a−m =

a0 = 1

1 am

a = a

1 2

"

An exponential function is a function where a constant base is raised to a variable exponent, for example f ( x ) = 2 x . Make a table of values for f ( x ) = 2 x for −2 ≤ x ≤ 5 and use this to plot the function f ( x ) = 2 x for the given domain. The plot should look like fig. 2.14.

f ( x ) = 2x

Notice that this graph is strictly increasing. This shape of graph is sometimes called exponential growth. More generally, the graph of f ( x ) = a x shows exponential growth for a > 1 , and is sometimes used as a simple population model. Exponential growth also occurs as the limit of discrete processes such a compound interest.

fig. 2.14

**Notice that the graph of f ( x ) = a x cuts the yaxis at y = 1 .
**

f ( x ) = 4x

The graph of f ( x ) = a x has the same basic shape as fig. 2.14 for all a > 1 , but the rate of growth increases with increasing a, as illustrated in fig. 2.15.

f ( x ) = 3x f ( x ) = 2x

fig. 2.15

,

If a is a positive real number other than 1, then the logarithm of x with base a is defined by:

logarithms are simply an alternative way of writing exponents. 10 x = 150 " . We have established that 100 = 10 x ⇔ x = log100 . Let us look at a less trivial case. Logarithms base 10 are often used and are usually written simply as ‘log’ rather than ‘ log10 ’. we can now see that 100 = 102 . b) 108 = 2 y c) 729 = 3x . This is a logarithm base 10. ( ) .72 y = log a x ⇔ x = a y (for every x > 0 and every real number y). If x and y are any two positive real numbers. " '@ Write the following equations in logarithmic form. your calculator will return the answer ‘2’.18 . So. assume that it is base 10. but we can easily solve it using the idea of logarithms. Looking back at the original expression. $ 5 '@ 2 Solve for x. We can not solve this equation by sight. y = log a x ⇔ x = ay For example the expression 100 = 10 x can be written in logarithmic form as x = log10 100 . If you press 100 followed by ‘LOG’. then log a ( xy ) = log a x + log a y log a x = log a x − log a y y log a x n = n log a x for every real number n. so we have found that x = 2 . Whenever you see ‘log’. we would usually write 100 = 10 x ⇔ x = log100 . a) 1000 = 10 x On your calculator. .. 100 = 10 x . ⇔ x = log150 = 2. 10 x = 150 . you will notice the button ‘LOG’. This is a trivial example. Thus.

Let p = log a x and q = log a y . in the same way that adding 2 to both sides of an equation does not change the equation. it seems practical to choose to take logs to base 10. we take logarithms base 10 of both sides of the equation: log 3x = log 4 . log 3 So we have found that x = 1. Taking logarithms base 10 of both sides of the equation gives: . The method we would use is to ‘take logarithms’ of both sides of the equation.26 .73 Let us prove the first Law of Logarithms. the equation above can be written as: log a ( xy ) = log a x + log a y as required. The others have similar proofs. So. this was an artificial example and could not have solved in this way if the ’10’ had been something else. ( ) From the laws of logarithms. however. xy = a p + q which can be written in logarithmic form as. given 3x = 4 . But since p = log a x and q = log a y . like a ‘4’. Then a p = x and a q = y . % $ We solved an equation of this form in example 2. log a xy = p + q . Taking logarithms of both sides of the equation does not change the equation. by the laws of indices.26 . So. We can take logarithms of both sides to any base. Now. from the definition of the logarithm. Supposed we are asked to solve the equation 3x = 4 for x.9. but since we have a ‘LOG’ (base 10) button on our calculator. xy = a p a q = a p + q . this is equivalent to: x log 3 = log 4 x= log 4 = 1. $ 5 '@ (Solve the equation 62 x +3 = 29 for x.

Each number in the list is called an element of the sequence. A sequence whereby there is a constant difference between consecutive terms is called an arithmetic progression (AP).74 log 6 2 x +3 = log 29 ( ) ( 2 x + 3) log 6 = log 29 x= 1 log 29 −3 2 log 6 2x + 3 = log 29 log 6 x = −0. The common ration of the above sequence is 2. 4. & '( ) # & # # A sequence is a list of numbers which follows a mathematical pattern. The difference between consecutive terms of an AP is called the common difference and is often denoted by d. A sequence whereby each term is found by multiplying the previous term by a given factor is called a geometric progression (GP). 32. The example above is an arithmetic progression. 2. . 7. For example: 1. 3. 11. 8. For example: 1. 16. … is a geometric progression. 9. The common difference of the above sequence is 2. 5. … is a sequence. The factor by which each term is multiplied to generate the next term is called the common ratio and is often denoted by r.56 " '@ ' Solve the following equations for x: 1 2 a) 32 x = b) 12 2 x = 3x .

. We want: an = 2n − 3 = 163 .6 for n into the formula for the nth term. 9 .2. we insert n = 1 into the formula for the nth term. we insert n = 2 into the formula. Doing this gives us: a2 = ( 2 × 2 ) − 3 = 1 . To find the 2nd term. Next we are asked to find the value of n for which an = 163 . To determine whether this sequence is arithmetic or geometric. we insert n = 3 into the formula. 5. Therefore the sequence is an arithmetic progression with common difference 2.. Write down the first 6 terms of the sequence. a1 . . Doing this gives us: a1 = ( 2 × 1) − 3 = −1 . 2 So the 83rd term is 163. 1. $ 5 '@ The nth term of a sequence is given by an = 2n − 3 .5. We find these by simply inserting 1. may be defined by a formula for the nth term. To find the 1st term. Is the sequence an arithmetic progression or a geometric progression? What is the common difference / common ratio of the series? Find the value of n for which an = 163 . If not. try dividing consecutive terms of the sequence to see if there is a common ratio. Continuing in this way. a2 . so: n= 163 + 3 = 83 . we find the first 6 terms to be: −1. We are asked for the first 6 terms.. 7. This is a matter of simple substitution. 3.75 " Sometimes. a sequence. we subtract consecutive terms to see if there is a common difference.3. Doing this gives us: a3 = ( 2 × 3) − 3 = 3 . To find the 3rd term. we can see that there is a common difference of 2 between each of the terms. In this case. a3 .4.

There is more than one way of tackling this problem. a series may be finite or infinite.. (1) + (2) gives: Notice that if we add each of the terms in (1) and (2) as indicated by the arrows opposite..76 1 . Let. 2 (100 lots of 101) ... + 101 S= 100 ×101 = 5050 . 1. + 1 So. which will help us in the next section. but with a little ingenuity there is a simple. A series is the sum of the terms of a sequence. What is 1 + 2 + 3 + . + 1 …………………………………….(1) We can reorder this sum as: S = (1 + 99 ) + (1 + 98 ) + (1 + 97 ) + (1 + 96 ) + .... A series is called geometric if its terms follow a geometric progression... Is this sequence an AP or a GP? Write 3 down the common difference / ratio..(2) 1 + (1 + 1) + (1 + 2 ) + (1 + 3) + . + (1 + 99 ) (1 + 99 ) + (1 + 98) + (1 + 97 ) + (1 + 96 ) + . + (1 + 99 ) + 1 2 S = 101 + 101 + 101 + . We can rewrite this as: S = 1 + (1 + 1) + (1 + 2 ) + (1 + 3) + . + (1 + 99 ) …………………………………………. A series is called arithmetic if its terms follow an arithmetic progression.. What is the 6th term? " '@ Consider the sequence 9. ='= =A= ( ( 8B Let us take a brief detour to consider a particular problem.. + 100 ? This seems like a difficult problem at first sight... short solution.. each add to 101 2 S = 1 + (1 + 99 ) + (1 + 1) + (1 + 98 ) + (1 + 2 ) + (1 + 97 ) + .. 3. + 100 .. but let us take the following approach. S = 1 + 2 + 3 + . Like a sequence.

a + d .. a + 2d . + 100 = 5050 . + ( a + ( n − 1) d ) …………………………(1) This can be rewritten as: S n = ( a + ( n − 1) d ) + ( a + ( n − 2 ) d ) + ( a + ( n − 3) d ) + .. He went on to become one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.. 4 Consider a general arithmetic sequence with first term a.77 So. This can be represented by: a... Notice that the nth term is a + ( n − 1) d . we have found that 1 + 2 + 3 + . It is reported that Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 – 1855) solved this problem when presented with it at school at the age of seven. 2 . the sum of the first n terms is given by: Sn = n ( 2a + ( n − 1) d ) . common difference d and consisting of n terms. a + ( n − 1) d .. 2 For an arithmetic sequence with first term a and common difference d..(2) Adding (1) and (2) gives: 2 S n = ( 2a + ( n − 1) d ) + ( 2a + ( n − 1) d ) + ( 2a + ( n − 1) d ) + .. .. .. + ( 2a + ( n − 1) d ) = n ( 2a + ( n − 1) d ) Sn = n ( 2a + ( n − 1) d ) .. + a ………………………. The sum of these terms is given by: S n = a + ( a + d ) + ( a + 2d ) + ( a + 3d ) + . a + 3d .

.e. a = 1.78 $ 5 '@ ' Calculate the sum of the first 250 natural numbers. $ 5 '@ The sum of the series 2 + 5 + 8 + 11 + . Substituting the values in gives: 1 + 2 + 3 + . d = 3 and n is unknown. This quadratic equation in n factorises 196 or n = 65 . there are 65 terms in the series. 2 Multiplying throughout by 2 and expanding the bracket gives: 12740 = 4n + 3n 2 − 3n to: 3n 2 + n − 12740 = 0 .. We also know that the sum of the first n terms. Substituting these values into the formula gives: 6370 = n ( 2 × 2 + ( n − 1) × 3) 2 6370 = 2n + 3n ( n − 1) . The number of terms in the series is 250. therefore: m = 2 + ( 3 × 65 ) = 197 . How many terms does this series have? What is the value of m? This is an arithmetic series.. So. We do not know how many terms there are in the sequence. + m = 6370 . The first term is 2. + m is 6370.. we are looking for the value of 1 + 2 + 3 + . Each subsequent term has 3 added on to the previous term. the number of terms in the series.. We can see that the first term is 2 and the common difference is 3. + 250 = 31375 .. n = 250 . .. d = 1. We are told that 2 + 5 + 8 + 11 + . + 250 . We use the formula above with. a = 2. So we have that. i.... Sn . cannot be negative. + 250 = 250 ( 2 ×1 + ( 250 − 1) ×1) 2 1 + 2 + 3 + . we must have that n = 65 . let us say that there are n terms in the sequence. m is the 65th term. This is an arithmetic series with first term 1 and common difference 1... 3 ( 3n + 196 )( n − 65 ) = 0 n=− Since n. is 6370.

. − 80 ... Consider a general geometric sequence with first term a. + 256 ... . ar ... +ar n …………………………………………………………. Notice that the nth term is ar n −1 .(2) Subtracting (1) from (2) gives: rS n − S n = ar n − a S n ( r − 1) = a r n − 1 Sn = a r n −1 r −1 ( ) ( ) For a geometric sequence with first term a and common ratio r... This can be represented by: a. The sum of these terms is given by: S n = a + ar + ar 2 + ... common ratio r and consisting of n terms.79 '@ * Calculate the sum of the first 100 odd numbers. the sum of the first n terms is given by: Sn = a r n −1 r −1 ( ). $ 5 '@ * Use the formula above to calculate 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + . +ar n −1 ……………………………………………………………(1) Multiply (1) throughout by r: rS n = ra + ar 2 + ar 3 + . .. " " '@ Calculate the sum of the series 100 + 85 + 70 + 55 + . ar 2 . ar n −1 .

we say that the series converges to l. " 1 1 + + . In other words. as the number of terms increases to infinity. A geometric series. l.. r n gets very. on the other hand. for r greater than 0 but less than 1. +ar n −1 . then r n approaches 0 as n approaches infinity. very large. Substituting these values into the formula we have: S8 = 2 28 − 1 2 −1 ( ) = 510 . . If a series gets arbitrarily close to a given value. In fact. What is the common 3 ratio for this series? Using the formula..80 This is a geometric series with first term 2 and common ratio 2 consisting of 8 terms. 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + . ignoring the sign. 2 + 1 + ) Recall that the sum of the first n terms of a geometric sequence is given by: Sn = a r n −1 r −1 ( ). then as n gets very large. r < 1 is equivalent to −1 < r < 1 . What is the common 2 4 ratio for this series? What is the sum of the first 15 terms to five significant figures? (Does this series ever reach 4?) " '@ ! Consider the geometric series. . . r < 1 . converges when r < 1 . r n gets very. If. the term r n becomes negligible for large n. 1 '@ / Consider the geometric series. find the sum of the first 25 terms correct to 6 significant figures. So. a = 2. So we have.. then as n gets very large. this is also true if r is less than 0 but greater than -1. r is greater than 0 but less than 1 (a fraction).. if the size of r is greater than 0 but less than 1 (ignoring the sign).. a + ar + ar 2 + . to denote that the size of r is less than 1. very small. We use the symbol. and n = 8 . What happens to this quantity as n gets very large? If r is greater than 1.. r = 2.

. + 100 = First term 100 n =1 n General term So.. for example 1 + 2 + 3 + . Substituting into the formula for the sum to infinity we have: 2 We have a = 100 and r = S∞ = 100 = 200 . and is denoted S∞ . It used in mathematics to stand for a ‘sum’..81 Sn → a 1− r as n → ∞ provided r < 1 . we have a compact notation that is often used. for example. 100 + 50 + 25 + . is the Greek capital letter sigma. we can write: 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + . For example.. the so called sigma notation. Last term 1 + 2 + 3 + ... n =1 ... + 100 . 1− r '@ Find the sum to infinity of the series.. 1 . + 210 = 10 2n . The limit $ 5 a is known as the sum to infinity.. 0 Rather than writing lengthy sums. 1 1− 2 " '@ Find the sum to infinity of the series 1 1 + 3 3 2 + 1 3 3 + .

by a factor 1 . The transformation f ( x) → f ( ax ) is a stretch... 1 1 1 1 + + + .82 ∞ 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + . The transformation f ( x) → af ( x ) is a stretch. We saw that: The transformation f ( x) → f ( x) ± a is a translation by a units parallel to the yaxis in the positive direction. parallel to the x-axis... ) a m × an = am+n # a−m = m 1 m a2 = a 1 am = a m− n n a a n = n am a0 = 1 " 8 9 Recall from Chapter 1 the section on ‘Graph Transformations’. by a factor a. + 12 2 4 8 2 b) 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + .... a . The transformation f ( x) → f ( x a ) is a translation by a units parallel to the x-axis in the positive/negative direction. parallel to the y-axis. + m3 *( ) ... c) 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 + . = n2 n =1 " a) '@ 2 Write down the following series in sigma notation.

Remember 2 has the effect of moving the graph of f ( x) that the transformation f ( x) → f x − π parallel to the x-axis direction. sin x is unaffected by thr transformation.16. or stretched by a factor of ½ parallel to the x-axis.16 . f ( x ) = sin x has a period of 2π .83 $ 5 '@ / Make a sketch of the function f ( x ) = sin x for the domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π . On the same graph. Notice that they both have the same basic shape and they both start and end at the same points. but it has been ‘compressed’ by a factor of 2. fig.16. $ 5 '@ ! Make a sketch of the function f ( x ) = cos x for the domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π . The sketches are shown in fig. 2. Notice also that the point (π . The graphs are shown in fig. The graph of f ( 2 x ) = sin 2 x is similar to the graph of f ( x ) = sin x . while f ( 2 x ) = sin 2 x has a period of π . 0 ) on the original graph. π 2 units in the positive fig. 2. sketch f ( 2 x ) = sin 2 x . 2. 2. On the same graph.16 This has the effect of halving the period. sketch f x + π 2 = cos x + π 2 .

" '@ ' Make a sketch of the function f ( x ) = sin x for the domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π . sketch the function p = −3x stating clearly how the curves relate to each other. 2 " '@ '(Make a sketch of the function y = 3x . which is valid for all a. On the same set of axes. sketch the function f x + how the curves relate to each other.84 y = 2x g = 2− x $ 5 '@ Make a sketch of the function y = 2 x for the domain −4 ≤ x ≤ 4 . sketch g = 2− x . On the same graph. sketch 1 the functions p = 2 x 2 and q = x 2 stating clearly how the curves relate to each other. π 2 = sin x + π 2 stating clearly dy = nax n−1 . fig. 2.2. we Recall From Chapter 1 that. always aim to write each term of the function in the form ax n or ax n . Also note that the transformation f ( x) → − f ( x ) is a reflection in the x-axis.17 We have seen the graph y = 2 x before. where the index m . This is not a stretch or a translation. We have not come across the transformation f ( x) → f ( − x ) before. On the same set of axes. n ∈ dx Also recall the laws or indices from section 2. It is in fact a reflection in the y-axis. When differentiating a function. if y = ax n then . On the same set of axes. " '@ 2 Make a sketch of the function y = x 2 .

2 x 2 So. calculate dy .85 and / or the coefficient may be positive or negative. Now we can easily differentiate this term by term: f' ( x) = 3 1 3 4 x 2 − 4 x −1 − 1 = x − −1. find dy . x 2 x x = x + 2 x −2 − x . x2 x First we need to rearrange y into a more convenient form to work with. we first write this as x −1 . 3 dx 2 x 2 x So. Now we can easily differentiate this term by term: dy 1 −3 1 1 = − x 2 − x −2 = − − 2. x+ x x3 1 y= = x x 3 2 + x2 x 3 2 =x 1− 3 2 + x2 1 3 − 2 =x − 1 2 + x −1 . x $ 5 '@ 2 Given that y = x+ x x 3 . 1 1 dy =− − 2. f ' ( x) = " '@ '' If y = ( x + 2 ) . dx 2 x3 x '@ '(Differentiate f ( x ) = x x 2 + $ 5 2 3x − . dx . when asked to 1 differentiate . dx First we need to rearrange y into a more convenient form to work with. f ( x ) = x x2 + 3 2 3 1 − 1 2 3x −2 2 2 2 − = x . 2 2 x 3 4 x − −1 . For example. x + 2 x − x .

We can see that. (check) So. Hence calculate the definite integral ( x + 2) 2 dx . x So. we also need to have the laws of indices at the front of our minds when working on integration problems. a n+1 x + c . m $ 5 '@ ' Calculate the indefinite integral.86 x +1 . 1 2 7 6 − 7 6 x+ 3 x x3 dx = x − +x − dx 6 +c. 6 x = 2x 2 − 6x x+ 3 x x 3 1 − 1 6 +c = 2 x − 6 +c. 1 ( x + 2) 2 dx . dx = 2 x − 6 " '@ ' Calculate the indefinite integral. As in n +1 the previous section on differentiation. which is valid for all a. Also as in the previous section. . x+ 3 x x3 dx . n ∈ . calculate f ' ' ( x ) and f ' ( x) . x 1 . x+ 3 x x3 =x − 1 2 + x . Calculate the gradient of the x " '@ ' If f ( x ) = " '@ '* Sketch a graph of the function f ( x ) = tangent to this function at the point x = −2 . where the index and / or the coefficient may be positive or negative. when integrating functions we always aim to write each term of the function in the form Recall from Chapter 1 that ax n dx = ax n or ax n .

Before we give a formal definition of a function. f ‘sends’ 4 to 6 (or 4 is mapped to 6) etc.1 # The set of all numbers that we can feed into a function is called the domain of the function. Often when dealing with simple algebraic function. *( ) # )# # So far we have discussed functions in general terms without specifying exactly what a function is. We say that ‘1 is the image of -1 under f’. . x f f(x) 1 2 -1 0 4 1 3 6 For example. we take the domain of the function to be the set of real numbers. ‘6 is the image of 4 under f ‘ etc. In other words. fig. let us introduce some new language and concepts concerning functions. such as f ( x) = x + 2 .87 ! &2 . for example we may wish to consider the function f ( x) = x + 2 in the interval −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 . 3. . and we may think of a function as a mapping from one set to another. we can feed in any real number x into the function and it will give us a (real) number out. This is illustrated below for the function f ( x) = x + 2 . Functions are sometimes called ‘mappings’. Sometimes we restrict the domain. f ‘sends’ -1 to 1 (or -1 is mapped to 1). The set of all numbers that the function produces is called the range of a function.

2 3 C C When each of the elements of the domain is mapped to a unique element of the range. 3. f 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 6 8 10 1 4 2 5 9 g 1 7 2 Domain Range fig. The function f is one-to-one. There are no further restrictions. the mapping is said to be many-to-one. 3. We can see that the function only gives out positive numbers ( x 2 is always positive for f ( x) = x any real number x). 3. What is the range of f ( x) ? Are there any restrictions on the values that this function can produce? When trying to work out the range of a function it is often useful to consider the graph of the function. this is shown in fig. When two or more elements of the domain are mapped to the same element of the range under a mapping. the function g is many-to-one. the mapping is said to be one-to-one. Below are two examples. 2 fig. we may write f ( x) ≥ 0 .88 Consider the function f ( x) = x 2 .3 Domain Range .2. under a mapping. therefore the range of f is the set of all positive numbers. We can see that f can take any positive value.

In other words. f ( x) as shown in the graph in fig. 3.4 " @ Decide if the following (1. ϕ as defined in fig 3. Therefore y = ± x is not a function. state the domain and the range. Notice that any value of x in the domain.e. x 2 + y 2 = 36 . 1. (i. We can define a function as a rule that uniquely associates each and every member of one set with a member or members of another set. p as defined in fig 3.89 4 6 5 B We need to define more precisely what we mean by a ‘function’. 3.7. 4. For example. consider the expression y = ± x . fig. This means that every element of the domain is mapped to an element of the range such that the image of any element in the domain is unique. each and every element of the domain must be mapped to one and only one element of the range. 3. except x = 0 . This is plotted in fig 3.) are functions.5.4. any positive real number) is mapped to two different values in the range. .6. – 4.5 2. Justify your answers. In the cases that are functions. 3. fig.

We 2 Consider the function. Notice that when calculating g = p q . and we write g ( x ) = q ( x ) p ( x ) . we would have to carry out two separate calculations on any one of the given numbers. If we were given a set of numbers and asked to perform the function g on each of them. . then we would square the result. we may think of the function g as two 2 say that g is a composite function. or simply g = p q . g is composed of the functions p ( x ) = x − 2 and q ( x ) = ( p ( x ) ) .6 RANGE ϕ 6 3 2 7 6 3 2 7 DOMAIN fig. 3.7 RANGE functions in one.90 p 1 3 5 7 4 7 3 8 DOMAIN fig. first we would have to subtract two from the number. g ( x ) = ( x − 2 ) . 3. we first perform q and then perform p on the result. Thus.

All other real numbers are valid as the domain of p q .e. x ≠ 2. so we have that the domain of p q is x ∈ . i. the composite function f g has the effect of first squaring the number and then finding the sine of two times the result. g f = sin 2 ( 2 x ) . $ 5 @ Work out f g given that f ( x ) = x and g ( x ) = 2 x + 7 . . the effect of f g is to multiply it by two. x ≠ 0 .e. i. in more conventional notation.: g f = ( sin ( 2 x ) ) $ 5 2 or.91 g = p q is sometimes written as g = pq ( x ) . find f g and g f .e. find f g and g f .e. 1 and q ( x ) = 4 x − 8 . i. it is simply an alternative notation for g= p q. The important thing to remember here is that we cannot divide by 4x − 8 zero. This does not mean that we multiply the functions p and q together. Now. i. the composite function g f has the effect of first finding the sine of two times the number and then squaring the result. first perform the function g and then perform the function f on the result.e. Given any real number. All real numbers except x = 0 are valid for this composite function. Given any real number. f g means. i.: f g = 2x + 7 . the x domain is x ∈ . we cannot have that x = 2 . So given any number.: f g = sin ( 2 x 2 ) . q p= " @ ' If f ( x ) = x + 5 and g ( x ) = + x . p q = 4 − 8 . so we cannot have that 4 x − 8 = 0 . add 7 and then find the square root of the result. find suitable domains for the x composite functions p q and q p . @ If p ( x ) = 1 . $ 5 @ ' Given that f = sin 2 x and g = x 2 .

Suppose that we are told that the function has produced the number 9. as illustrated in fig. x ) % we get out f ( 2 ) = −21 . We can easily work out the input number: f ( n ) = 3n − 27 = 9 n= 9 + 27 = 12 .92 1 . . linear function f ( x ) = 3 x − 27 . The above formula reverses the effect of the original function.(†) Now. x. We denote the original function by f ( x ) and we denote the inverse function by f −1 ( x ) . f ( x ) . we can always find the input. If we feed x = 2 into this function. using the above formula. " @ * If f ( x ) = x − 2 and g ( x ) = x 2 and h ( x ) = 1 . This is called the inverse function. f ( x ) = 3 x − 27 x= f ( x ) + 27 3 …………………………………………………. find h f g . We usually replace ‘x’ with ‘ f −1 ( x ) ’ and ‘ f ( x ) ’ with ‘x’ in (†) so that we have: f −1 ( x ) = x + 27 . given any output. find suitable domains for the composite x " @ If f ( x ) = x 2 − 4 and g ( x ) = functions f g and g f . 3. we can find it by using the inverse function. The inverse function machine takes the output from the original function and gives us the original input number. performs the function on it and produces an output. We have that.8. 3 We can think of a ‘function machine’ which takes an input. but we do not know what input produced this number. 3 Consider the simple. If we know the output of a given function and we require the input of the function.

this is a general result for any invertible function (a function that has an inverse).10. We can see from fig. 3. which we call the domain of f ( x ) .93 INPUT 2 f ( x ) = 3x − 27 -21 OUTPUT OUTPUT 2 f −1 ( x ) = x + 27 3 -21 INPUT fig. which we call the range of f −1 ( x ) .9 To illustrate why many-to-one functions are not invertible. @ * If f ( x) = x + 2 . find f −1 ( x ) .8 The notation f −1 ( x ) simply stands for the inverse function of f ( x ) . Note that not all functions are invertible. 3. It does NOT mean f −1 ( x ) = 1 f ( x) So. $ 5 f −1 ( x ) . 3. . What is the relationship between the two graphs? Let y = x + 2 x = y−2 f −1 ( x ) = x − 2 . Only one-to-one functions are invertible. plot f ( x) and The plots of f ( x) and f −1 ( x ) are shown in fig. we can see that the set of all inputs for f ( x ) . 3. 3.9 that the graph of f −1 ( x ) is a reflection of the graph of f ( x ) in the line y = x. fig. consider the many-to-one function θ as illustrated in fig. On the same set of axes.9. becomes the set of all outputs for f −1 ( x ) . f ( x) = x + 2 f −1 ( x ) = x − 2 In fact.

RANGE fig. plot f ( x) and 4 1 3 8 @ * If f ( x) = 3 x − 5 . then x = 2x − 6 3+ x with domain. For example. The 3 graphs of f ( x) and f −1 ( x ) are shown in fig. x > −3 is plotted in fig. On the same set of axes. 3.10 DOMAIN y+5 which 3 x+5 means that f −1 ( x ) = .94 The inverse ‘function’ is illustrated in fig. 8 in the domain is sent to both 5 and 9 in the range. Let y = 3 x − 5 . f ( x) fig. Use fig. therefore tat only oneto-one functions are invertible. 3. which is not allowed. f −1 ( x ) . 3.12 to help you sketch the graph of f −1 ( x ) stating clearly where the graph cuts the x and y axes.11. $ 5 -1 1 2 5 9 4 1 3 8 DOMAIN RANGE find the inverse function. f −1 ( x ) .11 " two? @ / Can you think of a function which is its own inverse? Can you think of .10. State the " @ The function f ( x ) = f −1 ( x ) domain for which f −1 ( x ) is defined. We can see that θ −1 is not a function. 3. 3. Calculate the formula for the inverse function. We conclude. as it does not satisfy the definition. 3. 1 2 5 9 f −1 ( x ) .12.

For positive x. " 2 − 3 = 1 . indicates that we take the absolute value of the expression inside the modulus sign. f −1 ( x ) . As we have said. −2 = 2 . x is always positive. 3. This is illustrated in fig. We can define: x = x for x ≥ 0 − x for x < 0 Let us consider the graph of y = x . the graph of y = f ( x ) is similar to the graph of y = f ( x ) except that the negative region of the graph is reflected in the x-axis. fig. 0 − 5 = 5 . so the graph of y = x cannot exist below the x-axis. f ( x) . In mathematical language.13. the graph of y = x is the line y = − x . or. 1 + 7 = 8 . f −1 ( x ) f ( x ) = x .95 Suppose we have a function.4. The modulus sign. f −1 ( f ( x ) ) = x . Note that the graph of y = x is similar to y= x the graph of y = x except that the negative region of the graph is reflected in the xaxis. In general. 3. followed by the inverse function. all values are positive. and we have calculated the inverse function.13 . It is clear that if we perform the function f on any number. i. 3.e. we will have the original number we started with. but for negative x. the graph of y = x is the same as the graph of y = x . f −1 . To see this in f ( x) = 2x − 6 3+ x fig.12 action. verify for example 3.

The negative region of the graph is reflected in the x-axis to give the complete graph of y = x 2 − 5 . State where this graph cuts the y2 $ 5 axis. We start by making a sketch of the graph y = x 2 − 5 .17.15. and cuts the y-axis at y = 5 .14. 2 1 1 The graph of y = − x − 4 cuts the y-axis when y = x + 4 cuts the y-axis. 3. This reflected line has the equation y = − − x − 4 = x + 4 . as shown in fig. State where y = x 2 − 5 cuts the y-axis.16.96 1 @ Sketch the graph of y = − x − 4 . 3.e. 2 2 $ 5 @ / Sketch the graph of y = x 2 − 5 .14 fig. at y = 4 .15 The portion of the graph below the x-axis is reflected in the x-axis to give us the graph of 1 1 1 y = − x − 4 . . 3. 3. as shown in fig. 3. i. 1 We begin by sketching the graph of y = − x − 4 . 3. 2 1 y = − x−4 2 1 y = − x−4 2 y= 1 x+4 2 1 y = − x−4 2 fig. The reflected portion of the graph has equation y = − ( x 2 − 5 ) = − x 2 + 5 . The 2 2 2 1 complete graph of y = − x − 4 is shown in fig. shown in fig.

3.16 fig. 2 1 x + 2 and 2 y2 = 2 x − 7 . @ ! Solve the inequality 3x − 3 < 4 . sketch the graphs of y1 = 1 x + 2 = 2x − 7 . solve the equation f ( x ) = 1 . Hint: a sketch may be useful.97 fig. 3. $ 5 . " @ On the same set of axes.17 " @ ! Sketch y = sin x for −π ≤ x ≤ π . Hence solve the equation " @ 2 Given that f ( x ) = 3x − 146 .

1 1 Doing this gives x = 2 and x = − .20. 3. In previous sections. The required region is shaded in fig. which is shown in fig. This 2 gives us the graph of y = ( x − 2 ) .98 Our first task is to sketch y = 3x − 3 . we take the graph 2 of y = ( x − 2 ) − 5 . these two points correspond to the points on the x-axis where the line y = 4 cuts the graph of y = 3x − 3 . Notice that the points x = 2 and x = − are not included. This gives us the graph of 2 y = ( x − 2 ) − 5 . 3. of y = ( x − 2 ) and perform the transformation f ( x) → f ( x ) − 5 . 3 3 Graphically. sketch the graph We then perform the transformation f ( x) → f ( x − 2 ) which. Finally.18. $ 5 2 @ 2 By performing transformations of the graph of y = x 2 . 3. as the original 3 3 3 3 inequality is ‘strictly less than’. We have then that 3x − 3 < 4 when fig.9. We can easily sketch the graph of y = x 2 . " @ (Sketch the function y = x 2 − 22 . as we have seen from Chapter 1 is a translation parallel to the x-axis by 2 units in the positive direction.19.21. which is a translation parallel to the y-axis by 2 units in the negative direction. which is shown in fig. this is shown in fig. 3. 6 " Recall the sections on ‘graph transformations’ from Chapters 1 and 2. giving your answers in surd form where necessary. Shade the region x 2 − 22 ≤ 3 on your sketch.18. which is shown in fig. 3.18 1 1 1 1 − < x < 2 . . 3. Solve the inequality x 2 − 22 ≤ 3 . We can perform more than one transformation on a function as illustrated in example 3. To do y = 3x − 3 this we must solve 3 x − 3 = 4 and −3 x + 3 = 4 . we have considered the effect of one single transformation on a function. We then solve the equation 3x − 3 = 4 .

We write y = x 2 − 4 x + 8 as y = ( x − 2 ) + 4 .19 fig.22. 3.21 " @ By performing transformations of the graph of y = x 2 . sketch the graph of y = x 2 − 4 x + 8 . sketch the graph of f ( x − 2) + 1 . sketch the graph of y = x2 + 6 x + 6 . 3. fig. $ 5 @ 2 By performing transformations of the graph of y = x 2 . We will skip intermediate steps and plot the end result. The process is similar to example 3.20 fig. " @ ' By performing transformations of the graph of y = x 2 . followed by the transformation f ( x) → f ( x ) + 4 on the graph of y = x 2 . . 3. We can now 2 sketch the required graph by performing the transformation f ( x) → f ( x − 2 ) .22 " @ Sketch the graph of f ( x ) = x 2 . On the same axes. Remember that we can express any quadratic equation in the form y = a ( x ± b ) ± c . which is shown in fig. 3. sketch the graph 2 of y = 3 ( x + 2 ) . b and c are constants. 3.8. 2 where a.99 y = x2 y = ( x − 2) 2 y = ( x − 2) − 5 2 fig.

Recall the graph of sinx from Chapter 2. To proceed to define the inverse sine function. −5 ) . 2. 3. π fig 3. that only one-toone functions have inverses. we use the inverse sine function.25. it is shown We can see that there are many (infinitely 1 many) angles that have a sine of .23 from y = x 2 .3. θ = sin −1 2 θ = 30 or again below.23 occurs at ( −8. Recall 6 from the section ‘inverse functions and their graphs. π 2] is shown in fig.100 " @ * The graph of y = x 2 has been subjected to two transformations to produce the graph shown in fig.24 6 radians. 3.23 ) % " 2 1 We are already used to working with inverse trigonometric functions.23. Consider fig. 3. fig. we must restrict the domain of sin x to [ − π 2. 2. just π fig.24. The minimum value of the graph in fig. π 2] . to find 1 θ . fig. . 3. State the two transformations that would produce fig. Chapter 3. The graph of sin x as shown opposite is not one-to one and so does not have an inverse. 3.3 The sine function with the restricted domain x ∈ [ − π 2. not 2 that our calculator tells us. 3.

26 The sine function on this restricted domain is now one-to-one and so the inverse function. sin −1 x does NOT mean We can restrict the domains of the cosine and tangent functions in a similar way so that their inverse functions can be defined. the inverse sine function may be denoted by sin −1 or by arcsine. along with their respective inverse functions are shown in the following graphs.101 y = sin x y = sin −1 x fig. and that the range of the sine function becomes domain of the inverse sine function.26. sin −1 and arcsine are equivalent sin x symbols for the inverse sine function. Recall that the graph of the inverse function is obtained by reflecting the original function in the line y = x . 1 . y = cos x y = cos −1 x fig. 3. 3.27 fig.28 . y = sin −1 x exists. The cosine function is restricted to the domain x ∈ [ 0. Notice that the domain of the sine function becomes the range of the inverse sine function. π ] and the tangent function is restricted to the domain x ∈ [ − π 2. 3. 3. 3. π 2] . The inverse sine function is shown in fig. The graphs of cosine and tangent with restricted domains. Notice.25 fig.

Performing a similar analysis for other values of gives us the graph of cosecθ as shown in fig. : We define the cosecant (cosec). so cosecθ will be very large.30 Note. 3.31 . we can see how the graph of cosecθ will look.31. 2.3). sin θ is 1. 3. We now have an idea of what the graph of cosecθ looks like in the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ π .102 y = tan x y = tan −1 x fig. so cosecθ is also 1. secant (sec) and cotangent (cot) as follows: cosecθ ≡ 1 sin θ sec θ ≡ 1 cos θ cot θ ≡ 1 tan θ Let us consider the graph of cosecθ . fig. By looking at the graph of sin θ (fig. For small positive values of . When sin θ 2 is close to π . sin θ is close to zero. sin θ is very small. At θ = . 1 π so cosecθ ≡ will be very large. 3.29 fig. alternative names for the inverse cosine function are cos −1 and arccos. Alternative names for the inverse tangent function are tan −1 and arctan. 3.

. 3.......... f (θ ) ≥ 1 or f (θ ) ≤ 1 .. fig.... Also notice that for f (θ ) = cosecθ .(1) Dividing (1) throughout by cos 2 θ produces a new trigonometric identity: 1 tan 2 θ + 1 = tan 2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ or 2 cos θ Dividing (1) by sin 2 θ gives another identity...... 1+ 1 1 = 2 tan θ sin 2 θ 1 + cot 2 θ = cosec 2θ 1 + tan 2 θ = sec2 θ We now have two more tools at our disposal when solving trigonometric equations...33).103 Notice that cosecθ is defined for all values of except θ = 0..... $ 5 @ (Solve the equation tan 2 x + 2 sec x + 2 = 0 in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π ......32) and cot θ (fig.. ± 3π .......32 fig... ± π ....... 3.33 " .. ......... In other words. Task: Write down analogous statements to the three bullet points above for the functions f (θ ) = secθ and f (θ ) = cot θ ... ± 2π .... sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 .. By similar analysis.... we can plot graphs for sec θ (fig...... The function f (θ ) = cosecθ is periodic.... f (θ ) ≥ 1 .... " ) In Chapter 2 we established the identity.. 3... 3.. of period 2π .....

104 We notice that we can substitute for tan 2 x to get a quadratic in sec x. more often we use logarithms with base e. !" " # $ # Let us now introduce the number e. The value of e (to 75 decimal places) is shown below. This is the only solution in the given range. ‘ln’. e. We use logarithms with base e so often that it has its own symbol. We noted that logarithms can have any base. log e x ≡ ln x . is an irrational number. it is a transcendental number (not the root of any ratioal polynomial). like π . Moreover. We can now factorise: ( sec x + 1)( sec x + 1) = 0 sec x = −1 or ( sec x + 1) 2 =0 cos x = −1 1 = −1 cos x Hence we must have that x = π . is just a number. This number has some very special properties. Recall from Chapter 2 the section ‘Logarithms’. e. e is often used as the base of logarithms.. . ln x always means ‘logarithm base e of x’. which we will learn more about later. like π . " @ Solve the equation sec θ = 3cosecθ for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π .. Since tan 2 x = sec 2 x − 1 we can write: sec 2 x − 1 + 2sec x + 2 = 0 sec 2 x + 2sec x + 1 = 0 . In fact. but often we use logarithms with base 10.718281828459045235360287471352662497757247093699959574966967627724076630353. " @ / Solve the equation 2cosec2θ = 5 + 5cot θ in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ π . e = 2.

i. From fig. and finding the natural logarithm of the result will take us back to the original number. then f −1 ( x ) = ln x .35 . ln e x = x . we can plot the graph of y = ln x which is shown in fig. 3. 3.34. 3. " f ( x) = ex ) % $ 5 The inverse of the exponential function. fig. If f ( x ) = e x . we know from the earlier section ‘Inverse Functions and their Graphs’ that the graph of the inverse function is a reflection of the graph of the original function in the line y = x .34.e.34). 2. The function f ( x ) = e x is known as ‘the exponential function’. Performing the exponential function on a number.34 ( ) This demonstrates that if f ( x ) = e x . 3.35. fig. e x . is the logarithmic function base e. 3. We know what the graph of e x looks like (fig. In fig. 3. The graph of f ( x ) = e x is shown in fig. ln x . then f −1 ( x ) = ln x What does the graph of y = ln x look like? We have established that ln x is the inverse function of e x . One very important function in mathematics is the function f ( x ) = e x .15.105 The logarithmic function base e is often called ‘the natural logarithm’. Recall from Chapter 2 the section ‘The Graph of y = ax’. we plotted the graph of y = a x for different values of a.

e. We have dy introduced the symbol as a piece of notation. We have said that this is just a symbol. " # % % Before we look at the derivative of ln x . dx In this example. y = ln x ⇔ ey = x . if f ( x ) = e x then f ' ( x ) = ex . calculate dy . First of all. x = ey dx = ey . We now know that the derivative of dy So we have that x = e y . dx dy 1 not a fraction. dy . i. we first mention an important point. that = . however. It is true.106 " # % % One of the most important features of the function f ( x ) = e x is that this function is its own derivative. d x e = ex dx ( ) This is the only (nontrivial) function that has this special property. dx . dy 1 d x dx = dx dx dy dy $ 5 @ If y = ln x . we write. now we can calculate e y is e y . we learn how to differentiate y = ln x . form our knowledge of logarithms.

Remember that the derivative function is a function of how the gradient varies with x. This function is.107 dy 1 = . we know that dx = ey dy dy 1 1 = = .3). so dx e We now have the required result. Indeed.. The answer should be in terms of x. of course. .. the derivative of sin x is cos x . d ( cos x ) = − sin x dx . so dx dx dy Now. − sin x is the derivative of cos x . π . A similar qualitative approach as above will suggest that − sin x fits the requirements of the derivative of cos x . it can be found in A level maths text books. It is clear that the derivative of sin x is a periodic function. dx e y x dy 1 = y . Remember that x = e y . We can see that the derivative function has minimum values at x = −π . − 2π . Let us take a non-rigorous look at the problem. 2π . . Indeed. cos x . − 3π . we will not prove this result. 2. Look back at the graph of sin x (fig. since this is where sin x has its minimum negative gradients.. We already know a function which has the required properties of the derivative function.. d ( sin x ) = cos x dx " # % % Again. since this is where sin x has its maximum positive gradients. It is also clear that the derivative of sin x has maximum (positive) values at x = 0. d 1 ( ln x ) = dx x " # % % A formal proof of the derivative of sin x is not given here.

108 " # % % The result is simply stated here. Changing x by a small amount δ x will mean that. δy δg δ f δ fδg = f +g + δx δx δx δx . products of functions. There is an important rule for differentiating a product of two functions. for example. We have two functions f ( x ) and g ( x ) and we are considering δ y = fg + f δ g + gδ f + δ f δ g − y But. We have not considered. which results Let us prove this result. If f and g are both functions of x and y = fg . however we will prove it later. y + δ y = ( f + δ f )( g + δ g ) the product y = f ( x ) g ( x ) . δ y = fg + f δ g + gδ f + δ f δ g − fg δ y = f δ g + gδ f + δ f δ g Dividing through by δ x gives. like x 2 sin x . Suppose we change x by a small amount δ x . then dy dg df = f +g dx dx dx in the function f changing by a small amount δ f and the function g changing by a small amount δ g and the function y changing by a small amount δ y . y = fg . We have that y = fg . d ( tan x ) = sec2 x dx " + So far we have only considered the derivatives of simple functions and linear combinations of these simple functions. so. called the product rule.

δ y dy δ g dg δ f df as δ x → 0 .e. → and δx dx δ x dx δ x dx δ fδg →0. y = x −1e x . dy d x d −1 = x −1 e + ex x dx dx dx ( ) ( ) = x −1e x + e x ( − x −2 ) . Following the product rule we get.109 Now as the change in x tends to zero. the resulting changes in f. δ f → 0 . this expression does not appear to be a product of two functions. The product rule tells us to leave the first function alone and multiply by the derivative of the second function. x dx At first sight. dy dg df = f +g as required. so use the product rule. We can write it as a product of two functions in the following way. calculate Following this method gives: dy d d 2 = x 2 ( sin x ) + sin x x dx dx dx ( ) = x 2 cos x + sin x ( 2 x ) = x 2 cos x + 2 x sin x $ 5 @ If y = ex dy . we then add the second function left alone multiplied by the derivative of the first function. δ f → 0 and δ g → 0 . we have. dx dx dx dy . g. calculate . in the limit as x tends to zero. i. f = x 2 and g = sin x . We have the two functions. → . and → . $ 5 @ ' If y = x 2 sin x . and y tend to zero. dx We have a product of two functions. δx Therefore.

find .110 ex ex − x x2 ex 1 1− x x = = " @ ! Use the product rule to evaluate d dx (( x ( 2 + 3)( 3 x 4 − 7 x 2 ) ) " @ Use the product rule to calculate d d sin 2 x = ( sin x sin x ) dx dx ) " d d ( sin x cos x ) − ( 2 cos x ) = −1 . then ( x ) − f ( x ) .g ' ( x) dy g ( x ) . f ' = 2 dx ( g ( x )) 2x − 3 dy . $ 5 @ * Given that y = Following the rule we have. What does this tell you about the dx dx function f ( x ) = sin x cos x − 2cos x ? @ 2 Show that " + g ( x) f ( x) The quotient rule is a method for differentiating a quotient. 2 x +7 dx The quotient rule is not proved here. x 2 + 7 ( 2 x − 3) ' − ( 2 x − 3) x 2 + 7 ' dy = 2 dx x2 + 7 ( ) ( ) ( ) . or fraction. of the form f ( x) . A proof can be found in A level pure maths text books. If y = g ( x) .

find . is called the inside function. NB: The product rule would also work for this function. we have: x x dy sin x. is called the outside function. If we wish to calculate the value of this function 2 for x = 2 . the part of the function that we calculate second. giving the final answer 49.e − e ( cos x ) = dx sin 2 x = e x sin x − e x cos x sin 2 x e x ( sin x − cos x ) sin x 2 " @ '(Use the quotient rule to evaluate 3 d x − 2x dx cos x = @ ' Use the quotient rule to show d sin x ) that ( tan x ) = sec2 x . this gives 7. First we calculate 2 x + 3 .111 (x = = 2 + 7 .2 − ( 2 x − 3) . 2 x + 3 in this case. f ( x ) = ( 2 x + 3) Inside function 2 Outside function . Consider the function f ( x ) = ( 2 x + 3) . the ‘squared’ part of the function in this case. called composite functions.2 x x + 14 x 2 + 49 4 ) 2 x 2 + 14 − 4 x 2 + 6 x x 4 + 14 x 2 + 49 14 + 6 x − 2 x 2 x 4 + 14 x 2 + 49 @ = $ 5 Given that y = ex dy . for x = 2 . Next we square the result. The part of the function that we calculate first. Let us look at an example of a composite function. sin x dx Following the rule for differentiating quotients. (Hint: tan x = dx cos x " " ) + This is an important rule used to differentiate more complicated functions that can be thought of as two functions in one. we split the calculation into two parts.

the sine of the inside function. dx . let u = 2 x + 3 . If y = f ( u ) where u is a function of x. f ( x ) = sin ( 2 x ) .112 Here is another example of a composite function. then dy dy du = × dx du dx $ 5 @ / Given that dy y = sin ( 3x + 2 ) .e. Let us call the inside function u. " @ '' Identify the inside function and the outside function for the following composite functions: a) f1 ( x ) = ln ( 2 x + 3) d) f 4 ( x ) = tan 2 x b) f 2 ( x ) = function. i. The derivative of f ( x ) with respect to x is given by: df ( x ) dx = df ( x ) du × du dx du dx = 2u × Now since u = 2 x + 3 . the inside function is 2 x and the outside function is sin ( inside function ) . Let us take the example f ( x ) = ( 2 x + 3) . df ( x ) dx = 2 ( 2 x + 3) × 2 = 4 ( 2 x + 3) Remember to give your final answer in terms of the original variable. we first need to identify 2 the inside function and the outside function. It may be useful to use a single symbol to stand for the inside function. We have established that the inside function is 2 x + 3 and the outside function is 2 ( inside function ) . say x = π 1 ( x 2 − 5) c) f 3 ( x ) = e 2 x # When faced with the task of differentiating a composite function. We can now write that f ( x ) = u 2 . x. we would first calculate 2 x and then find the sine of the result. find . 2 Therefore. du =2 dx So. What is the inside function and the outside function? If we were given a value to substitute in to this .

From the chain rule.cos x = 2sin x cos x " a) d dx @ ' Using the chain rule. From the chain rule. find dy . ( 3x2 + x ) b) d cos 2 x dx ( ) c) d ln x 2 dx ( ( )) d) d ( ln ( 2 x ) ) dx . dx Here.2 = 2e 2 x $ 5 @ Find d sin 2 x . evaluate the following. we have: dy dy du = × dx du dx = cos u × 3 = 3cos ( 3x + 2 ) $ 5 @ ! Given that y = e 2 x . we have that: dy dy du = × dx du dx = eu . we have that: dy dy du = × dx du dx = 2u. Now. Then y = eu . We have y = sin u . Let u = 3 x + 2 . the inside function is 2 x . Let u = sin x . Let u = 2 x . so that y = u 2 . dx ( ) Let y = sin 2 x . The inside function is sin x . from the chain rule.113 The inside function here is 3 x + 2 .

114 ) What is the integral of e x w. we have the following results: d ( sin x ) = cos x dx d ( cos x ) = − sin x dx cos xdx = sin x + c sin xdx = − cos x + c " @ '* Integrate the following function.t.e. when x 1 1 differentiated gives as the answer. x 2 . gives e x as the answer? We know that the answer to this question is e x itself. x? i. f ( x ) = 1 1 + x 2 + sin x − 2 cos x + e x . hence: x x d 1 ( ln x ) = dx x 1 dx = ln x + c x ) Similarly. the answer to the question is a function which. when differentiated. We know that the derivative of ln x is . what is e x dx ? We know that integration is the reverse process of differentiation.r. So we have that: d x e = ex dx ( ) e x dx = e x + c ) What is 1 dx ? Again. so we are asking the question. what function.

u. f ( x ) = 8u 3 . Let 2 x − 7 = u Outside function: u 3 (we do not worry about the constant. .2. f ( x ) dx = 3 1 8 ( u ( x ) ) dx du dx 1 = . given the function y = 8 ( 2 x − 7 ) how do we integrate it? We must reverse the differentiation process. 4 dy 3 = 8 ( 2 x − 7 ) (check). Take the composite function y = ( 2 x − 7 ) . first identify the inside function and the outside function. But beware – this method will only work when the inside function is linear. dx So. Let us consider an example.115 ) . Remember to divide by the derivative of the inside function. 9 . 8) So. We have that. To do this we integrate the outside function and divide by the derivative of the inside function. 3 So. This method tells us to differentiate the outside function and then multiply by the derivative of the inside function.u 4 + c 2 = (2x − 7) + c 4 To integrate a composite function. and try to write down the integral solely in terms of the new variable. We know how to differentiate this function. say u. Earlier we developed a method of differentiating composite functions. It may be possible to get confused when integrating composite functions because both integration and differentiation are used in the process. if f ( x ) = 8 ( 2 x − 7 ) 3 inside function: 2 x − 7 . which can be thought of as the reverse process of the chain rule. Think about why this method does not work when the inside function is not linear – Hint: make a substitution (see next section) for the inside function. There is an analogous method for integrating composite functions. Then we integrate the outside function and divide by the derivative of the inside function.

1 The inside function is 3 x − 3 . f ( x ) dx = 1 du dx (u ( x )) 1 2 dx = 3 12 u ( x)2 + c 33 3 2 2 ( 3 x − 3) 2 + c = 9 9 = ( 3 x − 3) 3 $ 5 @ '(Evaluate e3 x + 2 dx . We integrate the outside function and divide by the derivative of the inside function. The outside function is eu . Let f ( x ) = e3 x + 2 = eu . is differentiated to give. f ( x ) . Let 3 x − 3 = u . u = u2 . f ( x ) = u 2 . Let 3 x + 2 = u . The outside function is 1 So. Suggest a formula for f ( x ) x+2 .116 $ 5 @ 2 Integrate the function f ( x ) = 3x − 3 . 1 − sin ( 3 x ) . The inside function is 3 x + 2 . f ( x ) dx = 1 1 e u dx = e u + c du 3 dx 1 = e3 x + 2 + c 3 " @ ' Evaluate 2 ( x − 5 ) dx 4 " @ '/ Evaluate cos ( 3 x ) dx " f' ( x) = @ '! A function.

you should consider the method of integration by substitution. we have decided that u = x + 4 . so u − 4 replaces the occurrence of x in the original problem. for example x ( x + 4 ) . it is clear that multiplying out the bracket is not sensible. we proceed by making an algebraic substitution. we can say that =1 dx = = du . since u = x + 4 . 5 which can easily be evaluated. Now. So we have: x ( x + 4 ) dx = 3 1 5 4 ( x + 4) − ( x + 4) + c . like x ( x + 4 ) . 3 Suppose we wish to evaluate x ( x + 4 ) dx . We also have a ‘dx’ in the du du original problem. This method is perhaps best explained by considering a step-by-step example. Remember that the original question was posed in terms of x. . 5 3 Note: In this example. Multiplying out the brackets gives: u 4 − 4u 3 du 1 u 4 − 4u 3 du = u 5 − u 4 + c . so the final answer must also be stated in terms of x. Making the substitution leads to the following 3 ( u − 4 ) u 3 du . 7 $ 5 @ ' Evaluate x 2 x − 3 dx by using the substitution u = 2 x − 3 .117 ) 6 6 3 When faced with the task of integrating a product. Rearranging this we can see that x = u − 4 . If the integrand had been. we could have multiplied out the original integrand x ( x + 4 ) . The original problem was form of the problem: x ( x + 4 ) dx . In this example. Now. As the name of the method suggests. however. we let u = x + 4 . The aim of the game is to replace every expression involving x in the original problem with an expression involving u. So dx 1 dx is replaced by du. It will become clear why we chose this particular substitution as we proceed through the example.

as in this problem. so du =2 dx 4 u −5 u −5 u −7 .u u + 3u 2 du 2 2 4 dx = du . $ 5 @ '' Evaluate ( x − 1)( 2 x + 5) 4 dx . Also. so x − 1 = −1 = . 2 So. we have that =2 2 dx 1 u+3 1 du 1 3 2 2 = x 2 x − 3 dx becomes . we need to express x − 1 in terms of u. then x = So. Often. in this case the term 2 x + 5 . 2 2 2 dx = du . we substitute for a term that is raised to a power. If u = 2 x − 3 . ( x − 1)( 2 x + 5) dx becomes u − 7 4 du 1 5 u = u − 7u 4 du 2 2 4 = 1 1 6 7 5 u − u +c 4 6 5 1 1 7 6 5 ( 2 x + 5) − ( 2 x + 5) + c 4 6 5 = 1 4 x −7 2 3 $ 5 @ ' Evaluate 2 x 3 dx . Now.118 Sometimes. we have to think for ourselves. Let u = 2 x + 5 . Other times. Since u = 2 x + 5 we have that x = Now u = 2 x + 5 . . 2 3 1 2 5 2 = u + 2u 2 + c 4 5 = 1 1 3 u5 + u +c 10 2 1 10 = ( 2 x − 3) 5 + 1 2 ( 2 x − 3) 3 +c. we are given an appropriate substitution. u +3 du .

f' ( x) f ( x) dx = ln f ( x ) + c is the natural logarithm of the function on . f ( x ) . 2 x3 So.u 3 du = 2 x3 dx dx = du .119 Here we make the substitution u = 1 4 x −7 2 3 1 4 x −7 2 2 x3 . We notice that the 2 x3 cancels to give. i. This 1 is because 2 x3 is the derivative of x 4 − 7 . 2 " @ ' Integrate the function f ( x ) = x ( 3 x − 1) 2 " @ '2 Evaluate ( 2 x − 1)( x − 1) 3 6 dx using the substitution u = x − 1 " @ (Evaluate 4 x3 ( x − 7 ) dx " ) 9 . Notice that in this example. the problem was made easy because the 2 x3 cancelled. 3 2x 1 1 1 4 u du = u 4 + c = x −7 4 4 2 3 +c.e. 2 x3 dx becomes 4 du .1 f' ( x) f ( x) The integral of a function of the form the denominator.

2 ( 3x + 2 ) ( ) $ 5 @ ' Evaluate x dx . which is exactly dx 18 x + 12 2 the numerator. f ( x) 2 f ( x) 2 x 1 dx = ln 1 + x 2 . So we have the answer dx = ln ( 3 x + 2 ) .120 We can illustrate why this is true by using the substitution u = f ( x ) . We can write down the answer to this problem straight away by noticing that the d 2 derivative of the denominator is ( 3x + 2 ) = 6 ( 3x + 2 ) = 18 x + 12 . u f' ( x) u $ 5 @ '* Evaluate 18 x + 12 ( 3x + 2 ) 2 dx . 1 + x2 Now. This integral is of the form 2 1 f' ( x) ( x) 1 f' 1 2 dx = dx = ln f ( x ) + c . Then the integral becomes. Then and so dx = du . in this case the numerator is not exactly the derivative of the denominator. So the answer to the question is. 2 1+ x 2 ( ) " @ Evaluate 3x dx x −6 3 " @ ' Evaluate 1 − sin x cos x 2x dx ln x − sin 2 x . but it is 1 times the derivative of the denominator. f' ( x) du = f' ( x) dx f' ( x ) du 1 = du = ln u + c = ln f ( x ) + c .

.. $ 5 @ '/ Calculate xe x dx ... It is a little difficult to see how it works from this formula. In this example..(†) dx dx dx where u and v are both functions of x. Integrating both sides of (†) with respect to x gives: uv = u uv ' dx = uv − vu ' dx dv du dx + v dx dx dx This is the method of integration by parts...... u or v.......... so let us consider an example..121 ) 6 This is another method of integrating a product of functions......... Recall that.. which makes the problem very easy......... v ' = e x and v = e x .. we choose u = x so that when we differentiate it.....1 dx = xe x − e x + c = e x ( x − 1) + c The important thing to remember about this method is that only one of the functions... So we have u ' = 1.... ..... the method of integration by parts can be derived from the product rule for differentiation......... d dv du ( uv ) = u + v .. which we use to differentiate products of functions....... $ 5 @ '! Evaluate x cos x dx ...... We have studied the product rule.. the other is differentiated... we get u ' = 1 . dx = uv − vu ' dx We have that... Here we set u = x . it would not have been so easy to solve the problem. uv ' xe x dx = xe x − e x . If we had made the wrong decision and set u = e x ..... has to be integrated.. v ' = e x . a constant. We can choose which function we integrate and which function we differentiate....

we had a single x term which we chose to be u so that when we differentiated it we got a constant term. that if we differentiate it a second time we do get a constant. This suggests that we need to use the method of integration by parts twice in this example. In the previous two examples. x 2 sin x dx = − x 2 cos x + 2 x sin x + 2 cos x + c (which you may like to write a little neater) . nor is it necessary to write down the integration by parts formula once you are comfortable with the method.122 Here we choose u = x and v ' = cos x . we have an x 2 term.sin x − sin x. I = 2 x.cos x dx = − x 2 cos x + I Now.2 x dx = − x 2 cos x + 2 x. Notice. It is not necessary to write down your choices for u and v every time you use this method. We can however use integration by parts a second time to integrate this product. since we still cannot integrate 2 x. Let us rewrite the last line of the calculation as follows. the answer to the original problem is. 2. Working through the method we get.cos x .cos x dx = 2 x sin x − sin x.2 dx = 2 x sin x + 2 cos x + c So. $ 5 @ ' Evaluate x 2 sin x dx . however. x 2 sin x dx = − x 2 cos x + 2 x. x cos x dx = x. Let us choose u = x 2 and v = sin x . When we differentiate this term once we get 2x.1 dx = x sin x + cos x + c . In this example.cos x dx It may seem at this stage that we have not made any progress. x 2 sin x dx = − x 2 cos x − ( − cos x ) .

123

$ 5 @ '2 Evaluate I = e x sin x dx .

Notice that in this example, neither of the terms will ever reduce to a constant, no matter how many times we differentiate it. We can still solve this problem by using integration by parts twice. It does not matter in this case which term we choose to differentiate and which term we choose to integrate. Let us choose to differentiate the e x term and integrate the sin x term.

e x sin x dx = − cos x.e x −

( − cos x ).e x

dx

= −e x cos x + e x cos x dx .

Now let us use integration by parts a second time to evaluate e x cos x dx . Again we will chose to differentiate the e x term and integrate the cos x term (although in this case it will also work the other war around).

e x cos x dx = e x sin x − sin x.e x dx = e x sin x − e x sin x dx = e x sin x − I

(Recall that I = e x sin x dx )

**Substituting this result into the original problem gives,
**

I = e x sin x dx = −e x cos x + e x sin x − I

**Some simple algebraic manipulation gives:
**

2 I = −e x cos x + e x sin x I= 1 x e ( sin x − cos x ) 2

1 i.e. I = e x sin x dx = e x ( sin x − cos x ) + c 2

"

@

Evaluate

x sin x dx

"

@ * By using integration by parts, evaluate

x ( x − 2 ) dx

4

124

" @

Evaluate

x 2 e x dx

"

@ / By using integration by parts, evaluate ln x dx . Hint: Think of ln x as

1× ln x . Choose u = ln x , v = 1

" .

)

1 1 and , where a is 2 2 a +x a − x2 a constant. The method that we use to solve these problems is substitution, but the choice of substitution is not obvious. Here we will look at how to integrate the expressions

2

1)

1 dx . To solve this problem, we use the substitution x = a tan θ . This may a + x2 seem like a strange substitution to make, but we will see how it works as we proceed through the problem.

2

Let x = a tan θ , so So, I =

dx = a sec 2 θ dθ

dx = a sec 2 θ dθ .

**1 1 dx becomes I = 2 .a sec 2 θ dθ . 2 2 a +x a + ( a tan θ )
**

2

**Now, since 1 + tan 2 θ = sec2 θ , we can write this as,
**

I= = 1 .a sec 2 θ dθ 2 a sec θ

2

1 dθ a +c x . a

θ

a

Now, since x = a tan θ , θ = tan −1

125

1 x tan −1 +c. a a 1 1 x dx = tan −1 +c 2 a +x a a

2

So, I =

So we have the result,

**This is a standard result. If you recognise an integrand to be of the form example
**

2)

1 1 or 2 , you can write down the answer without any calculation. 2 36 + x x +9 1 dx . To solve this problem, we use the substitution x = a sin θ , so a2 − x2 dx = a cos θ dθ .

1 , for a + x2

2

dx = a cos θ dθ

So, I =

1

a 2 − x2

dx becomes I =

1

a 2 − a 2 sin 2 θ

.a cos θ dθ

=

a 2 1 − sin 2 θ

(

1

)

.a cos θ dθ .

**Now, since 1 − sin 2 θ ≡ cos 2 θ , we can write this as,
**

I= 1 .a cos θ dθ a cos θ

= 1 dθ = θ + c .

**Now, since x = a sin θ , θ = sin −1 1
**

a −x

2 2

x . a

Hence,

dx = sin −1

x +c a

$ 5

@ (Calculate

1 dx . x + 16

2

we can write down the answer straight away. a + x2 2 Now we can write down the answer straight away.34 . Now. 64 + 4 x 2 1 82 + ( 2 x ) 2 We can write this in the form 7 dx .35). We have seen how to calculate the value of the shaded area using integration. 4 4 x + 16 2 Calculate 7 dx .126 1 dx with a = 4 . 3. 3. Make a sketch of the 3 dimensional solid in the box below (fig. tan −1 8 4 " a) @ ! Calculate each of the following integrals. a + x2 2 This is of the standard form Hence. imagine that the graph is in 3 dimensional space and the whole parabola moves through a full turn ( 2π radians) about the x-axis. Imagine the solid that the shaded area would sweep out.34. 1 dx 4 + x2 b) 3 9 − x2 dx c) 2 25 − 100 x 2 dx " @ Evaluate 2x −1 dx x 2 + 16 + % Look at the graph of y = x 2 in fig. 3. 7 7 2x dx = tan −1 2 64 + 4 x 8 8 = 7 x . This is now in the standard form 1 dx with a = 8 and x = 2 x . y = x2 fig. $ 5 @ 1 1 x dx = tan −1 +c.

the calculated volume gets closer and closer to the true volume of the solid.35.36 As we make δ x smaller and smaller. 3. 3. each disc will have a different radius. V =π 2 1 y 2 dx . we will learn how to calculate the area of this solid and other similar volumes of revolution. . fig. y. we add up the volumes of the individual thin discs from x = 1 to x = 2 to give the total volume of the solid as. The way we go about solving this problem is to imagine the solid in fig. δx V= 2 x =1 π y 2δ x . fig. the radius of each disc will be y = x 2 . The radii of the discs will vary as we move along the solid. y The volume of the disc opposite is π y 2δ x . but the thinner the slices. As we have mentioned. which varies with x. which depend on where we are in relation to the y axis. To find the total volume of the solid in fig.127 In this section. the closer the pieces will be to perfect discs. 3.35 sliced up vertically into a number of very thin slices each of width δ x . which is given by. 3. 3.36.35 Note: technically the slices of the solid will not be perfect discs ass shown in fig.

V = π =π 5 1 9 x 4 + 24 x 2 + 16 dx 5 9 5 x + 8 x3 + 16 x 5 1 = 33396 π 5 ( units ) 3 $ 5 @ Find the volume of revolution formed when the area bounded by the 2 graphs y = x + 3 and y = − x 2 + 5 is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis. The required volume is given by: V =π 5 1 y 2 dx .128 To state a general result: The volume.37 So. y = 3x 2 + 4 . It is often helpful to make a sketch. V. so y 2 = 3x2 + 4 ( ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 24 x 2 + 16 fig. of the solid of revolution created when the area under a graph y = f ( x ) from x = a to x = b is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis is given by: V =π b a y 2 dx $ 5 @ ' Find the volume of revolution formed when the area under the graph 2 of y = 3x + 4 from x = 1 to x = 5 is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis. . especially for more complicated questions. 3. Now.

3. The method is very similar to the problems of revolution about the x-axis that we have solved so far. of the solid of revolution created when the area under a graph y = f ( x ) from x = a to x = b is rotated through 2π radians about the y-axis is given by: V =π b a x 2 dy $ 5 @ * Find the volume of revolution created when the area bounded by the 2 curve y = 2 x and the lines x = 3 to x = 5 and the x-axis is rotated through 2π radians about the y-axis.129 The area in this question is shown in fig. It may also be necessary for us to calculate a volume of revolution about the y-axis. we need to work out where the two graphs intersect. which gives x = ±1 (check). V.38.38 =π 1 5 10 3 x − x + 25 x 5 3 1 −π −1 1 5 x + 2x2 + 9 x 5 1 −1 =π =π 656 112 −π 15 5 320 64 =π 15 3 ( units ) 3 So far we have looked at volumes of revolution about the x-axis only. To find the limits of integration. The required volume is given by: y = − x2 + 5 y = x2 + 3 V =π 1 −1 (−x 2 + 5 ) dx − π 2 1 −1 (x 2 + 3) dx 2 fig. To do this we solve the equation x 2 + 3 = − x 2 + 5 . The volume. . 3.

we are often faced with equations which have no analytic solution. For example. we must have the integrand (and limits) in terms of y. x 2 appears in the integral for volumes of revolution about the y-axis. That is to say we cannot find an exact solution to the equation. is given by. 3. So. we can solve the equation x 2 + x − 2 = 0 by factorising ( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x = −2 or x = 1 . V.130 The required volume. ) % # - In real life situations. We do this y by using the relation y = 2 x 2 x 2 = . Now. " @ 2 Calculate the volume of revolution created when the area bounded by the curves y = x 2 and y = 6 x − 8 is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis. y y2 dy = π 2 4 50 V =π y = 50 y =18 = 544π . y 2 appears in the integral for volumes of revolution about the x-axis. 2 V =π x =5 x =3 fig. " @ * Calculate the volume of revolution formed when the area below the curve y = − x 2 + 7 from x = 0 to x = 2 is rotated through π radians about the x-axis. " @ *(Calculate the volume of revolution created when the area below the curve y = x3 from x = 1 to x = 6 is rotated through 2π radians about the y-axis. + ( ) ) . We . 18 Remember.39 x 2 dy becomes. since we are integrating with respect to y. V =π x =5 x =3 y = 2 x2 x 2 dy .

f ( x ) . To get a more accurate approximation to the root.e. however the more accurate we require our solution(s). In fact. that the solution is somewhere around x = 0.75 ) = cos ( 0.75 ) ≈ −0. or any other techniques.75) − 0.3776 (positive). We see that f ( 0.71875 . We notice that to the left of the root.6875 mid point = 0.131 have successfully solved the equation analytically to find the exact solutions.75 . at the point x = 0. i.3776 > 0 f ( 0. we can find the solution or solutions to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. We can use this simple fact to help us find the roots of equations. We know that the solution of f ( x ) = 0 corresponds to the point where y = f ( x ) = cos x − x the graph of f ( x ) cuts the x-axis.75 ) ≈ −0.0183 (negative). suppose we want to solve the equation cos x − x = 0 .5 and x = 1 . 3. the function is positive and to the right of the root the function is negative. So now we can say that the root lies somewhere between x = 0.5 .6875 ) ≈ 0.40.5 and x = 1 . f ( 0.5) − 0. 3. To get a better approximation.5 and x = 0. For example to solve cos x − x = 0 .1860 > 0 f ( 0. i.40 between x = 0 and x = 1 .4597 (negative). What about the equation cos x − x = 0 .75 ) ≈ −0. we could look at the value of the function f ( x ) at the point mid-way between x = 0 and x = 1 . So.e. So. do we have any hope of solving this equation? Well.626 mid point = 0.0183 < 0 f ( 0.7 . f (1) = cos(1) − 1 ≈ −0. So now we can say that the root lies somewhere between x = 0.0183 < 0 mid point = 0. just from plotting the graph. so we can say that there is a zero somewhere fig.5 ≈ 0. We see that f ( 0.75 .5 ) ≈ 0. the longer the process. at the point x = 0.0183 < 0 f ( 0. we look at the value of f ( x ) at the point mid-way between x = 0. to the left of a root is opposite to the sign of the function to the right of thee root.625 ) ≈ 0. So we can tell. We can not find the exact solution of this equation using algebraic.0853 > 0 f ( 0. Can you solve this equation? Well. unfortunately this equation can not be solved analytically unlike the previous example. The graph of y = f ( x ) = cos x − x is shown in fig.5 ) = cos ( 0. In general. We can continue in this way to give the following.75 ≈ −0. we can calculate the value of the function at a few points and see if we get a change of sign: f ( 0 ) = cos(0) − 0 = 1 − 0 = 1 (positive). we can find the approximate solution or solutions to the equation cos x − x = 0 . the sign of a function.

f ( 0 ) = 100 − 0 − 5 = −4 < 0 . So. f ( 0.0339 > 0 f ( 0.5 . Now we consider the function at x = 0. we can say that the root of the equation cos x − x = 0 lies between x = 0.75 and x = 0. therefore there is only one root of cos x = x .7657 .875 .127 < 0 .2624 > 0 . Now we consider the function at x = 0. or are there other roots outside the domain we have considered? By plotting the graphs of y = x and y = cos x we can see that they cross only once. Let us calculate f ( 0 ) .5 .7657 .75 . f ( 0.73 and x = 0. . We could continue to achieve better accuracy. Does the equation cos x − x = 0 have only the one root we have approximated. f (1) = 10 − 1 − 5 = 4 > 0 .0079 > 0 mid point = 0. at this stage we can say that the root of the equation is 0.7657 ) = 0.623 > 0 .74219 mid point = 0. so we can say that the root lies between x = 1 and x = 0.75) = −0.34 < 0 .0079 > 0 f ( 0.73438 ) ≈ 0.6813 > 0 . Now we consider the function at x = 0.75 and x = 0.7 to one decimal place.8125 . f ( 3) .0647 > 0 .0052 < 0 f ( 0. f (1) ..74 .74219 ) ≈ −0.5) = −2.7579 . Now we consider the function at x = 0.75 and x = 0. f ( 0. Now we consider the function at x = 0. f ( 0.73829 At this stage.875 ) = 1.73438 ) ≈ 0. f ( 2 ) ..8125 ) = 0. so we need not bother with calculating the value of the function for negative x. so we can say that the root lies between x = 0.71875 ) ≈ 0. NB: The equation cos x = 0 has an infinite number of roots.875 . f ( 0. $ 5 @ Find the positive root of 10 x = x + 5 to one decimal place. so we can say that the root lies between x = 0. Now we consider the function at x = 0.75 and x = 0. so we can say that the root lies between x = 1 and x = 0.75 ) ≈ −0.75 ) ≈ −0. so we can say that the root lies between x = 0. f ( 0. We are told to find the positive root to the equation. until we find a sign change. so we can say that the root lies between x = 0. so we can say that the root lies between x = 0 and x = 1 .7813) = 0.7813 .0183 < 0 f ( 0. Now we consider the function at x = 0.0183 < 0 f ( 0..75 .73438 mid point = 0.7813 .132 f ( 0.8125 .

then it also satisfies x = φ ( x ) . Now.7387 ) = 0.0313 < 0 . Then the fixed point iteration is the The first step is to rearrange the equation cos x − x = 0 into the form x = some function of x . We then feed the initial guess into the iteration formula.7370 ) = 0.7387 x12 = cos x11 = cos ( 0.7657 and x = 0.7579 ) = −0. to produce a better approximation of the solution. Let us make our initial guess x0 = 0. $ 5 @ / Using the fixed point iteration method.7381 x10 = cos x9 = cos ( 0.8 to one decimal place.7422 x8 = cos x7 = cos ( 0.7215 x3 = cos x2 = cos ( 0. x0 .7344 ) = 0. x2 = cos x1 = cos ( 0.7311 x4 = cos x3 = cos ( 0. This sounds rather complicated.7 . x1 .7508 ) = 0.7311) = 0. solve the equation cos x − x = 0 . so let us consider an example. " @ *' Find the positive root of x 4 − 2 x 3 − 1 = 0 to two decimal places.7397 ) = 0. So.7215 ) = 0. we can say that the root of 10 x = x + 5 is 0. the iteration formula is xn +1 = cos xn . x1 = cos x0 with initial guess x0 = 0. The most obvious way to do this is to arrange it into the form x = cos x . we may rearrange this into the form x = φ ( x ) so that if computation xn +1 = φ ( xn ) . we get x1 = cos ( 0. so we can say that the root lies between x = 0.7 .7579 . x2 .7648 ) = 0. 5 ) To solve the equation f ( x ) = 0 .7397 x11 = cos x10 = cos ( 0.7405) = 0.7508 ) = 0.133 f ( 0. At this stage.7311 x5 = cos x4 = cos ( 0.7648 . We start with an initial guess to the root. We then feed x1 into the iteration formula to produce a better approximation.7 ) = 0.7508 x4 = cos x3 = cos ( 0.7405 x9 = cos x8 = cos ( 0.7444 x6 = cos x5 = cos ( 0. x satisfies f ( x ) = 0 .7381) = 0.7394 .

7379 + cos ( 0.7324 2 2 1 1 x2 = × 0. 3.7379 2 2 1 1 x3 = × 0.41 illustrates the iteration process. fig.36.7422 ) = 0.134 x7 = cos x6 = cos ( 0. fig. We can see in this case that the iterations produce better and better approximations each time – we can see this in the diagram because the arrows are getting closer and closer to the required root.41 is sometimes called a cobweb diagram.739.41 y = cos x y=x Iterations do not always converge. the approximation is settling down to a number around 0.7324 + cos ( 0.7390 2 2 . Depending on how we do this.7 ) = 0.7 gives: 2 2 1 1 x1 = × 0. When the iterations get closer and closer to the required root. 3. in example 3. the iteration may or may not converge. there is more than one way to rearrange a given equation into the form x = some function of x . Some rearrangements lead to iterations that converge much faster than others. Performing the iteration 2 2 1 1 xn +1 = xn + cos xn with initial guess x0 = 0.7 + cos ( 0. we decided to rearrange the equation cos x − x = 0 as 1 1 x = x + cos x (check that this is a correct rearrangement).7389 2 2 1 1 x4 = × 0. Often.7389 ) = 0.7389 + cos ( 0. The diagram in fig. we say that the iteration converges. as we will see later. 3. Suppose.7370 We can see that after 12 iterations.7324 ) = 0.7379 ) = 0.

42 illustrates the iteration process.6676 − cos ( 0.5029 − cos ( 0.42 Finally consider the equation cos x − x = 0 rearranged as x = 3 1 x − cos x (check that 2 2 3 1 this is a correct rearrangement).135 This time we can see that after just 4 iterations.6676 2 2 3 1 x1 = × 0. 1 1 x + cos x 2 2 y=x y= fig.6087 − cos ( 0. Performing the iteration xn +1 = xn − cos xn with initial 2 2 guess x0 = 0.6676 ) = 0.5029 ) = 0.6087 ) = 0. fig.7 gives: 3 1 x1 = × 0. So this particular rearrangement leads to a process which converges much faster than before. 3.7 ) = 0.3162 2 2 .5029 2 2 3 1 x3 = × 0. We can see that this rearrangement leads to a much faster convergence. the approximation is settling down to a number around 0. Illustrations of this kind are sometimes called staircase diagrams.6087 2 2 3 1 x2 = × 0.739.7 − cos ( 0. 3.

5) = 6. we say that the iteration diverges.42 " @ * Use a suitable iteration to find the positive root of the equation x 2 + sin x = 1 correct to 2 decimal places. it takes further and further away from the desired root.43. it is 5 0 x 2 dx = 41. with width 5 and height f ( 2.5 ) and use the area of the rectangle 2 5 0 mid point of the limits of integration ( illustrated in fig.67 (check)). This is illustrated in fig. to approximate x 2dx . Suppose we want to find the area under the graph of f ( x ) = x 2 between the points x = 0 and x = 5 (of course. we can actually find this area analytically. 3. 3. In cases like this.43. 3.136 y=x In this case. " + This is a method of finding the approximate value of the integral of a function when the function in question can not be integrated analytically. Let us consider a simple example. In fact. y= 3 1 x − cos x 2 2 fig. The general method is to approximate the area under the graph of f ( x ) by splitting the area up into simple shapes (rectangles) that we can easily find the area of. One way of proceeding would be to take the 0+5 = 2.25 . the iteration does not take us closer and closer to the desired root. .

x = 5 are the ordinates (6 of them). There are 5 ordinate strips. f ( x) = x2 fig.43 unit. We could improve the result further by increasing the number of ordinate strips.67 to 2 d.44 We can see that the shaded area shown in fig. 3. . Let us split the area under the graph of f ( x ) = x 2 into 5 strips of width one fig.44 (these strips are sometimes called ordinate strips). 3. We then take the mid point and use the value of the function evaluated at the mid point as the height of each strip.52 + 1× 3.137 So.52 + 1× 1.52 + 1× 4.5) + ( 5 − 4 ) × f ( 4. Now let us state the general result.5 ) = 31.p. This is not a very accurate approximation (the true answer is 41. x = 1. 3.5 ) + ( 4 − 3) × f ( 3. We can improve the accuracy by splitting the area up into a greater number of rectangles.5 ) = 1× 0.52 + 1× 2.5 ) + ( 2 − 1) × f (1.25 . 3..5 ) + ( 3 − 2 ) × f ( 2..52 = 41. Here.25 . So. as shown in fig.44 is given by: A = (1 − 0 ) × f ( 0. . the shaded area is given by: f ( x) = x2 A = ( 5 − 0 ) × f ( 2.. with 5 ordinate strips we get a reasonably good result. We then add up the area of all the strips to get our approximation.). the lines x = 0.

" @ ** Use the mid point rule to approximate 16 4 1 + x 2 dx with 6 ordinate strips (7 ordinates) . x4 = 5 .5 = 846. x3 = 4 . the width of each ordinate strip.138 The Mid Point Rule: b a f ( x ) dx ≈ x +x x +x x +x a −b x +x a −b a −b a −b f 1 2 + f 2 3 + f 3 4 + .5 × e3... xn = b are the ordinates (n of them). .5 × e5. n −1 The 5 ordinates are: x1 = 2 .. 7−2 = 3 . + f n −1 n n −1 2 n −1 2 n −1 2 n −1 2 Where x1 = a. Notice 5 a −b that in general. xn = a + nh .5 + 4. n −1 $ 5 1 2 @ ! Use the mid point rule to approximate the area under the graph of f ( x ) = x e x from x = 2 to x = 7 with 6 ordinates (5 ordinate strips). x2 .5 + 3. we have: 7 2 x 2 e x dx ≈ f 1 2+3 3+ 4 4+5 5+6 +f +f +f 2 2 2 2 = 2.p. x6 = 7 .5 + 5..5 × e 4. There are n − 1 ordinate strips a −b each of width . x5 = 6 .5 × e 2. x2 = 2 + Using the formula above. where h = .02 to 2 d..

The function evaluated at each odd ordinate We can see that (except the first ordinate.… and so on. h multiplies every term in the bracket. and f ( xn ) . we will simply state the result and use it. x1 ) is multiplied by 2. Inside the bracket. h = 5 −1 4 4 4 2 1 x3 = x1 + 2h = 0 + = . Simpson’s Rule h f ( x1 ) + f ( xn ) + 4 ( f ( xeven ) ) + 2 ( f ( xodd ) ) a 3 b−a Where n is the number of ordinates. integration is b = 1 . h = is the width of each ordinate strip. xi = x1 + ( i − 1) h . the function evaluated at the last ordinate. So we have x1 = 0 .139 <+ Simpson’s rule is similar to the mid point rule. . the 3 function evaluated at the first ordinate. approximate 0 1 dx . The table below show all the necessary values for 4 2 the calculation. x +1 2 1 Here we have f ( x ) = 2 . f ( x1 ) . x2 = x1 + h = 0 + = . n −1 x1 = a. The upper limit of x +1 1− 0 1 1 1 = . The function evaluated at each even ordinate (except the last ordinate xn if n is even) is multiplied by 4. The lower limit of integration is a = 0 . except that the function is approximated by a quadratic polynomial between each ordinate strip. 1 $ 5 @ Using Simpson’s rule with 5 ordinates. are added together. We will not give details of the derivation here. xn = b . f ( xeven ) represents f evaluated at each of the even ordinates (except at xn if n b f ( x ) dx ≈ is even) and f ( xodd ) represents f evaluated at each of the odd ordinates (except at x1 ).

$ 5 @ 2 Using Simpson’s rule with 5 ordinates.5 + = 3 2 2 2 2 xi f ( xi ) 1 e −2 1. h = x1 = 1.p.p value for 9 1 ln x dx .5. x3 = x2 + h = 1.5 e −6 3 By Simpson’s rule we have 3 1 1 1 e −2 x ≈ × e −1 + 4 e −3 + 2 e −4 + 4 e −5 + e −6 3 2 ( ) " @ * Use Simpson’s rule with 4 ordinate strips to find an approximate ≈ 0.140 xi x1 = 0 x2 = 1 4 x3 = 1 2 x4 = 3 4 x5 = 1 f ( xi ) 1 =1 0 +1 2 1 1 4 2 1 +1 1 +1 1 2 2 3 4 2 +1 1 2 Substituting the above values into Simpson’s rule gives: 1 0 1 1 4 2 4 1 dx ≈ 1+ + + + 2 2 2 12 2 x +1 1 1 3 +1 +1 +1 4 2 4 2 = 0. x2 = x1 + h = 1 + 1 1 1 1 = 1. x4 = x3 + h = 2 + = 2. f ( xi ) = e −2 xi . x5 = x4 + h = 2.785 to 3 d. approximate 3 −1 1 = .5 e −3 2 e −4 e −5 2. 5 −1 2 3 1 e−2 x dx .5.066 to 3 d.5 + = 2.

The wizard will allow you to return home only if you can tell him an approximate value of ln 2 (a fractional approximation is valid). Hint: remember. 20790 . Answer: if you use the same 14411 method as I did with n = 7 you get the fractional approximation ln 2 ≈ . You cannot remember the value of ln 2 .141 " @ */ TRICKY! You are stranded in a magical forest. You do not have a calculator – only a stick to write in the soil. How could you come up with an approximation for ln 2 ? Try it. ln1 = 0 . Hint: think of a suitable definite integral and use Simpson’s rule.

142 ! &2 . 2 9 x − 6 x + 1 ( 3 x − 1) 3x − 1 2 " *@ Simplify the expression 3x 2 − 13x + 14 2 x3 − 8x . 3 2 9x − 6x + x 9x − 6x +1 Factorising the denominator gives. 2x + 3 *@ ' Simplify the expression 3x 2 − x . This may include first factorising the numerator and/or denominator where possible. 9 x3 − 6 x 2 + x Dividing numerator and denominator by x gives. 3x 2 − x 3x − 1 = 2 . 3x − 1 3x − 1 1 = = . $ 5 *@ Simplify the expression 6 x2 + 9 x . 3 x ( 2 x + 3) 6x2 + 9 x = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9 ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x + 3) Now we can divide numerator and denominator by 2 x + 3 . 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9 First we notice that both the numerator and the denominator can be factorised. it is always worth checking whether any cancellation will lead to a simpler expression. *( ) # )# + $ 5 When working with algebraic rational expressions. ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x + 3) $ 5 3 x ( 2 x + 3) = 3x .

there is a method of dividing algebraic quotients which is very similar to the method of long division for numbers. 2 x2 + x x − 2 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 2 x + 2 2 x3 − 4 x2 x2 − 2 x + 2 x2 − 2 x 2 This tells us that x − 2 goes into 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 2 x + 2 2 = 2x2 + x + . x−2 x−2 $ 5 *@ * By dividing the denominator into the numerator. 3 = x 2 . Below is a worked example. which is greater than the degree of the denominator. For more complicated examples. expression x−2 Since the degree of the numerator is three. simplify the 3 8 x − 2 x 2 − 3x + 3 expression . . simplify the 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 2 x + 2 . 2x +1 The working is shown below. we can divide the denominator into the numerator by dividing ‘highest power into highest power’ as follows. $ 5 *@ By dividing the denominator into the numerator.143 9 x 2 − 25 9 x 2 + 30 x + 25 " *@ ' Simplify the expression 4 6 #% Whenever an algebraic fraction has a numerator with a higher degree (or the same degree) as the denominator. i. For x5 example. Since the numerator has degree five.e. 2 x 2 + x times with remainder 2. it is possible to divide the denominator into the numerator. which is higher than the degree x of the denominator. we can divide the denominator into the numerator.

We will look at three basic types of algebraic fractions that can be decomposed by using partial fractions. 3 ( 3x + 7 ) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 3 2 + = x − 2 3x + 7 ( x − 2 )( 3x + 7 ) = 9 x + 21 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( 3x + 7 ) 11x + 17 ( x − 2 )( 3x + 7 ) 11x + 17 3 x 2 + x − 14 = = 11x + 17 could we split this up into the two fractions 3 x 2 + x − 14 we started with? To do this we need to use the method of partial fractions. we have that 8 x3 − 2 x 2 − 3x + 3 3 = 4 x 2 − 3x + . 2x +1 2x +1 We are easily able to add several fractions together to form one fraction. Notice that the numerator is of a lower degree than the denominator. $ 5 *@ The fraction the form ( ax + b ) in the denominator. Partial fractions is essentially the reverse of the process of adding together fractions as shown above. If we were given that fraction TYPE I: The denominator consists of a multiple of linear factors of the form ( ax + b ) . Partial fractions allows us to take an algebraic fraction and split it up into several fractions (where possible). for example.144 4 x 2 − 3x 2 x + 1 8x3 − 2 x2 − 3x + 3 8 x3 + 4 x 2 − 6x 2 − 3 x + 3 −6 x 2 − 3 x 3 So. The fraction can be split up as follows: 7x + 3 consists of a multiple of linear factors of ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) .

we could set x = − 7 = 4+ B B = 3 . it will eliminate the ( x − 1) term. On the LHS. and therefore B.145 7x + 3 A B ≡ + . ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) x − 1 2 x − 3 $ 5 *@ / Express −11x − 19 in partial fraction form. on the RHS we have 4 + B lots of x. for example the number of x terms on the LHS must equal the number of x terms on the RHS. We call this technique comparing coefficients. 3 to eliminate the ( 2 x + 3) term and allow us to find B. 7x + 3 2 3 ≡ + . Adding together the RHS gives: A ( 2 x + 3) + B ( x − 1) 7x + 3 ≡ ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) Now. so we can compare numerators and say that: 7 x + 3 ≡ A ( 2 x + 3) + B ( x − 1) Now we notice that if we set x = 1 . We have now solved the problem. So. we have 7 lots of x. we can say: Now. 2x2 + x − 3 Our first job is to factorise the denominator. . the above expression is an identity. Since we have an identity. allowing us to find A. but 2 there is another technique that we can use. ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) x − 1 2 x − 3 Our aim is to find A and B. Setting x = 1 gives: 10 = 5 A A=2 So we can now say that 7 x + 3 ≡ 2 ( 2 x + 3) + B ( x − 1) .

express two fractions 1 . −11 = A − 12 A =1 So we have. −30 = 5 B B = −6 Comparing coefficients of x gives. −11x − 19 1 6 ≡ − . 2 2 x + x − 3 ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) Now we express this in the form −11x − 19 A B ≡ + ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) 2 x + 3 x − 1 Adding the two fractions on the RHS gives.146 −11x − 19 −11x − 19 = . where a is a constant as a sum of x − a2 2 TYPE II: The denominator consists of a quadratic expression of the form ax 2 + bx + c which cannot be factorised into linear factors. −11x − 19 ≡ A ( x − 1) + B ( 2 x + 3) Setting x = 1 gives. ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) 2 x + 3 x − 1 −7 x − 26 A B in the form + 2 2x − 8 2x + 4 x − 2 where A and B are constants to be determined " *@ Using partial fractions. . A ( x − 1) + B ( 2 x + 3 ) −11x − 19 ≡ ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) Equating numerators gives. express " *@ * Using partial fractions.

( x − 4 ) ( x2 − 2 x − 2) $ 5 *@ ! Split Notice that the denominator contains the term x 2 − 2 x − 2 which cannot be factorised. 9 = A+ B B=7. 8 = −2 A − 4C C = −3 . . Setting x = 4 gives. 2 $ 5 *@ Express 2 x 2 + 29 x − 11 ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 ) 2 in partial fractions. S. 12 = 6 A A = 2. Comparing constants gives. for example ( ax + b ) . Comparing coefficients of x 2 gives. we have found that 9 x 2 − 35 x + 8 2 7x − 3 ≡ + 2 . This type of fraction can be split up into the following form: 9 x 2 − 35 x + 8 A Bx + C ≡ + 2 2 ( x − 4) ( x − 2x − 2) x − 4 x − 2x − 2 ≡ A ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) + ( Bx + C )( x − 4 ) ( x − 4 ) ( x2 − 2 x − 2 ) So we must have that 9 x 2 − 35 x + 8 ≡ A ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) + ( Bx + C )( x − 4 ) . 2 ( x − 4) ( x − 2x − 2) x − 4 x − 2x − 2 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 A Bx + C in the form + 2 2 2 x − 1 3x − x + 5 ( 2 x − 1) ( 3x − x + 5 ) " *@ * Write the fraction where A and B are constants to be determined TYPE III: The denominator contains repeated linear terms.147 9 x 2 − 35 x + 8 up into partial fractions.

where A. B 3x + 4 ( 3x + 4 )2 and C are constants to be determined . 2 = A + 2B B = 3. the partial fraction form is as follows. 2 2 29 5 − − 11 = A − 2 2 A = −4 (after some work) Setting x = 2 gives us that C = 11 (after some work). 2 x 2 + 29 x − 11 ≡ A ( x − 2 ) + B ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 ) + C ( 2 x + 1) . x − 2 . 2 x 2 + 29 x − 11 ≡ A ( x − 2 ) + B ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 ) + C ( 2 x + 1) 2 ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 ) 2 ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 ) 2 So we must have. and a repeated 2 linear factor. 2 Setting x = − 1 2 − 2 2 1 gives.148 In this example. 2 x 2 + 29 x − 11 ≡− 4 3 11 + + . ( x − 2 ) . So we have found that. Comparing coefficients of x 2 gives. we have a linear factor on its own. 2 x + 1 x − 2 ( x − 2 )2 18 x + 20 ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 ) " 2 *@ Express the fraction ( 3x + 4 ) 2 in the form A Bx + C + . 2 x 2 + 29 x − 11 ≡ A B C + + 2 x + 1 x − 2 ( x − 2 )2 ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 ) 2 In the denominators on the RHS. Adding together the RHS gives.

the numerator must be at least one degree less than the denominator. 2 ≡ 1+ 2 . B and C are constants to be determined A B C + + . x − 2x − 3 x − 2x − 3 3x − 2 by factorising the denominator and using x − 2x − 3 2 Now we can work on the fraction partial fractions in the usual way. we can divide the denominator into the numerator. B and C *@ ! Given that 3 " 5 x 2 − 13 x + 5 ≡ An important point to make is that in order to express a quotient in partial fraction form. $ 5 *@ 2 Express x2 + x − 5 in partial fraction form. 1 x − 2x − 3 x + x − 5 2 2 x − 2x − 3 3x − 2 2 x2 + x − 5 3x − 2 i.149 " *@ / Express the fraction 8x2 + x − 3 ( x + 2 )( x − 1) 2 in the form A B C + + . x2 − 2 x − 3 Since the numerator is not of a lower order than the denominator. B and C 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 )3 ( x − 2) are constants. If this is not the case we must first ‘do the division’ as illustrated in the next example.e. find the values of A. . where A. Below is a summary of the partial fraction forms. x + 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)2 where A.

1596 – 1650). r).". which is the angle the radius makes with the x-axis. We can define the x and y coordinates of P by defining the distance in the x and y direction from the origin in terms of the radius r and a new variable. / 0 $ y rsin r rcos P x fig. This is called a Cartesian equation (after the French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes. We can see that: . for example the point P.1 Consider a circle with radius r and centre at the origin. in terms of it’s x-y coordinates. We have seen that we can express any point on the circle. .150 Denominator containing Expression f ( x) Form of partial fractions Linear factors Repeated linear factors Quadratic factors ( x + a )( x + b )( x + c ) A B C + + ( x + a ) ( x + b) ( x + c) A B C + + 2 ( x + a ) ( x + a ) ( x + a )3 Ax + B C + ( ax + bx + c ) ( x + d ) 2 ( x + a) f ( x) 3 ( ax (x 2 2 + bx + c ) ( x + d ) f ( x) f ( x) General example + a) ( x + b) ( x + c) 2 Ax + b C D E + + + 2 2 ( x + a ) ( x + b) ( x + b) ( x + c) . It is an equation which defines the relationship between the x and y coordinates (and some constant. We can define the position of P by writing the equation of the circle in the form x 2 + y 2 = r . there is an alternative method of defining the position of P. 4. However.

depending on which form is most convenient for a particular calculation. .(1) y = 12t 2 − 14t + 6 ………. it is also possible to paramatise parabolas and straight lines as shown in the next examples. x =t −2 y = 2t − 9 . let us use the first equation to write t in terms of x. We introduced parametric equations with the example of a circle. since it is a variable which appears both in the expression for the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate. we have arrived at the Cartesian form of the equation... We can see that. 2 − 14 x +1 +6 2 . is called a parameter. y = 2 x − 5 . $ 5 *@ ' Find the Cartesian form of the following pair of parametric equations. $ 5 *@ Find the Cartesian form of the following pair of parametric equations. The previous equation is an example of a parametric equation (with parameter ). y = 2 ( x + 2) − 9 = 2x + 4 − 9 = 2x − 5 So. In this example. t = x + 2. Substituting for t in (2) gives. and sometimes it is necessary to convert from one form to another. In questions like this. we usually proceed by using one of the equations to express t in terms of either x or y and then substitute this for t in the other equation.151 x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ . x = 2t − 1 ………………. it is easiest to express t in terms of x using (1). t= x +1 y = 12 2 2 x +1 . Substituting this for t in the second equation gives. Doing this we get. This new way of expressing the position of a point on a circle involves a new variable. Sometimes it turns out to be more convenient to work with parametric equations rather that Cartesian equations.(2) In this example.

x = and y = 1 − 3t 1 + 2t . we have arrived at the Cartesian form.….(1) 1− t 1 ………….. x = 2 t and y = 8t 2 + 5 " *@ ' Find the Cartesian form of the following pair of parametric t t equations. y = 3x 2 − x + 2 .. $ 5 *@ Find the Cartesian form of the following pair of parametric equations. y = .. x= y= 1 ………………. 7 x − 7 − 5x 2x − 7 2x − 7 x " *@ Find the Cartesian form of the following pair of parametric equations. Substituting this into x From (1) we can see that x (1 − t ) = 1 (2) gives. y= 1 1 = 7x − 7 x −1 −5 7 −5 x x = 1 x x = . So.152 x2 + 2x + 1 − 7x − 7 + 6 4 = 12 = 3x 2 + 6 x + 3 − 7 x − 7 + 6 = 3x 2 − x + 2 So. we have arrived at the Cartesian form.(2) 7t − 5 x − tx = 1 t= x −1 .

By the end of this section. Why is this? Let us look at the example (1 + x ) . (1 + x ) . n In the three expansion questions posed above. (1 + x ) . (1 + x ) 2 = (1 + x )(1 + x ) = 1 + x + x + x 2 There are two ways in which we can get an x term. Clearly. you should see that the constant in each 2 expansion is 1.153 & '( ) $ 5 ) # & # Expand the following: (1 + x ) . (1 + x ) 2 = (1 + x )(1 + x ) = 1 + x + x + x 2 There is one way in which we can get an x 2 term. trying to expand 7 (1 + x ) would be a very long and boring calculation. we will 7 be able to calculate (1 + x ) quickly and easily. as shown above. and that is from the two constant terms from the liner factors multiplied together. In calculating (1 + x ) . two ways (out of four total multiplications) in which we can get an x terms and one way (out of four total multiplications) in which we can get an x 2 term. You can also 2 . We can see that the expansion of 2 3 4 (1 + x ) becomes very laborious as n increases beyond 3. Thus we have found that there is one way (out of four total multiplications) in which we can get a constant. (1 + x ) 2 = (1 + x )(1 + x ) = 1 + x + x + x 2 There is only one way in which we can get a constant term. as shown above. as shown above. as indicated by the four arrows in the diagrams above. You may like to consider the case 3 (1 + x ) and see how many multiplications are necessary to evaluate this. there are a total of four multiplications needed.

so we have 5 ( 2 − 3x ) − 5 = 25 (1 + X ) and expand this in the usual way. these are the coefficients of (1 + x ) . It turns out that there is a special pattern between the coefficients of the powers of x in the n expansion of (1 + x ) . x terms. Each number in the triangle is obtained by adding together the two numbers directly above. 4. n. we can see that the coefficients are 1 6 15 20 15 6 1. 1 these are the coefficients of (1 + x ) = 1 + 2 x + 1 . but first we 5 need some to introduce some new concepts. - The factorial of a positive integer. 4. so 6 the expansion is (1 + x ) = 1 + 6 x + 15 x 2 + 20 x3 + 15 x 4 + 6 x 5 + x 6 . remembering to replace X with 5 3x n at the end.1 . The third row is 1 2 1. these are the 2 coefficients of (1 + x ) = 1 + 3 x + 3 x 2 + x 3 . for example ( 2 − 3 x ) may be n 5 3x written as 2 1 + − 5 5 5 . By filling in the next 6 row of Pascal’s triangle.. n ! = n ( n − 1)( n − 2 )( n − 3) . what is the expansion 3 of (1 + x ) ? From the triangle. Pascal’s triangle can also 7 be used to expand an expression of the form ( a ± bx ) . write down the expansion of (1 + x ) . <" fig. fig. We will now develop a formula for expanding (1 + x ) . The fourth row is 1 3 3 1.154 work out how many different ways you can get constant terms.2 shows the first part of Pascal’s triangle (named after the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623 – 1662). denoted n! is defined by. We will look at this pattern next. x 2 and x3 terms.2 The second row is 1 1. we can write X in place of − 3x . From Pascal’s triangle..

4 The binomial coefficients The binomial coefficient n is sometimes written as nCr . (1 + x ) n = n r =0 n r x r ………………(†) . in how many ways can a committee of 4 people be formed from a group of 9 people? The 9 answer is = 126 ways. On your calculator you r n should find a button labeled n Cr or nCr . but you can see from the previous examples that a detailed combinatorial analysis of the n expansion of (1 + x ) is possible. i. a b = a! b !( a − b ) ! For example. For example. 4 7 and 2 3 " *@ ' Calculate - $ 5 We are now ready to state the general formula. 0! = 1 . For example... 5 3 6 1 = 5! 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 ×1 = = 10 3!( 5 − 3) ! 3 × 2 × 1× 2 × 1 6! 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 ×1 = =6 1!( 6 − 1) ! 1× 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = a give the b number of ways of choosing a objects from a set of b objects. 3! = 3 × 2 ×1 = 6 . 4! = 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24 .155 For example. pressing 9 followed by Cr followed by 4 on your calculator should return the answer 126.e. Such a detailed analysis leads to the following result: (1 + x ) n = n n n 2 n 3 n n + x+ x + x + . We have not proved this formula here. + x 0 1 2 3 n This can be written in sigma notation as. Next we introduce the binomial coefficient notation. We define the factorial of zero to be one.

but we will use the general formula we have stated above. 5 It is easy to make a mistake when the x term inside the bracket is negative. + ( bx ) 2! 3! 4! $ 5 *@ * Expand ( 2 + x ) . −2 x . the result for the expansion of ( a + bx ) is stated separately (b may be negative). and so the above formulas can be used to expand anything in the n form ( a ± bx ) . You could use Pascal’s triangle for example... We have already commented that any expression of the form ( a ± bx ) can be expressed n in the form A (1 ± Bx ) .. (1 + x ) n = 1 + nx + n ( n − 1) 2 n ( n − 1)( n − 2 ) 3 n ( n − 1)( n − 2 )( n − 3) 4 x + x + x + . Make sure you use brackets correctly and the whole term. alternatively. Sometimes. (2 + x) 6 = 26 + 6 × 25 × x + 6 × 5 4 2 6 × 5× 4 3 3 6 × 5× 4 × 3 2 4 6 × 5× 4 × 3× 2 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 ×1 6 ×2 × x + ×2 × x + ×2 × x + × 2 × x5 + ×x 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! = 64 + 192 x + 240 x 2 + 160 x 3 + 60 x 4 + 12 x 5 + x 6 $ 5 *@ Expand (1 − 2 x ) . . n n ( a + bx ) n = n r =0 n r ( bx ) r Or. ( a + bx ) n = a n + na n −1bx + n ( n − 1) n − 2 n ( n − 1)( n − 2 ) n −3 n ( n − 1)( n − 2 )( n − 3) n − 4 2 3 4 n a ( bx ) + a ( bx ) + a ( bx ) + . gets raised to a power in each step of the calculation.156 This can also be equivalently written as.. + x n 2! 3! 4! Check that you can get from (†) to the above form. This result is stated below. 6 There is more than one way to do this. however.

it should be apparent to you that the term involving x 6 is 9 × 8 × 7 × 6 × 5 × 4 9 −6 6 × 3 × ( − x ) and so the coefficient of x 6 is. provided x < (this means that − < x < ). whilst a negative number raised to an odd power is negative). it turns out that the above formula is valid for all rational n a a a (positive or negative). and none of the other terms. . the formula works in exactly the same way. If you study the general formula we stated earlier. 6! x *@ Expand 3 − 2 6 " fully " *@ * What is the coefficient of 6 5 x in the expansion of ( x − 1) ? Let us recall our general binomial expansion formula. *@ ! By using the binomial expansion. Otherwise. $ 5 −1 (1 + x ) .. $ 5 *@ / What is the coefficient of x 6 in the expansion of ( 3 − x ) ? 9 It would be a waste of time to expand the whole thing in this example. find a polynomial approximation for Using the formula above. we get an alternating series as the answer (since a negative number raised to an even power is positive. + ( bx ) 2! 3! 4! So far.. 6! 9×8× 7 × 6×5× 4 3 × 3 = 2268 . we have. to make sure you have not made a mistake with the signs. What if n is not a positive integer? Well. It is worth while checking this when you have finished a problem of this type. we have only considered this expansion for n a positive integer. The extra b b b condition x < a is necessary for the series to converge. ( a + bx ) n = a n + na n −1bx + n ( n − 1) n − 2 n ( n − 1)( n − 2 ) n −3 n ( n − 1)( n − 2 )( n − 3) n − 4 2 3 4 n a ( bx ) + a ( bx ) + a ( bx ) + .157 (1 − 2 x ) 5 = 1 + ( −2 x ) + 5× 4 5× 4× 3 5 × 4 × 3× 2 2 3 4 5 × ( −2 x ) + × ( −2 x ) + × ( −2 x ) + ( −2 x ) 2! 3! 4! = 1 − 2 x + 40 x 2 − 80 x3 + 80 x 4 − 32 x 5 Notice that when the x term inside the bracket is negative. since we are only interested in the coefficient of x 6 .

for x < $ 5 *@ 2 By using the binomial expansion.e. 3 −2 × −3 − 2 − 2 −2 × −3 × −4 −2−3 2 3 ×2 × ( −3 × x ) + × 2 × ( −3 × x ) 2! 3! This is valid for 3x < 2 . the expansion has no end. find the first four terms in the 1 polynomial approximation for . 2 ( 2 − 3x ) 1 First of all we write ( 2 − 3x ) 2 as ( 2 − 3 x ) .. Now we use the formula. Then we use the formula. −2 ( 2 − 3x ) −2 ≈ 2−2 + ( −2 ) × 2 −2 −1 × ( −3) × x + = 1 27 2 27 3 + 2x + x + x 4 16 4 2 .. the binomial expansion formula came to a natural end.. i.. it is an infinite expansion. find the first four terms in the polynomial approximation for 1 − x . First we write 1 − x as (1 − x ) 2 . 2! 3! 4! 5! = 1 − x + x 2 − x3 + x 4 − x5 + .158 (1 + x ) −1 = 1 + ( −1) × 1−1−1 × x + −1× −2 −1− 2 2 −1× −2 × −3 −1−3 3 −1× −2 × −3 × −4 −1−4 4 −1× −2 × −3 × −4 × −5 −1− 4 5 ×1 × x + ×1 × x + ×1 × x + ×1 × x + . but when n is not a positive integer. Remember to state in your answer that this is only valid for x < 1 . Notice that when n was a positive integer. 1 1 1 1 1 × −1 −1 −2 1 1 −2 −3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 × ( −1× x ) + × 1 × ( −1× x ) + × 12 × ( −1× x ) 2! 3! 1 (1 − x ) 1 2 1 ≈ 1 + ×1 2 1 2 1 −1 2 1 1 1 = − x − x 2 − x3 2 16 16 This is valid for x < 1 . $ 5 *@ By using the binomial expansion.

.. as illustrated below. so adding these two series expansions together x+3 x −1 will give us a series expansion for f ( x ) . We have that. Combining this with our knowledge of partial fractions.. it is possible to write 1 2 f ( x ) in the following way.159 *@ By using the binomial expansion. we are able to find series expansions of some rational functions. We can find series expansions x + 3 x −1 1 2 −1 −1 of = ( x + 3) and = 2 ( x − 1) .) = 2 − 2 x + 2 x 2 − 2 x 3 + 2 x 4 − . ( x + 3) −1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 = − x+ x − x + x + . $ 5 *@ (Find a series expansion for the rational expression f ( x ) = 3x + 5 . −1 (check!) This is valid for x < 1 So. find the first four terms in the 2 polynomial approximation for 3 (2 − x) " " *@ / By using the binomial expansion. .. 3 9 27 81 243 (check!) This is valid for x < 3 and. find the first four terms in the 1 polynomial approximation for x 2 1+ 2 $ 5 + n We are now able to find a series expansion for ( a + bx ) for any rational number n. 2 ( x − 1) = 2 (1 − x + x 2 − x3 + x 4 − .. f ( x ) = + (check!). x + 2x − 3 2 Using the methods developed in the section on partial fractions..

3. and tangent that can be expressed exactly.160 f ( x ) = ( x + 3) + 2 ( x − 1) = −1 −1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 x − x + x + . 4. Hence.. + ( 2 − 2 x + 2 x 2 − 2 x 3 + 2 x 4 − . Now 4 since ∠ABC = ∠CAB . hence the final answer above is valid for x < 1 . There are a few special angles. since it will usually be an infinite decimal expansion. From Pythagoras. State the range of values of x for which the full expansion is valid. expand this expression in ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x3 .. it is not usually possible to write down the exact answer. The expansion of ( x + 3) is valid for x < 3 . we must have that the side AB is equal in length to the side AC. BC is equal to 2 ..) − x+ 3 9 27 81 243 = 7 19 55 2 163 3 587 4 − x+ x − x + x + .. however that have a sine. the expansion of 2 ( x − 1) −1 is valid for x < 1 . Let us set both of the other two (so that at the three interior angles add up to π ). 1 − x − x2 " *@ ! Express (1 − 2 x )(1 − x ) 2 as the sum of three partial fractions. This information is shown in fig. π . let us set this to 1. we can say that the length of the hypotenuse. : 1 : 1 *: 1 / When we calculate the sine. cosine.. ∠ABC and ∠BCA to π 2 . so both expansions are valid for x < 1 . we must state for which values this expansion is valid.. 3 9 27 81 243 −1 Now. for example tan π 4 =1 Consider a right angled triangle ABC with ∠CAB = angles. cosine or tangent of an angle on our calculator.

we can write down exact values for the sine. DE must be equal to 3 . This information is shown in fig. 1 2 π A 1 4 sin C π 4 = 1 2 cos π 4 = tan π 4 =1 fig. 12 $ 5 *@ . 4. The results are as D sin π 3 = fig. but we will not prove it here. we can write down exact values for the sine. 4. the length of the other side. write down the exact value of sin 5π .4 3 2 1 2 cos π 3 = 1 2 tan π 3 = 3 1 3 sin π 6 = cos π 6 = 3 2 tan π 6 = " ) In this section. ∠DEF = π π 6 2 From this diagram. The results are as follows. Let us set the length of the hypotenuse. It is not difficult to prove (at least for acute angles) and such a proof can be found in A-level text books. 4. cosine and tangent of follows. 4 sin ( A ± B ) ≡ sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos ( A ± B ) ≡ cos A cos B sin A sin B Without using a calculator. cosine and tangent of π 1 4 . The first of these are stated below. EF equal to 2 and the length of the side DF equal to 1.3 2 3 6 (notice that the interior angles to add up to π ). ∠EFD = π .161 B π 4 2 From this diagram. From Pythagoras then. we will learn some more trig identities.4. π 1 3 F π 3 3 and π 6 . E Consider the right angled triangle DEF with ∠FDE = π .

4.3 and fig. 4.162 It seems that fig. So. From this. So. we can write down an identity for sin ( 2θ ) as follows. we can use fig. we have the identity. allow us to write down exact values of the 12 π π π π 5π and .4 sine of 4 6 4 6 12 along with the formula for sin ( A ± B ) above to solve this problem. and we notice that + = . since we are interested in 5π an angle of . we can derive the following cosine double angle formula. sin ( 2θ ) = sin (θ + θ ) ≡ sin θ cos θ ± cos θ sin θ = 2 sin θ cos θ . 4. write down the exact value of cos π 6 # 6 4 We have stated the identity sin ( A + B ) ≡ sin A cos B + cos A sin B . by using the identity cos ( A + B ) ≡ cos A cos B − sin A sin B .4 are not much use to us here. These diagrams do. sin 5π π π π π π π = sin + = sin cos + cos sin 12 4 6 4 6 4 6 = 1 3 1 1 × + × 2 2 2 2 3 1 1+ 3 + = 2 2 2 2 2 2 = rationalising the denominator = 2+ 6 4 " *@ ! Without using a calculator. sin ( 2θ ) ≡ 2sin θ cos θ Similarly.3 and fig. . however. 4.

we can write the above as. cos ( 2θ ) ≡ 2 cos 2 θ − 1 Since cos 2 θ ≡ 1 − sin 2 θ . So.163 cos ( 2θ ) ≡ cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ Since sin 2 θ ≡ 1 − cos 2 θ . cos θ tan ( 2θ ) ≡ cos ( 2θ ) sin ( 2θ ) ≡ 2sin θ cos θ . cos ( 2θ ) = cos 2 θ − (1 − cos 2 θ ) so. by remembering that sin θ tan θ ≡ . we can write the above identity as. we have the identity. 2 2 cos θ sin θ 1 − tan 2 θ − cos 2 θ cos 2 θ . we now have three different expressions for cos ( 2θ ) . cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ Dividing numerator and denominator by cos 2 θ gives. 2 sin θ cos θ 2 tan θ cos 2 θ tan ( 2θ ) ≡ ≡ . cos ( 2θ ) = 2 (1 − sin 2 θ ) − 1 so. write down an identity for sin ( 3θ ) in its simplest form (there is more than one acceptable answer to this question) We can also derive a double angle formula for tangent. We have. cos ( 2θ ) ≡ 1 − sin 2 θ So. " *@ 2 By using the identity sin ( A + B ) ≡ sin A cos B + cos A sin B .

sin A + sin B ≡ 2 sin A+ B A− B cos 2 2 These identities can be proved by using the previously stated identities.164 2 tan θ 1 − tan 2 θ tan ( 2θ ) ≡ We have the following four identities. and leave the rest as an exercise. We have that sin A − sin B ≡ 2 cos A+ B A− B sin 2 2 sin (θ + ϕ ) ≡ sin θ cos ϕ + cos θ sin ϕ and sin (θ − ϕ ) ≡ sin θ cos ϕ − cos θ sin ϕ Adding these two equations gives. Below is an example of this in action. $ 5 *@ ' Prove the identity 1 + tan 2 θ ≡ tan θ . 1 + cot 2 θ . % " ) We now have a collection of standard trigonometric identities which we can use to solve problems and prove further identities. sin (θ + ϕ ) + sin (θ − ϕ ) ≡ 2sin θ cos ϕ ……. 2 2 A+ B A− B cos 2 2 as required. The identities that we have stated so far by no means make up a list of all the trigonometric identities that exist. They are all proved in a similar way.( ) If we now let θ + ϕ = A and θ − ϕ = B A+ B A− B cos A + cos B ≡ 2 cos cos 2 2 cos A − cos B ≡ −2 sin A+ B A− B sin 2 2 We can see that θ = sin A + sin B ≡ 2 sin A+ B A− B and ϕ = . The identities we have mentioned so far do enable us. to prove many more results. however. Substituting this into ( ) gives. We will prove the first one here.

sin 3θ + sin θ ≡ 4sin θ cos 2 θ as required. we use the identity sin ( 2θ ) ≡ 2sin θ cos θ top replace the sin 2θ term and the identity cos ( 2θ ) ≡ 2 cos 2 θ − 1 to replace the cos 2θ term. (Note that there is more than one identity for cos 2θ to choose from. we will work on the more complicated side and make it look like the simpler side. sin ( 2θ + θ ) ≡ sin 2θ cos θ + cos 2θ sin θ . this is the only one that will work in this case).165 As usual. We have the identity 1 + tan 2 θ = sec2 θ and 1 + cot 2 θ = cosec 2θ . Substituting these into the LHS gives. Doing this gives. we will work on the LHS and show that it is the same as the RHS. We use the identity sin ( A + B ) ≡ sin A cos B + cos A sin B to write down an identity for sin 3θ (this is test 4. In this example. We have.2. Next. sec 2 θ sec θ sin θ LHS = = = = tan θ = RHS . as required 2 cosec θ cosecθ cos θ $ 5 *@ Prove the identity sin 3θ + sin θ ≡ 4sin θ cos 2 θ . from section 3. but since we are trying to make this look something like sin θ cos 2 θ .9). sin 3θ ≡ 2sin θ cos θ cos θ + ( 2 cos 2 θ − 1) sin θ sin 3θ ≡ 2 sin θ cos 2 θ + 2 cos 2 θ sin θ − sin θ sin 3θ ≡ 4sin θ cos 2 θ − sin θ So. " *@ (Prove the identity sin ( A + B ) − sin ( A − B ) ≡ 2 cos A sin B " *@ Prove the identity sin A + sin B A+ B ≡ tan cos A + cos B 2 .

as follows. cos A − cos B ≡ −2 sin sin 2 2 cos 4θ − cos θ = −2sin 5θ 3θ . 5 3 5 " *@ ' Solve the equation sin 7θ = sin 3θ in the interval 0 ≤ θ ≤ π $ 5 *@ Solve the equation 4 cos 2θ − 2 cos θ + 3 = 0 for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π . π . When solving equations of this type. Here. 2 2 −2sin 5θ 3θ sin =0 2 2 We can solve the equation in this form.. sin 2 2 sin 5θ 3θ sin = 0. 3π . Our aim is to express this equation as an equation in cos θ by using the identity cos ( 2θ ) ≡ 2 cos 2 θ − 1 . 2π . π . . = 0 gives the solutions 2 2 the specified range. In this example.. 2π . 4 cos 2θ − 2 cos θ + 3 = 0 .166 % " $ Trigonometric identities are also useful when solving trigonometric equations. Here are some examples. in 5 5 3θ 3θ gives the solutions = 0. for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . 2 2 specified range. all together we have the solutions. 2π in the 3 So. . the arguments of the trig functions are different. $ 5 *@ * Solve the equation cos 4θ − cos θ = 0 in the interval 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . 2π 2π 4π .. 2 2 Setting sin 5θ 5θ = 0. So now we need to solve the equation. θ = 0. Setting sin θ = 0. 3π . since the LHS is zero if and only if at least one of 5θ 3θ the terms sin or sin are zero. we need to use the factor formula to express the LHS as a product of two trigonometric functions. 2π 4π .. θ = 0. we use the identity A+ B A− B to write the LHS as. .

4. we write the LHS in the form R sin ( x + φ ) or R cos ( x + φ ) Comparing coefficients of cos x yields. 4 = R cos φ ……………………….(2) Squaring both (1) and (2) and adding gives. . 3cos x + 4sin x ≡ R sin ( x + φ ) ≡ R sin x cos φ + R cos x sin φ For equations of this type. We write. 8cos 2 θ − 2 cos θ − 1 = 0 Setting 4 cos θ + 1 = 0 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π . ⇔ ( 4 cos θ + 1)( 2 cos θ − 1) = 0 1 cos θ = − . 5π for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π .460 for 4 1 π 5π . (either form will work) where R is a constant greater than zero and φ is an acute angle. which has solutions θ = 1. Let us solve this example by expressing 3cos x + 4sin x in the form R sin ( x + φ ) .460. 3 = R sin φ ………………………(1) Comparing coefficients of sin x yields. which has solutions θ = and θ = for 2 3 3 Setting 2 cos θ − 1 = 0 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π .823.823 and θ = 4. all together we have the solutions θ = " *@ π 3 . 1. 3 Solve the equation 4 cos θ = 3sin 2θ for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π $ $ 5 = 8 *@ / Solve the equation 3cos x + 4 sin x = 5 for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360 .167 4 ( 2 cos 2 θ − 1) − 2 cos θ + 3 = 0 8cos 2 θ − 4 − 2 cos θ + 3 = 0 8cos 2 θ − 2 cos θ − 1 = 0 . cos θ = So. This is now a quadratic equation in cos θ and it factorises as follows.

216. For example. 270.9 .130 = 90.130 ) = 1 We can now solve this to give x + 53. 306.168 R 2 sin 2 φ + R 2 cos 2 φ = 32 + 42 R 2 ( sin 2 φ + cos 2 φ ) = 25 R=5 Dividing (2) by (1) gives. " *@ * Solve the equation 5sin θ + 12 cos θ = 7 for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360 9 3 : 6 .9 ..9 for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360 ..# $ Differential equations are equations which involve a derivative of a variable. Can you write down an expression for y for this simple dx 1 1 example? It is not difficult to see that we could have y = x 2 . We say that y = x 2 is a 2 2 .9 . you can solve other examples by following the method through. square and add these two equations to find R. This is a standard method. R sin φ 4 = R cos φ 5 tan φ = 4 5 φ = 53.130 (we take φ to be the acute angle with a tan of 4/5) So we have found that. We just have to write down the identity a cos x + b sin x ≡ R sin ( x + φ ) . Once you have seen one example. 126. dy = x is a differential equation. x = 36.. 3cos x + 4 sin x = 5 ⇔ 5sin ( x + 53. divide the two equations to find φ (remember we always take the acute angle for φ ). expand the RHS. 180. then we can solve the equation R sin ( x + φ ) . compare coefficients to give two equations.130 = sin −1 1 x + 53. 360.130 ) = 5 sin ( x + 53.

For more complicated cases. Note. we can see that differential equations dx do not have unique solutions (unless we are given some extra information). in general. dx Integrating both sides with respect to x gives. dy dx = 3 x 2 + 2dx dx y = x3 + 2 x + c and these are the solutions to the differential equation (one solution for each constant. solution of the differential equation A differential equation which can be written in the form integration (provided we know how to integrate f ( x ) ). For the 1 differential equation above. dx $ 5 *@ ! Solve the differential equation dy = e x − sin x + 2 cos 2 x . dx Integrating both sides with respect to x gives. Here we will barely scratch the surface and consider very simple. so called. we will need to develop a more systematic method for solving differential equations. c. dy = e x − sin x + 2 cos 2 x dx y = e x + cos x + sin 2 x + c Solve the differential equation dy 1 = + ln x + e − x dx x " *@ . y = x + c is a solution of the solution of the differential equation dx 2 dy differential equation = x for any constant. Solving differential equations. In fact.169 dy 1 = x . We can see that y = x 2 − 12 is also a dx 2 dy 1 2 = x . and we can solve it by direct dy = 3x 2 + 2 . So. it was easy to see that y = x 2 is a solution (how did you 2 arrive at this answer?). is a complicated business and there are many methods for solving different types of differential equations. separable. first order differential equations. c. $ 5 *@ ! Solve the differential equation dy = f ( x ) for some function dx f ( x ) is called a separable (first order) differential equation. dy dx = dy = 1dy = y (+c) .

2 dy y = . We write them in the dx F ( y ) dy = f ( x ) and then integrate. dx 1 + x *@ 2 Solve the differential equation We write this in the form 1 1 dy = dx y 1+ x 1 dy 1 = . dx 1 + sin y We write this as (1 + sin y ) (1 + sin y ) d y = $ 5 x dx dy = x . 1 + y dx ln y = ln 1 + x + ln K = ln ( K (1 + x ) ) $ 5 *@ '(Solve the differential equation First. Integrating both sides with respect to x gives. we need to separate the variables. We can write c = ln K . dx 1 y − cos y = x 2 + c or 2 y − 2 cos y = x 2 + c . y = K (1 + x ) . i. sin x dy = cos x .e.170 Differential equations of the form form F ( y ) dy f ( x ) = are also separable. Integrating gives. y dx 1 + x ln y = ln (1 + x ) + c . 1 dy cos x = . 1 + y dx sin x 1 cos x dy = dx 1+ y sin x 1 + y = K sin x ln (1 + y ) = ln ( sin x ) + c = ln ( sin x ) + ln K y = K sin ( x ) − 1 . dx $ 5 *@ Solve the differential equation dy x = . to give. take all the terms involving x to the LHS and all the terms involving y to the RHS. Integrating both sides with respect to x gives.

2 x + 2 y dy x =− . find dy . ( dx dx dx How do we calculate d 2 ( y ) ? Recall the chain rule (see section 3. the integral f' ( x) f ( x) dx (see section 3. Sometimes. This is an example of an implicit function.171 cos x dx is of the form sin x Note. is x 2 + y 2 = 25 . " *@ / Solve the differential equation dy = ( y + 2 )( x + 1) dx " *@ ! Solve the differential equation dy = xy − y dx ) # Most of the time.4). Rearranging for gives. dx dx . for example we cannot write the function ln y − sin x = xe y in the form y = f ( x ) .5). which should seem familiar. we write functions down in the form y = f ( x ) with y on the LHS and all terms involving x on the RHS. dx d 2 d dy dy y ) = ( y2 ) = 2 y ( dx dy dx dx So we have. we get d 2 d d x ) + ( y 2 ) = ( 25 ) . dx y dy dy = 0 . So how do we differentiate implicit functions? $ 5 *@ ' Given that x 2 + y 2 = 25 . this is not possible. We can say that. dx Differentiating term by term with respect to x. Another example of an implicit function.

we simply use the quotient rule (section 3. i. dx y dx dx cos x − e x = dy 1 + sin y dx y cos x − e x = 1 dy dy + sin y y dx dx dy cos x − e x = dx 1 + sin y y $ 5 *@ ' If x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 6 y + 5 = 0 . we differentiate the function with respect to dy d d dy y and then multiply by . dx dx Differentiating term by term with respect to x. d d d d sin x + cos y = e x + ln y dx dx dx dx cos x − sin y ⇔ cos x + d dy d dy ( cos y ) = e x + ( ln y ) dy dx dy dx dy 1 dy dy = ex + . . we get. we get.e. we need to find . find dy d2 y and 2 . f ( y) = f ( y ) . Using the quotient rule. Rearranging for . dx $ 5 Differentiating term by term with respect to x. but remember. when we differentiate a function of y with respect to x.e. Rearranging for . we need to differentiate a quotient. d 2 d dy d d dy d d x ) + ( y 2 ) − ( 2 x ) − ( 6 y ) + ( 5) = ( 0) ( dx dy dx dx dy dx dx dx 2x + 2 y dy dy dy − 2 − 6 = 0 . dx dx dx dy ( 2 y − 6) = 2 − 2x dx Now. then we dx dx dy dx have. i.4). dx y − 3 d2 y dy 1 − x . 2 dx dx y − 3 To do this. find dy . to find dy 1 − x = .172 *@ '' Given that sin x + cos y = e x + ln y .

So. Substituting this in gives.173 d (1 − x ) dx dy 1 − x = dx y − 3 ( y − 3) − ( y − 3) d ( y − 3) (1 − x ) dx 2 dy 1 − x = dx y − 3 −1 ( y − 3 ) − dy (1 − x ) dx . Differentiating a curve defined parametrically is not difficult. $ 5 *@ '* A curve is defined parametrically by x = dy .2 on parametric equations. we have found earlier that dy 1 − x = dx y − 3 (3 − y ) (1 − x ) − y −3 2 2 ( y − 3) ( y − 3)( 3 − y ) − (1 − x ) = 3 ( y − 3) 2 2 . 3 dx 2 ( y − 3) dy when x3 + y 3 − 3 y 2 sin x = 8 Hint: use the product rule. we can see that =− . 1+ t 1− t Calculate From the equation x = 1 dx 1 t . we simple need to recall the chain rule. be dx careful when differentiating y terms " *@ Find # Recall the material from section 4. dx 1 t and y = . dx y − 3 Now. we have the answer. 2 ( y − 3) dy 1 − x = . d 2 y ( y − 3)( 3 − y ) − (1 − x ) = . From the equation y = . 2 1+ t dt 1− t (1 + t ) .

So we have found that = tan t . . d 2 y d dy d = = ( tan t ) . we can see that we can see that dy = sin t . . We also recall that = . = = tan t . dy d2 y Calculate and 2 . dx dx To calculate dy . $ 5 *@ ' A curve is defined parametrically by x = sin t and y = − cos t . dx 1− t 2 2 . 2 = ( tan t ) dx dt dx . dx dx = cos t .174 dy (1 − t ) − t ( −1) 1 = = . . we can say that dy dy 1 = . dy dy 1 sin t dy = .24. we follow the same method as example 4. dx dt dx cos t dx dt Now. 2 2 dt (1 − t ) (1 − t ) using the quotient rule we can see that From the chain rule. we have that = × =− 2 dx (1 − t ) − 1 1− t 2 (1 + t ) dy 1+ t =− So the answer is. dx dt dx dt dy dy dt dt 1 = . dt We have. so we d x dx dt dx dx dt can write dy 1 1 1+ t Hence. 2 dx dx dx dx d2 y d dt So. dt From the equation x = sin t . From the equation y = − cos t .

and we have learned how to break a down some more complicated quotients into a sum of fractions of the form ( bx + c ) n (partial fractions). ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) x − 1 2 x − 3 So. So. For problems of this sort. In example 4. ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) As we have said. we stated a general rule for differentiating quotients. We can integrate functions of the form a ( bx + c ) n . we found that. dx dx ) 7 In section 3. 7x + 3 2 3 ≡ + . sin 2 t sin t dx 2 sin t " *@ 2 A curve is defined parametrically by x = 1 1 and y = .5. dx cos t = cos t cot t d 2 y cot t = . splitting complicated quotients into a sum of simpler quotients which we can integrate is the way in which we shall proceed.175 = sec 2 t dt 1 = sec2 t. we can write 7x + 3 2 3 dx = + dx x −1 2x − 3 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) . there is no general rule that we can use to evaluate this integral directly.4. we need to try to break down the integrand into a simpler form using partial fractions and hope that we can integrate this simpler form. Unfortunately. 1+ t 1− t dy d2 y Calculate and 2 . there is no general rule for integrating quotients. which we can integrate. So we have the answer. $ 5 *@ '/ Evaluate 7x + 3 dx . = . but we can use some of the methods that we have studied earlier to make some progress.

2 3 3 + dx = 2 ln ( x − 1) + ln ( 2 x − 3) + c . x −1 2x − 3 2 So. where the length of the line represents the magnitude of the vector and the direction of the line indicates the direction in which the vector quantity is acting (we use arrows to represent the direction of the vector). mass. i. they have a magnitude but no direction. are called scalars. velocity and acceleration are examples of vector quantities – they have a numerical value and a direction. for example force. 2 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 3) *@ '! Evaluate $ 5 −11x − 19 dx . temperature. ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) 2 x + 3 x − 1 From example 4. 2 x + 3 x −1 2 ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) −11x − 19 1 dx = ln ( 2 x + 3) − 6 ln ( x − 1) + c . ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) −11x − 19 1 6 ≡ − . Vector quantities occur commonly in applied maths and physics. Now. For example. in general.6. 7x + 3 3 dx = 2 ln ( x − 1) + ln ( 2 x − 3) + c . We can represent physical vector quantities such as force and velocity by straight lines in 2 or 3 dimensions. Physical quantities which are not vectors. 2 ( 2 x + 3)( x − 1) *@ ' Evaluate x2 dx Hence. energy are examples of scalar quantities.e. −11x − 19 1 6 1 dx = − dx = ln ( 2 x + 3) − 6 ln ( x − 1) + c . Length. area.176 a a dx = ln ( bx + c ) + K ) bx + c b (Remember that. we found that So. a force of 10N acting horizontally to the right can be represented by a straight . we have the solution " *@ '( Evaluate ( x + 1) dx 2 ( 3x − 4 )( x + 3) " ( x + 5 )( x − 3) 1 ) ) # A vector is a mathematical object which has both magnitude and direction.

we could choose a scale for our diagram of 1N = 1cm). we could travel along vector c first and then travel along vector b. starting at the origin. 4. 2 ) . Vector b is a vector of magnitude one in the positive x-direction. as shown below. y A a O We denote this vector using the symbol OA (or OA . 1 so it can be written as b = (the zero indicates that there is no 0 component of this vector in the y-direction).7. This tells us that the vector a is equivalent to a vector 2 of magnitude one pointing in the positive x-direction followed by a vector of magnitude two pointing in the positive y-direction. we can either travel directly along vector a. or alternatively. Equivalently. then we can define the vector a (or 1 . 10N A force of 20N acting horizontally to the right can be represented by a straight horizontal line of twice the length of the precious vector (using the same scale as before). bold letters are always used). 20N Consider a 2-dimensional vector joining points O (the origin) and A as shown below. so it can be written as 0 c= (the zero indicates that there is no component of this 2 vector in the x-direction). 4.7 O . 4. a = A a c b fig.177 horizontal line of a certain length (for example. as shown in fig. b A c a fig. x y fig. Vector c is a vector of magnitude two in the positive y-direction. 4.5 Suppose that the point A has coordinates A = (1. alternatively we can give it a name. The vector a = OA is called the position vector of point A. we can travel along vector b and then travel along vector c.6 O This is equivalent to saying that if we want to travel from point O to point A. such as a = OA (when vectors are denoted in this way. OA ) as a column vector. this will still take us from O to A.

provided the scalar is positive. We can subtract vectors in a similar way. 4. 4. We have . OA = a = b + c = c + b . If we multiply a vector by a negative scalar. 4.178 4 To add two vectors together. For example if we multiply a in fig. −2 8 -2 2a a -4 fig. b= . then −1 4 Consider the vector a = 4 4 . then we will get a vector which points in the opposite direction to the original. For example with the vectors as defined above.9 fig. we simply add together the x components of the two vectors together and add the y components of the two vectors together.8. 4.6 and fig.10 Multiplying a vector by a scalar (a number) maintains the direction of the vector but changes the magnitude of the vector. b+c = 1 0 1+ 0 1 + = = =a. 0 2 0+2 2 So. as shown in fig.8 by 2. we get a vector which points in the same direction as a but has twice the magnitude of a. as illustrated in fig. 4. 4. as we have already noticed. −1 − 4 −5 6 7 9 . for example if a = a −b = 7 −9 −2 = .8 2 4 -a fig.7. 4.

. = 2 × 1 − 7 + 3 × ( −4 ) −17 " 2 −1 and b = ‘head to tail’ (vectors b and c are drawn 3 4 m ‘head to tail’ in fig.10. as shown in fig.b (hint: p a . q *@ '' Sketch the vectors a = % The magnitude. as shown in fig. −3 − 2 + 3 −2 = 1 − 7 + ( −4 ) −10 a) a + b + c = b) a − b + c = c) 2a − b + 3c = 2 × ( −3 ) − 2 + 3 × 3 1 . 4. a = 42 + 22 = 20 = 2 5 .179 4 2× 4 8 = = . would produce a vector pointing in the same direction as –a. calculate 1 7 −4 a) a + b + c b) a − b + c −3 + 2 + 3 2 = 1 + 7 + ( −4 ) 4 c) 2a − b + 3c .9. The magnitude of this vector. The magnitude of a vector. Multiplying a by -3. 2a = 2 $ 5 *@ '! If a = −3 2 3 . we get a −2 2 × −2 −4 vector which is equal in magnitude to a but points in the opposite direction. We 4 −1 × 4 −4 have -a = −1× = = . is usually written as a . If we multiply a by -1.6. a.b = a + ( -b ) ). modulus or length of a vector is calculated using Pythagoras’ Theorem. 4. 4. Also sketch a similar diagram to show illustrate the calculation d = a . but with three times the magnitude of –a. what are the n values of m and n. 4. If c = .) On this diagram. for −2 −1× −2 2 example. c= .8. b= . draw in the vector c = a + b . by Pythagoras is. For example look back at the vector a in fig. what are the values of p and q. If c = .

we often use the symbol i to denote a unit vector in the x-direction. as shown in fig. the vector is 48 parallel to vector a. i O The distance from point P to the origin is calculated using Pythagoras. Vector 2a is also parallel to vector a (and vector –a). Perhaps the only point to note is that. any scalar multiple of vector a is parallel to vector a. For example. vectors a and –a as in fig. For example. for example. Similarly we use the symbol j to denote a ‘vertical’ unit vector pointing in the positive y-direction. 4. Then we can write the vector joining the origin to the point P as OP = ai + bj . −5 % It is intuitively obvious what we mean by parallel vectors. P Suppose point P is located (with respect a to the origin. OP = j fig.10 are parallel even though they are travelling in opposite directions (so we cannot define parallel vectors as ‘vectors which travel in the same direction’). To calculate the length of a vector in 3dimensions we simply use the familiar 3-dimensional version of Pythagoras’ Theorem.180 The magnitude of a vector is always positive. 4. When working with 2dimensional vectors. . 4. 3 2 For example the length of the vector r = 1 is r = 32 + 12 + ( −5) = 35 . We can work out the direction of the vector OP by using the tan function. P. that is a ‘horizontal’ vector pointing in the positive x-direction of length one. 4. the magnitude of vector –a in fig. O) a units in the i direction and b units in the j direction.11. % Consider the origin. O and a point in the 2-dimensional plane.10 is also 2 5 .e.11 b (a 2 + b2 ) . Often we work with vectors in 3-dimensions. In fact. i. vector λ a is parallel to 24 vector a where λ is any scalar (positive or negative).8 and 4.

6.12 may represent vectors in two or three dimensions. Notice that. and maybe we have worked with cartesian equations of lines in three dimensions. we always look to find two pieces of information: the position vector of a point on the line and any b vector parallel to the line. $ 5 *@ ' Find the vector equation of the line that passes through the points ( 2. we start at the origin and first move along vector a to a point on the line. so we need another piece of information to uniquely determine line r.12. the extra piece of information we look for is a vector parallel to the line. 2 We have that 1 is the position vector of a point on the line. Once we are at point A. To specify line O fig.1) .181 θ = tan −1 a . where m is the gradient of the line and c is the intercept on the y-axis. where we will have three variables. say point A is the vector which joins the origin a b to the point A. 4. there are many lines which pass through that point. The vectors in fig. The vector equation of line r is r = a + λb Where a is the position vector of a point on the line and b is any vector parallel to the line. we move in the direction of vector b and we are now travelling alone line r.12 r. The scalar parameter λ just stands for the distance which we move along the line from point A. x. How can we uniquely specify a straight line in three dimensions? When we need to find the vector equation of a line. b Let us consider how to write the equation of a straight line in vector form. vector b. point A. Remember. the position vector of a point on the line. Look at fig. y and z. To find a vector parallel to 3 the line we simply subtract the two vectors. 4. 4.3) and ( 5. to uniquely specify a straight line in two dimensions we need two pieces of information. We are already familiar with writing the equation of a straight line in two dimensions in cartesian form. You will r always need to remember these two key b pieces of information when working with A vector equations of lines. A vector parallel to the line is .1. y = mx + c . Once we are at point A. for example in the cartesian form we know the gradient and the intercept.

λ= x−2 3 λ= y −1 5 λ= z+3 . An obvious vector which is parallel to the line (has gradient 1 0 1 3) is . $ 5 *@ '2 Find the vector form for the line with cartesian equation y = 3 x − 4 .1) and ( −2. As always. x − 2 y −1 z + 3 = = 3 5 2 Which is the cartesian form of the line. We can rewrite the vector equation of this line in component form as. The vector equation of the line is therefore r = +λ . we may write. We can rearrange these expressions for .182 5 2 3 6 − 1 = 5 . . x = 2 + 3λ y = 1 + 5λ z = 3 − 2λ .5. One 0 obvious point which lies on the line is the y-intercept. 6 ) . 3 −2 % 6 . % Consider the previous example. we are looking for a point on the line and a vector parallel to the line. 2 Since the above expressions for are all equal. −4 The gradient of the line is 3. which has position vector .1. We have therefore that the vector equation of the line is 1 3 −2 2 3 r = 1 +λ 5 . Also write the equation of the line in cartesian form. 3 −4 3 " *@ ' Find the vector equation of the line that passes through the points ( 5.

………………………………(2) If the lines are to cross. In three dimensions. We need. 7 6 4 and y = 2 . 4 − 3λ = −2 + 4 µ . 2 . 3+ λ = 3+ µ ⇔ λ=µ. 7 7 . But since λ = µ we can write the above line as. We need. Hence the lines 7 7 Substituting the value of or into (1) or (2) gives x = 3 6 4 meet at the point 3 . if two lines do not cross they are called skew. we need the x value in (1) to equal the x value in (2). ie. $ 5 *@ (Do the lines r1 = 3 1 3 1 +λ and r2 = +µ meet? If so.183 ) . First we write each of the lines r1 and r2 in component form. In three dimensions. it is rarer to have two lines that meet. 4 −3 −2 4 find the point of intersection. ie. For r1 we have: x = 3+ λ y = 4 − 3λ ……………………………………………………………………………(1) For r2 we have: x = 3+ µ y = −2 + 4 µ …………………………………………. In two dimensions. straight lines that are not parallel will meet at a point (they cross). 4 − 3λ = −2 + 4λ λ= 6 =µ. We also need the y value in (1) to equal the y value in (2).

−3 6 We use the following useful formula to calculate the angle between two vectors.30. c f Note. 2 = 1× 2 + 4 × 2 + ( −3) × 6 = −8 . find the 4 −2 −2 4 point of intersection. e = a×d + b×e + c× f . 4. we write a ‘dot’ between the two vectors to denote that we are taking the scalar 1 2 product. The scalar product (or dot product) of two vectors is calculated as follows: a d b . θ = 90 and so cos θ = 0 and so a.b a b Notice that if two lines are perpendicular.b = 0 . $ 5 *@ Let us continue from example 4.b = a b cos θ 180o fig. 2 .13 a Which we can rearrange as: cos θ = a.13. If a = 4 and b = 2 . What is the angle between the two lines at this point? We use the 7 7 .184 " *@ '* Do the lines r1 = 1 1 5 1 +λ and r2 = +µ meet? If so. 4. We found that the two lines meet 6 4 at the point 3 . Let us do a numerical example.: b a. θ as shown in fig.b = 4 . then −3 6 1 2 a.

5 . Similarly. −3 4 We find the length of each of these vectors: a = 12 + ( −3) = 10 2 b = 12 + 42 = 17 .b = 1 1 . So. The directional vector of the line r1 is a. we will have 1 a= (which comes from line r1 ). 2 " −2 3 1 and r2 = −5 + µ −3 meet? If so. we will have b = . So. the directional vector of the line r2 is −3 1 1 . from the scalar product formula. *@ '* Do the lines r1 = 0 + λ 4 . We find the scalar product 4 4 of these two vectors: scalar product formula. = 1 − 12 = −11 . so in the scalar product formula.8437 10 17 θ = 147. we have: cos θ = −11 = −0. in the scalar product formula. find −1 −1 −5 −1 the point of intersection and the angle between the two vectors. So. the angle between the two vectors is 147.5 .185 1 3 (the vector is −3 4 the position vector of a point on the line).

Tearing and gluing. This is a curious object which arises from the study of a branch of mathematics called topology. The Möbius strip is a curious object because it has only one side. For example. surfaces and the spacetime of general relativity. Step 2: Hold the paper at each end and twist 180 degrees Step 3: Attach the ends of the strip together Step 4: You now have a completed Möbius strip A Möbius strip Step 1: Take a strip of paper Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 . deformations. Topology is the study of spatial objects such as curves. twisting. however are not allowed.186 ) 6 % > ? 6 The picture on the cover shows a Möbius strip (or a Möbius band) named after the German mathematician who discovered it. You can understand more about the Möbius strip by make one. in topology a circle and an ellipsoid are equivalent. August Ferdinand Möbius (1790 – 1868). Topology is sometimes informally referred to as ‘rubber sheet geometry’ because in the study of topology spatial objects are considered equivalent under stretching.

You might expect to get two separate Möbius strip. What do you notice? The Möbius strip has only one side! Another curious thing happes if you try to cut the Möbius strip down the middle.joyrides. What actually happens? What happens if you cut the new Möbius strip down the middle? If you have ever been to Blackpool Pleasure Beach and rode on the old wooden rollercoaster ‘The Grand National’ then you have rode around a Möbius strip! The wooden track of The Grand National roller Cutting the Möbius strip along its length coaster is actually a Möbius strip. You will notice that at the end of the ride.187 Now. you return to the opposite side of the platform to which you started but the tracks do not cross! A torus The Grand National © Joe Schwartz 2002 www. At the start of the ride there are two carriages either side of a boarding platform.com . take a pencil and draw a line alone one side of the Möbius strip. to see that the Möbius strip has only one side. The Grand National roller coaster has a track with two carriages that race side-by-side. following the side all the way around until you get back to the beginning.

188 The Möbius strip is related to other topological objects. A Klein bottle A Klein bottle Topology is a complicated area of pure mathematics. 1849 – 1925). The Klein bottle itself is a strange topological object. The torus and the Klein bottle can both be cut in certain ways as to produce Möbius strips (cutting the Klein bottle in half along its length produces two Möbius strips). August Ferdinand Möbius . for a sphere) and so the Klein bottle actually has no outside and no inside! Physically. such as the torus (donut or bagel shape) and the Klein bottle (named after the German mathematician Felix Christian Klein. A fly can move from the outside to the inside without passing through the body of the bottle (this is not true. the Klein bottle can only actually be realised in four dimensions since it passes through itself without the presence of a hole. for example. Here I give just a brief flavour of some of the less technical aspects of the Möbius strip and related objects. It is a smooth surface that does not end.

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