THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

Julian and Helenka .PREFACE V To Joanna.

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..............................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ................................................................. XI Preface .................................... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ..........................

........... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK................................... Technical terms in the glossary ....... 1 Abbreviations ............... Sources/References . ............. 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts .................................................................................. 156 1.................................................................................... 181 Bibliographies ........................................................................................................................................... 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ..................... 156 2.......................... 177 I................................................... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY .................... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES .................................... 181 Periodicals .......... 182 General studies and surveys ................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

............. ................................. 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ............................. 7....................... 5.................................................................... VIII.............................................................................. 236 Painted illustration ............................................................................................................................................................ General studies ............................. 247 Early QurÐans and fragments... etc........... 247 1............................. 232 Ornament and painted decoration ............. 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries .......................... 4............... 238 b) Other studies ........................................................................... 256 1............................. Exhibition catalogues............................................ 247 Later QurÐans........................ 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ............................................ 251 Facsimile editions ....................................... 243 2............. 240 Papercuts ............... 6................... 242 c) Other studies.. 255 IX. 2............................................. TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING .............................................................................................. 238 a) Drawing................................................. 227 b) Exhibition catalogues .......................................... 8.......... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ............... 242 a) Bibliography... 226 Calligraphy ........................................................... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works. 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship .............................................. 2............................) .......................................................................................................................................... 241 Bookbinding ......... 259 ...................... 3................................................................................ 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) .............. 3.................... 256 Some specific cases ....... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper......... 239 Lacquer ............... 4...............

............... Catalogues of catalogues .................... 5.............. Descriptions of collections and catalogues ....................... COLLECTIONS... 4... 266 1............... .. PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION .............X CONTENTS PREFACE X........................................................................ CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS........ 261 XI...................... ETC....... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts .............. Catalogues of edited manuscripts ...... CATALOGUING.......................................... 266 266 267 267 268 ...................................... 2....... 3. 263 XII...................

Last but not least. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. .

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This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. both religious and scientific in nature. VII. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. papermaking and bookbinding. the preparation of inks. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. scholars. 2). Arab authors. Along with this manuscript output. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7. DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.).VKE O G 1231).10/16th cent. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.

EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO. RI .

 DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. Furthermore. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7.

lineation). The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). Finally. RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). as well as on the collation and correction of books. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. who in his work on education.984/1577). which deals with the preparation of inks. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette.

respectively. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. which spans almost 14 centuries. . as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). as it were. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. It brings together. contemporary studies and catalogues. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. Nevertheless. especially those relating to book formats.g. The glossary is a by-product. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. even in its present form. as well as extant specimens. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. this chapter has been omitted. bound and decorated. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. medieval and postmedieval texts. corrected. Some terms. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. some of the most important research in this field published to date. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. for the first time. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. could be very misleading. e. book lovers and cataloguers. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). writing surfaces and implements used.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). To translate.

miqlab (Levant.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. recto. Thus. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. however. marjiÑ (Morocco). This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). Some. Ñaqib (‘heel’. flap). The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). may have been used exclusively in those circles. OLV Q (central Arab lands). This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. and V TLÃah (Yemen). have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. Here. lower margin. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. outer or inner margin). book cover). great caution is in order. Here we find. fore-edge). Ñaqb. flap). and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. We do not. for example. Iraq). catch- . These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. for example. period and/or region in which they were employed. raÐs (‘head’. on the other hand. case (box). The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. North Africa). incipit. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. envelope flap). fore-edge. inkwell and the like. Áadr (‘chest’. OLV Q (‘tongue’. serif. upper margin. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. however. catchword. been largely omitted here. The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. as yet. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). udhn (‘ear’. for example. upper cover). Thus. medallion. catchword). wajh (‘face’. raddah (Levant). khadd (‘cheek’. recto. Therefore.

Due to the limitations of the computer program used. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Most words are traced to a source. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. . Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. As far as transliteration is concerned. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script.XVI PREFACE word). Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. On the whole. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. either contemporary or earlier. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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97-98. 392). LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS.v.) (DD. 59. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah.EU . 107. 97. among other things. AG. 8). for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. 103. I. ibrah (pl. 2: ibrishmah). muµabbar – sewn (KC.). I. TS. 176-178) 2. 107. I. of minfadh (q. SD. I. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. RN. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. AG. ST. from Pers. ibar) – needle (UK. 12. 9. index. GA. II. I. 18-19. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. 8). 215. SA. ebrû. III. needle case (DM) 2.v. 60. IA. 13. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. GA. DB. 154.  EU  ZDUDT DO. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar).GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. 182). ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. MB. 104. miµbar 1. syn.

 .

LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP. LEU VLP.

taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. 62. abbrev. 53). explicit (TP.14). DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). I. ilá NKLULK – et cetera. n. (DB. – closing matter of the text (composition).

71-72. 52). tanned red leather (DB. adam(ah). DG P (pl. leather (UK. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. passim. MF. I. IW. 106-108) 2. AE. scribal etiquette 2. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. I. 175-176). adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. udum) 1. – etiquette (EI. 63.

XIV. MU. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah.

. DG K SO DGDZ W. comp. DGG P – tanner (DM). jild.

g. 345). e. DGDZ W O W. implement. – V\Q ODK (EI. I. instrument. tool.

103-105) or DGDZ W O W. 153-156. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. writing MB.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

6 GLOSSARY hour of night. VI. JKXU E – the last hour of day. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. 250). ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.

Oá (al-uwal) (1-10). alDZ NKLU . RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al.NKLUDK DO-ukhar. al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).

g. VI. -30) (SA. e. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. 248-249).

lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. II. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. 178).g. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. 235). 106.EQ . e. al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. nos.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR .DP O 3 VK 73  CI.VI. VI. 244-248). al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK .EQ . 244-249).

 -248). al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9.

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. ER. taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. 6$ 9. 670).C.1st 5509 B. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn. ar„ \DK – background (LC.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). IV. X. 22. FZ. (EI. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . taµU NK-L PDODN .D. JL. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. 262.

 .

GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). XVK UDK. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ. II.

115). uÁ O. 59. IB. 90. I. 43: VKDI . punch (TS. KM. sifr 4. 107. 10: ishfah. IA. – awl. a¦l (pl. AG. 11. 15. ST. IK. MB. 103.

 DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9... .

27) 3. MU. VIII.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). II. MH. SD. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. exemplar. original (main) text. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. 26. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh.

MI. .. but also 0= . 136). XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. 2024.

major work (TM. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. 126. 23) 4. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. SM. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

border (of a book cover) (LC. 29) 5. headpiece (LC. 928). al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. 402) 2. frame (within a border) (TF. rules. FT. tabula ansata (UI. . rectangular panel (LC. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. . textual surround (LC. KR. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. 27) 6. 24). 24. 24. 25. 145). DB. 24. ià U W XÃur) 1. i¨ U (pl.e. 80) 3. rule-border. i. UI.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. I.

according to other sources al.8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages. DIVK Q (Pers. 581-582). 32). taµO I DK.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. 6.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. 46). ER. I. writing circa 1375’ (DW.

(pl. taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W.

muÐDOODI W. muµallaf (pl.

– composition. comp. I. X.1 . . writer. taÁQ I muµallif – author. 360). ummah . muÁannif. work (of prose or poetry) (SD. umm. EI. compilation. comp. 33.

SO XPPDK W.

shar¨ (IN. as opposed to a commentary. I. used in mosques (KN. 29). . copy. . original (main) text. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. umm al-NLW E 1.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. archetype (LC. 246) 3. 26). TM. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. 26. SD. 130) 4. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. exemplar. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. transcript (from which another copy is made). 35. I.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). KF. 37. 39). II. LP P – exemplar. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. II. Umm al-qurá. 99. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. II. 294). Umm al-EXOG Q. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. archetype. textus receptus (NT. .

(CI. 2812). taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q).GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. 99). abbrev. II. comp. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. tadabbur. I. II. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. xiv. LL.

 . or /'    $'  (. .

XQE E DK. FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã.

SO DQ E E.

KU. 370). (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. BA. LQV see sinn. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. 31. 31). III. III. LM. 370. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. – unpared. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. II. unnibbed reed (FN. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan).

AA. (TP. incipit. I. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition).14. 52. n. initia. JA.

 .

10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taÐ Z O. taµZ O (pl.

– interpretation.g. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q. explanation (e.

bu¨ U. acephalous. passim) 2. **** PDEW U 1. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. baŒr (pl. 34). incomplete (of text) (KC. imperfect.

JL. . 33. – panel on a book cover. cartouche (TS. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . 110. AG.

 . badal. 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). bidl '% . 355). tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. WDENK U – fumigation (TS.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &.. [LLL. .

473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. SD. suppl. RU badal respectively (KG. also WDEG O – subal-matn.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. alteration (CL. comp. MZ. 412) 2. . conjectural substitution. 296). II. EI. 59-60.3-4. fasc. fasc. 153-154.3. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. DT. I. stitution. wifq (US. 49. conjecture. 100-103).

QS. IV. 64-66). DD. WS. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. 390: for trimming). papyrus sheet or roll (DB.84. qirà V mibrad – file. I. I. lin. rasp (HT. VIII. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). II. 60. IA. comp. EDUG \DK – papyrus.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . 417. EI. 521-522. sifr 13. 407. publishing (KM.

 . EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . 545). barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. I. LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah.

n. EDUVK P. – endband (headband) (ST.148). index. IB. 81. 17-18. ST. 8. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK .

 al-PXE UDN DK.

ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.

 DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. etc. nuskhah. ELUN U SO EDU N U.

41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 .9.  '0. – compass. III. (pair of) dividers (SA.

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

18). 12. Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS. .

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

KK. PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. 85.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ).  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. bary. ELU \DK – paring.v. III. 49). EDUU \DK. trimming (of a reed ) (IR. 455 6. 154: IK. SA. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU.). 232.

8. IK. flattening (of a letter). DA: mibzagh. 64. 591). mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. 90. index. DB. I. SD. 88.. MP. bas¨ – spreading out. – pen knife (AA. mibzaq – lancet-like knife.   $6 . I.. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . 81).

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. comp. PDEV ¨ 1. jazm (IK. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. 120) 2. KH. 87) 3. horizontal stroke. III. 144) 4. AS. rectilinear (of a script. unabridged work. syn. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). 34. original (comprehensive). line (KU. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. mukhtaÁar.

322). ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. TW. 144). – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. 47. basmalah SO EDV PLO. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. 13. maÁ ¨if. 365.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. LF. 63. 78: ‘racler. EI. TS. AG. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. lin. erased. 78. 58. MP. piece. lin.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. 52. silk endband (headband) (HT. HT.) (AS. I. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. 145). 12). 1084-1085). 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’).97. 23-24. 58. IA. PDEVK U – pared. 9.v. also known as al-JKXE U (q. catalogue. index. register (AD. dressing (of leather) (UK. bi¨ TDK (pl. ST. 155). ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. bashra¨ 1. 109. and opening a composition (TP. bashr 1. LF. 161.111) 2. baà Ðiq) 1. ratisser des peaux’. paring. buà Q. ba¨n (pl. slip (of paper) 2.

ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. flesh side (of parchment). E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. al-NLW E. inner cover.

102. 22-23. IB. passim. 49. MB. paste-down endpaper. bi¨ QDK (pl. 60. MA. doublure (LC. 117. pasteboard (UK. – inner cover. HD. 112).73-79) 3. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. 159. baà Ðin) 1. lin. IA. UK. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. 23. HT. AG. 47. 89. endpaper. IV. lining (FT. 408) 2. endleaf (ST. doublure (TS.

. 92).  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' .

leather or silk (ST. lining of the insides of book covers with paper.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. index. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. MU. 9. XIV.

) from the reed (IK. III. removal of sha¨mah (q. 87). II. comp. BA. /( . 61. abbrev. used for a transposed word. paring (of the calamus) (KD. MB. 2. ba¶du – after.v. 370). bary. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah.

20). E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. n. tab¶ „ – word division. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. 53. separation (MM. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP.

(pair of) dividers (UK. 44. 58. comp. biUN U WDEN U. 105). 156. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 60. 103. TU. 101. 104. – compass. 153. IB. IA. MB. MP. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. (MB. 59. measuring distances. 103. etc.

DD. MB. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. I. 59). 42. IA. 391). comp. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. 380. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. 103. 153. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. IB.

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

45: EXO JK).  EDO . I. JA. TP. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O .119. 56. damaged (TS. comp. CT.9 SO. 268.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . E OLQ – worn. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

IV. 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. 36). FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). kha¨¨L E KDU. EI. E E SO DEZ E.

0. . abbrev. – chapter.

20). comp. n. bayt SO EX\ W. IV. 53. 609. murattib. 376). WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. mubawwib – compiler (DF. TP.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 97. 33). frame (as part of the border. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. KR. 95. Ãurrah) (TS. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. 82). Bayt al-Maqdis. 110). AG. 32. 31. AG. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. . compartment (in such a box) 3. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. 31-33. 110) 4.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

97. . W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 95. gold dust (AQ. tibr – gold. also TS. 30-31. 110).GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. KR. 82). AG.

 takht SO WXNK W.

127-. 94. 24. 9). AG. sand. HT. wooden pressing board (TS. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. sifr 13. 42. KM. IB. 120). IV. TD. 6. earth.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. index. index. 156.  . 82. WXU E – dust. 9. 107) 3. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. KU. 22.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. lin. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. I.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

6$ II. tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 478-480).

chapter heading (IN. 28) 4. AH. title (of a book) (LC. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . indicating its contents (DB. II. key word (LC. 28. 122) 3. 165).  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. detailed title of a book.

g. paragraph (LC. medallion) .  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. 27) 7. 27) 6. headpiece or tailpiece (LC. disc) or margins (e.g. 27) 8. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e.

‘QaÁ GDW . 1021). 30) 9. 28. 29. IT.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. 29-31. explanation. biographical note. translation (EI. 224) 12. 224) 10. X. translator. interpretation. also mutarjam (e. II. biographer 2. DB. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. X. mutarjim 1. cryptography (AA. 260. exegesis (DB.g.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. biography (EI. 1021) 13. illuminator (TW. 186. tirs. II. turs SO WXU V. 270).

15). 116). oval. illuminated oval medallion. shamsah. IP. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 44) 3. KR. 97. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. IB. writing tamma (lit. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. 69. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. corner-piece (ST. 103. taftar see daftar. 95. execution. 145. comp. 82). WDWP P – completion. turunj(ah) 1. LC. rosette (HD. index. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. 9. 28) 2. PA.

xiii). X. II. used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). talisman (EI. abbrev. 177-178). . [LLL at the end of the colophon. comp. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. WDP Ðim) – amulet. WDP PDK (pl. WDP P – end. comp. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. supplement . &. tatimmah – supplementation. ¨add. finish. continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). . 46). RU CM.

FK.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. no. 100. II. 101.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. copying (MH.

thabat (pl. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’. atKE W.

mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. written testimony (SD. document. I. GA. record of attested study (HB.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. 157) 2. 234. 288: syn. muÑjam.

vocalization (AD. also WDWKE W – attestation. 157). 18) 2. authentication (formula). I. LWKE W 1. usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨.  WDEOH RI contents. WKDE W – signature (SD.

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

CT. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. 45. n. muthabbit. 289). RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP.25. GA. 53.

writer of the audition note (MH. CT. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. 45). 101. I. 330). SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL.

‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. AS. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. WKDT O (lit. AG. III. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. 107). . 147). 11.

al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. . epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ.in Persia. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. JM. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. abbrev. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. I. 51). WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. 1125in Turkey). III. 349). TU. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth.9 . (TN. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. T OLE.

VII. octagon (EI. DO-thumn. 795-. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal.

.13. 361). MI. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). 232-234) . 12. see also mashÐalah.VI. VI. 232-234. I. Taf. MZ. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. . abbrev. no. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. [LY )0 167. SA. 102). I.  RU &. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 361). FRPS NK WLP muthamman.. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points).

GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. decorative medallion or panel. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& . either illuminated or stamped (KI.

JL.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK . 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . 87. 88.  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI.

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

 rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. PDMG O SO PDM G O. 141). repair (SJ. corner-piece (JL. restoration (KR. WDMG G – repair. restoring manuscripts. 43). 99. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. 87). dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. mending. interlace (TF. braid. 83. 100).41. 99). jabr – repairing. nos.

33. talismanic seal (EI. column (of text) (SD. rules. table (LC. 160) 2. 370. – leather strap. KC. . mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. 148. DT. II. 26). TW. no. mujadwal – ruled (LC. table of contents (CM. 175) 5.6/2) 6. diagram. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). thong (KC. I. 32). 56. 50. chart. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. creating rule-borders (WB. 63) 3. 24) 4. magic square. 108). ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. 42).

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

   . FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah... jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ .

DD.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . 183). extract. I. DG. MDU GDK – list. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. II. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. mijrad(ah) – file. abridgement (SD. KF. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . 27). I. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. 107. WDMU G 1. jard al-matn see matn. register. inventory (SD. I. 112. 184. scraper (MB.

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

jirm wasaÃ. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. majran SO PDM ULQ. passim). HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm.

– FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. jazz – trimming.8 154). IA. 62). passim: Œazz. shaving (MB.

KF.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. . n. MU. 103). 132. inset (UI. rough copies 2. VII. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. 19. I.

AI.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. booklet. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). single-quire codex. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. 79. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ.

 VII. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. 90). 128). independent. 711). xii) 4. I. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. 705). mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. tomaison) (SJ. DEEUHY RU (CI. usually not more than a quire (IJ. II. small piece of writing. 128) 6.

(kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. jazm – reed pen. 7-9. 89. 421). 87: qalam jazm. MB. 38). al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. LL. 90). 99. I. 143. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. MP. IK.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

. 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. for other signs representing jazmah see GL. 13). LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). 23). – background (UK. WDMV G – tinting in red (AD.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

.  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ .. )1   .. .

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

1123). WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. G Z Q MDO (SA. IV. III. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. .

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

majlis SO PDM OLV. 47. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. II.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. 416-417). VIII. LC. 26). 123 and IX.

 . – session. sitting.. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. VIII. 1020).  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI.

the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. KU. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). II. jalam SO DMO P. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). julfah – nib (of the calamus. 459-460.

IK. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar.NKLU.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). 230). / / (OS.Oá. -XP Gá al. 89. CM. IR. II. 91-92. CI. – (pair of) scissors (DS. abbrev. -XP Gá al.NKLUDK DO. no. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal.

146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. SA. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . / (OS. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. 89). III.9 . rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. compilation. 34) 3. composition. abbrev. contraction (of letters) (KU. 126.

major original compilation. e. 352).  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ .g.  FN. the QurÐ Q 8. .

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. II. III.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ).

683) 4.  '' . writing case. 380). 37. AG. 32) 2. inkwell 6' . 52. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. case. 25).  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. 217. 52. NH. codex compositus (LC. 233. escritoire (TW. 13) 3. SD. TM. 393) 1. 106. tool box. jumal.  composite volume. 12. DG. case with compartments (TS. mujamma¶ (UA. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). box (NM. I.

145). MDZ E (pl. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. MI. 10). ajwibah) – responsum. IA. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. ST. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. abbrev. 61.v. better known as al-JKXE U (q. knife (TS. II.111). – book cover (ST. xiv. AG. 109. (CI. index.) (AS. 10). MDQ Œ (pl. 11. 110. index. IA. 107: for cutting gold leaf . ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. certificate of transmission. – authorization. 24. III. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . licence. ER. EI. 273-275. 126-130. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. 27. VIII. IJ). LB. 1020-1021.

GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. 181). (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. .9 . LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI.

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license). M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH.

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

SA. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. NH. 133. AT. II. DS. 468. LQNZHOO (HI. 179. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 381: jawn. KU. 154: wa-al-M EDK .

(al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. see also the quotation under miqlamah). also known as waqabah.

 **** Œibr (pl. a¨E U.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

sifr 13.53. UK. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. 13. KM. MP. n. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. MP. IR. 101-110 and MB. IV. 6: wa-al- . Œibr al-raqq. 8. 18-21. MJ. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. -100 and MB.

II. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. AE. SA. MA.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. IV. see LL. 349. IK. AT. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. 134-135. I. 127-131. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . LM. MR. IK.

ma¨ ELU. 2016). miŒbarah (pl. III. FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. embellishment (DB. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. 354).

II. SA.  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . III. 372.  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ ..

SA.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. 443. II. 468-.

 FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). transcription (TE. muŒabbir – author. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. 15. a¨E V. Œubs (pl. 87. inking. 89). SA. I. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. compiler (SS. SK. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. 119). embellished writing (composition) or copying. WR. elegant. inscribing in ink (SM. II. taŒE U 1. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS.

ta¨E V W. taŒE V (pl.

endbanding with silk 2. stitching (of a book) (TM. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding)... 28). sewing. 132) 3. waqf. MB. decorative endband (UK. also Œabkah – endband (headband). 157. 104 ff. TS.. IA. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . Œabk 1. . comp.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. n. bequest note (LC. 109. 154. 18-20. MM. 62.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. AG.

 VSLQH 74 .

19. 19. 109. 109). al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. AG. AG.

 .

19. 28). 19. 11. 109).GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. bookbinder (IB. 246). ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. 19. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. AG. AD. 478). AG. 109). ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. n. I. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

ma¨ MLU. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. ¨ujub) – talisman. Œajar al-misann – whetstone. hone (TS. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. maŒjar (pl. amulet (DT. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). ajar al-¨XP ¨im). (OS. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). 69). abbrev. 10). 60). Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. 89). ŒLM E (pl. miŒjar.

counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. UK. 99.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. AG. 36) 2. 142: 12. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . ST. MP. 38. index. 36). MB. 107.10. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB.

$ . .

H. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A. 2733.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. FN.

I . FRPS .

honing (of a knife) (KD. taŒG G – whetting. II.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. Œadd (pl. 711). ¨XG G.

154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). – limit. ŒDG G DK. used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. end.

31. 59). 109. AG. ¨XG U. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. 138). MP. MB. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. 393. 29. TS. Œadr (pl. 105. (pl. 10. 188). MJ. IA. 59. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF.

58.. 13. with black ink (TE. 50). TE. AQ. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. 701. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. author. muŒarrar (pl. taŒU U 1. 215-227). 214) 8. ÁaÑd. elegant writing. editing (of a manuscript text). outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. TE. 15) 4. ER. index. PA. IV. penman. 10. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. AG. 109. EI. 52. 38. fair copying (TE. ŒDU U – silk (ST. e. 50. 15) 3. 48.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. calligrapher. transcription (TE. editor. redaction (CM. MU. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. SK. 145. 16) 6. 286). compiler (SS. muŒarrir – 1. secretarial style of shikastah script. IV. 1124. AF. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . III. 73) 2. XVII. – descender (down-stroke. terminal of a letter) (AA. 16) 5. 2408. composition (GA. frame. IP. 119) 2.g. 15. revised version (edition). outline. 246) 7. comp. mu¨DUUDU W. IV. 16. ornamental surround. DB. copying. 64.

calligraph (DP. . 53). – piece of calligraphy. Œard al-matn see matn.

a¨U ] ¨XU ].GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl.

IV. amulet (DT. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. 69). – talisman.g. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. e. maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world.

usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. Œarf (pl. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. word 2. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. 230.  . II. taŒU I 1. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). 549). border. Œarf (pl. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . distortion. trimming (HT. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam.g. LM. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. III.' . letter. DS. ¨iraf) – edge. lin.9 . error. 39-42) 2. I. e. II. sharp edge (of a knife. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. cutter). miŒra„ah. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. 463. KK.. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal.80-86). 596-560). LL.

 FRPS TLU Ðah. .

¨DUDN W. falsification (of a text). al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). comp. III. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. MJ. 59. Œarakah (pl. 224). MQ.32 GLOSSARY  08 . 57.

704. 393). al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. MB. KD. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. 8). 112-113. Mecca and Medina. shakl. miŒU N – spatula. taŒU N – vocalization. vowelization (DM). MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. 65. UA. comp. II. – vowel (GL.

v. (OS. abbrev. 89).). al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. Œizb (pl. a¨] E.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

ST. index. 28. Œazm . azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. ST. 11). taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS.. 11.

468). III. computation. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. chronosticon (TP. 54: EI. . ŒLV E – calculation.

see SA. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like .GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. II. abbrev. EI. 269-270. VI. ¨DZ VKLQ. 302).

63) 2. border (on a book cover) (MB. 109) 3. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. MB. MD.112.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. lin. FZ. 63. margin (of a page) 4. 118. scholium. collection of glosses. marginalia. 217-219. IA. IA. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. apostil. often abbreviated as or . 119.

977). DB. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. IV. 145. 89-90). parenthesis. 60. 1820). Œ VKLQ (pl. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. gutter. 412. ¨DZ VKLQ. AG. pl. EI. 71) 2. 110. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. FI. FT. 30. III. interpolation. 222. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 268-269. 63. IX. AS. JM. 73  00 139.54. Œashw(ah) 1. 65.

abbrev. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . 34). muŒashshá – provided with glosses. . 26. nos. trimming (of a reed) (BA. glossed. II. 332). muŒashshin – glossator. Œa¦ramah – paring. CI. 296.74. (MI. taŒshiyah – glossing. xi. III. gloss (AM. 322. AD.

no. taŒ¦ O – copying.89. I. 546). transcription (FK. .

34). polisher (KM. smoothing leather (ST. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. 29. comp. MB. IB. 107. IA.v. 118: mikhaÃà (!). I.31).). 60. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. AG. n. 5. 6. TS. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. burnisher. ÑDU T W. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. sifr 4.

I. Œa„ UDK (pl. 302) 2. headpiece (LC. 34. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . 35. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. RN. KH. frame (SD. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. surround. 24).

preservation. memorization (TP. 51). II. a¨fiÌah). FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. small box (DG. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. Œif„ – learning by heart. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . box (KC. NT. ŒLI „ (pl.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. 55. 44) 2. miŒfa„ah – case.

text editing. MR. FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. 89. critical edition (of a text) (MH. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK .

 muŒaqqiq – corrector. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. editor. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1.

RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶.U T and alZDUU T (FN. 13) 2. III. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . 12.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

TU. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. comp. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. IV. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. 1123.in Turkey). LM. 78. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. 1125.in Persia. EI. IR.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. III.

IA. miŒakk(ah). 137). syn. NH. Œakk – rubbing out.v. 59) 3. miŒakk al-rijl 1. scroll (in design) (UI. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. ¨DODT W. syn. effacement (TP. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). 31).v. I. pumice (MB. 62) 2. ¨alaq. erasure. 141) 2. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. 392. MM.) (DD. Œalqah (pl. 58. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. IA. 112. mibrad (q. 104.) (UK.

III. II. 27). part of a clasp) (BA. AI. 48. scholar’s circle (SL. 372) 2.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. study circle. ma¨ O T. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl.

139). 422. 136. . – tendril (FT. AB.

taŒP G DK.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. embellishment (KT. 416). Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. taŒliyah – decoration. 150-151). Œilyah. 204-209).

Œumrah 1. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. red colour.20. III. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. 24) 2. 95). 53. TB. red ink (LC. EI. n. rubrics (CM. 122-123). – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. rubrication. TP. 38.

169. ME. 15.  ‘pupitre’). ÑUthmanic canon. codex (MA. 56-57. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. taŒQ VK (pl. maŒmil 1. amulet (DT. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. 24. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. LC. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 51). book cradle (TC. 29). ta¨ Q VK. 286. 566. IV. exemplar. 24). sifr 13. TW. IV. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. TP. TP. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. also miŒmal. 55). ŒDP ODK (pl. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . archetype (KM. 86) 3. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. WA. 69).

.) (MP. index. 143) 3. 44). 58.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. 138. (pair of) dividers (IB. compass. rope work. 11) 2. interlace (TF. ST.

II.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. 700).  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O.

miŒwar (pl. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). ma¨ ZLU.

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

as opposed to the border (TF. 138. maΠU DK.  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). 144).

MH. 149-150). 483). – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. I. Œ µil. 104-105). 109. ¨awr (LL. 665). 58: as a means of cancellation. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. Œawqalah. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. TP. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. II. 171. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. 97. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 99. TP.

abbrev. 73 . RQH LVQ G from another.

 .

**** NK QDK – compartment. MI. tooling 2. panel (in decoration) (UI. seal. sealing. khatm 1. 35). ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . stamp. stamping. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. 24. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. tool. 214) 3.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. 31).g. 3. colophon (TM.

khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' . RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS).

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

9 . – 1. complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ . recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2.

. . NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P .

CI. 110. IA. I. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. AG. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). 169. 63). talismanic seal (DT. e. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM.9 1105. OS) 2. 108) 3. 29. 130. DT. 109. . 34. 144).g.

52. 108). FT. 8. conclusion. n.14) 3. explicit. . 5. LNKWLW P 1. tailpiece (HD. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. 396) 4. colophon (UI. epilogue 2.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ . – inner or outer margin (IM.

210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. takh„ ¶ – rounding. also LVWLNKU M (TW. 385). WDNKU M LNKU M 1. backing (of the spine) (HN.

RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK.

explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ . FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce.

187-188.  omission. insertion. la¨aq (TP. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   .0 . 58. comp. ) 4. TM.

pl. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. or a caret. 169) 7. n.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF.) .. KF. ÑaÃfah. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK. insertion 2. transcription (TW. extract from a book.73: in the form of a curved line. copying. 718). omission. I. WDNKU MDK 1. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . reference mark (signe de renvoi).  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. 606) 6. I. quotation (TM.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. 58. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

mukhraj – insertion (MH. mukharraj. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK.

683). mukharrij – compiler. II. 384. excerpting. IV. vox reclamans (MA. TW. copying (DM) 2. . mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. selector (DF. LVWLNKU M 1. mustakhrij. NM. 126130). catchword. 39). 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih.

MP. 12. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). 481. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. 99. 59). 181). punch (SA. DS.40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. 35. OM). book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. II. index. ST.

khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK. 70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94).

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

palmette (KH. 36). khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. comp. Ãurrah.  DQVD roundel. Ã P.

kharm 1. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. 481) 2. khirqah (pl. HT. blank. scrap (of paper) (DM). sewing (of quires) (UK. comp. SA. khiraq) 1. 15. II. 27. 104. lacuna (SJ. MB. 347.166). 114. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. 17. MB. 154. 12. undoing the sewing (ST. IA. polishing cloth (MB. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. 59) 3. 109) 2. 60. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. gap. MP. 459). 157. lin. II. index. MI.

 .

TC. 233: feuillets décousus. PDNKU P. 26. en vrac. KF. munkharim – imperfect.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. II. 26). fragments (HB.NKLU. incomplete (TC.

khazz SO NKX] ]. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). II. kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. IV. 527). sifr 13. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF.

suspension. AG. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. GL. VII. 25-26). 159-160. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. 27. epitome (EI. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. I. 119). 536-540. . AD. siglum. maktabah. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. kharm and ¨azm. TP. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. EA. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. library. 107. 55-56. 23-24) 3. – silk. 46). NKL] QDK. abridgement. comp. comp. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. AG. II. 107). abbreviation (contraction. xiii-xiv. 14-15.

calligraphy. script.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. penmanship (ML. writing. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . stroke. mark. khuà Ã) 1. sign. 34-38) 2. handwriting. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH.

al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. 681). al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text).. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . comp. scriptio defectiva. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). EI. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. CI.g. 887: ER. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. 358). 144). 83. IV. III. 114. 103). 41. LM. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. al-DTO P DO-sittah. I. scriptio plena. comp.. script (text) see also Ñajam.8  51  $6 . al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . AS. yad. copied by (e.

 khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .8  $6 .

80). makh¨ ¨ (pl. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. 380).1. paleography (KJ. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. no. calligraphy (WR. penman. makhà à W. I. 26). comp. khi¨ ¨ah – writing.

manuscript codex. I. 12). LL. calamus (AA. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. UA. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. 760. writing. implement (made of wood. drawing (MB. tracing. tracer (ME. 103. takh¨ ¨ 1. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). 110) 2. MB. . 110. 118. reed pen. 555. 760). index. mikha¨¨ 1. ruling (of lines). IA.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. straightedge (LL. 98. I. 61) 2. 60.

IV. note. sifr 13.g. speech 2.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. khi¨ E (pl.1). Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. letter. honorific (e. address. akhÃibah) 1.

X. IB. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. extract. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. 18. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. MB. TP. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. AG. trimming (TS. NKDI I (lit. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). 156. 14).g. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. 105.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. mukhtaÁar. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. 123). 59. IA. abridgement. n.20). 145). NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. 109). abbrev. 44: ornament). althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. comp. epitome. preface (LC. RIWen unpointed) (GL. 53. 25.

varia lectio (e. 58). ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. XVII. 52. 95. . 273. 46. MU.g. TP. XI. MH. XII. LNKWLO I – variant reading.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. 126.

 SO WDNK P V.

al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 95. LNKWL\ U. – pentastich amplification of a poem. 405. 50. pentameter (SD. AD.). 123-125). PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. EI. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. X. 97). I.v. 401).

al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding).e. 12. AG. index. 19. 43. I. endbanding without silk (TS. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. 12). 107-108). – anthology (EA.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . IR. thick needle (ST. 94-95). mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. i. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. 109). 12. MB. index. IB. index.

 .

G E M SO GDE E M. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA. 250).GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. VI.

– silk brocade (MU. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. XIV.

preface. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY. exordium. G E MDK 1.

259) 2. 65. adorning something with arabesques. headpiece. TW. 127. of fataÐammal(hu) (q.v). /& ) 2. composition (of a text) (DM). PA. 115). reflection. WDGE M 1. GLE JK DK. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. 52. tadabbur – consideration. creating headpieces (AD. frontispiece (MD. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah.

172).3-4. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. – tanning (MB. 140-143. fasc.. MP. suppl. IA. EI. I. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. 114-115. 60). 63.

236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.  IR.

dirj :6 . darj. al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr.

SO GXU M DGU M.

138. parchment or paper (AJ.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. 868: also daraj. 141. I. IK. rotulus (IK. I. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. 138: al- . LL. SA. roll. 68.

46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .$  Q.

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

60). dast(ah) SO GXV W. AG. 107). inset (SD. I. 142) 3. 13. 287). darmak – farina. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. dirafsh – awl. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 432).  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. punch (IA.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

I. GXVW U SO GDV W U. 39. MA. comp. PT. kaff 3. IA. 105. 81. WS. MB. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. 59. IV. SD. 94. 44). wide polisher. 524) 2. 96. AB. burnisher (UK. 156. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). 145. IB. rizmah. 92. 92.

 LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP .  .  KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN..) .

 DXWKRU’s original. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. 23) 3. holograph (LC. I.

book consisting of loose leaves (KF. dasht – loose leaves. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). HB. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. II. . unbound book.

assimilated (KU. pious invocation. TP. etc. AA. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. ‘prayer of request’ (EI.g.+ 35).. II. 54. supplication.  .. adÑiyah) 1. (see e. 150-156).GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . 617-618) 2. daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. formula of benediction. hence mudgham – contracted.

5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). ST. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. 13). also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. index. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. index. 13.Oá (ST. al-daffah al. pasteboard (ST. book cover. 13). index. 104) 3. daftar *U GLSKWHUD.

SO GDI WLU.

192). 14 leaves. 77-81. 481). . bound or unbound codex . volume (IK. see LS) 2. Daftar kutub. pounding (MP. KK. notebook (e. daqq 1. 60) 2. fine writing (TM. I.18) 3. 22-25. register (EI.. 108. 48. QRV  096) 3. SL. II. 40 x 14 cm.. . pen wiper (SA. 321. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). IA. rubbing. taftar (SK. II.g. 29. 63. account book. 4. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). n. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact.

87). I. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. index. 139).48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). KR. MB. 23. 461). NH. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. 107). midlak – polisher. 110. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. OH. 85.163. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. 48-50. AG. waraq damghah see waraq. I. sifr 4. lin. 11. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. KM. 217. HT. GDON WDGO N – polishing. 13. glazing (ST. 118. SD. FJ. burnishing.

' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. I. .KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. ' U DO-. 927). 905-906). oil. ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . mudhun – container for oil (IR. 230: LL. grease. midhan. ' U DO-¶.E GDK – Yazd. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. Tabriz. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. Herat. – fat.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. Isfahan.

93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.  73 .GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1.

circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. disc (UK. WDGZ U 1.g. JA.e. 105. 56. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. (5) 4. medallion. 59) 5. 156. ta¨U I. MB. straight. I. even (as opposed to oblique. 30. e. TS. roundel. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. i. UD. round motif in textual or book cover decoration.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP.

LM. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. 10. LM. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. hence PXVWDG U – round. curvilinear (e. 61) 3.g. 35). RN. 39-40) 2. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). rounding (of the spine) (IA. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. 22. 9.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

sifr 13. 90) 2. SA. II. 323. IV. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. 129. writing down (of ¨DG WK. UHJLVWHU account book. I. collection of poems written by one author (DM). collecting (collection). I. 323). II. EI. office. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. EI. chancellery (KM. WDGZ Q 1.

  73 . . (.

15. transcription (LC. copying. UI. TE. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. 28.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

IURP which it is derived (EI. 1125-6). GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. IV.

 LQNZHOO . . BA. 169-170. escritoire. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. III. -85. KU. 370) 2. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens..

) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. descender (of a letter) (AA.50 GLOSSARY ruler. fasc. 203-204. wiper and sand) (SA. X. memorandum. GDZZ µ. MB. 440-443.132-133. III. tadhkirah 1. dhabr. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. II. 53).v. AT. 137-139). midhbar see mizbar. aide-mémoire (EI. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. II. 54. 65. DG. VII. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. ND. 372) 2. ER. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. 77. suppl. 73).3-4. 713. EI. 53) 2. UK.

53). +%  (. dhanab SO DGKQ E. X.

SA. etc. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. 59). II. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. LC. index. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . 89-91. 477. ¨arf (SA. 151). I. 25. WDGKQ E – appendix. 983: ‘water-gold. LL. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. UK. 226. 13). paint (MU. 21). – tail (foot) of a letter. UD. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. 130-132. dhahab. I. supplement (AD.V.’). III. MB. 24.

GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. TE. 15. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. WDGKK E 1. 222. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. chrysography (LC. AS. 27. IX. gilding. writing with liquid gold. KA. 145).

 SO WDGK K E.

mudhahhib – gilder. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. MU. PA. 141). 132. JLOW REMHFW 6' . 490). 385). TE. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. XV. 27. LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. 15). dhayl SO GKX\ O. chrysographer (AB.

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

23). lower margin. 206). dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. ruÐ V. al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW.

ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. raµs al-NLW E).g. as opposed to the spine (MB. page or book. (qalam) al-riµ V . IA. 136. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. e. i. upper margin (TS. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC.e. SA. 107. character.  KHDG RI D letter. IA. raµs al-¦afŒah. raµs al-waraqah. LC.g. 109). 26) 2. e. 172). frontispiece (LC. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. 61) 3. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . 24. 14. TM. 26). raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. fore-edge of the codex. 62) 4. 108. III. beginning of something. 109. envelope flap (MB. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. 26).

83-84.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d.. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . script akin to a large naskh. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. 13) 2. 100. 144. 12. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. AS. 37. HI. WDUZ V 1. 33.5 -242. 236. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. 146. MO. U EL¨ah – catchword. 100).. JM. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2.202/817-8) (FN. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). 213. 126. 215). 30. RN. 84. AQ. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 65). 35. TU. 226. FZ. vox reclamans (NZ. KH.

UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. 5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. DO-rub¶.

/ / (OS. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). 89. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . abbrev.NKLU (al-PXE UDN. CM. 5DE ¶ al. – the third month in the Muslim calendar.

rabaÑ W. – the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl.

 VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' . .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

21. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +.  6' .  &$ . nos.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. 48. MS. 51.

109). WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . 11. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. lin. stalk (?) (TS. AG.128).

50.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. I. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . composition (MU. arrangement (of the text). 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. AM. no.170) 2.

20). copying (KM. compiler (DF. comp. n. SS. ratm – close.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. sifr 13. IV. 53. mubawwib. 384. 72). 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. compact writing. murattib – author. II.

al-aÁabb. abbrev.  26 . al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm. Rajab (al-murajjab.

1 .   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. VIII. raj¶ (pl. didactic poem (EI. . XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. 376). DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi).

WDUM ¶ 1. retouchage (of a letter). U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. 513: ‘barrage. I. AG. MJ. I. KM. writing in bold characters (TE. source (in a text) (IN. 17) 2. 252). 99. III. muÑallaqah. 28. comp. 109). UXM ¶ – reference. sifr 13. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. IV. polychrome illumination (TE. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). FRPS SD. retouching. 17.

epilogue (AD. .  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. 62).

13.% 81. ST. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . index. index. n. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. 13). index.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. book support (MD. 137. 31: MD. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. 13).185). RI.

abbrev. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. VA. 1038. numrah) (TP. 3185). comp. nos. 2152. 1055. 54. 1035. 584. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. 294. 419. 1062.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 1223. 3099. UXNK P DK.

similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). . OM). TP. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. XXIB). marble slab (MB. 14. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. TS. IA. 11. 10. 59. 103. AG. . raddah – envelope flap (TM. pl. 107. ST. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble.

) (PT. 145. consisting of five quires. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . AB. WS. ream (of paper). 92. rizam) 1. dast (q.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl.v. 39. . AJ.

524: ‘cahier’). dast 2. ULV ODK 1. epistle 2. LUV O DK. I. 532). tract. monograph (EI. treatise. FRmp. VIII. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. letter.

. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH. LM. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK .. – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð.

designing. PA. marking. 561. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. MB. 100. execution. 14) 2. 101. e. 100. index. EI. sketching (ME. copying.VIII. writing. making a mark (ST. epistolography (DM).g. 451-. rasm al-muÁ¨af. drawing. rasm 1. 45) 3. tarassul – art of letter writing.

 SO UXV P.

faÁl. 527) 7. 560. 528). chapter (in a composition) (SD. bi-rasm see mustanad. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. designer. unpointed letter or word ( NO. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. line (traced with a pen) (SD. – stroke. I. painter (ME. I. 15) 6. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. comp. 527). I. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. 527) 5. I. SD.

wood block (AB. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. calamus (BA. 137). rasm) (ST. lin. – woodcut. index. 14). tooling (HT. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. III. 14) 2. 370). decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. index. .129. marking (syn. 164) 3.

mark (TS. ream (of paper) (SD. I.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. rizmah. comp. 18) 2. marshim. marsham SO PDU VKLP. 532).

 VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. tar¦ ¶ 1. 125) 2. 532). hot iron (SD. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. I. illumination. 135). decoration (MS.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

. covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. gilding the inside of the surround (outline). TE. ta¨U U TY. 126). 17) 3. 103.3 145. decoration (with liquid gold).

$) .

tar¦ I 1. 140. 79. writing. III. ra¦f. composition (NS. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. joining letters together (AP. KH. 35) 2. SA.

15.    73 54. 35. SL. II. 125). used for the companions of the Prophet. KH. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. tar„iyah. 89. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. 34. abbrev. MI. AR. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’.

DQW RI \ ELV. FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah.

. statement (LC. 24). 15. – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. 14. 19. istir¶ µ \DK – note. 144). AS. 16.

70) 2. book support. 231. 111-112).11. lin. book cradle (IN. I. raqq. KK. 230. 137). 44. support (for an inkwell) (AA.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. riqq SO UXT T. mirfa¶ 1. ND.133. n.

AE. 105. I. raqshah – pointing. calamus (IR. mirqash – reed pen. al-raqq al-a¨mar. 17. no.67). copying (TE. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. KM. 407-410. diacritical pointing (TE. 230). 53. making something multicoloured (LL. 119. 683. LL. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. 17. n. parchmenter (DG. piece (slip) of leather. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. VIII. embellished writing. VIII.1. I. vox reclamans (NM. sifr 13. 269). paper or other writing surface (MU. 53. parchment leaf (ND. 1135) 3. SK. UDTT JKD] O see jild. AA. 353). I. 108-111. arabesque decoration (KA.. diacritical point (JA. 74-75. AK. WS. 1135) 4.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). EP) 2. KR. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. EI. 105. 93. IK. 407). 60-63. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. -485. I. KJ. IV. IW. UDTT ¦ – catchword. KK. 85). vocalization by means of points. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. elegant.

 OHWWer. brief message. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. note.

IV. 1126). DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. .

ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. raqm 1. passim.in Turkey). 602-603). writing (KM. 1125. 1123. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair.) script (AS. JM. sifr 13. often sewn in). inset (MK. EI. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. LM. patchwork. MN. 86). 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. 78-82. IV. 139. VII. 146. IV.v. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC.in Persia.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. NI. – piece of calligraphy. 41. 54. AW. 266) 4. DP. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. calligraph (AC.

.  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ. .

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. no. LL. fasc. 30). – abbreviation. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. GA. III. IK. 387-388. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. 82. calamus (TE. 230. copyist (AC. 45. SK. IR. sifr 13. AW. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. UDT P – inkwell (KM. siglum (CL. 244. GA. 154). 141. 106). 183). 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. 372. 183. 17. raqn – compact writing (KM. 468-9: AN. IV. 160). 17. no. 1140). 147. mirqam – reed pen. III. 5. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. BA. AM. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. I. sifr 13. KJ. 383. arqam. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. TE.3. 2. IV. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI.76).

 .

5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. writing) (KM. sifr 13. IV.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. embellishing ( a text.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

lin. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . 389. ligatured. linking (joining) one letter with another. 50. 14. AG. SA. WDUN E 1. e. markaz SO PDU NL]. ¨ibr 2. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. ¨ibr. UA. 78) 3. 681) 2. I. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 58. boarding (TS. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. IV. on the line) (MY. 45). composition of letters and words on the line (ER. murakkab 1. MP. 83). comp. hybrid (of a script) (LM. III.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). 109. 60ff). index. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). HT. comp. ST.g. (Turk.g. 24-27.73. ligature (e. 393).

393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. UXN ¶ . – support (for reed pens) (UA.

 DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. rukn SO DUN Q. juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. 406). 36. EI. VIII.

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

5 . .

31. II.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. corner piece itself (ST. 30. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. AG. index. 703). . 69). 14. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). 107) 3. IB. rakwah (pl.

restoration (DM). WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada).60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. murammim – restorer. ramz SO UXP ].0 .

III. VIII. WB. 428) 2.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. chronogram. 159) 3. 427) 4. code. TW. secret alphabet (EI. chronosticon (EI. 55. VIII. 468. cypher.

.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. V. 209. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC.

 26 . Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

I. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. I. II. WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. 393). UA. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦).  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. . 478- $7  6' . al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW.  '' . 127136). 86. TD.

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

DM). 393. UXZ K. syn. mik¨ O '' . UA. 1186. I. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. LL. – little stick for the application of kohl.

– transmitter. 417418 and 500-501) 3. varia lectio (MR. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. EI.) (TP. tradition (traditio).v. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. recension (recensio) (LC. XII. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. 53). transmission. 545-547) 2. 94). 109-111). version (versio). also known as sanad (q. 53. link in the chain of transmission (TP. ULZ \DK 1. II. KF. VIII. 26. variant reading.

IV. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. MP. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. 144. 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). 1125. 43: wa-T OD . (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . 38.in Turkey). VIII. 146. 1123.in Persia. JM.v. 73-77. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI.) script (AS. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). MB. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. 545-547).EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. LM.

v. IV.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. transcription (TE. CI. ¨ibr. q. I. 18. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. copying. inscription on stone (KM. sifr 13. also dhabr – writing.). ]DEU WD]E U 1.

444. 80. copyist (TE. KK. IK. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. zab U (pl. 18. ND. 92). work (SA. II. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. 80. ND. zubur) – composition.

53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. IR. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. zakhrafah 1. II. TE. 230). copying (KK. 444-465. 18) 2. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. calamus (TE. polychrome illumination (TE. copying (KK. IK.18. 85. 53. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. TE. SA. elegant. embellished writing. elegant. embellished writing. 18).

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. muzakhrif – illuminator. 87).  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. decorator (WR. 80).

25. AG. . KT. 135). 110. comp. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. 34. Ñurwah.

25. index. zalf (MN. 35. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. 19: in 12). zulayjah (]DO MDK. ER. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . IV. MN. decoration in gold and colours (LL. 682. V./Turk. ST. zulf (Pers. AG.. 1222). ]XO \MDK.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. see DC. 360) 1. ‘curl’). I. 109). ‘hair lock’. lit. ]LP P DK. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). fastener (TS. 69.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). 689).

(al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. 383-385. 127. (pl. azimmah) 1. list. account book. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. GA. 181). register (IK. catalogue (SD.9. I. NA. 95) 2. 601). 222: al-WDUP N . pt. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC.

II. vermillion ink (SA. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. KF. comp. 320). 101. zinjafr – cinnabar. II. 315. 478). KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. 145. MB. .

box (DG. zawj SO D]Z M. no.1. 91). 44. floriated (KJ. hence muzahhar. WD]K U – floral decoration.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. KR. 38. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq).

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

376). 283. EI. TK. 107) 2. X. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. X. 107). 409). GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. VII. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. WD]Z U 1. 90-100).120b. AD. f. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. 408-409. 391). ER. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. forgery. 73). copying (TE. GA. 18) 2. embellished writing. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. muzawwir – forger (EI. falsification (UI. 6. 825 and VIII. 73. AG. conjugate leaf (AG. X. I.

 HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ . ..

lin. 12). n. 11) 3. miniature painting (WA. MS. 105). . ]LZ TDK – art of illumination.  decoration. miniature painter (ME. WA. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. ]DZZ T – illuminator. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. multi-colour illumination (HT.102. 560.4. writing. 560) 4. 4).

superfluous. square (an implement) (MB. MH. 184) 2. 98) 3. abbrev. 9). addition (CM. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. 111. index. 136). 73). angle 2. 62). ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. index. MI. 59. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. 9). 127) 2. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . ]L\ GDK 1. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. 60. IA. dittography (TM.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. post-scriptum (AD. interpolation. corner. interpolation. addition (TP. 52.

 FRPS TDUU Á. elegant. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . embellished writing (SK.

 HPEHOOLVKPHQW GHFRUDWLRQ '0.

comp. . jaw E (CI. asÐilah) 1. suµ O (pl. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. preamble to a fatwá. II. abbrev. quodlibet. 128) 2. xiv. MI.

696. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. 3214) 2.20. 1853. nos. VA. used after the word All K 73 . n. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. 53. 461.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1.

185). n. 81. IB. piece (of poetry. siŒ µah – piece. 11-12). VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. index. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. 13.) (SD. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. lapsus calami (DM). 637). al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). etc. parchment) (IB. I.

transcription (TE. . WDVG G – copying. 83). plug (in the inkwell) (IK. VLG G (pl. 17). asiddah) – stopper.

KM. reading. 56. 1347). punching (SK. I. punch (SK. sifr 4. 1347). LL. n.) 1. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. 40. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). prelector (TP. recital. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. 122) 2. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. awling. Áurrah. hence V ULG – reader. 39. I.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. misrad – awl. I. 115.52). sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. comp. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. 122.

KR. 127. . AF. MD. 97. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC.  frontispiece. 27. horizontal stroke (UD. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. munsa¨iŒ – flat.. also known as lawzah (JL. 36). 82). 95. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ ..

sa¨r (pl. asà U VXà U. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asÃur.

– line (KD. 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). . II. line of writing.

ruling (of folios).68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. lineation. IA. 12. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. V ¨ir. lin. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. 113) 6.. tas¨ U 1. SDVVLP 6$ . 59). 48) 5. MB. TS. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. 87). geometrical design (polygonal interlace). 18. TM. 73. 28) 5. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. IB. 104. 91. number of lines per page (LC. 104-105). 155. IN.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. redaction. 103. copying (TE. 13. 17. 155. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. writing. 174) 3. LC. stencil (AF. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK.%  Q LC. ruling board (ST. 15. 78. IA. 25) 3. KA. composition (AD. 28. 86. lining.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. 59). mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". designing (UK. 134) 4. WS. MB. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. ruler. IA. 155. WR. 104- 7. 50. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. index. 28. I. 247) 4. number of lines per page (TK. 59). al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. ff. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. 155. creating a line (of writing) (SA. III. straightedge (UK. WA. folder (UK. 105. 104. 155). 155). musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. pasteboard (HT. ruling. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 17). TA. (grid of) guidelines. 77). TS. 43). MB. lineation (LC.

.5  // . . 1364. DM: snuff box).

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

 SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. MS. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. codex. book. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild.

& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.  FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .

 V ILU (pl.9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU.0 . safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .

index .g. ST. WDVI U 1. bookbinding (e.

 SO WDV I U.

asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. – book cover (MB. 109) 2. TF. oblong format (of a book) (MD. 158. 660. EI. tail (of the page). 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh).115. 31. 97. 742) 2. index. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). IV. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. I. VDI QDK 1. 15. AG. 78). spine (of a book) (UK. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). 110). safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. passim). AG. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. lin. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. . AD. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 150). MB. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. end of a letter or book 2. HT. 11. VIII. lower margin.

KR. 238) 1. saqa¨ (MU. MH. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 95. 88). haplography (TP. 87) 2. XII. see above) (JL. also LVT ¨ – omission.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. 97). ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. 95. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 97. 58.

mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. 118. 137). IA. circle-like tool (HT. 133. WS. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. comp. IR. 482. 230). VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. jazmah 2. 60). lin. 107. comp. ÑLO M PLVT K. 148. II.133. 80). AT. VXN Q 1.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB.

103-104. KD. SA. II. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. LM. SK. VI.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 465-466. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. 115- . 248).$  8. 31-33). pen knife (IK. silsilah SO VDO VLO. 711. 90-91. – knife. AA. II.

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

 VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. 611). stemma codicum (AL. I. 27). (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . IX. silsilat al-nasab – stemma.

107). JM.GLOSSARY 71 146. 5863. VDO P. KK. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. 1124). EI. AG. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. 15. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. IV.

PLVP U (pl. MI. 54. 2211. CI. mas P U. I. xiii.1830. 128). DEEUHY / / / / (TP. no. VA.

III.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. – nail. 372. peg (part of a clasp) (BA. TM.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

27. 69. 53. 485493). (CW. 1019-1020).. VIII.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. EI. TP. KF. 267. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. II. abbrev.. . also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶.. n.25. MU. X. 278. 53. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . certificate). TP. auditor.g. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. XVII. MU. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. LC.

I. 45) 2. certificate (JA. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. audition note. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ .

 musammi¶. musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK.

45). PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. certifier (CT. FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. audition leader (master). authoritative commentator.

– ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ. PDTU Ð. comp. ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ.

1. 179-181) 2. proper name (EI. . title of a book (ism al-NLW E). IV.

the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨.) (MH. tasmiyah 1. TP. n.v.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. 100). ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. 53. sinn SO DVQ Q. title (of a work) (LC. 28. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC.20) 3. 28) 2.

shaqq ) (UK. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q.

. 6$ . ..  .9  LQV – left side.  (. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // . .

IA. 153. hone (UK. 60: misann akh ar. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. MB. misann ÃXOD\O ". 103.

 . AG. 107. NH..  $7 133. 10. TS.5  6$ . 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ .

). misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. 395). q. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).v. sanad SO DVQ G. musannanah – chevron (FT.

56). DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. 53.

   (. 6/ . 9... .

EI. FRPS muÁannaf. 365. 2. 704-705). 47). VII. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. I. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. TW. 5. 692). FN. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . RN. IV. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. 8. 14. sifr 13.

264-265. VI.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). 232). in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. CM. OS. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. 88. II.

D. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A.). 252). and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA. VI. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. comp.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end.

388). black ink (LC. I. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. AI. 384. 320. VDZ G 1. SK. 27. – Muslim era (DD.

9 .  DOVR musawwadah – draft. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . MU. 27. MU. XIII. rough copy (LC. XV. 161. VI. MU. 126.

preparation of a draft (TE. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . FRPS PXED\\D ah. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. musawwid – copyist. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. marring (of a text). 50A) 3. nos. 237). 98) 4. vox reclamans (NZ. making it difficult to read (MH. calligrapher (AW.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. copying (TE. copying by an apprentice (TE. 18. 97. 18) 2. 18). AM. 45. WDVZ G 1.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

. – woodworm.

trimming the textblock (TS. comp. (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. II. II. 17-18). 463. KD. SA. 28). KK. 50. 702). ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. 105. musawwas – worm-eaten. damage caused by worms (LC.

used in Ottoman Egypt. 1125.in Persia. 178-180. 24-24). DR. 183). NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI.in Turkey. RA. sayr SO VX\ U. A variety of this script. IV. 1124. was known as qirmah (GA.

$ .  VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .

index. 114. 16. HT.96). MB.  endband (headband) strip (ST. sayf SO VX\ I. lin.

cutter (UK. – trimming sword. 154. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. MB. 104. IA. 103.

407. 115. (pl. 33. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. lin.88-106. WDVKE N 1. DH. nos. **** VKDE NDK 1. endband (headband) (HT. 19. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. 73). 20) 2. WDVK E N.

passim). – interlace (TF. .

PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. 406). Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV.GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ.

  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ . jilfah.  VKDE WXK ¨adduh).' . shajjah SO VKLM M.... . comp.

EI. I. shaddah. stemma (AL. mishŒadh – whetstone.73) 2. 14. creating a genealogical tree. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). 9. shaŒdh – whetting. 711). – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . tree-like way. shaŒm(ah) – pith. stemma (SL. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. also mushajjar – foliated design. 86. composing a text in a schematic. 390). WDVKG G DK. 967) 3. LM. shajarah – genealogical tree. VII. no. arabesque decoration (WR. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. I. II. UD. 27). honing (of a knife) (KD. WDVKM U 1. hone (DD. I. 87. white interior substance of the reed (IK. DH.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). 35-35).

doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. 14). shidq SO DVKG T. – doubling (of a consonant).

book cover. 27.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). case binding (TS. .

109).76 GLOSSARY AG. fakk 2. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. sharaj SO DVKU M. comp. 369).

sharŒ (pl. 372).v.) (BA. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W. III. – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

II. 109) 3. 397-320. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. CI. al-VKDU I DK.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. MD. VLU V and V U V (DM). DD. 174-175). MM. frame (on a book cover) (FJ.. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . abbrev. [Lv). 27. comment-text book. shar¨(ah) (pl. IX. decorative band (UI. OM). 158. 139. abbrev. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). I. shars – pasting. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. cutter (IA. shuraÃ) – line. IA. 100. EI. comprising the text commented upon (matn). 60. 27) 2.0 . fillet (in decoration) (FT. 217. 392: for opening sealed documents. 60. (LC. 385. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. &. rules. I. stroke (DM). 5051). long commentary. rule-border (LC. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. IB. ashriÃah) 1. also VKLU V. 29) 4. EA. xiv. MB. paste (MB. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. NH. FZ. . 106-107. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). MI. mishra¨(ah) – knife. 401).

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

250). used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. TW.).v.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. VI. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. nuskhah and the like. 365. 322). as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. ligatured Maghrebi script. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . 47.

)'  .

 arb. comp. I. cancellation (LC. polisher (NH. sha„ \DK (pl. duster. 251). shaÌ \ . burnisher. eraser (TS. 390). shaqq. mish¨ab – 1. AG. FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. 11. whisk (?). 756). I. 28: IN. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. 113) 2.

III. serif-like stroke (LM. 88.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. also tash„ \DK – line. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. 35. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . 13) 2. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. à Ð \ Ð. KH. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . AA.

al-mukarram. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I.

abbrev.  26 . – the eighth month of the Muslim calendar.

 .

shi¶r (pl. ashÑ U.78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam.

II. – poetry. nos. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. no. 12. 81. I.g. CI. 116). CI. 82. versification. scribal verse (see e.

9. shaqq SO VKXT T. UK. shafrah 1. IA. LM. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. outline (KF. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. pt. 91-93. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. 45. IP. VI. AG. SA. WDVKI U – trimming. cutting edge (SK. bookbinder’s sword. 144. 16. shaving (HT. AF. 224).+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. MB. AI. 103.104.83. 59. 145. illumination in gold. 50) 3. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. II. lin. parer. 11. 153. paring knife. III. JM. 58). 161) 2. 112. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). al-musha¶¶ar. tash¶ U 1. 127. 104.159). 59) 3. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. 250). III. trimmer (HT. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. outlining. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . 161). MJ. 109). scraper (ST. NA. lin. index.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

IM. 59. MH. . 171) 3. 460-462).  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. slit (of the nib). 97. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. SA. II.

IV.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. ER. 699-702). 1124. 694). WDVKN ] – 1.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. awl. IV. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. ER. 43.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). IV. sewing endbands (headbands). IV. 62) 2. 393). punch (UA. 1124.1. preliminary endbanding (IA. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. . no. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers.

orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. III. vowelized (for various practices see SA. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. SA. 160-167. GL. III.g. IM. comp. diagram. vowelization.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. hence mushakkal – vocalized. vowel marks. III. 81). 12) 2. 36). 150). shaqq. KH. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. 125. 59.

+  8'   . .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

27. AF. passim. MB. 110.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. 118. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. 51). IA. 135). sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. 116). 63). rosette (LC. PA.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e.g.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

IX. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP.20. EI. document (DM). 201 and X. – copy of a letter. 53. 340-. n.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . 90). Mashhad (al-)´usayn. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf.

al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. – . shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU.DUEDO Ð). al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.HUEHOD .

1612). usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U.v. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. – new moon. month (LL. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. II.). shuhrah.

 . .. EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &.

 .

al-PXE UDN.GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram.

– the tenth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

pt. 117. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. fahrasah. i¦E ¶ (pl. fihrist.) – endband (headband) (LA. comp. 19-20. RN. mashyakhah (pl. VI. 725). For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. PA. . 250). VI.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD.v. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. VK U ]DK (Pers. 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. KH.5. 8. 118).).

¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. writing word in the text (GA. 29-32. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). MP. 473. VIII. correction. 136. MB. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. attestation (of correctness in transcription). (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. 267-268). 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. 63. 45). 73  . NH. 120-129. abbrev. NW. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. (KG. QS. 671-672. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. abbrev. MH. ¦LE JK – pigment. thus (JA. CT. IA. sic. mara  and saqam). 35.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. AR. II. LE. emendation 2. dye. I. tint (UK. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). ¦aŒ Œ – correct. 114-118. tinting. 285.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

25). signing (a document) 4. n. editor. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. aÁ¨ E. ¦ Œib (pl. preparation of a critical edition. 53. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. comp.

0. isti¦Œ E – ownership. owner (OS). abbrev.  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). . possession (OS).

 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. leaf (TC. folio (folium). often leather. Áu¨uf... sheet of writing material. papyrus or parchment roll (SL.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. II. IK. IV. 9. sifr 13. papyrus or paper (KD. . 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). maÁ ¨if) 1. 24). mi¦Œaf (pl. 22) 3. III. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. 22. small pamphlet. ma¦Œaf. notebook (SL. mu¦Œaf. page (DM) 4. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. I.. BA. -835) 2.  parchment. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. I.

copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. volumes) (EI. 107. 107. 16). n. 17. sometimes two. AG. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. 25. KF. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . parchment textblock (TS. II. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. 17. 25.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. 146. AG. 16). but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. VII. AG.4). al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. 107) 3. MS. 316. 17. MS. 668-669. 54-57).GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. JM.

distortion. error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e.g. ta¦Œ I 1.  .  .

04  6$ ..  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.

syn. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). ta¨U I TY.

 . bookbinding (LA. -348) 3. (. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. pt.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I.5.

II. ¦aŒŒ I 1. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. 13. 269-270). HD. 9. 11. ÁXG U. II. ¦adr (pl. 118) 2. bookseller (QS. IB.

preamble. also ta¦G U – incipit. ¦DG UDK 1. preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

464. fore-edge (TS. 156. MJ. MB. IA. 107) 6. AG. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . 44. 105. wajh (SA. 15) 5. II. 218). ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). fore-edge flap (TS. 16. IB. 27) 4.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 59). as opposed to inner side.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

surrah. 83. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. ¦urrah – center-medallion. 110). JL. MD. ÁuÑ G. ¦a¶d (pl. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). 99. comp. 109. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. mandorla (FZ.

34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. TU. 50. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA.

703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. siglum) (TP. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. 27). 30. ¦DI Œah (pl. study (KF. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. 107). 371. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. 58). II. ta¦affuŒ – examination. KD. 227. 192). ta¦I Œ – catchword. vox reclamans (TT. verso of the first folio (LC. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. 11. II. AG. FN.

al-Ìafar. al-muÌaffar. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). al-PXE UDN. iafar (al-khayr.

aÁI U. – the second ¦ifr (pl.

– cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. TP. 89). .171. month of the Muslim calendar. (OS. 59). abbrev.

maÁ ILQ.GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl.

burnishing (MB. ¦aql – polishing. 134). KA. – filter. maÁ TLO. 393: for ink). ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. passim. sieve (UA. strainer.

142. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. I. IB. 149. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper).  DS. aÁO E. IA. 44.. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 156. ¦ulb (pl. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. aÁlub. – polisher. 149. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. 99. MB. 105. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . DD.

also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. II. 59). 119). no. ta¦O E 1. 27). 27) 2. . matn. II. 62) 3. bookbinding (IA. 166. MB. correction (FK. main.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. 62). 1712. making pasteboards (MB. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. comp. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. 111. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. text-column (LL. LC.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . original text (LC. i¦O Œ 1. IA.

 UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .&   7: .

II. 55-56. no. suspension. CI. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. siglum) (TP. i¦¨LO Œ. MM. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. 191.

 .

 -359). . [LLL (. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. abbrev. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P.      73  Q 73  &.86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. . wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK.

¦LP P – plug. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. ta¦P P – design.v.). sketching (MO. ÁDQ G T. 83).

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

ta¦Q I (pl. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. Ñamal. taÁ Q I. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦un¶. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ).

work (MU. III. – composition. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I.

705). often the author of the original text PDWQ. 39. compiler. VII. as opposed to musnad (q.v. II. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation.) (SL. 662663. work. mu¦annif – author. EI. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation.

IX. abbrev. art. I. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). E\ $E +LO O. duction by artisans. (CI. xi). craft (EI. 625-626).

 .

Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. 268) 4. 121. **** LI Ì.212). apograph (TP. correctness. painted illustration (EI. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. 559). ¦ UDK (pl. comp. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. comp. IX. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting.141: ‘portraitiste’). 361-363) 2. MU. copy. Áuwar) 1. ta¦Z E (pl. 143. 56) 3. XV. box (NT. miniature painting (MU. no.  LE E. XVI. ¦L\ QDK – conservation.2. EI. ta¦Z U 1. aÁwinah) – case.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. transcript (e. pt. 225. ¦LZ Q (pl. „abbah (pl. 136. illustrator (PA. microfilming. 361. I. mu¦awwir – painter. TP. 889892 and X. exact copy. taÁZ E t) – correction. example (JA. taÁ¨ ¨. 57). preservation (DM). X. ME.g. DH. ¨ ¦awn.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

57. DEEUHY 73  AR. sic. MH. MH. 30) 2. a  E U. 57. marking the word with a  abbah (TP.64. also known as WDPU „. 95-96). n. thus (TP. i„barah (pl. ta„E E. 95-96).

bundle of documents (IK. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. a number of leaves or sheets put together. „LE UDK 1. IV. quire . a„barah. sifr 13.. KM.

„ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. n.120a-b).. 5) 3. II.16. 19.) . 107) 3. 107.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). binding (IB. collation (of quires) (TS. 388). f. 97) 2. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . specialist in  abÃ.  XU E.) .  DZ ELÃ) – compass. „ EL¨ 1. 18. 44. 16. ta„E U 1. AG. (pair of) dividers (TS.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. TK. album (FT. 12. IB.177). AG. 17. orthographer (MH. ST. textblock (TS. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. 29. 112) 4. index.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . 11) 2. 18. 26. (pl. AG. 13.

mi„rabah 1. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. stalk?) (TS. 62). mallet (LF. „irs (pl. 11. KF. AG. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. 109) 2. small tool (resembling a drum stick. a U V  XU V. erasure (MF. II. 59). – cancellation.

109) 2. „i¶f (pl. 109-110). 12. a Ñ I. interlace (TS. also TS. AG. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. AG. 32-33.

ta  Ñ I. ta„¶ I (pl.

XVII.  /& . MU. interline (LL. 1792.. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . – space between lines. II.

 .

12. ma„I U – plaited. 44. plait. braid (FT. 30. ‘eye’ (of a letter). 45).  DI Ðir) 1. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. a Z Ð) – counter. „DI UDK (pl. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. e. „awµ (pl. AG. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. passim).g.406). 217). 33. (SA. III. AG. 11. 110). al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. 107). polygon. interlace (TF. Á G à Р. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. 32. 44). „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. interlaced (FZ.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. 413) 2. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN.

76   $* .

comp. stamp (IK. seal. lin. 96).134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). signet.medallion) (HT. ¨ EL¶. ÃDZ ELÑ ). ¨ ED¶ (pl.  ODUJH stamp (for a center. mi¨ba¶ 1. .

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

roll (AJ. WS. . 144.  PRXOG VKHHW of paper.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). comp. qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

5 . element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. 154. DB. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . 2019) 4. 979) 5. 83. III. sarwah) (JL. center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. (KU. tirs.

ÃDEDT W ÃLE T. ¨abaqah (pl.

¨urrah (pl. 73  Q $. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). audition note (EI. marginalia. 102). AG. 372). AG. TK. leaves (of paper) (NH. abbrev. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. 1020. I. Ãurar) 1.7. 107. 109) 2. turn-in (TS. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. 21. 113. IA.120a) 4. margin (LC. marginal note. gloss. AD. 60). 110) 3. Taf. border (on a book cover) (TS. f. MZ. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. . edge. VIII. ¨LE T – large sheets. 28.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

margin (TP. VI. address (ÑXQZ Q. SA. ML. 58. 29) 6. SD. II. 313. 46.

comp. HT. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. mu¨arrar – glossed.120a). IV. n.85). annotation (WA. 28) 13. TP. 16). f. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER.120a. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. f. KH. illuminated headpiece (LC. 28) 10. 58. 28) 9.67). Ãughrá 7. ta¨U U – glossing. 28) 11. annotated (WA. 28. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. . tailpiece (LC. 689). 28) 8. 36) 12. lin. 57. 682. X. palmette (LC. 16). ansa. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC.

118. MB. 118. 61. ¨DUU Œ 1. ÃXU ¨). 133). 69. Ãar¨’) 2. manuscript restorer. HD. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. draftsman (AB. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. ¨irs (pl. 101.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. celui qui fait le tracé initial. 159: ‘dessin. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. ÃXU V DÃU V. PA. 103). sketcher. ta¨U Œ – sketch. PA. outline (HD. composition’). 132. 141: ‘dessinateur.

1840). 408. IK. VIII. 63-64. EI. 93. comp.  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. 75-76. IW. LL. II. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU .

sifr 13. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . III. ta¨U V – obliteration.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. 8. ¨araf (pl. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. aÃU I. HJ µ. 371). effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 140. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). IV. LF. BA.

TH. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. 57. 87). 107. AG. 38. 11. AG. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. . 60). 11. AG. 30. 31. mi¨raqah – mallet. IA. 15. 109). 107). – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. hammer (TS. 166.

7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). 595-598) 3. erasure (KM.) 2. ¨XJKU µ (pl.v. 28) 4. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. X. AG. 109). signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. FT. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. X. 406). 28). decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. 11. (MU. IV. inlay work (AB. sifr 13. ta¨¶ P – inlay. à ¨ughrá. headpiece (LC. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. 134.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration.

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

¨alŒ \DK (pl. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. UK. 92. ¨alaŒ – sheet. 145. AJ. 83). ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. ÃDO ¨ \. leaf (of paper) (TS. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 147. 483). 52). SD. I. II. WS. 27. ¨alŒ.

87: al-darj. – sheet (of paper from the mould). roll (WS. . 52). SD. II. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM).

¨ilsam. comp.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . Ãirs. II. ¨alsah. LL. syn. NH. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. IV. ÃDO VLP. sifr 13. 373: ¨als. 63. NH. ta¨O V – obliteration. 82. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. thus differing from Ãirs’). 1866: ‘written paper or the like. 373: ¨ulsah). ¨ils – palimpsest (KM.) (pl.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih).0 . ¨ilsim. erasure (ND. ¨ilsim (etc.

al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. headpiece (TW. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa.v. beginning of the text. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). naÌDUD ZDTDID. – talisman. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. 11. 500-502). incipit (WA. X. 258). iÁE Ñ (q. ascender (of a letter). tion of words (EI. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. WB.) (KH. ¨ OL¶ (pl. 56).

/&  26 .

III. 29: ‘common. . RN. 144. naÌar. MJ. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. 59. III. popular class of scripts’). al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. SA. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. FRPS WDTU Ì. 224). 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ .

DG. coating. gilt and the like (MB. ‘eyes’. 136). obliteration. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. passim) 2. II. 58. daubing. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. 278. 110). of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. II.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. erasure (JA. KD. I. pasting (MB. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. gilding (SD. ¨ams 1.

242. 144).. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. 6$ .. KH. IR. AS. -47. 36.

a¨Q E (sg. 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter).

mu¨awwal – original. AG. IA. ¨DZ O – long. xviii). 157. . 120b) 2. musta¨ O 1. 26). abbrev. MB. 62. 35. 110). cartouche (LC. IA. rectangular panel (AB. f. 26) 2. strand (UK. ¨ TDK 1. AG. 31. 111. Áilah. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 32. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). layer) of paper (TS. MB. comp. TK. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. 61). 17. 107. rule-border (LC. I. unabridged work. 109. sheet (piece. rules. 135) 3. / / / (CI.

.GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U.%  $-  .

8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. sifr 13. KM. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. IV.

mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). 49-57). the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. 11. (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. III. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. 12). It was written with a reed pen. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. ÃDZ P U. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

120a). – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK. . abbrev. f. person.  0.

musta¨ E DK. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. 212).g. MJ. misk) (e. 206.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

CM. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. II. 18). RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e.g. 3. CI.

AH. WKDU KX – requiescat. inset (EM. 182). 98. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. ÌXU I. **** „arf (pl.

 UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ . ..

LL.  FDVH ER[ /& 29. II. ME. . 575). 1910.

„ufr (pl.). al-„afar.v. 495). aÌI U.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. II.

‘shading’) – outlining. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. outline (KJ. no. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). usually the thumbnail) (TM. 29). ta„O O (lit. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC.3.

 „ann (pl. ÌXQ Q.

title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q.64. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). CI. xv. 59) 2. GA. placed in the margin. front of the textblock (LC. comp. back of a document. 57. 29). I. blank reverse of a letter (LC. abbrev. verso. „ahr – back. 29. baÃn. – conjecture. „DKU \DK 1. n. 285). II. SL. 29). hair side (of parchment). „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. (TP.

553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. first page(s) of the textblock (KF. ‘external. evident’.Oá). AG.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . 109). gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. I. . 88.  IO\-leaf (SD. „ KLU (lit. II. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture. ‘alleged. comp. obvious. ME. 8 and II. 11. abbrev.

 .

aÑM ]. AJ. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. ¶ajuz (pl. WS. ¶ajz.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. 80-82). MP. 147. 40. 148-149.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

V. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-.14). TP. 52. 21-22.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. n.P P DO-0DKG .

 . sifr 13. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. IV.. . vocalization (KM. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. III. treatise. 26). diacritical point 3. DEEUHY MI.  (. RA.. 146.

pointed letters (TP. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. 90. . SA. 57). diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. ¶ajm. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. i¶M P WD¶M P 1.

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

taÑ U M. (pl.

– curve. ÑXU VK. curvature (of the descender) (SA. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. ¶arsh (pl.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). III. 30).

230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U. al-sa¨r – base line (TW.

¶LU „(ah). FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. 25. TP. mu¶ UL„ – collator. 218. 45). 56. 423) 2. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. III.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. LC. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). 29). 136). 202). reciter (CT. abbrev. KU. ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . lattice-work (AB. trellis (FT.9. SA. ¶ar„(ah). JA. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. taÑ U T. 464. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. SA. I. MH. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . II.  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a.. 45)..

37. III. KH. 36. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 11. 40. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. SA. 22. 50. KU.

(al-kha¨¨) al-¶. ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB.U T see mu¨aqqaq. . 11). FRPS PXÑaqqaf.

25.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q.. Ñuran) – thong. KT. 110. AG. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ ..GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. 34.

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

I. ¶ashr (pl. DEEUHY / (CI. aÑVK U. xiii).

 ¶ VKLUDK (pl. ÑDZ VKLU.

 ¶ VKLU \DK – mark. decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .  8. .7  // ..  6' ..

ta¶VK U 1. dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM).

109) 2. ¶ushar 1. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. 109). 109). stamp with vegetal design (TS. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . AG.7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). AG. 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 11. 108. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. 116: gha  UDK . ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB.

also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 154-155. mi¶¦arah (pl. IB. SD. II. 42). 154). maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. 84). 155. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. . mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 154. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. IK. 134).

signe de renvoi).130) 2. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. caret (MR. lin. curved line (used as a reference mark.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1.

35. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. 147. introd.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. connection. abbrev. 145. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. / / / (AR.). AM. 37) 4. 36. MI.

00 132. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. 54). TM. MR. 93. 176. TP.

83. index. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. 17. ¶af¦ – galls. II. 16. ¶LI ¦ – plug. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ST. LL. margin (ST. 19). ¨ibr) (MP. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . 2091).

aÑT E. ta¶T EDK 1. 344). vox reclamans (TN.+  10  SJ. ¶aqib (pl. comment (LC. note. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . catchword. ¶aqb. 27) 2.

– end of the text (matn) on a page. 36) 2. 58. lower ¶uqdah (pl. Ñuqad) 1. knot-like tool (TS. KH. 109). counter. AG. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. . III. 47. 46. 11. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA.

maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. 37). 126). la¶allahu (lit. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. comp. ‘perhaps.GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. taÑU T ¶allahu.

 WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0. .

90. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB.Q DO-ÑLO M. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO. WS.

119) 3. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. transcript (AD. copying (TE. 15) 2. ligature (KU. 124). 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ .9 . writing. script. transcription. composition. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. copy.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

 . .) .

taÑ O T WDÑO T W. abbrev. 107) (pl.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.  (MI.

LC. 26). 1124. scholium.v. name often given. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. II. ER. MU. 162). (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. 15. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. IV. EI. IV. IX. 71. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. – marginal gloss. 165) 6. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. in the Turkish/Arabic context. 694-696) 2. X. 27. comment. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI.). explication (TE.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

28.. 26. 104). AG.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. .. 77). closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. FRPS U MLÑ. also TS. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . III.

III. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . 371. mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA.

aÑO P. ¶alam (pl.

abbreviation (siglum) (MU. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. index. 164). ¶DO PDK – 1. motto. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. book mark (e. II. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. TS. 18) 2. 164. II. 22). SD. 2140). XII. 27) 2. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. 352) 4. autograph (LC. ta¶O P 1. 135. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. marking quires before sewing (ST. II. – decorated border (LL. EI. marking. mark.g. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. signature (SD. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. 381). I. signing a document (AA. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN.

¶  0. al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .39). 100). ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.HUEHOD .DUEDO Ð) (CM. no.

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

372). III. . ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. abbrev.

al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah. ¶amal (pl. II.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. 2153: ‘text of the book’). aÑP O.

256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ.  FRPSRVition. compilation (MU. VII.

IX. VII. laà I DO-Ñamal. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. writing.v. TC. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. i. (SJ. etc. main work of a painter (PA.e. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. 257-258). colouring. 123). EI. chronosticon (TI. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. SA. q. comp. painting. used in opposition to Ãar¨. cryptogram. taÑZ U 2. ta¶miyah 1. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. 229. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. 30) 3. 47-48. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\.).

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

110. 260-261). 16. ¶XQZ Q (pl. SL. VII. EI. I. 211. ÑDQ Z Q. (MW. PK.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

36. tarjamah 2. 29. 66. 2183). 870). the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. PA. section heading (LC. EI. II. EI. X. 116. chapter. . EI. X. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. X. 29. 871-872) 3. 29). comp. title (of a book) (LC. 870-871) 4.

i¶ZLM M – curvature. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. curved (of a line. I. 200-203). VWURNH.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah.

I.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). 7). 14).g. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. 726). VII. 13. collation master. 74). e. . i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. X. taÑ Z GK. repetitor (EI. ta¶awwudh. 230). ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. IN. collation session (MF. UD. 12.

ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. amulet (DT. aÑZ P. of letters) (AP. 114. 69). KU. – talisman. ‘eyes’. 123-124). Ãams. 95. ¶ P (pl. comp.

– year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. . 252-253). comp. Ñuqdah. sanah. ¶ayn (pl. VI. LM. comp. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. 194. 43).

red and black colours (SD. 12-13. 73). 141. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. 141. 145). 97. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. 42. NW. 107. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. 97. 250). North Africa. n. IK. NW. MP. 32-34. 88. 250). and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. taghriyah 1. EI.18) 2. 47. rasm al-JKXE U. 41. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). 233. 74). AG. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. MP. IB. HT. IB. 37.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. aghriyah) – paste. IV.60-72. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. 45-47). 244). JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. 74. 1124). ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. IB. index. MP.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. adhesive (TS. 19-23. AS. II. NW. 58-63. 90. DW. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. ghubrah – mixture of white. VI. sizing (of paper) (AB. JM. VI. OD. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. 145. 199). 47). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. MB. pasting (ST. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. MB. VI. lin. 37.

IU T  . FRPS .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

36. aghshiyah) 1. case. 214. KC. book cover. JKLVK µ (pl. JKD] O see jild. passim). 564) 2. II. 554. binding (TS. ME. box (SD. covering of the board. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. 35.

CD. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. pl. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. III.

 ODVW SDJH V.

) . 473). taghshiyah – book covering. LVWLJKI U DK. 257). I. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK . I. binding (IN.. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF.

prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ.. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ .  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' ... 217) 2.

ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). 192). WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã).  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). a word) (MI. bold character. ghal¨ah – error. abbrev. ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. OHWWHU 6. mistake. 150). .

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

214. 132). – book cover (MD. WDJKO I – book covering. JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. binding (FZ. AB. 157). mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 108). 213.

). mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. 261). 128). LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ. – WDLOSLHFH . III. 47. comp. SA.) .v. 46.Ñuqdah. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. also iftit Œ.  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). 114. **** I I U – papyrus (EI. VIII..

  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. LQFLSLW 08 . XV.. prologue. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . 23) 2. preface.9. LC. proem (MU.

headpiece (KF. LC. II.g. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. 23) 4. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar.  KHDGLQJ (e.

TS. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. 245). AG. 109) 2. 59). 104. IDW ODK 1. press screw (MB.18. VI. IA. 62. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. . IA.

à P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. VI. II.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. comp. SD. leaf (of paper) (SA. 189. 249).

as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. WDUN E TY. one half of a piece of leather (TS. conjugate leaf.). 28). IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM).v. – one of a pair. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. LIU G – letter in its isolated.

6$ . ...

390). 60.v. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. SA. IR. 83). DD.) (KU. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. MY. shaqq (q. III. 481. 230. far„ al-qalam – syn. AT. 133. 154). I. fur„ah (pl.g. II.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

// . ..

PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. index. note. most probably a variant of PLTU „.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. apograph. mifra¨ – cutter (ST.18). also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. witness (MR. LC. 23) 2. annotation (TM. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK .

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

82). 93. application as opposed to theory. scroll (FI.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. JL.) (UD. 269) 4. IDU JK SO IDU JK W.v. q. 15. KR. abbrev. SM. 131). 87. argument resulting from a legal point. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. (AD. aÁl. 88.

41) – end. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO. completion. execution.

289) 3. 26. lacuna (LC. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. farkah (MN.+  /0 . GA. 23. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . blank. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. 23). also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC.

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 1. comment. explication.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

III. from Greek into Arabic (EI. SA. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. paragraph mark (TP. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. X. e. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). 55. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 83).g. MS. commentary and/or translation. mufassir – commentator.5 . LC. three dots. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . 351. fa¦¦ (pl. AK. 23. disc.

 .

fuÁ O.110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl.

138. spacing (TP. III. 145-146) 2. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). 134. MM. SA. taf¦ O 1. 55. . QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. space between words or passages. word division (in a text).

20).. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. 37. silver-based ink (UK. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 130-133. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver.. 33). TP.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. n. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. 271). 53. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . comp. 92. or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. MP. MB.  FKDSWHU 6' II.

351). paragraph (LC. SD. I. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. 273. II. xiii. fiqar) – passage. comp. 23. abbrev. AK. fiqrah (pl. section of a text. DM). WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N.

BA. 385. III. – book cover (HN. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K.

 FRPS VKLGT .

g. fihrist (pl IDK ULV. 45). funuq) – case. box (KC. IDQ T (pl.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. disbound (e. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). fihris. mufakkak – loose.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. list. 49. EI. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. II. gloss. 23. mashyakhah 2. record of attested study. comp.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. cataloguing. abbrev. also I µidat al-a¦l. marginal note. abbrev. 293) 2. 743-744) 4. fahrasah 1. II. 36). LC. 286. nota bene (notabilia). catalogue (SD. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. bibliography. 207. II. AR. 149. (CA. 50). RU &0  RU 66.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

. 15). 76  AG.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. 107). al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. Qubbat al-. Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem).

107. II. qabla – before. abbrev. straightedge (TS. 471). AG. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. . IV. SD. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. qabr. 302). qub¨al. lit.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah.

comp. MH. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. collation note (statement). II. EI. 56. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. 490492).52. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. PXT ELO – collator. n. corrector. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . VII. muÑ UD ah 2.TP.

24. II. comp. 107). 11. n. qaÃÃ. CI.xiii. abbrev. etc. aqudd) – strip (of leather). 18. qidd (pl. / / / / / (TP. 701. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. I. AA. .) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. 54. II. xiv). 109). FRPS ] Ðidah. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’.37. 10. CI. AG.

fore-edge flap (TS. 26. VII. 173). 107). introduction (EI. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. preface. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. muqaddimah – forward. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. abbrev. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. 52. 59. TP. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 17. MI.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. 120. 495-496). comp. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. also TS. AG.

manner of recitation. prelector. 139). reading. TLU µah 1. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 9 -129) 3. 26) 2. – marginal note. recitation (LC. commentary (AD. reciter. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. gloss. collection of glosses. variant reading (varia lectio).

  73 . $/ .

II. n.25. KF. FRPS VDP Ñ. 494-498). 53. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa.g. FRPS ¨arf. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. TP.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

AG. 466) 2. 35-36. TLU E (pl. 110). 110). sleeve case (TS. . 104. 36. 110). al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. sheath (SK. SA. 36. aqribah) 1. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. II. AG. AG.

MP. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. MP. IK. index. 47). qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. 417). screw press (MB. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. IA. sifr 13. IV. QS. AG. IK. compact writing (KM. II. 94). 107. ST. 21. 10. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. 44. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. qar¦a¶ah – fine. putting something into a press (ST. IB. 20). 19. 103: PLTU   (!).114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 63). 44). 18. 19. 59).19. 60). 107. AG. IB. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. ST. 91-92. index. 63. index. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

WS. parchment (AE. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. 66-93. AE. comp. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. 407) or paper (SA. 108. 66-76. AE. UD. EI. 261. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. I. 82-91). 17). – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. V. IW. 98. EI. II. VIII. 173-174. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). 50. VIII.

often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript. .

GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. XIV. 335- WDTU   W .

compact writing (KM. qarma¨ah – fine.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . comp. 186). 143. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. IV. muà ODÑah. 182. 136. sifr 13. 313). muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL.  qarmadah. %/ $0 QRV     122.

see also UA. 181. JM. IK. HT. 682. AA. EI. EI. 60. 153. IV. IA. 69). 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. IB. miqsam(ah) (lit. qa¦¦. index. 393: not defined). qirmah see VL\ T. IV. 41). ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. 80). 103. reed pen (IK. DS. trimming (ST. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). . 59. 42. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. 146. 86. qurnah – corner (MB. al-qurnah al-yusrá). taq¦ ¦ – shaving. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK.19. MB.

tin-based ink (UK. 130. 32). 86).116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. MP. qa„ P DK. 153). miqaÃÃ. comp. qa¦amah. 154). qa„m – syn. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU.

II. etc. 109-110. 93). sifr 4. – white hide. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. KU. nibbing. 153. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . AA. IK. I. 50. 102. leather (IW. 2-463. 72-74. cutting (of leather.. KK. KM. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE.) breadthwise (KD. the point itself. LM.

551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. I. LL. i. II. longer than the left’. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher.e. 462. LM. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA.

straight point of the nib (SA. MJ. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. II. opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. 2996. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. 217). 462). MJ. 217). 154). see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. 1742. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. . II. ivory. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. II.

MK. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. MM. II. ND.742. 105: maqaÃÃ. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. AT. IV.GLOSSARY 117 etc. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 65. LS. qa¨¶ (pl. IP. 133). qaÃÑ al-thumn. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. 54. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. 468. SK. 62. 76. SA. MB. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. 45.

piece of calligraphy. piece of something (e. qi¨¶ah 1. VI.g. piece of poetry) 2. 110). 475). FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. .  irs (AG. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. principle of the interlace. calligraph (AC. decoupage (ER. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’.

91). decoupage. filigree work (IP. PA. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS.  (5 9. 9. collage. 144. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. VI. 21) 2. taq¨ ¶ 1. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. 90) 4. 11. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. papercut(s). SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. AG. comp. . muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (.  +'   T ÃiÑ. (pair of) scissors (IK. muqaÃÃa¶ ). WS. format (of a book) (TL. 107). 475). qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. mishraÃ.. cutting instrument (DM) 2.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

abbrev.  26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

– clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. . 377).

641). 15. AG. 107.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. AG. al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. taqfiyah – backing (TS. qalb. 15. AG. flat back (TS. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. ST. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. 107). 107). comp. 15-17. index. 107). 15. 20). 14. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. AG.

  .  PRXOG 8.

19. 14.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. MK. LC. ST. 26. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U.3. no. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 26. index.

214. miqlab SO PDT OLE. 59. FI. folder (IB. FZ. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. 93) 4. 43). JL. 88. FRPS TDÃÑ 3.

7XUN PLNOHE.

83. – envelope flap (MT. 26). 68). 202-203). WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. DW. TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC.

 SLHFH RI ZRRG ..  76 .

see TW. copper pen. also qalam al-qa¦ab. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". 13 (AA.  calamus. SA. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. KU.e. IK. reed pen. i. 44-465. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. 232. TC. 45-87. II.

356. . AT. 471) 3. 100).. -50. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. MB. MB. 38-39. EI. 144. UK. IV. MP. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . 59-64. script. handwriting. 133-134. hand. ductus. 71-75.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. see khaÃÃ.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

I.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. used in talismans and amulets (IT. 335). otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. 11-12). al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. muqawwar.

al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. 144). 85). IK. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. al-thuluth. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 153. DO-mu¨aqqaq. 145).

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah. .  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  . ..$  Q. SA.  $..

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

chest (LL. 85). I. KR. 49-51. II. II. AG. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. WDTO P – paring. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). trimming (a reed). . 2565). 43. 109). 79). 11. 43. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF.

37). comp. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. 11. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. 144). as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . 144). AS. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. III.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

155. PDT ODK 1. XII. xiv. passage. 154. tract 2. treatise. MI. 190. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. – quotation. TP. MU. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. II. short composition. 238).

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

327. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. folio (folium) (MK. 283. I. 82. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. KF. 190. III. DF. 83. KF. 86. I. 377.

22). erect. RN. mDEV Ã. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e.g. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. . comp. PXVWDT P – upright.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 . – HQGSDSHU 8.  DPP DO-Ñ.

 al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq. qayd SO TX\ G.

composition (TE. committing something to writing.. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . 17. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. statement. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. – note.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

binding. III. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB.. IA. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . IK.  tying. . 62) 4. 113.

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

43). author 2. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. gloss (LC. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. 27). no. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. glossator (AM.187). N JKL¨. – marginal note. muqayyid 1. IB. 153.

waraq. see waraq. WS. al-N JKDG DO-. IV. SO NDZ JK Ã. WS. 77) – paper (EI. 77-85). N JKLGDK – sheet. comp. leaf (of paper) (AJ. etc. al-kalŒ . 419-420. AE. al-5 P .VO P . . 136). 98-105.

in papermaking) (OM). kubbah (pl. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. 136. WS. 85-86).122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. kubab) – ball (of fibre. 374). as in the beginning of w Z. ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. munkabb – inclined.

8'  /0 .

SD. mikbas. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. UA. Ranunculus asiaticus. TH. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. II. NDE NDM 1. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . q. 416).) 2. CM. comp.) (US. 169). TS.v. AG. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. II. 91. kitbah (MH.107. mun¨anin. 416. 440. 49-53. 40. katb. KL. 393). II. WDNE V – pressing (QS. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS.

 NLW E NLW EDK – writing. copying. transcription. composition. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( .

FDOOLJUDSKHU. used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist.

N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). Turkish ketebehü. NI.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. CT. +. 45: ‘hence katabah. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah.

 VHFUetary. comp. 554-760). scribe. 180). IV. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. amanuensis (EI. scrivener 2. mu¨arrir. .

II. VI. 705. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. letter. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . copying (KK. KD. chapter in a book (SL.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . spine (of a codex) (HT. I. 53.. NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. maktabah – library (EI. NH. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. 207-208). lin. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document).GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. maktab – place designated for writing. 86). EI. IK. 388: mukattab). V. 197-200). book. PDNW E SO PDNW E W. 23. codex (MA.115). document. piece of writing. archetype. tail (of a book or document) 2.) . 384). IV. booklet.

KM. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. – piece of calligraphy. II. IV. muktib. KD. 51. 4. 53). calligraph (DP. 705).g. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. sifr 13. master calligrapher (KK. mukattib (e.

. .  26 .0 .9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .

pointing (of a wall) (FT. kohl. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. takŒ O 1. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. kuŒl – antimony. mikŒ O see mirwad. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). 230). outlining. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). 393. IR. 187).383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). 414) 2. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. outline (of letters) (DH. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. no. I.

 RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. 68). comp. misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ.

OLQHV LQ .

124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK. 142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.

AG. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 33. 12. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs.

0. 42).  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). sic. NDGK – thus. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . IB. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. abbrev. 154.

184). ditto- NXUU V DK. 48.g. WLNU U. 162). TM. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). dittography (e. takarrur – graphic error.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. quire (gathering). WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. lin.  . x. passim. II. ra¨l.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. II. CI. 700). 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. SA. NXUV – book cradle. 100. II. . TS.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . SL. AG. 60). AA. SK. 131. KD. 84. KU. 107) 2. reading stand (MD. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. 132). NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. TS. abbrev. comp. 14. IK.0 . 60). 468-471.92). II. 48.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

- QR  . .

P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE. mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P. QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH .

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

miksar SO PDN VLU. 363). kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH.

79. 389. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . IR. TP. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. 137. I. syn. knife (for making erasures) (IR. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. of bashr (LF. DD. 274. NH. 128). 58). 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 391).

126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl. kuÑ E.

92. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. 977. 84. 97. 109). AJ. usually 25 sheets (PT. 442. 94). passim. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. AB. 90). flat back (MB. 145. JL. IA. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. comp. dast. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. 406). kaff(ah). WS. FT. 109). NXQQ VK DK. inlay (SA. 92. 82). – spine (back of a codex) (MB. 39. 61. KR. WDNI W – inlaying. tongs (MB. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. rizmah. main de papier). DM). II. 109. DE. 95.

SO NDQ Q VK.

25. commonplace book (LC. – 1. HB. .

V. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). 395-396). mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI.  kunyah (pl.

I . I 1. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. originally and properly speaking.

8-9.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. 11-13. MV. comp. OD). FN. AV. 363. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV.g. 27ff.

76  $*  86 .

139). 478). JM. ultramarine. 119. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. paint (UK. MP. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. II. laŒaq (pl. 114. azure ink. 85). WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. SA. 27. 145. al¨ T OL¨ T. 29.

mulŒaq – omission. ilŒ T. insertion (TP. .

laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. comp. adhesive (KD. TM. 703). JA. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP.14). 185..128 GLOSSARY  . II. 154. OL] T – paste. I. 42). IB. 279). LC. 24.

II.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8.  76  11. 481. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT.24. 230. 107. I. AG. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). DD. book cradle (TW.169. 481) 2. SA. n. 14. 133. copyist’s book support. 15. SA. II. 390) 3. IR. WA. malzamah SO PDO ]LP.

 TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. where each gathering is numbered separately). abbrev. /&  /( .

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

OLV Q (pl. 13. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST.109. 25. lin. $'  /( 137) 3. 119. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. MM. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. 132). index. ST. 25). 90. JL. HT. LC. 20. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ.

 .

391. malediction. 530). OL] T la¶nah – curse. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . II. 167. 181. I. DM). al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. passim). lin.166). milaff 1. laqab SO DOT E. spool (DS. IR. 145. lafŒ – tooling. SD. 230) 2. 26). comp. 480. mulaffaq. alÁiqah) – paste. 131. abbrev. or (MI. II. adhesive (SA. wrapper (DM).GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. DD. stamping (HT. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. RA.

WDOT P – inlaying. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. inlay (FT. 618-631). mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. – nickname. I. V. tweezers (MB. 406). implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. (pair of ) tongs. 109) 2. . DD. honorific title (EI. pincers.

11. LM.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. 49). lakk RU O N '* . lak. stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD.

burnished (e. 140). namq. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ.v. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨.). AG. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. varnish (AB. 109). lacquer. glazed. 16). lamq – elegant writing.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. 11. law¨ W.g. copying (TE. ODPP ¶ – glossy. comp. q.

panel (in decoration). illuminated piece (such as frontispiece.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. pasteboard (ST. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. MS. gloss (DM).123. MB. 402). 124) 3. 31) 6. illuminator (HD. 29. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. head. usually framed). OM) 4. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. HT. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. wooden board (TS. (Turk. 58-59) 2. 25.or tailpiece) (LC. 11. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. II. 5) 5. 142-143. . 125). lin. 99. 24. headpiece (FT.

oval figure 2. raÐs al-lawzah.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. IB. 59. mandorla 4. TS. MB. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. central medallion (on a book cover). WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. 44. 11.).v. also known as sarwah (q. 105. 156. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. IA. see also nuqÃah) 3. 109. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). 38). AG. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. 31.

– spatula. 45. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. II. 230. IR. lawn SO DOZ Q. AT. 208). 478. IB. MJ. 133.

148. V. . tint (EI. 698-707. JA. pigment. AI. – colour.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q.

IK. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. 11. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. tinting (of paper). WDO\ ¨ 1. LC. 27) 2. polychrome illumination (WA. see also the quotation under sha¨m). 370: qishr al-qaÁab. WDOZ Q 1. III. 86.

370). MP. also PLO T (UA. 84. III. O TDK (pl. 111-119. 55. MJ. . index. coloured ink (SA. BA. AT. UK. 26-29. n. 477-478. 702. MB. colour. liyaq) 1. II. 13. tint (AD. tuft of unspun silk.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. IK. 133). II. paper pulp (OM). O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. 79-84. 160) 3. 203) 2. 393) tow (wad. 20. 26-29. MP.

III. also PLO TDK (BA. 370) – compartment for ink (KD. II. amliqah) 1.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 .

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

%$ .. ..

 layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. 144. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. KH.

muqawwar. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. comp. such as al-thuluth. **** matn SO PXW Q. muraÃÃab. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

main body of the text (as opposed to margins). text-column (MU. II. V. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . VI. 843) 2. EI. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. 1.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. shar¨ or gloss. ¨ VKL\DK.

222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. II. VI. 53). . P WLQ – author of the original composition. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. 214. 109. TP. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. (qalam) al-matn. 25). Œard al-matn (HN. LC. 568). 24. SD. 1. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. EI. IX. MD. 843) 4.

EI. tamŒ ¨ 1. 138-140. IV. 1031). index. 238). 79: dalk) 2. . comp. ink (in general) (SK. 90).  madd. II. 67-71. 38. 127-131.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). 79-90. 86. MJ.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. 471-477. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. 13. erasure. MJ. maŒw – ink removal. PLG G (pl. BA. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. 121-122. 36-37). MB. MP. n. 134-135. JL. IV. pl. UK. 21. process of softening leather (making it flexible. 58. MP. comp. VI. amiddah) – soot ink. 38. obliteration (by means of a cloth.v. AE. 55. III. amthilah) – copy. III. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. 371). Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. or licking) (TP.52. TP. UK.) . 89). 216). 15-18. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. transcript. KR. ¨ibr. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. apograph (CD.) . SA. ¨aÃÃ. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. comp. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. maŒ UDK (q. khirqah. blind tooling. KH. AT.

134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). midan) – knife. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. midyah) (pl. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . 103- 8$  . 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). pen knife (SA. SK. I  mudyah (madyah. 465-467.5  . mudan. II.

 FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). WDPU „ see  abbah. ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

230. 60: misann almis¨) 2. 110. II. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. coarse haircloth. AT. SA. IA. masŒ – rubbing. misŒ 1. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. . 202). wiping (MB. DD. see shar¨. 133. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . I. 481-482. 166. sackcloth (DG. 114). 391).

 FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð. .

hasty. IR. 60. 230). AA. 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . 55) 2. 16) 3. elongation (of letters) (JA. copying. mush¨ – comb (IA. SK.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . 116-117. scribbling (MM.. inelegant hand. transcription (TE. mashq 1.I.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. I. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq.

copying from a model (TE. IK. 16.’). according to some opinions. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. 83) 5. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. fine elongated stroke (SK. 4. for example.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. MY. 151). KK. mashqah 1. calligraphic exercise. KT. fine elongation. 164) 6. elegant. calligraphic model (AD. 48. 134: ÑDQ . (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. calligraphic hand (CM. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own.

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

183). PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. P VKLT – calligrapher (NI.

 . '' .

signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . signature. signing. FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. autograph (DM) 2.

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

VII. milk – ownership (OS. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. 88. 25. al-musharrafah. TS. LC. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. 27). 478). 8). etc. also malasah – burnisher. 390. II. I  mimlasah 1. ex-dono. 31. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . FRPS QDÌar 3. Makkah (al-mukarramah. 107) 2. 11. polisher (NH. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. AG. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. plane-like instrument (TS. 88. ex-library. 107). 11. al-maghrah al-¶. 60-61).U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. 411). EI. AG. LC.). maghrah – ochre pigment (FT.

I. KF. work (known as al-DP O .  GLFWDWLRQ $. SDVVLP :6 -13. 85-94) 2.

passim. EI. 725-726. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. signet. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. SL. II. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus.VII. 48). SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. 472-. muhr – seal. VII. famulus (AI. stamp (EI. GA. VII. passim. 725-726).

472-473). stamping (EI. FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. VII. .

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

II. leaf (of paper) (SA. sheet. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. 50-52) 2. II. sheet. (IW. 8-9. WS. 472. AE. IV. 79-82. 105-106. sifr 13. KM. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V.

63). P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. 60. polisher (IA. mawzah – burnisher.

– pen knife. trimmer (TW. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK .$  maws. UD. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] .

 P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. 25). 64). LC. II. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. V. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. 226.  1+  '' .

slanting (of the line. 45). inlaying (SA. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. II. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. gilt (SD). tilting (of a script). . hence P µil – inclining. II. 12. 403). 442) 2. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. SA. script) (UD. coating.

16. nota bene. KM. 40). 146. JM. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK.138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). sifr 13. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). remark (in the body of a composition). copying (TE. WDQE K – note. IV.

36). minjam – mallet (ST. naŒt 1. trimming (of a reed) (IR. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. 232. 21. IB. 43: P MDPDK). index. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. UD. paring.

etc. basmalah. I. e.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. nuŒ V – copper. ¨amdalah. .g. 482). 133-134. (MG. 35). MP. copper-based ink (UK.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

KR. 95. 230. – anthology (EA. muntakhib – compiler. selector (DF. munkhul – sieve (IR. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. II. 94-95). 97. 82). DM). I. 384). nasab SO DQV E.

– lineage. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. 967-968). VIII. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. etc. tribe. genealogy. 53-56). pedigree (EI. ending in – (EI. VII. nisbah (pl. religious sect or school.

DO-PDQV E DK.

transcription (TE. naskh 1. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. 1126 (in Turkey). a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. 696-699). belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. ER. 17. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . see khaÃÃ. KM. par excellence. IV. which according to the Mamluk tradition. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. IV. sifr 13. naskh-ta¶O T). 1124 (in Persia). 21). 57) 2.5. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. KK. index. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. 1127 (in Muslim India). IV.

CM. but erroneously.in Turkey. 26). LM. IV. 138. 1125.in Muslim India). al-naskh al-mu¶W G. EI. catalogue (AD. copy (EI. 146. badal) 4. transcript. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. VIII. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. variant reading (varia lectio). version.12) 2. nuskhah (pl. archetype (LC. IV. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. 36. I. 182. 1123. 149) 2. CI. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . QDVNK 1. I.  0. 1127. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. 47. 123. II.in Persia. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. commonly. CA. xv. comp. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. 141. CD. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. nusakh) 1. recension (MU. al-makh¨ ¨ W. list. 89). personal) nature (CI.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. n. pl. xiv). XVI. 128. abbrev.171). LM.      $5  $. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. MZ. LE. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn.

Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. archetype (LC. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. 26). 26). al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. unicum. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

TW. muntasikh – copyist. passim). 348. PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. WB. MA. 47). ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . 17. scribe (TE. 16.

 9. e.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. of letters. letter-writing. style or composition. documents or state papers. layout (mise en page ) (FK. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. LQVK µ – construction.. III. no. . epistolography (EI. I.g. 1241-1244).

TD. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. 67). 278. 173. IK. WDQVK U. AI. nashr. 134. I. 94. I. 136). FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV. 76   $*  .

230: minshaµah). I. IR. I. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). IB. OM. II. 390. 106. 136). 395). nashan – wheat starch. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. 50. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. minshafah – blotter (TD. II. index. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. . DD. ST. AT. SA. MB. index. 60. 133. starch paste (TS. IA. 21. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. 480. dhurah) (OM). starch paste (made of sorghum. 21). 12. 13.

straight line. .142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. 241. 240.  . ni¦ E 1. handle (SK. pallet-like tool (HT.. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. 249. the letter alif (IR. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ . 137).133. lin.. stroke.

IB. IA. UD. up-stroke (SA. 156. MB. 43. III. 101. 59) 3. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. 11. 59). also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 103. LM. munta¦ib – ascender. 47.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK.

e. medallion. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. ZM. reading note.g. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. 217. na„ar – study note. FZ. JL. 43). min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. III. 218. 88. 93.

) . $+  .  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK.

abbrev. un„ur – ‘see’. FRPS PXà ODÑah. XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I.

nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

2812). . na„m. shiÑr.170). I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. versification. curator. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. no.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. comp. II.

II. epigraphy (KM. IV. minfadh – punch. nafa¨ (sg. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). DD. sifr 13. passim). AT. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. 5). revision (KF. 481. I. IR. QDTT U – carver. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. 391: for sewing of quires). naqr – inscription.3. awling (MB. 208. nafdh – punching. 230. nafÃah) – pockets of air. IV. MJ. II. sifr 13. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). 392). PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. engraving (on stone). tanaqquŒ – correction. awl (SA. WDQT Œ. 133. engraver (KM. 23).GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. no.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

naqsh SO QXT VK. – ink (KK. 49. sifr 13. 84. IV. IK. KM. 471. 5). SA. 469. II.

painting. QLT VKDK 1. 105. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. comp. inscription. naqr 2. illumination (EI. 400). 29-32. 156. epigraphy (FT. IA. VII. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. engraving. MB. 63) 3. 931). TS.

ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. 59). IA.  0% 105. .

IV.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. III. 155. 266). 931-932). illuminator (PA. engraver (KM. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. 159). carver. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. 5) 2. WDQT VK – writing. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. copying (FK. miniature painter. designer. sifr 13. VII. 141.

haplography (TP. 16-17) 2. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. 151. naq¨ 1. KH. TE. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. III. SA. SA. naq¦. 58). 160. 38). III. 16-17. III. letter-pointing (TE. nuq¨ah (pl. nuqaÃ. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. haplographic error.

EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.  T OD .  GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.

218) 2. calligrapher (TE. AW. quotation 3. naqalah) 1. quoting. 12. 33. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. HT. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. copyist. numrah. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used .  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. figure. TE. 368). transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). exact copy (apograph). Q TLO (pl. IA. 137. orthographer (LT. 133. IA. translator. 16. extract. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). 105. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. MB. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). citing. translation. abbrev. 16) 4. XII. 68) 5. . nimrah – number. copying. naql 1. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. transcription (MU.

53. KK.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. 45. AM. SK. 62. numbering. 53. embellished writing. 91). 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . 16. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. namq WDQP T – elegant. copying (TE. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers.

Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC. 45. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . NI.

munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. 119.1). calligraphic composition (NI. IV. 237). namnamah 1. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. 105) 2. painted illustration (KF. 38). QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). AW. AA. calligraph. 181. embellished writing. 369. n. copying (SK. II. sifr 13. WDQP O – compact writing. copying (KH. compact writing (KM. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). elegant.

22.v. 43). – floral design. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. of maÃP V q. IB. PXQ U – syn. 69).) (LM. IB. 26. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. having an open counter (ant. 44). of mufatta¨. index.

EI.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. II. 498-450. KF. 27). III.

KD. II. 106. IK. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. – inkwell (SK. 700.

LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. xi. II. termination. II. GA. xiii. 87. / / / (for intahá) (MW. 285). LQWLK µ – end. CI. abbrev. 110. I. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. SL. CI.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

+   ID-NDWDED ODKX LQK ÐDQ I NKLU NLW E DO]DN K PLQKX. .

36). hud hud SO KDG KLG. **** DKG E (sg. hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. hudb.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

epitome (EA... abridgement. I. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . correction. WDKGK E 1.. LKG µ – dedication (FN.  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). . 23). revision (DM) 2.

al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. rounding (of the spine).GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. 61). WDKO O 1. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. epitomist. author. MG. backing (MB. 73) 2. 108) 2. I. 483. compiler (SS. abridger. 72. 109. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. EI. muhall. X. 69. 181. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. IA.

VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9. .

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

   .  PDUJLQ ') ...

 . /&  0.  PDUJLQDO note. gloss. abbrev.

glossing. 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK.  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn).. annotation (TT. WDKP VK 1.. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ .

 PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $. .

annotated (TW. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. muhammash – glossed.

GL.. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah. syn. MH. 4. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points.. 90). IR.  K PDW DO-alif). raÐV HJ 6$ . unpointed letters (TP. K PDK – head (of a letter). 244). 57. . 57. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP.

182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . ¶alá al-wajh – copying.. II. page (MU. recto (of a document or leaf) 4.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). 31) 3. IV. upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. face. wajh al-hirr (lit. upper cover (TS. 25. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL.. wajh(ah) 1. 31. epitome (DM). transcription in full. 43-45).148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. 25) 2.

. wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al.. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. 29. 109).Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 6$ . MK. 82). -92).

waŒVK see sinn. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. MJ. 82). MK. II. IV. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. KK. 464. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. . 218). 5. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. sifr 13. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. 53). KM. SA. waŒy – writing. 29.

73). DA).GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. 95. no. lobed medallion (DH. no. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. waraq SO DZU T. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette.73).

WS. -195.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-. 85-.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

leaf.  $5  . waraqah 1. parchment or leather) 2. abbrev. folio (folium). piece (of paper.

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 11. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 25). khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. (TS. 109). AG. 29).

85). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. DO-. I.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM.

77) 2. European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. 31). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. 378). I. DO-5 P 1. French paper (PT. 75.

OM). 31). SA. VI. DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. paper bearing an imitation watermark. waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). Tre Lune) (PT. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. 30. 193. .

150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O. 32).

SA. MD. 394). II. 35. 82). WS. 487. 104) 2. – glazed paper (PT. 32. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. JL. 380). pasteboard (JL. cardboard (FT. WS. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . 84). al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. 88. 87. 107. MS.

al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. I. KF. MN. 380). professional copyist. 22. 22. EI. 88. 558-561). scribe (SL. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. bookseller. WR. 9. stationer. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. II. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. transcription (WS. FI. 148) 2. 82. foliated arabesque design (ST. index. bookbinder (QS. 28. 161). al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. IB. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. 87. JL. index. 69. – marbled paper (DM. 14. I. WDZU T 1. 65). IK. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. 81. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). 495). II. 93. copying. IV. 94). LC. MP. WS. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. maysam SO PD\ VLP. 16.

mawsim SO PDZ VLP. stamp (AB. – tool. 135).

10). – feast. MP. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST.g. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . CI. index. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. festival. washŒ – decorating. II. 65). 22.

lin. 93) 3.125. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. drawing (AD. . also WDZVK P – tooling. stamping (of leather) (HT. writing. 186) 2.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

lin. – pattern (created by tooling). stamp (HT. awÁ O ZDÁO W. wu¦l (pl. UK. wi¦l. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. 18. wa¦l. washy.126). 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah).

knife (used by the waÁÁ O . piece. 10. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. VI. collema (kollema) (WS. II. NZ. 88. 812. 110). vox reclamans (NM. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. 65) 2. SA. 90).  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. wa¦lah 1. 683. 234. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. 144) 3. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. darj). HB.

$' .

¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. arrangement (of a text) (MU. VI. I. wa„¶ (pl. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. PA. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. comp. aw  Ñ ) – composition. 3132). 12. 187. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. KF. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). 62. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD.

 Z „i¶ – compiler. . 376). IV. author (DF.

152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. proem (DM). prologue. P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G.

192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $. – collation session (TP.  . TM. 56.

 wi¶ µ (pl. 575) 2. box (MS. 19. DA). container (OM). ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. awÑiyah) – 1. case. 16. wifq SO DZI T. 87: ZDT ¶ah. ME.

6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). IV. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. . X. al-WDZ T ¶. 392-393) 3. 28. 108). 392. 28. LC. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. stamp (IK. 189. gloss. 100. 10) 2. decree (EI. LC. taking something down in writing (SL. AD. autograph. 124. motto. 69. royal edict. WDZT ¶ 1. apostil (usually signed) (AD. 125) 4. I. 96).. P IDT – seal. KM. I. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . sifr 13. KF. writing something down. X. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. signature (EI. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. 189).

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

bequest note (OS. 90.v. reading. III. 63).. II. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. 100. 69). al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). 73-77. WDZT I (KF. II. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. 187). LM. LM. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). endowment.g. AS. 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. PDZT I 1. JM. (AS. 428-442). al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. II. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. 146. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. . wakf 3.g. waqfiyah. WDTU Ì (q.29.9 1123. 1125. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. KF. 90). KH.in Turkey). 61.) (BL. waqf 1. 146).in Persia. 38) 2. unfinished stroke (e.. 441). KF.g. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. 146. LM. 43-46. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. LC. 146.

wakt – letter pointing (KM. 95. wahm – mistake. IV.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. AA.) (LC. sifr 13. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. 122). 28). 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). taÐammul 2. 55). overlining (TP. AA. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. error (IK. comp. logograph. 123). K P – omission (IK. 95. .

95-96. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146).154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. III. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . III. SA. III. 96).

maÁ ¨if. ray¨ Q QDVNK. DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq.

144). of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 6$ III. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). ant. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. \ ELV – rectilinear.

6$ .  8'  $6  /0 ...

 FRPSPDEV Ã. yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ.

DM. – hand. 42). in the hand of) (OT. I \DG. 393. II. 86. reed pen (IK. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. KD. UA. . bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. \DU ¶(ah) – reed.

GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e. no.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. CM.g.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

. .  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &.

 .

ABBREVIATIONS 1. Riyad. Akimushkin and Anatol. AI = ÑAbd al-. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 1981. A. Arabische Paläographie.VKE O LQ KLV µ. ed. “Das arabische Papier”. The arts of the book in Central Asia. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. Paris/ London. ed. Wien. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. ed.1. Gray. Fagnan. AJ = J. AD = E. 1979: 35-57. Vol. 1989. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Algiers. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . 2-3 (1887): 87-159. Damascus. von Karabacek. ±aydar Ghaybah. AF = Oleg F. AC = Adam Gacek. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. transl. 1967. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. Max Weisweiler. Al-. AG = Adam Gacek. Beirut. AE = Adolf Grohmann. 1923.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 2 (1989): 37-53. B.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. 1414/1994. Ivanov. “The art of illumination”.

. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1. AV = François Déroche. decoration. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. AN = Richard Lemay. 1992.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. AS = Adam Gacek. McGill University. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Safwat. Montreal. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. 1996. AW = Nabil F. ed.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. binding and paper”. AO = Adrian Brockett. 8 (1941): 65-104. New York. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library.4 (1986): 131-137. 4 (1989): 144-149. London/Oxford. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. 15. Descriptive catalogue. 2 (1987): 45-67. 1992. AP = Nabia Abbott. AQ = David James. 1982: 1. “Arabic numerals”. London/Oxford. AL = . 1996. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. no. nos. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360.D. 382-398. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. Ars Islamica. London/Oxford.

4 (1991): 35-53. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. 1982 . 1984-85. Arberry.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. MacKay.. Montreal. The Chester Beatty Library. CI = Adam Gacek. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . -CCA = Adam Gacek.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. CT = Pierre A. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. London. 1991.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. Oriens. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. Dublin. CL = Jan Just Witkam. CM = Adam Gacek. CD = Arthur J. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. Leiden. 1958.

Z. Denizeau. no. 61. DB = R. Dictionnaire . London. De Biberstein Kazimirski. M. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. Paris. -DDA = A.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. Dictionnaire arabe-français. N. Iskandar. 1960. Chouémi and C.4 (1971). 1967.S. Blachère. CW = A.

M. ed. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. .1986. DM = Hans Wehr. Kuwait. 4 (1989): 44-55. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. Wiesbaden. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. DP = Adam Gacek.. Little. Frankfurt. 59 (1991): 229-235. 0DPO N studies review. 1993 . ed.D. .2 (1938): 141-151. 4th ed. J. ed.-L.1 (1937): 69-110. Paris. Archeological studies. DC = A. 1994. fasc. Paris. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. Ithaca.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. de Premare. Cowan. fasc. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. 5. 1967. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. DG = Werner Diem. DT = Tawfik Canaan. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. 4. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. 1984. Beryus. ±amd al-. DR = Donald P. Beirut. NY. Revue des études islamiques. DQ = François Déroche.. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. Dictionnaire arabe-français. 1989. 2 (1998): 93-193. 1994.

FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. 1960 . Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. E.. 1995: 17-57.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus.d. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. transl. Part 1. 1997. à W´ Al-Mawrid. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Dimand. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. 1999. Yarshater. Leiden. London. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. London.S.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. EP = François Déroche. London/ Oxford. FM . New ed. Meisami and P. London (later Costa Mesa. Al-)XQ Q DO-. -EEA = J. 1982 . 1995: 93-101.). Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. 1979. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Cairo. 1986. Istanbul. 5 . FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. Calif. eds. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”.VO P \DK. ed.EU K P . Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. -FFD . Baghdad. 1993. New York.S. 1998.EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. n.. Starkey.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”.

50-99.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. ed. Wiesbaden. Cairo. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. Fischer. . 1992. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. GL = W. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. 1967. Baku. herausgegeben von W. 1987.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. Kaziev (Gaziev).U. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. ³. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1982. HD = A. 1987. 1994. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). 1966. HT = Adam Gacek. Istanbul. A Grammar of the Arabic language. Cairo. Rabat. transl. Wright. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. Cambridge. HN = Ñ \LGDK . 3rd ed. 6 (1991): 41-58. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. FT = Oktay Aslanapa.

1983. May 18 .1981. Petherbridge. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. 1319 A.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1389/1970.1987? . Beirut. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. . IB = G. of Chicago. A¨mad ‚aqr. ed. Cairo. 8. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. Univ. no.2 (1979): 221-284. Damascus. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. J. Beirut. )DKP 6DÑd. 1981. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. Déroche and F. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. ed. ed. 1995: 123-136. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. F. The Oriental Institute.August 18. Richard.H. Paris. IM = Ñ. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. 1997: 57-63. à W´ Al-Mawrid. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q .OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. Qum. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek.. Bosch. 1973. London. Chicago. Carswell and G. Cairo/ Tunis.

KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. 20. S.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. [Tehran?]. 1363 [1984]. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. Baghdad. no.G E DOV PLÑ. ed. 1962.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . ed.1 (1958): 81-106. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. 0DMDOODW .ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). Ph.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . . Beirut. 1997. 1962.D. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð. Al-0DQ KLO. Damascus. 6 pl. 38 (1989): 7-103. University of Michigan.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. Qum. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-. Algiers.n..LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie).l. Riyad. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I ..G E (Cairo). -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. 1969.. 1983. 1985.1961.XOO \DW DO. ÑIzzat ±asan. s. Cairo. 1982. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”.

2.H. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. no.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. Al. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.VO P . London. RDVK G DOÑ. 1937: 125-161. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³.LW E. Cairo. 1.2 (1973): 43-78. no. 1981. by Arthur Jeffery. Safadi.H. KS < VXI DO-.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”. 2 (1946): 9-18. no.3 (1964): 1933. Á KL = G. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo).Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. no. ed.DWW Q  ³. 1316-21 A. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. Leiden. 1. Fehervari and Y. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K.240 (1984): 61-68.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. 1978. 1 (1963): 26-48. ed.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. “Al-. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.

Raif Georges Khoury.LW E DO-zuhd. ed.LW E DONXWW E. Wiesbaden. .XZDLW 1977.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . ed. KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá. . 1976. . .

Leiden. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. Brill. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. 1790-1930. 1978 (catalogue no. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. LC = Adam Gacek. 1929. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 2 (1987): 68-87.500). LB = Jan Just Witkam. Baghdad. Arabic-English lexicon. Cambridge. ed. LE = M. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. 48 (1989): 21-29.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Rev. LL = Edward William Lane. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. Cairo. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . 1911-1931. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. Samarrai.J.S. 1984. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. Revue africaine. Ben Cheneb. van Koningsveld and Q. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. MELA Notes. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. LD = P. 1992. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. ed.

MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. 230 (1938): 551-575. Cairo. 1992. . MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . Beirut. 1913. Lamare. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. no. 1992. ME = A. Beirut. 1391/1971. MC OL¨ \DK . Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . Damascus.G DO-Mawlá. Leiden. MK = Etan Kohlberg. Journal asiatique. Beirut.U T . 20 (1970): 88-137. Damascus. 15.OP DO-Ñ.d. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. 1995. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. ed. ed. 1980. ed.4 (1986): 185-248. Beirut.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. n. 1349 [1930]. 1972. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK.

LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. 15. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. no. 52.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. no. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart.6 (1993): 641649. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. pt. London/Oxford. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379. Al-Mawrid. 18. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte.S.4 (1962). MY = François Déroche. 14. 1936-38.. . Revue des études islamiques. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. N. 1992. 1976-87. MP = Martin Levey. no. MW . MV = François Déroche. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . 75/76 (1995): 81-90.1 (1969): 3-47. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. 32 (1987): 105-114. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. Cairo.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. MT = Adam Gacek. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. ed.2 (1989): 201-203.

“Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. London. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. ND = J. 45 (1977): 1-87. 2 (1987): 8-17. 1367/1949. NO = Dimitri Gutas.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. NC = Adam Gacek. NS = S..EU K P 6KDEE ¨. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. Bonebakker. 1342/1923 . Cairo. Revue des études islamiques. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1928.2 (1992): 679-683. 1418/1998: 341-393. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. Manuscripts of the Middle East. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. 13. 2 (1987): 126-130. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. Sadan. 1 ILPELU  HG .EU K P 6KDEE ¨.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab.A. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. Damascus. NH . 1.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. Cairo. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . no.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ.VO P  .

26 (1976): 199-212. OS = Adam Gacek. ed. 1992. 2 (1987): 88-95. PK = S. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”.W. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie).H. Derek Latham. Daly. M. 10 (1998): 41-63. New York.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. “O. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. -PPA = Yves Porter. PT = Terence Walz. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. 1994 : 75-81. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Manuscripts of the Middle East. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. . OH = J. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. 5 (1960): 124-143. Paris/Teheran. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. 1985: 29-48. Rabat. OM = Adam Gacek. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”.

-RRA = William L. 1938. 1960. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. Chicago. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. Beirut. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). 1995. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. RI = W. 15.4 (1986): 259-270. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 1973. Bull. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. 195772.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. 1 (1987): 21-38. Cairo. . Costa Mesa. Beirut. Paris. Chicago. SL = Nabia Abbott. a new direction”. Hanaway and Brian Spooner.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. no.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Bookbinder. 1410/1990. 3rd ed. Paris. 1967. SD = R. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. RN = Nabia Abbott. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. SJ . ed. 2 (1956): 339-372. Dozy.

1965. 1995.Q Q  London.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. 1997: 135-150. P.H. Bibliothèque nationale. TE = Adam Gacek. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. MELA notes. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN. Ricard. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). no. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. Damascus.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. Damascus.DWW Q  .H. 1994: 11-32. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. ed. Paris. ed. 41. Rabat. 1303 A. 1989: 49-50. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. 1346-49 A. MS (Paris. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. 1925.VO P .1 (1997): 55-90. Paris/Istanbul. François Déroche.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. Rabat. ed. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. Beirut. . arabe 6844).

n. Ñ$EG $OO K . TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. Hyderabad.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. 1982. Paris/Istanbul. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. F.VKE O  ³.EU K P DO-. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK .DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed.d.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. 1353/1934. TS %DNU LEQ . “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. 1949. xx-xxxii. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. ±amd al-. 1989: 51-60. ed. Damascus. Rabat. pl. TP = Adam Gacek. Jedda. Kuwait. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. 1991. ed. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. . Déroche. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42.

. 16.10 (1975): 80-92. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. 18. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. 1981-83. DaÑwat al-|aqq. Dublin. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. Chester Beatty Library. Beirut. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. 23. Beirut.4 (1982): 10-24. no. Hildesheim/New York. 1983. no. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. 17 (1971): 43-172. 1992. 1980. Graz. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq.2 (1977): 45-56. DaÑwat al-|aqq. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 1 (1986): 49-53. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. Manuscripts of the Middle East. no.

174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).Oá / -XP Gá al. Tehran.1 (1955): 43-48.G E (Cairo).NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O. no. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW .XOO \DW DO. 17. 6 pl. 2.

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

/ = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal.

numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P. ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah).

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

Á ¨ib. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. Áa¨ ¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨.

ra L\D $OO K . ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah).

 abbah (ta E E.ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).

laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. rajÑ. = Ãurrah. Ñ UL a. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ.

/ = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . aÁl. malzamah. tamma. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu).

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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5 vols. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Cambridge. . Indeed. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. It does not. Beit-Arié. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. 1983. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. Leonard. Paris. 1997. 1953 (repr. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. Gruys and J. Carla. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Vatican City. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. Malachi. Bernhard. 1988. A. 1976-1980. Dain. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. 1979). Bozzolo. London/New York. 1993. M. Bischoff. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Toronto. 1993. Cockerell. Paris. 1990.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Paris. ed. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Bookbinding. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. 1976. ed. 2 vols. Gumbert.1. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. 5th ed. Maniaci and P. Sydney M. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. 1984. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions.P. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. Leiden. Transl. however. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Munafò. Les manuscrits. Paris. Jerusalem. Boyle. Alphonse. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

1 (1976): 84-90. ed. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. Encyclopedia of the book. 1996. Johnston. T. codicologie et archéologie du livre. Gallo. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. 1999. P. Paris.D. A. Writing & illuminating. 11-13 septembre 1972. Bernard. New York. Paris. Le livre au Moyen Age. L. 40 (1954): 169-204. Kristeller. 1996. C. “The codex”. Greek and Latin papyrology. Paris. Glaister. Muzerelle. Introduction à la codicologie. Paris. and Wilson. 1974 : 19-25. Paris. London. and Skeat. études historiques et physico-chimiques. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. Albert. Italo. 1988. 1989. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. Les matériaux de la couleur. Paris. C. Roberts. Glenisson. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. ed. Edward. Louvain-la-Neuve. 1977. The birth of the codex. Del. M. Gruijs. M. Paris. Maniaci. enluminure. Codicologica. 1983. François and Guineau. Diringer. Proceedings of the British Academy. Delamare.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex.C. “Paléographie. Dukan. New York. peinture. 2nd ed. 1984. London/New York. 1985. N. 2nd ed. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. . 1986. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. Lemaire. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages.G. 1983. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. Oxford. Hoffmann.. Roberts. London. Jean. 1953. Jacques. John E. Paris. 1990. Rome. Paul O. Geoffrey Ashall. 1989. Paris. New Castle. Blanchard. 1985. Murdoch. & lettering. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. Denis. Turnhout. H. 1988.H. David. 1974. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. The hand-produced book. Reynolds. 1998. M.

“Handschriftenkunde”. Fischer. 13-15 septembre 1972. 4 vols. Paris. Baghdad. GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES I. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Thompson. 1991. The medieval book: illustrated from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. An introduction to Greek and Latin palaeography. CNRS.VO P \DK (Tripoli. The typology of the early codex. Wiesbaden. 1977. Gerhard. VII/1 (1998): 3-8. London/New York. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Les tranchefiles brodées: études historique et technique.VO P  ELEO\ MU I \DK EL-al-LQW M DO-ILNU DO-Ñ$UDE PLQ  LOá 1998. Barbara A. “±arakat al-taÐO I ZD-al-kutub wa-alPDNWDE W´ 0DMDOODW . Textual criticism and editorial technique applicable to Greek and Latin texts.BIBLIOGRAPHY 181 Shailor. 6 (1989): 367-398. Adam. Toronto. ——— “Arabic language publications on manuscripts (Part II)”. ——— “Arabic language publications on manuscripts (Part I)”. Yale University. herausgegeben von W. London. “A select bibliography of Arabic language publications concerning Arabic manuscripts”. Endress. I. MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.XOO \DW DO-DaÑwah al-. Libya). A. Du scribe au livre: les manuscrits hébreux au Moyen Age. Colette. Turner. 1982: 306-315. 1. 5 (1990-91): 9-19. Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. E. “From papyrus roll to papyrus codex: some technical aspects of the ancient book fabrication”. [Philadelphia]. Nouvelles des manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. Stuttgart.VO P   ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q ÑAbd al--DEE U . Les techniques de laboratoire dans l’étude des manuscrits. Sirat. VII/2 (1998): 2-7. Martin L. 1912. Paris. Ñ . 1994. 1989.DVKVK I DO-GDZU \ W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Index Islamicus on CD-ROM. Oxford. 1998. Nouvelles des manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. Paris. Eric G. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. West. Maunde. 1989. 1974. 'KD\\ E 0LIW ¨ Mu¨ammad. Gacek. Paris. Bibliographies Á Abd al-+ G  0D¨ammad Fat¨  Al-7XU WK DO-Ñ$UDE DO-. Wouters. 1972. 1 (1986): 106-108.

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1972. R. 6L]N Q 6H]JLQ. Die Welt des Islams. Der Islam. “Die Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im frühen Islam”. Al-ÑIlm wa-al-ÑXODP Ð I ÑuÁ U DO-NKXODI Ð. LQ ELRJUDSKLFDO DQG autobiographical accounts: glimpses of Islamic scholarship in the 18th century”. no.1 (1999): 64-102. Beirut. Schoeler. 66 (1989): 38-67. 62 (1985): 210-230. ——— “Weiteres zur Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im Islam”. Gregor. Der Islam. 39. Sellheim.

——— La transmission du savoir en Islam (VII-XVIIIe siècles). 1984.VO P \DK´ Mu¨  DU W I WDÐU NK DO-ÑXO P DO-Ñ$UDE \DK wa-al-. Cottart. )XÐ G ³$KDPP \DW DO-LVQ G I DO-ÑXO P DO-Ñ$UDE \DK wa-al-. . L’Arabisant. by FuÐ G 6L]N Q Frankfurt am Main. Georges. 1983. ed. Vajda. London. 4 (1975): 2-8. “De la transmission orale du savoir dans l’Islam traditionnel”.VO P \DK (= Vorträge zur Geschichte der arabischislamischen Wissenschaften). N.

216 BIBLIOGRAPHY V. Vajda. ³/D WUDQVPLVVLRQ GH OD µ. Humbert. Johann. Rosemarie. Transmission of individual works Fück. 92 (1938): 60-87. Schacht.LW E GH 6 EDZD\K.LI \D I PDÑrifat uÁ O Ñilm alULZ \DK¶ G¶DO-Haà E Dl-Ba G G ´ Arabica. 14 (1952): 579-588.DWW Q  < VXI ³. 1956: 2. Geneviève. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. /HV YRLHV GH OD WUDQVPLVVLRQ GX . Lévi-Provençal. “How al-Bu© U ’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]’”. Rome. ——— ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ LI 7LUP GK ’V µ.PLÑ’”. Bulletin d’études orientales. University of London. Studi orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.KDWDP W ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. 240 (1984): 61-68. 244 (1956): 433-437. Leiden. 5REVRQ - ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI $E ' Z G’s ‘Sunan’”. 2. Joseph. ——— “La transmission de l’éloge de Zayn al-Ñ ELG Q´ Journal asiatique. (1949): 46-60. “La recension maghribine du ‚a¨ ¨ d’al-Bo© U ´ Journal asiaique. 477-492. al-. Georges. “Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bu© U ’s Traditionssammlung”. University of London. Quiring-Zoche. “Deux éditions inconnues du ‘MuwaÃÃaÐ’”. ——— “La transmission de la mašya©a (Ansal al-PDT Áid wa-aÑdab alPDZ ULG. 50 (1998): 191-222. 16 (1954): 258-270. E. 1995. 4 (1957): 304-307. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. ——— “The transmission of Muslim’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’”. 202 (1923): 209-233.

M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h.. ilá . 48 (1973-74): 55-74.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad./10 m. G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”. Rivista degli studi orientali. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-. 9  .

Ben Shemesh. Le Muséon. Taxation in Islam. Leiden. A. 87 (1974): 445-465. 4 (1981): 82-103./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al.1-2 (1974): 3-7. and Young. [Vol.L. Islamic quarterly. R. 18. M.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. nos.Y. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G.] Ebied.J. 1967. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W.

M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus).H. 1998. Iran.] Lecomte. Les . . ed.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A.S. 18-19 October 1973. 1974:92-110. Gérard. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. Koningsveld. . WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. 32 (1994): 115-123. 35-36 (1414 A.): 270-372. van. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ . 26 (1994): 75-96.H. Amsterdam.1 (1997): 55-90. Studies on Islam. no. P. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. Amsterdam. “Al-. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. 326 (1997): 97-102. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. -DOO E ±asan. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 41.

DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”. ——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W. Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409.

Teil 2 (1969): 562-566.1./12. Stefan. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. Oriens. 1996 – . Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Jhdt. Pierre A. 34 (1994): 57-75. Leder. Damas: Institut français. 550-750/1155-1349.”. Suppl. MacKay. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”.

1 (1408 A. no.H): 172-182. Hamdard Islamicus.4 (1971. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. al-Munajjid. n.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. no. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ .´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. ——— “Al-.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ . “Al-. “Al-.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ . no. 1. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.1 (1955): 232-251. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”. 1.. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. EI. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101. no. 61. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ. 8: 1019-1020. new ed.1 (1407 A. Sayyid.2 (1406 A. Hespéris.H): 107-114.1 (1985): 7-20.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.H): 115-117. 3. 2. no. 8. ed..s. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”. 7 (1989): 238-252.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”. no. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. 4 (1924): 345-355.

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AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. 1997: 179-196.Q Q  London. .

[Also in: idem. London. Georges. Yarshater. Albums and exhibition catalogues Ahlwardt.] $P Q  )DNKU DO-' Q 1DÁ U  *DQM QDK-Ði khuà Ã-i ÑXODP Ð-i aÑO P YD G QLVKPDQG Q-L NLU P YD VKXÑDU -yi ÑiÌ P YD NK VKQDY V Q-i FK UDKGDVW YD PXÑ ÁLU Q 7DMU VK . 3: 1020-1021. Hildesheim/ New York. ——— “Al-ÑUnÁ U DO-EDVKDU ED\QD DO-naÁÁ wa-al-T ULÐ: al-LM ]DK I DOmakhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. 1983: 85-92.3 (1954): 337-342. ed. London. SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY VI. 1997: 163-177. 1957. Wilhelm. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. Paris. Arabica.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. vol.. VI. Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris.BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 SteZDUW 'HYLQ - ³(M ]D´ Encyclopaedia Iranica. 1. The LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. E.Q Q  London. 1981. “The human element between text and reader.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar.UDQ. Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. 1995: 123-136. 1. new ed. ARABIC ALPHABET. no. ——— “Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris”. ——— “Un opuscule inédit d’as-6LODI ´ La transmission du savoir en Islam (VIIe-XVIIIe siècles). ——— “Idj ]D´ EI. 1899. 1993. 8: 273-275. Jan Just. Vajda. Zwölf arabische Schrifttaffeln.10. Witkam. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. Berlin.

A. London.  > RU @  YROV Arberry. >&KHLNKR 6KD\NK . 1939. Specimens of Arabic and Persian palaeography.J.

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ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. 2: Ab-bildungen. Y. 1996. Hunwick. Orthography. with the assistance of M. Steiner. Mosak Moshavi and B. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. I. Tanz und verwandten Themen. Vikør.). S. (ed. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. References and Index of Texts Cited. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. W. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. A. Jagd. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. 1994. Ibrahim. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. S. M. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. O.). Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. 1994.). Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. Numerals. und Sardshweladse. 1994. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. 1994. Hamidu Bobboyi. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. S. Manuel de recherche. M. 1996. Bd. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . 1995. 1994. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. Porten. 1995. S. N. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. R. Nouns. Volume I. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. Compiled by John O. M. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. K.L. and Stolbova. O. Judaism in Late Antiquity.T. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. V. Radtke and K. V. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. Chief consultant to the editor. K.C. and Peters. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . J. Spiel. 1996. A. Phonology. A. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . With appendices by R. E. M. R. O’Fahey. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. B.1: Text. J. (eds. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. 1900. (ed.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. 1980-1993. Roman Loimeier. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II.).HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. 1995. V. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. (eds. H. und Herb. Abu Salim. Materials for a Reconstruction.Lagarde. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. 2nd ed. J. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . Bd. J. S. and Jongeling. L. 1995. Hofheinz. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. (éd. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz.).r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . Arabic Literature of Africa. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary.). Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. Marín. With Full DefiniKinberg.F. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. 2 Parts. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. V. Band 22 . La civilisation phénicienne et punique. Compiled by R. 1994. 1994. and O’FAHEY. (ed. 1994. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I.

Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. 2 Volumes. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf.1: B. and Porten. T. G. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. R. J. B. III. F.G. Vol. Vol. 1996. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. 1997. 2: 1988-1992. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. 1999. Mesopotamian Lexicography. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language.J. H. 1999. 1999. J.L. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. G. W. 1997. B. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. J. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. and Wyatt. 1998. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. 1: A. 1999. R. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . W. M. 1999. V. and Sou‘ek. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. The Rise of the Fatimids. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. The Mishnah. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). Religious Perspectives 1999. 1997. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. 1997.E. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. D. 1999. J.2. 1. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. The Kingdom of Kush. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. H. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. N. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. 1999. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. 1999. Index of Names. 1999. H. Bonner. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. Translated from the German by M. Judaism in Late Antiquity.F. Social Perspectives 1999. and Neusner. and Healey. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. Terms and Topics. 1999. M. 1997. The Empire of the Mahdi. J. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. van. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. L. H. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel.Band 26 Halm.W. 2000. and Pingree. III. A.J. J. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. The Mishnah. D. 1999.1. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II.H. A Bibliography. Vol. J. 1998. H.

J..2. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Neusner. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . Vol. The Arabic manuscript tradition. de. 2001.. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. 2001. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl.1.. A. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. A. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. and Chilton. ISBN 90 04 12000 9.. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. Ch. Band 56 Avery-Peck. C.Band 50 Tal. J. and Chilton. B.4. A. 1 : Glossary 2001. A. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. Culture. 2000. J.J. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. and Neusner. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. R. 2001. 2000.. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography.E. B. J. 2001. A.J. Theory of Israel. Comparing Judaisms. (2 Volumes) 2000. R. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. Dialect. Neusner. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. 2001.J.J. and Society in Eastern Arabia.3. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. and Neusner. A. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. U. World View. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. 2001.