THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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................................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ................................................ XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ........................... XI Preface ..................................................

...................................................................... 177 I........ Sources/References ... ..................................................................................................... Technical terms in the glossary ........................................................ 156 2............................. 156 1................................ 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ........ 181 Periodicals ....................................................................................... 181 Bibliographies ... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK.......................................... 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ......... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES .............. 1 Abbreviations ................................... 182 General studies and surveys ..................................................... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

.................. 3................................................. 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship .... 4........ 247 Later QurÐans..................... Exhibition catalogues.......................... 256 1........... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments................................. 2............................. 256 Some specific cases . 238 a) Drawing................... 239 Lacquer ..... General studies ......... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ....................................... VIII........................................... 4...................... 226 Calligraphy ........................................................................ 6....................... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works........ ....... etc....................................................................... 8......................... 247 1................ 236 Painted illustration ........................................ 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper.. 2................................... 238 b) Other studies ...................................................................................................................................................... 259 ......................................... 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas .......................................... 240 Papercuts ..................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration ......................................... 5............................... 242 c) Other studies......................................................................................................... 7............. 3....................................... TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ......................... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues ................................................... 251 Facsimile editions .. 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) .................................... 243 2... 241 Bookbinding .....................................................) .................................................................................................................. 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries ... 255 IX................................................... 242 b) Pre-18th century texts .............................................................. 242 a) Bibliography.................................

. Descriptions of collections and catalogues ... COLLECTIONS....................................... 5.. 266 266 267 267 268 .. CATALOGUING.......... 266 1........ 4........X CONTENTS PREFACE X..... ............................... 263 XII................. 261 XI..................................................... PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ....................... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ...................................................... 3................................................... CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS. 2........ ETC........ Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts .. Catalogues of catalogues ..................

David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. Last but not least. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. . My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text.

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This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. Arab authors. both religious and scientific in nature. 2). Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. Along with this manuscript output. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. scholars. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. the preparation of inks. VII. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. papermaking and bookbinding.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

 DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-. the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7.).VKE O G 1231).10/16th cent.

EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO. RI .

Furthermore. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials.

al-Durr al-na{ G (TP).984/1577). which deals with the preparation of inks. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. Finally. as well as on the collation and correction of books. who in his work on education. lineation).

unless their exact meanings could not be verified. bound and decorated. book lovers and cataloguers. as well as extant specimens. It brings together. even in its present form. which spans almost 14 centuries. especially those relating to book formats. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. e. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar.g. for the first time. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. The glossary is a by-product. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. as it were. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. medieval and postmedieval texts. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. could be very misleading.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. corrected. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. some of the most important research in this field published to date. respectively. Nevertheless. . contemporary studies and catalogues. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. Some terms. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. To translate. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). this chapter has been omitted. writing surfaces and implements used. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings.

udhn (‘ear’. case (box). inkwell and the like. Here. Ñaqb. been largely omitted here. raddah (Levant).PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. may have been used exclusively in those circles. for example. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. period and/or region in which they were employed. outer or inner margin). flap). recto. Thus. Therefore. great caution is in order. upper margin. lower margin. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. envelope flap). the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. fore-edge. Thus. flap). This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. medallion. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. for example. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). fore-edge). khadd (‘cheek’. catch- . catchword. Some. Ñaqib (‘heel’. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. miqlab (Levant. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. marjiÑ (Morocco). wajh (‘face’. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. incipit. catchword). book cover). on the other hand. raÐs (‘head’. and V TLÃah (Yemen). North Africa). The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. We do not. OLV Q (‘tongue’. recto. however. however. for example. upper cover). Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. as yet. OLV Q (central Arab lands). serif. Áadr (‘chest’. Here we find. Iraq).

Most words are traced to a source. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. either contemporary or earlier. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary.XVI PREFACE word). the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script. . As far as transliteration is concerned. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. On the whole. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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from Pers.). DB. 107. syn. 18-19. of minfadh (q. among other things. I. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. 154. RN. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. 104. 8). ebrû. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI.) (DD. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). II. SD. MB.EU . 8). AG. IA. 13. ST. 103. TS. muµabbar – sewn (KC. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. GA.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. 392). III. I. 176-178) 2. index. SA. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar.v. ibar) – needle (UK. ibrah (pl. 59. 12. 182).  EU  ZDUDT DO. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. 97. I. AG. GA.v. 97-98. 9. 107. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 2: ibrishmah). miµbar 1. needle case (DM) 2. I. 60. 215. I. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah.

 .

LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP. LEU VLP.

taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. 62. explicit (TP. n. I. 53). DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). abbrev. ilá NKLULK – et cetera.14). (DB. – closing matter of the text (composition).

52). primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. I. MF. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. 63. IW. I. 106-108) 2. AE. leather (UK. 71-72. udum) 1. adam(ah). passim. DG P (pl. tanned red leather (DB. – etiquette (EI. 175-176). scribal etiquette 2.

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. MU. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. XIV.

jild. DGG P – tanner (DM). DG K SO DGDZ W.. comp.

g. tool. instrument. DGDZ W O W. e. – V\Q ODK (EI. implement. I. 345).

writing MB. 153-156. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

JKXU E – the last hour of day. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 250). VI.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV.

Oá (al-uwal) (1-10). al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).NKLUDK DO-ukhar. al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. alDZ NKLU . RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al.

al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. 248-249). VI. e. li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. -30) (SA.g.

EQ . 106. EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . 178).g. VI.VI.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . II. 244-249).DP O 3 VK 73  CI. nos. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. 235).EQ . e. al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. 244-248).

al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9. -248).

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. ER. 6$ 9. ar„ \DK – background (LC.C. taµU NK-L PDODN . 218: ar  \DW DO-matn. 22.1st 5509 B. JL. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. FZ. 670). IV. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). X.D. 262. (EI.

 .

II. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah).GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. XVK UDK. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ.

90. IA. MB. a¦l (pl. 15. sifr 4. IB. AG. 11. 59. KM. 103. 10: ishfah. uÁ O. ST. punch (TS. 115). IK. I. 107. 43: VKDI . – awl.

 .  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9...

MU. II. exemplar. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). 27) 3. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. VIII. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. MH. 26. SD. original (main) text. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh.

. . XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. MI. 136). 2024. but also 0= .

126. 23) 4. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. SM. major work (TM. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. 24. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. headpiece (LC. FT. UI. ià U W XÃur) 1. frame (within a border) (TF.e. . 145). i. textual surround (LC. 402) 2. rule-border. I. 27) 6. DB. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. . rules. 29) 5. rectangular panel (LC. 80) 3. 928). border (of a book cover) (LC. 24. i¨ U (pl. KR. 25. tabula ansata (UI. 24).  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. 24.

581-582). DIVK Q (Pers.8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-. 32).) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. according to other sources al. 46). taµO I DK. writing circa 1375’ (DW. 6. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. ER. I.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages.

taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W. (pl.

muÐDOODI W. muµallaf (pl.

1 . ummah . X. comp. . work (of prose or poetry) (SD. I. compilation. writer. – composition. 360). EI. comp. muÁannif. taÁQ I muµallif – author. umm. 33.

SO XPPDK W.

I. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. SD. umm al-NLW E 1. archetype (LC. 246) 3. . I. . 130) 4. exemplar. used in mosques (KN.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. 29). 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. 26). TM. 35. copy. original (main) text. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. transcript (from which another copy is made). shar¨ (IN. as opposed to a commentary. 26.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

textus receptus (NT. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. KF. 39). Umm al-qurá. II. 37. II. archetype. . codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. LP P – exemplar. II. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. 99. Umm al-EXOG Q. 294).

2812). LL. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. I. 99). II. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). xiv. (CI. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. tadabbur. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. abbrev.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. II. comp.

or /'    $'  (. . .

XQE E DK. FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã.

SO DQ E E.

KU. – unpared. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. II. 370). 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). LM. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. 31). III. LQV see sinn. 31. III. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. unnibbed reed (FN. BA. 370. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ.

incipit. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). I.14. JA. (TP. 52. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. initia. AA. n.

 .

taµZ O (pl. taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM).

g. – interpretation. explanation (e. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q.

 **** PDEW U 1. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. incomplete (of text) (KC. imperfect. baŒr (pl. 34). passim) 2. acephalous. bu¨ U.

33. – panel on a book cover. cartouche (TS. 110. . AG. JL. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' .

40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). . tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. badal. bidl '% . 355). WDENK U – fumigation (TS.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 .. [LLL. RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &.

wifq (US. II. conjectural substitution. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. conjecture. suppl.3. alteration (CL. 59-60. stitution. MZ. I.3-4. RU badal respectively (KG. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. EI. fasc. 49. SD. comp. 412) 2. 296). 100-103). also WDEG O – subal-matn. fasc. DT. 153-154. .

DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ).84. II. lin. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. I. papyrus sheet or roll (DB. VIII. 64-66). 417. comp.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . EI. 407. qirà V mibrad – file. IV. 60. DD. IA. I. 390: for trimming). rasp (HT. QS. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). 521-522. EDUG \DK – papyrus. sifr 13. WS. publishing (KM.

 . LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. I. 545).

– endband (headband) (ST. 8. ST. IB. 81. EDUVK P. 17-18.148). n. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . index.

 al-PXE UDN DK.

ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.

etc. nuskhah. ELUN U SO EDU N U. DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ.

– compass.  '0. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 . (pair of) dividers (SA. III.9.

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

. 18). 12. Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS.

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

 ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. 154: IK. 49). III.v. 85. EDUU \DK. KK. ELU \DK – paring.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. bary.). trimming (of a reed ) (IR. 232. 455 6. SA. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU.

DA: mibzagh. SD.. 81). 591). as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . index. 8. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. 90. 88. I. IK. – pen knife (AA. flattening (of a letter). 64.. DB. mibzaq – lancet-like knife. MP. bas¨ – spreading out. I.   $6 .

120) 2. horizontal stroke. AS. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. original (comprehensive). KH. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. comp. mukhtaÁar. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. 34. jazm (IK. rectilinear (of a script. III. PDEV ¨ 1. syn. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. 87) 3. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). unabridged work. line (KU. 144) 4.

13. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. 144). – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. TW. 47. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. maÁ ¨if. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. basmalah SO EDV PLO. 322). 365.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

161.111) 2.97. and opening a composition (TP. I. 23-24. silk endband (headband) (HT. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. ST. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. 78. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. piece. also known as al-JKXE U (q. bi¨ TDK (pl. bashr 1.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. HT. 12). baà Ðiq) 1. register (AD. EI. 155). buà Q. 58. ba¨n (pl. 145). dressing (of leather) (UK. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. 78: ‘racler. ratisser des peaux’. IA. 52. catalogue.) (AS. index. 109. LF. lin. 63. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. 58. LF.v. 9. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. TS. erased. MP. bashra¨ 1. AG. PDEVK U – pared. paring. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). slip (of paper) 2. 1084-1085). lin.

inner cover. E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. flesh side (of parchment). ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. al-NLW E.

73-79) 3. paste-down endpaper. IA. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. 117. 89. UK. doublure (TS. HT. 47. passim. 408) 2. HD. 22-23. MA. IB. 102. doublure (LC. baà Ðin) 1. lining (FT. IV. 49. AG. 159. lin. bi¨ QDK (pl. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. endleaf (ST. – inner cover. endpaper. pasteboard (UK. MB. 112). 60. 23.

 EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . 92). .

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. MU. 9. index. lining of the insides of book covers with paper. leather or silk (ST.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. XIV.

bary. 370). used for a transposed word. BA. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. 87). 2. II. removal of sha¨mah (q. 61. MB.v. /( . ba¶du – after. comp. paring (of the calamus) (KD.) from the reed (IK. III. abbrev.

 ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. separation (MM.20). 53. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. n. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). tab¶ „ – word division.

105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. 156. 103. etc. biUN U WDEN U. 59. 44. IB. measuring distances. IA. comp. 153. (pair of) dividers (UK. 103. 105). MB. 104. TU. MP. (MB. – compass. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 58. 101. 60.

mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. 391). 59). mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. IA. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. DD. comp. I. MB. 42. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. 380. IB. 103. 153.

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

45: EXO JK).  EDO . 268.9 SO. 56. JA. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O .GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . I. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin. comp. damaged (TS. TP. E OLQ – worn.119. CT.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

IV. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). kha¨¨L E KDU. 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. E E SO DEZ E. 36). EI.

– chapter. abbrev. . 0.

609. comp.20). WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. IV. 376). TP. mubawwib – compiler (DF. n. bayt SO EX\ W. murattib. 53.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 31. AG. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. compartment (in such a box) 3. . frame (as part of the border. Ãurrah) (TS. Bayt al-Maqdis. 110) 4. AG. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. 33). 97. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. KR. 32. 82). 31-33. 110). 95.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. also TS. 97. 95. 110). . 30-31. tibr – gold.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 82). 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . gold dust (AQ. KR. AG.

 takht SO WXNK W.

also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. HT. index. earth. KU. wooden pressing board (TS. 42. 6. 120). IV. 82. 9. 22. 127-. WXU E – dust. IB. 107) 3. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. KM. 24. sifr 13. index. 94. 156. I.  . TD. AG. sand.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. 9). lin.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 6$ II. 478-480).

28. 28) 4. 165). chapter heading (IN. 122) 3. key word (LC. title (of a book) (LC. indicating its contents (DB. detailed title of a book. II. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK .  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. AH.

g. 27) 7.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. medallion) . 27) 8. 27) 6. paragraph (LC. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. headpiece or tailpiece (LC.g. disc) or margins (e.

29. mutarjim 1. DB. translation (EI. 270). 1021). 260. IT. 224) 12. tirs. also mutarjam (e. 30) 9. 224) 10. cryptography (AA. exegesis (DB. II. X. illuminator (TW. X. 1021) 13. translator. turs SO WXU V. interpretation. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. 186. biography (EI. biographer 2. 28.g. ‘QaÁ GDW . II. biographical note. explanation.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. 29-31.

rosette (HD. WDWP P – completion. 97. 95. 69. 82). corner-piece (ST. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. execution. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. shamsah. 103. 44) 3. IB. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 116). 9. 145. comp. writing tamma (lit. taftar see daftar. IP. PA. oval. index. LC. turunj(ah) 1. 28) 2. 15). KR. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. illuminated oval medallion.

finish. 177-178). comp. xiii). supplement . . tatimmah – supplementation. talisman (EI. [LLL at the end of the colophon. RU CM. . &. WDP Ðim) – amulet. II. comp. continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). X. ¨add. WDP PDK (pl. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. 46). WDP P – end. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). abbrev.

FK.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. 101. 100. no. copying (MH. II.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E.

atKE W. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’. thabat (pl.

288: syn. document. written testimony (SD. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. muÑjam. 157) 2. I. record of attested study (HB. GA. 234.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text.

usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. authentication (formula).  WDEOH RI contents. vocalization (AD. WKDE W – signature (SD. I. also WDWKE W – attestation. LWKE W 1. 18) 2. 157).

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

muthabbit. 289). GA.25. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. 45. CT. n. 53.

mithqab SO PDWK TLE. 45). 330). writer of the audition note (MH. 101. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. I. CT. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶.

147). – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. AS. ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. 107). WKDT O (lit. 11. III. AG. .

hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. T OLE.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ.in Persia. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. 349). 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. I. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G.9 . al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. TU. . abbrev. III. 51). JM. 1125in Turkey). (TN.

VII. DO-thumn. 795-. octagon (EI. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal.

I. 361). I.VI. Taf. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points).  RU &. abbrev. see also mashÐalah. . . muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below.13. 232-234) . 361). MI. SA. 232-234.. 102). PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. 12. [LY )0 167. MZ. VI. no. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL.

decorative medallion or panel. either illuminated or stamped (KI.GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .

88.  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 87.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK . 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . JL.

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

restoration (KR. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. nos. 87). jabr – repairing. 100). 99). 43). repair (SJ. 99. interlace (TF. restoring manuscripts. corner-piece (JL.41. 83. braid. 141). PDMG O SO PDM G O. WDMG G – repair. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. mending. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion.

160) 2. I. rules. TW. 24) 4. 26). magic square. 108). also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). diagram. talismanic seal (EI. 63) 3. no. 42). 56. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. mujadwal – ruled (LC. table (LC. table of contents (CM. 370. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1.6/2) 6. creating rule-borders (WB. 148. 50. II. column (of text) (SD. 32). ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. chart. KC. DT. – leather strap. . thong (KC. 175) 5. 33.

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ . FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah.   ..

II. inventory (SD. abridgement (SD. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . KF. 112. I. scraper (MB. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. register. I. DG. 107. mijrad(ah) – file.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). DD. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . WDMU G 1. 183). 27). jard al-matn see matn. I. MDU GDK – list. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. extract. 184.

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

jirm wasaÃ. majran SO PDM ULQ. HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. passim). jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ.

62). shaving (MB.8 154). jazz – trimming. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . IA. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. passim: Œazz.

inset (UI. 19. n. VII.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. KF. MU. 132. . also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. I. rough copies 2.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. 103).

79. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). AI. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. single-quire codex. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. booklet.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1.

mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. DEEUHY RU (CI. independent. 128). I. 90). 711). xii) 4. VII. 705). 128) 6. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. small piece of writing. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. usually not more than a quire (IJ. II. tomaison) (SJ.

 jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. 90). jazm – reed pen. 87: qalam jazm. 38). MP. 143. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 7-9. LL. I. 89. 421). having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. IK. 99. MB. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

13). . LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS. for other signs representing jazmah see GL. 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. 23). 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). – background (UK. WDMV G – tinting in red (AD.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

. )1   ..  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ .. .

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. 1123). G Z Q MDO (SA. IV. III. .

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

mujallid – bookbinder (QS. 47. 416-417). 123 and IX. 26). II. VIII. majlis SO PDM OLV.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. LC.

. .  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. VIII. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. – session. sitting. 1020). majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI.

KU. jalam SO DMO P. julfah – nib (of the calamus. 459-460. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. II. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary).

IR. 91-92. IK. abbrev. -XP Gá al. 230).NKLU.Oá. -XP Gá al. – (pair of) scissors (DS.NKLUDK DO. II. CI. CM.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. no. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. 89. / / (OS. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar.

compilation. III. abbrev. contraction (of letters) (KU. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. 89). M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2.9 . composition. 126. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. 34) 3. SA. / (OS. rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH.

  FN. 352).  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. major original compilation. e. the QurÐ Q 8. . FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ .g.

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

 FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ). III. II. 359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W.

106. 393) 1. DG. codex compositus (LC.  composite volume. 32) 2. jumal. box (NM. 233. TM. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. 683) 4.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). 13) 3. 217. 37. 12. 25). jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. case with compartments (TS. escritoire (TW. writing case. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). NH. 52. inkwell 6' . AG. 380). 52. SD.  '' . case. tool box. I. mujamma¶ (UA.

MI. II. knife (TS. 109. xiv. 145). (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts.) (AS. IA. index. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. – book cover (ST. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. ajwibah) – responsum. MDZ E (pl. ST. IA. index. (CI. better known as al-JKXE U (q. 110. abbrev. 61. 11. 10). MDQ Œ (pl. AG. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB.v. 10).111). 107: for cutting gold leaf .

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

LB. certificate of transmission. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . 126-130. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. 273-275. 27. – authorization. IJ). 24. EI. VIII. licence. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. III. ER. 1020-1021.

GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah.9 . 181). . LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (.

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license). M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH.

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

AT. 133. DS. 468. 381: jawn. 154: wa-al-M EDK . 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. 179. II. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. KU. NH. SA. LQNZHOO (HI.

also known as waqabah. (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. see also the quotation under miqlamah).

 **** Œibr (pl. a¨E U.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. 8. KM. 6: wa-al- . n. MP. -100 and MB. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. 101-110 and MB. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. 18-21. IV. Œibr al-raqq. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks.53. UK. IR. MP. 13. sifr 13. MJ.

I. AE. IK. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. AT. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. 134-135. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . 349. IK. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. MA. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . SA. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. MR. 127-131. II. LM. IV. see LL.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr.

ma¨ ELU. 354). miŒbarah (pl. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. embellishment (DB. III. 2016).

. SA. II.  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ . III. 372.  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: .

II. SA.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. 443. 468-.

Œubs (pl. I. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). muŒabbir – author. taŒE U 1. WR. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. 15. inscribing in ink (SM. SK. a¨E V. 87. elegant. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. embellished writing (composition) or copying. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. 89). compiler (SS. SA. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. II. inking. 119). transcription (TE.

 taŒE V (pl. ta¨E V W.

endbanding with silk 2. also Œabkah – endband (headband). bequest note (LC. IA. TS. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). 109.. Œabk 1. 132) 3. 28). decorative endband (UK. MM. 18-20.. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% .15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. 104 ff. MB. . 157. n. AG. 62. waqf. comp. sewing..  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. stitching (of a book) (TM. 154.

 VSLQH 74 .

19. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 109). 19. 109. AG. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. AG.

 .

n. 109). ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. AG. 19. AD. 19. I. 19. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. 109). 28). 478). AG. 11. 246). al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. bookbinder (IB.

Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. 10). miŒjar. (OS. ajar al-¨XP ¨im). – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. Œajar al-misann – whetstone. 69). abbrev. ¨ujub) – talisman. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). ma¨ MLU. ŒLM E (pl. 60). 89). maŒjar (pl. hone (TS. amulet (DT. Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS.

38. MP. 142: 12. index. UK. 36) 2. MB. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB.10. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U .  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. 36). 99. AG. 107. ST.

$ . .

2733.H. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U. FN.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A.

 FRPS . I .

honing (of a knife) (KD. II. taŒG G – whetting. Œadd (pl.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. ¨XG G. 711).

ŒDG G DK. – limit. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. end.

10. ¨XG U. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. (pl. 59). 393. AG. 59. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. MJ. Œadr (pl. 29. 105. 31. MB. MP. 188). taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. IA. 109. 138). TS.

e. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. editing (of a manuscript text). contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. compiler (SS. AQ. AF. TE. fair copying (TE. copying. 246) 7. DB. MU. 16) 5. XVII. 16) 6. transcription (TE.g. 64. EI. muŒarrir – 1. ornamental surround. 50). redaction (CM. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. TE. 10. 16. editor. with black ink (TE. calligrapher.. composition (GA. secretarial style of shikastah script. III. 145.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. 2408. 15) 4. ER. 48. PA. outline. 701. 214) 8. muŒarrar (pl. 13. index. 58. 119) 2. comp. AG. 215-227). frame. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. penman. elegant writing. 73) 2. ŒDU U – silk (ST. revised version (edition). author. 286). mu¨DUUDU W. 52. ÁaÑd. 50. 15) 3. 109. IV. SK. IP. IV. taŒU U 1. – descender (down-stroke. terminal of a letter) (AA. 38. 15. IV. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. 1124. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ .

Œard al-matn see matn. . calligraph (DP. 53). – piece of calligraphy.

GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl. a¨U ] ¨XU ].

maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. IV. e. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. 69).g. – talisman. amulet (DT.

al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. DS. trimming (HT. LM. sharp edge (of a knife.. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. KK. e. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. taŒU I 1. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam.  . ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. Œarf (pl.9 . 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% .80-86). 39-42) 2. ¨iraf) – edge. 596-560).  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. II. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. 230. 463. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. III. error. 549). cutter). variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. LL.' . miŒra„ah. letter. Œarf (pl. II.g. distortion. border. lin. word 2. I.

 FRPS TLU Ðah. .

641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. ¨DUDN W. MQ. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. 224). 57. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. Œarakah (pl. falsification (of a text). MJ. comp. III. 59.32 GLOSSARY  08 .

65. KD. Mecca and Medina. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. comp. miŒU N – spatula. 112-113. II. MB. shakl. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. vowelization (DM). MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. 8). taŒU N – vocalization. 393). 704. – vowel (GL. UA.

v. 89). (OS. abbrev. a¨] E.). al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. Œizb (pl. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

11). azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. ST. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 11. 28. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. ST. index.. Œazm .

chronosticon (TP. III. ŒLV E – calculation. 54: EI. computation. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. 468). .

¨DZ VKLQ. abbrev. EI. see SA. VI. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. 302). 269-270. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like .GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. II.

marginalia. apostil. collection of glosses. 217-219.112. MD. 109) 3. scholium. 119. border (on a book cover) (MB. IA. 118. margin (of a page) 4. lin. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. 63) 2. often abbreviated as or . MB. FZ.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. IA. 63.

gutter.54. interpolation. ¨DZ VKLQ. pl. 412. 145. 89-90). 30. EI. parenthesis. 1820). FI. IX. FT. 73  00 139. 222. DB. 268-269. 65. 71) 2. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 60. 110. IV. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. 977). JM. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. AS. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. Œ VKLQ (pl. Œashw(ah) 1. III. 63. AG.

296.74. . trimming (of a reed) (BA. 332). nos. II. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . gloss (AM. 34). muŒashshin – glossator. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. 322. glossed. AD. Œa¦ramah – paring. (MI. 26. abbrev. III. taŒshiyah – glossing. xi. CI.

I. no. transcription (FK. 546).89. taŒ¦ O – copying. .

v. 107. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. polisher (KM.31). IB. ÑDU T W. smoothing leather (ST. n. sifr 4. 60. comp. IA. I. 118: mikhaÃà (!). often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. 5. 34). burnisher. MB. 6.). 29.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. TS. AG. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders.

frame (SD. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. I. headpiece (LC. 302) 2. 24). Œa„ UDK (pl. 34. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . 35. surround. RN. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). KH.

miŒfa„ah – case. 51). ŒLI „ (pl. small box (DG. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . 55. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. memorization (TP. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. NT. 44) 2. box (KC. Œif„ – learning by heart. a¨fiÌah). II. preservation.

 FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . critical edition (of a text) (MH. MR. text editing. 89.

editor. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. muŒaqqiq – corrector.

III. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. 13) 2. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. 12.U T and alZDUU T (FN.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

IV. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. comp. 78.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA.in Persia. 1125.in Turkey). LM. 1123. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. EI. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. III. IR. TU. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU.

scroll (in design) (UI. miŒakk(ah). 104. IA. 137). 141) 2. 31). qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo.) (UK. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). IA. NH. syn. syn. 392. 112. ¨alaq. ¨DODT W.v. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB.) (DD. MM. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. 62) 2. 59) 3. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. miŒakk al-rijl 1.v. Œakk – rubbing out. pumice (MB. erasure. mibrad (q. I. 58. effacement (TP. Œalqah (pl.

27). ma¨ O T. scholar’s circle (SL. AI. 372) 2. part of a clasp) (BA. 48.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. III. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. II. study circle.

AB. – tendril (FT. 422. . 136. 139).

Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. taŒliyah – decoration. embellishment (KT. 204-209). al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah. taŒP G DK. Œilyah. 416).36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. 150-151).

122-123). EI. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. rubrication. TB. 24) 2. rubrics (CM. 53. n. 95). red ink (LC. red colour. III.20. Œumrah 1. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. 38. TP.

15. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. book cradle (TC. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. codex (MA. WA.  ‘pupitre’). ME. 86) 3. exemplar. also miŒmal. 566. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. 69). ÑUthmanic canon. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. 24). 56-57. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. amulet (DT. IV. sifr 13. IV. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. maŒmil 1. ta¨ Q VK. 55). 169. archetype (KM. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. 286. TW. 29). TP. 24. ŒDP ODK (pl. LC. taŒQ VK (pl. TP. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . 51). ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support.

(pair of) dividers (IB. interlace (TF. ST. 58. . 44). compass. index. rope work.) (MP. 143) 3. 11) 2.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. 138.

GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. II.  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O. 700).

miŒwar (pl. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). ma¨ ZLU.

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

 FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). 138. 144). maΠU DK. as opposed to the border (TF.

483). TP. 149-150). 104-105). 97. Œ µil. MH. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. 58: as a means of cancellation. 171. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 665). ¨awr (LL. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. Œawqalah. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). I. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. II. 99. TP. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. 109.

73 . abbrev. RQH LVQ G from another.

 .

tooling 2. sealing. 31). **** NK QDK – compartment. 35). stamping. MI. tool. 24. seal. 3. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. khatm 1. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U .38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. colophon (TM.g. stamp. 214) 3. panel (in decoration) (UI. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e.

khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' . RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS).

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .9 . – 1.

 .. NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P .

NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. 29. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. 130. 110. DT. 169. 109. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. I. AG. 34. OS) 2. talismanic seal (DT. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. . 108) 3. e.9 1105. 63). NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star).g. IA. 144). CI.

conclusion.14) 3. 5. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. 8. . colophon (UI. LNKWLW P 1. FT. 396) 4. 52. 108). epilogue 2. explicit. tailpiece (HD. n.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ . – inner or outer margin (IM.

 takh„ ¶ – rounding. 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. also LVWLNKU M (TW. backing (of the spine) (HN. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. 385).

RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

58.  omission. insertion. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . 187-188.0 . comp. la¨aq (TP. TM. ) 4.

XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. transcription (TW. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. 169) 7. reference mark (signe de renvoi).  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. I. KF. WDNKU MDK 1. quotation (TM. I. copying. insertion 2. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . omission. extract from a book. pl. 718). 58..73: in the form of a curved line. ÑaÃfah. n.) . 606) 6. or a caret.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukhraj – insertion (MH. mukharraj.

. IV. catchword. LVWLNKU M 1. mukharrij – compiler. mustakhrij. 126130). excerpting. NM. 384. TW. selector (DF. II. 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. vox reclamans (MA. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. 39). 683). copying (DM) 2.

index. 481. DS. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. 35. 181). 12. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. II. MP. punch (SA. 99. OM). al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. 59). mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ST. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl.40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS.

70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94). khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK.

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

 DQVD roundel. khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. Ã P. palmette (KH. comp. Ãurrah. 36).

MI. 60. comp. index. 114. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. 481) 2. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. 154. HT. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. kharm 1. 15. lin. blank. MB. undoing the sewing (ST. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. II. 12. khiraq) 1. IA. gap. 17. 104. 109) 2. MB.166). sewing (of quires) (UK. II. scrap (of paper) (DM). lacuna (SJ. 59) 3. 27. 459). MP. 157. SA. polishing cloth (MB. khirqah (pl. 347.

 .

munkharim – imperfect.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. KF. 26). incomplete (TC. PDNKU P. en vrac.NKLU. fragments (HB. II. 26. 233: feuillets décousus. TC.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO.

 PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. IV. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. sifr 13. 527). II. khazz SO NKX] ].

14-15. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. maktabah. abbreviation (contraction. siglum. comp. TP. EA. NKL] QDK. suspension. GL. 107). VII. 107. AG. AD. 23-24) 3. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. abridgement. – silk. epitome (EI. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. . 536-540. II. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. 119). I. 25-26). 27. 55-56. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. AG. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. kharm and ¨azm. library. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. 159-160. comp. xiii-xiv. 46).

stroke. penmanship (ML. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. sign. calligraphy. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . mark. 34-38) 2. handwriting. writing. script. khuà Ã) 1.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl.

al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). comp. CI. 681). script (text) see also Ñajam. 83. scriptio defectiva. 144). bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of.g. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. 887: ER. III. LM. copied by (e. 114. al-DTO P DO-sittah. yad. IV. EI. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. 103). which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . 41.. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. comp.. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. 358). al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. scriptio plena.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  .8  51  $6 . used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. I. AS.

 khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .8  $6 .

I. makhà à W. paleography (KJ. makh¨ ¨ (pl. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. no. 80). 380). calligraphy (WR. penman. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. comp. 26).1. khi¨ ¨ah – writing.

LL. 60. 118. tracing. I. manuscript codex. 98. 12). implement (made of wood. writing. MB. reed pen. 760. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. 103. 760). 110) 2. calamus (AA. . 555. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). takh¨ ¨ 1. index. UA. I. drawing (MB. mikha¨¨ 1. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. ruling (of lines). IA. 110. tracer (ME.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. straightedge (LL. 61) 2.

khi¨ E (pl. speech 2. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n.1). Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. honorific (e.g. letter. sifr 13. IV. address. akhÃibah) 1. note.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM.

MB. NKDI I (lit. AG. X. 14). abbrev.g.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. 53. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. 25. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. IA. 123). RIWen unpointed) (GL. 18. 105. 156. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. 109). epitome. 145). trimming (TS. extract. 59. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. TP. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah).20). n. preface (LC. abridgement. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. 44: ornament). mukhtaÁar. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. IB. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. comp.

XVII. MH. 52. 273. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. . LNKWLO I – variant reading. TP. XII. 46. 58). varia lectio (e. MU. XI. 95.g.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

126. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1.

 SO WDNK P V.

95. 50.). 401). al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. I. AD. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 123-125). PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. pentameter (SD. 97). – pentastich amplification of a poem. 405. X. LNKWL\ U. EI. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT.v.

mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. 94-95). 12. 12. 107-108). 12). index.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ .e. index. IB. 109). 43. – anthology (EA. MB. index. I. endbanding without silk (TS. i. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). 19. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. IR. thick needle (ST. AG.

 .

G E M SO GDE E M.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. 250). VI. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA.

84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. – silk brocade (MU. XIV.

exordium. preface. G E MDK 1. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY.

v). of fataÐammal(hu) (q. 65. 115). 127. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. reflection. 52. TW. PA. headpiece. creating headpieces (AD. WDGE M 1. composition (of a text) (DM). /& ) 2. GLE JK DK. tadabbur – consideration. frontispiece (MD. adorning something with arabesques. 259) 2. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah.

MP.3-4. suppl. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. 114-115. I. IA. EI. 60). fasc. 172). 63. – tanning (MB.. 140-143. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G.

  IR. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.

 al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. dirj :6 . darj.

SO GXU M DGU M.

I. I. 141. SA. LL. 138: al- . 68. 868: also daraj. parchment or paper (AJ. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. roll. IK. 138. rotulus (IK.

$  Q.46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

142) 3. inset (SD. AG. dast(ah) SO GXV W. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. darmak – farina. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. dirafsh – awl. I. 287). punch (IA. 13. 432). 107). 60).

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

96. 81. IB. kaff 3. MA. PT. comp. wide polisher. IA. I. GXVW U SO GDV W U. MB. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. 92. rizmah. SD. 92. WS. 94. 39. AB. 105. 145. 59. 156. 44). burnisher (UK. IV. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). 524) 2.

 KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN..) .  .  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP .

 DXWKRU’s original. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. I. holograph (LC. 23) 3.

book consisting of loose leaves (KF. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. HB. II. . unbound book. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). dasht – loose leaves.

AA.+ 35). pious invocation. hence mudgham – contracted.GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl.. II. 150-156). 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . adÑiyah) 1. TP. assimilated (KU.. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. ‘prayer of request’ (EI.  . supplication. 54.g. daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. etc. (see e. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. formula of benediction. 617-618) 2.

al-daffah al. index. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. ST.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. book cover. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. index.Oá (ST. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). 13). 13). also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. index. 104) 3. pasteboard (ST. 13.

SO GDI WLU.

63. notebook (e. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). pen wiper (SA. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. fine writing (TM. II.. KK. bound or unbound codex . 40 x 14 cm. 4. . 77-81. 48. I. 14 leaves. pounding (MP. register (EI. n. 192). 108. see LS) 2. 29. daqq 1. 481). II. account book.g. volume (IK. . 60) 2. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). QRV  096) 3. IA. rubbing. taftar (SK. Daftar kutub. 321.18) 3. 22-25. SL..

118. AG. 110. sifr 4. KR. I. KM. burnishing.163. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. 23. index. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. NH. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. waraq damghah see waraq. OH. 13. 461). glazing (ST. I. FJ. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. HT. 107). MB.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). SD. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. 48-50. 139). midlak – polisher. lin. GDON WDGO N – polishing. 11. 217. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. 87). 85.

E GDK – Yazd. 230: LL.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. I. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. Tabriz. 905-906). grease. ' U DO-¶. Herat. oil. Isfahan.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. 927). ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . . mudhun – container for oil (IR. midhan. ' U DO-. – fat. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad.

GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1. circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .  73 .

disc (UK. i. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). roundel. 56. UD. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. 105. JA. straight. MB. WDGZ U 1. 156. medallion. TS. 30. I. ta¨U I. even (as opposed to oblique. 59) 5.g. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. (5) 4. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. e. round motif in textual or book cover decoration.e.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP.

curvilinear (e. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. 10. LM. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. hence PXVWDG U – round. 39-40) 2. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 61) 3. 22.g. 35). rounding (of the spine) (IA. LM. RN. 9.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

collecting (collection). I. EI. EI. sifr 13. WDGZ Q 1. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. SA. chancellery (KM. UHJLVWHU account book. writing down (of ¨DG WK. I. II. IV. 323. 129. office. II. 323). 90) 2. collection of poems written by one author (DM). 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf.

 .  73 . (.

15. TE. transcription (LC. copying. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . UI. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. 28.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

1125-6). GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. IV. IURP which it is derived (EI.

370) 2. escritoire.  LQNZHOO . BA.. 169-170. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. . KU. -85. III.

) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. UK. 73). 440-443. memorandum. 53) 2. wiper and sand) (SA. dhabr. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. 203-204. 77. X.3-4. ER. GDZZ µ. DG. aide-mémoire (EI. MB. 372) 2. AT. ND. fasc. suppl. 53). descender (of a letter) (AA. II. tadhkirah 1. 54. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. midhbar see mizbar. III.v. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. 137-139). 713. 65. II. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1.50 GLOSSARY ruler.132-133. EI. VII.

 X. 53). dhanab SO DGKQ E. +%  (.

¨arf (SA. 130-132. I. MB. dhahab. 983: ‘water-gold. 59). (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . 477. UK. LC. etc. 13). al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. I. LL. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. 25. paint (MU. index. III. WDGKQ E – appendix. 89-91. 24. – tail (foot) of a letter. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. 21).V. UD. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. 226. II.’). supplement (AD. SA. 151).

IX. 27. AS. KA. writing with liquid gold. 145). TE. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. 15. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. WDGKK E 1. gilding. chrysography (LC. 222.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA.

 SO WDGK K E.

15). 141). 27. JLOW REMHFW 6' . WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. 132. mudhahhib – gilder. dhayl SO GKX\ O. 490). chrysographer (AB. MU. XV. 385). TE. LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. PA.

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

23). dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. lower margin. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. 206). ruÐ V. al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW.

 KHDG RI D letter. 107. 24. 61) 3. beginning of something. III. LC. IA. frontispiece (LC. raµs al-waraqah. 109. upper margin (TS. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. as opposed to the spine (MB. 172). 26) 2. 26). (qalam) al-riµ V .g. i. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. IA. page or book. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. 109). sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. 108. fore-edge of the codex. character. envelope flap (MB. 62) 4. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . 14.e. e.g. 26). e. 136. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. raµs al-NLW E). TM. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. raµs al-¦afŒah. SA.

65). 12. 226. 215). 13) 2. 213. AQ. 236. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). MO. JM. vox reclamans (NZ. KH. WDUZ V 1.. 146. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . script akin to a large naskh. 144. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ.. RN.5 -242. 83-84. (qa¨¶ or T OLE.202/817-8) (FN. 126. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. 100). FZ. 35. HI. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . 30. U EL¨ah – catchword. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. 33. AS.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. TU. 37. 84. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. 100.

DO-rub¶. 5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah.

NKLU (al-PXE UDN. abbrev. CM. 5DE ¶ al. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). 89. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . / / (OS.

rabaÑ W. – the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl.

 VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' . .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  6' .21. nos. MS. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +.  &$ .  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. 48. 51.

stalk (?) (TS. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. 11. 109). AG.128). lin.

arrangement (of the text). composition (MU. 50. AM. I.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K .170) 2. no. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam.

II. murattib – author.20). 384. compact writing. 53. compiler (DF. mubawwib. copying (KM.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. 72). ratm – close. IV. comp. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. SS. n. sifr 13.

 Rajab (al-murajjab. abbrev. al-aÁabb.  26 . al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm.

often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. VIII.   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . 376). raj¶ (pl. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). didactic poem (EI. .1 . XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory.

comp. 17) 2. retouchage (of a letter). polychrome illumination (TE. 252). writing in bold characters (TE. WDUM ¶ 1. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. MJ. I. IV. III. AG. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). UXM ¶ – reference. sifr 13. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. 513: ‘barrage. I. muÑallaqah. 99. 28. source (in a text) (IN. 109). 17. KM. FRPS SD. retouching. barrière qui ferme une rivière’.

epilogue (AD.  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. 62). .

n.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 31: MD. 13). al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. RI. 137. ST.185). raŒl(ah) – book cradle. index.% 81. index. 13). al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . index. book support (MD. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶.13.

419. UXNK P DK. 1055. 1223. 1035. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. 3099. comp. VA. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. 1062. numrah) (TP. 1038. 294. nos. 3185). abbrev.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 584. 54. 2152.

ST. AG. IA. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. 103. OM). pl. 11. 10. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). 14. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. . . 107. TS. raddah – envelope flap (TM. TP. marble slab (MB. XXIB). UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. 59.

GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. rizam) 1. ream (of paper). 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . 145.v. WS.) (PT. consisting of five quires. . 39. dast (q. AJ. AB. 92.

tract. LUV O DK. ULV ODK 1. 532). letter. 524: ‘cahier’). monograph (EI. epistle 2. VIII. dast 2. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. FRmp. I. treatise.

– ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð.. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ .. LM. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH.

execution. sketching (ME. drawing. copying. PA. designing. 14) 2. MB. 451-. EI. index. rasm al-muÁ¨af. rasm 1. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP.g. e.VIII. 100. 100. 561. tarassul – art of letter writing. 101. writing. 45) 3. epistolography (DM). marking. making a mark (ST.

 SO UXV P.

I. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. painter (ME. 15) 6. I. unpointed letter or word ( NO. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. I. faÁl. 528). 527) 7. comp. bi-rasm see mustanad. 527). rawsam SO UDZ VLP. line (traced with a pen) (SD. designer. I. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. 527) 5. SD. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. chapter (in a composition) (SD. 560. – stroke.

– woodcut. lin. rasm) (ST. 164) 3. index. 137). index. calamus (BA. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. 14). UDVKP WDUVK P 1. wood block (AB. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. 14) 2.129. tooling (HT. . marking (syn. 370). III.

mark (TS.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. ream (of paper) (SD. marsham SO PDU VKLP. comp. 532). 18) 2. rizmah. I. marshim.

illumination.  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. hot iron (SD. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. 135). 125) 2. tar¦ ¶ 1. 532). decoration (MS. I. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

17) 3. . 126).3 145. decoration (with liquid gold). ta¨U U TY. TE. gilding the inside of the surround (outline). covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. 103.

$) .

writing. SA. 79. III. joining letters together (AP. KH. 140. ra¦f. 35) 2. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. composition (NS. tar¦ I 1.

15. MI.    73 54. 89. II. used for the companions of the Prophet. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. AR. tar„iyah. 125). 34. 35. abbrev. KH. SL. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD.

 FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah. DQW RI \ ELV.

. istir¶ µ \DK – note. 15. 14. 16. 19. statement (LC. AS. 24). 144). – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD.

ND. 44. raqq. book support.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. 111-112). support (for an inkwell) (AA. I. 137). n. riqq SO UXT T. mirfa¶ 1.133. 231. book cradle (IN. KK. lin.11. 70) 2. 230.

calamus (IR. WS. AE.67). UDTT JKD] O see jild. KR. IK. vocalization by means of points. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). 53. UDTT ¦ – catchword. diacritical point (JA. n. -485. 60-63. mirqash – reed pen. paper or other writing surface (MU. making something multicoloured (LL. parchment leaf (ND. 85). 108-111. raqshah – pointing. I. 74-75. KJ. VIII. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. I. 105. KK. IV. KM. 683. piece (slip) of leather. 93. al-raqq al-a¨mar. 353). UDTVK WDUT VK 1. embellished writing. 105. EI. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. copying (TE. VIII. arabesque decoration (KA. 269). 17. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. LL. 230). 1135) 4. 119. IW. elegant. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. 407-410. I. AA. EP) 2.. diacritical pointing (TE. parchmenter (DG. AK. 1135) 3. 53.1. vox reclamans (NM. no. 407). UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . 17.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . SK. I. sifr 13.

rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. brief message. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk.  OHWWer. note.

1126). IV. DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. .

in Turkey). writing (KM.v. 1125. 78-82. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. IV. IV. 86). 1123. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. JM. often sewn in).in Persia.) script (AS. EI. 146. passim. patchwork. MN. sifr 13. inset (MK. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. 139. 602-603). raqm 1. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. LM. VII. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. 266) 4. AW. – piece of calligraphy. NI. 54. 41. calligraph (AC. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. DP.

  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ.. .

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

183. 17. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. III. IV. 5. I. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. TE. AM. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. 141. 244. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. IR. BA. raqn – compact writing (KM. 82. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. 17. UDT P – inkwell (KM. GA. 30). calamus (TE. III. 372. 160). 154). al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. 383. siglum (CL. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. 387-388. GA. 468-9: AN. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK.76). sifr 13. 147. 2. 106). LL. copyist (AC. IV. AW. fasc. arqam.3. no. IK. 1140). U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. mirqam – reed pen. – abbreviation. 230. KJ. no. 183). SK. 45. sifr 13.

 .

GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. IV. writing) (KM. embellishing ( a text. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. sifr 13.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

g. 109. comp. 681) 2. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. IV.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). mürekkeb) – ink (DD.73. 24-27. SA. 83). preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . 60ff). III. I. AG. 45). (Turk. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). ligature (e. murakkab 1. HT. on the line) (MY. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. WDUN E 1. 58. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. e. UA. MP. index. ¨ibr 2. 50. 393). comp. hybrid (of a script) (LM. lin. ligatured. boarding (TS. markaz SO PDU NL]. ¨ibr. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. 14. 78) 3. ST. linking (joining) one letter with another. 389.g.

– support (for reed pens) (UA. UXN ¶ . 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q.

36. EI. DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. 406). VIII. rukn SO DUN Q. juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA.

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

.5 .

69). rakwah (pl.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. 14. corner piece itself (ST. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). IB. 31. 107) 3. AG. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. II. index. 30. . 703).

60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair.0 . restoration (DM). WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ . ramz SO UXP ]. murammim – restorer.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada).

III. VIII. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. TW. 427) 4. 468. cypher.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. 159) 3. WB. VIII. 428) 2. secret alphabet (EI. code. 55. chronogram. chronosticon (EI.

209. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. .&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. V.

abbrev. Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 .

393). al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. TD. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. I. I. WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box.  '' . 478- $7  6' . 86. . 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). UA. II. 127136).

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

mik¨ O '' . UA. 1186. I. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. 393.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. LL. UXZ K. – little stick for the application of kohl. DM). syn.

varia lectio (MR. 109-111).v. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. 94). II. also known as sanad (q. tradition (traditio). transmission. – transmitter. EI. KF.) (TP. 26. link in the chain of transmission (TP. XII. 417418 and 500-501) 3. variant reading. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. 53). 53. recension (recensio) (LC. version (versio). ULZ \DK 1. 545-547) 2. VIII. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription.

EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. LM. 38. MP. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. 1125. MB. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  .in Persia. JM.in Turkey). VIII. 144. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. IV. 545-547).v. 1123. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). 43: wa-T OD . (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. 146. 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn.) script (AS. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI. 73-77.

IV. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. ]DEU WD]E U 1. copying. transcription (TE. sifr 13.). CI. I. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. 18. also dhabr – writing.v. ¨ibr. q. inscription on stone (KM.

ND. 80. zab U (pl. 444. KK. 92). work (SA. 80. copyist (TE. ND. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. II. IK. zubur) – composition. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. 18.

SA. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. 53. embellished writing. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. IK. 85. TE. 18). TE. copying (KK. calamus (TE. copying (KK. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. polychrome illumination (TE.18. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. embellished writing. IR. 18) 2. 230). II. elegant. elegant. 444-465. zakhrafah 1.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

80).  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. decorator (WR. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. 87). muzakhrif – illuminator.

Ñurwah. . 34. 25. AG. comp. 135). 110. KT. – knob (of a clasp) (TS.

.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). MN. fastener (TS. IV. V./Turk. 682. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . 689). AG. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. 19: in 12). 69. 1222). ‘hair lock’. see DC. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). decoration in gold and colours (LL. 35. index. I. ST. lit. zulf (Pers. ]LP P DK. 360) 1. 109). ]XO \MDK. zalf (MN. ‘curl’). 25. ER. zulayjah (]DO MDK.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment.

601). (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. catalogue (SD. list. azimmah) 1. GA. 181). 383-385.9. NA. pt. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. 127. 222: al-WDUP N . register (IK. I. account book. 95) 2. (pl.

vermillion ink (SA. II. comp. 101. II. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. 320). MB. 315. zinjafr – cinnabar. . 478). KF. 145.

box (DG. zawj SO D]Z M. WD]K U – floral decoration. 44. floriated (KJ. hence muzahhar. KR. 38.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. no. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq).1. 91).

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

AD. copying (TE. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. X. 825 and VIII. forgery. embellished writing. 107).120b. ER. X. GA. f. 409). falsification (UI. TK. 408-409. EI. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. 107) 2. I. AG. 73. 391). 73). 6. conjugate leaf (AG. VII. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. muzawwir – forger (EI. 18) 2. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. 90-100). mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. WD]Z U 1. 376). X. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. 283.

 ..  HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ .

11) 3.  decoration. MS. multi-colour illumination (HT. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. ]DZZ T – illuminator. 4). lin. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. 560) 4. 12). ]LZ TDK – art of illumination. 105). 560. . WA. n. writing.4. miniature painting (WA. miniature painter (ME.102.

addition (TP.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. index. IA. 52. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . post-scriptum (AD. 98) 3. 9). superfluous. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. 184) 2. 127) 2. MH. 60. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. interpolation. 9). ]L\ GDK 1. index. 59. 62). angle 2. 136). corner. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. dittography (TM. MI. 73). abbrev. interpolation. square (an implement) (MB. addition (CM. 111. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1.

elegant. embellished writing (SK. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. FRPS TDUU Á. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK .

 HPEHOOLVKPHQW GHFRUDWLRQ '0.

comp. MI. preamble to a fatwá. jaw E (CI. suµ O (pl. . abbrev. asÐilah) 1. 128) 2. quodlibet. II. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. xiv.

n. used after the word All K 73 . 3214) 2. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP.20. VA. 1853. nos. 461. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. 53. 696.

mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. 11-12). al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. 13. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. IB. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). siŒ µah – piece. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. lapsus calami (DM). I.) (SD. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. parchment) (IB. piece (of poetry. 81.185). etc. n. index. 637). VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM).

83). WDVG G – copying. VLG G (pl. 17). plug (in the inkwell) (IK. transcription (TE. . asiddah) – stopper.

122) 2. I.52). punching (SK. LL. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. comp. 1347). 122. reading. recital. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). 39. misrad – awl. Áurrah. 115. awling. I. punch (SK. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. sifr 4. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). hence V ULG – reader. n. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. 40.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece.) 1. 56. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. I. KM. 1347). prelector (TP.

127.  frontispiece. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. . 36). sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. 27. 95. MD. KR. also known as lawzah (JL. 97.. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. munsa¨iŒ – flat.. 82). horizontal stroke (UD. AF.

asà U VXà U. asÃur. sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan.

705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). line of writing. II. . – line (KD.

91. III. number of lines per page (LC. number of lines per page (TK. 25) 3. geometrical design (polygonal interlace).%  Q LC. TS. 77). pasteboard (HT. 48) 5. 113) 6.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. IA. 155). threaded guideline board for ruling pages. MB. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. 50. 73. writing. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. 155. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. lin. composition (AD. V ¨ir. 174) 3. 78. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 247) 4. MB. SDVVLP 6$ . 28. 134) 4. ff. lineation (LC. redaction. KA. LC. TM. 13. 12. 17). 104. TS. 87). 15. 155. 43). 140: wa- mis¶a¨. IB. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". WS. 17. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. 28) 5. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. IN. 155). ruler. index. 155. IA. 28. folder (UK. creating a line (of writing) (SA. 103. 59). lineation. 104-105). 59). ruling (of folios). designing (UK. 104. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. IA. copying (TE. MB. (grid of) guidelines. 105. ruling board (ST. lining.. I. 18. 155. WA. straightedge (UK. ruling. stencil (AF. 59). WR. tas¨ U 1. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. 104- 7.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. 86. TA.

DM: snuff box). . 1364. .5  // .

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

codex.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. book. MS. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK.

& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.  FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .

safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. V ILU (pl.0 .

 WDVI U 1. bookbinding (e. ST. index .g.

 SO WDV I U.

660. passim). HT. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. index. 11. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. 742) 2. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. AG. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. oblong format (of a book) (MD. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). AG. 150). 97. tail (of the page). asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. VIII. EI. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). TF. I. 110). VDI QDK 1.115. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). end of a letter or book 2. 78). . lin. AD. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. MB. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. lower margin. spine (of a book) (UK. 158. 15. – book cover (MB. 31. IV. 109) 2.

diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. haplography (TP. 87) 2. 97. see above) (JL.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. saqa¨ (MU. also LVT ¨ – omission. 238) 1. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. XII. 95. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . KR. 88). 95. MH. 58. 97).

ÑLO M PLVT K. jazmah 2. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. 230). IR. 148. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. 80). comp. 482. lin. circle-like tool (HT. comp. II. 118. VXN Q 1. WS. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. IA. 137). 60). 133.133. AT. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. 107.

103-104. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. SA. silsilah SO VDO VLO. 465-466. 711. SK. VI.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. – knife. 31-33). 248). LM. pen knife (IK. AA.$  8. 90-91. 115- . II. II. KD. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA.

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

611). silsilat al-nasab – stemma. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 .  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. I. 27). stemma codicum (AL. IX.

EI.GLOSSARY 71 146. IV. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. 107). 1124). 15. VDO P. JM. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. KK. AG. 5863.

 DEEUHY / / / / (TP. xiii. 2211. mas P U. I. CI. PLVP U (pl. MI. 54. VA. 128).1830. no.

372.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. – nail. TM. peg (part of a clasp) (BA. III.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

TP. X. MU. XVII. TP. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. certificate)... II. 27. 485493). samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. VIII. . LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. (CW. 69. abbrev. 278. 53. KF. n. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. auditor.25. 53.. 1019-1020). MU.g. EI. 267. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . LC.

I. 45) 2. certificate (JA. audition note. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT.

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

audition leader (master). 45). FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. certifier (CT. authoritative commentator. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W.

PDTU Ð. ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ. comp. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ.

title of a book (ism al-NLW E). IV. 1. proper name (EI. 179-181) 2. .

TP. 53. tasmiyah 1. title (of a work) (LC.v. 28) 2. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. 28.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. n. sinn SO DVQ Q.) (MH.20) 3. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 100).

154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit. shaqq ) (UK.

 . .. 6$ .9  LQV – left side. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // .  ..  (.

153. hone (UK. MB. misann ÃXOD\O ". misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. 60: misann akh ar. 103. IA.

5  6$ . TS.  $7 133. 10. NH.. 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . . AG. 107.

sanad SO DVQ G. misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. musannanah – chevron (FT.). musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM). 395). q.v.

musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. 53. DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. 56).

. 6/ .   (. .. 9.

RN. 2. 47). FRPS muÁannaf. TW. 5. 14. EI. FN. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. 692). VII. sifr 13. 365. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. IV. 704-705). 8. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. I. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad.

sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. 264-265.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. 232). bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. CM. VI. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. OS. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. 88. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). II.

Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A. 252).). al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. VI. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA.D.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. comp.

black ink (LC. 27. 320. VDZ G 1. SK. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. 388). I. AI. 384. – Muslim era (DD.

XV.9 . MU. rough copy (LC. 161. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 .  DOVR musawwadah – draft. MU. VI. MU. 27. XIII. 126.

copying by an apprentice (TE. 18). 45. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. WDVZ G 1. 18) 2. nos. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. FRPS PXED\\D ah. calligrapher (AW. musawwid – copyist. vox reclamans (NZ. 237). (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . marring (of a text). making it difficult to read (MH. 18. 50A) 3. preparation of a draft (TE. 98) 4. 97.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. copying (TE. AM.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

– woodworm. .

74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. trimming the textblock (TS. 105. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. II. 50. KD. SA. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. II. comp. musawwas – worm-eaten. 702). 28). (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. KK. 17-18). damage caused by worms (LC. 463.

used in Ottoman Egypt. 183).in Turkey. 178-180. RA. 24-24). was known as qirmah (GA. IV.in Persia. 1124. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. DR. sayr SO VX\ U. 1125. A variety of this script.

 VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .$ .

96). MB. 16. lin. 114.  endband (headband) strip (ST. sayf SO VX\ I. HT. index.

– trimming sword. 104. cutter (UK. IA. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. MB. 154. 103.

20) 2. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. (pl. lin.88-106. 33. WDVKE N 1. DH. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. 19. nos. WDVK E N. 73). 407. endband (headband) (HT. 115. **** VKDE NDK 1. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS.

– interlace (TF. passim). .

GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. 406).

  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). .. jilfah. shajjah SO VKLM M.  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ ..' .. comp.

14. 35-35). shaŒdh – whetting. mishŒadh – whetstone. 27). EI. shajarah – genealogical tree. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . 967) 3. WDVKG G DK. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). DH. 87. 390). LM.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). composing a text in a schematic. creating a genealogical tree. stemma (SL. VII. UD. arabesque decoration (WR. I. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. stemma (AL. no. shaddah. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. hone (DD. 9. I. II. 86.73) 2. 711). WDVKM U 1. white interior substance of the reed (IK. shaŒm(ah) – pith. tree-like way. also mushajjar – foliated design. honing (of a knife) (KD. I.

doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. shidq SO DVKG T. 14). – doubling (of a consonant).

27. book cover. case binding (TS.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). .

76 GLOSSARY AG. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. 369). sharaj SO DVKU M. fakk 2. 109). comp.

) (BA. 372). sharŒ (pl. – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. III. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.v.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

FZ. 385. 27. 60. stroke (DM). mishra¨(ah) – knife. ashriÃah) 1.. 100. 109) 3. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). comment-text book. 106-107. rules. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. decorative band (UI. MI. 397-320. MD. long commentary. comprising the text commented upon (matn). DD. also VKLU V. IX. 158. IA. I. 139. 29) 4. xiv. abbrev. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. MM. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). NH. 401). fillet (in decoration) (FT. shar¨(ah) (pl. shars – pasting. MB. 174-175). abbrev. &.0 . 217. I.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . CI. [Lv). paste (MB. 60. EI. IB. 392: for opening sealed documents. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. 5051). cutter (IA. al-VKDU I DK. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. (LC. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . II. EA. VLU V and V U V (DM). 27) 2. rule-border (LC. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. shuraÃ) – line. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. OM). DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. .

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

47. TW. 250). 322). shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. nuskhah and the like. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE .).GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. VI. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT.v. ligatured Maghrebi script. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. 365.

)'  .

comp. eraser (TS. burnisher. 28: IN. FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. 390). tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. I. I. 756). sha„ \DK (pl. whisk (?). shaqq.  arb. shaÌ \ . polisher (NH. duster. 11. cancellation (LC. 113) 2. mish¨ab – 1. AG. 251).

serif-like stroke (LM. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. KH. 13) 2.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. also tash„ \DK – line. 88. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . AA. à Ð \ Ð.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . 35. III.

al-mukarram. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I.

 26 . – the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

 .

78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. shi¶r (pl. ashÑ U.

– poetry. scribal verse (see e. I. 81. CI. 116). no. CI. II. versification.g. nos. 82. 12. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP.

WDVKI U – trimming.159). outlining. 144. VI. IP. 224). AF. III. 112. 59) 3.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. SA. 103. cutting edge (SK. 59. AG. II. IA. 11. 161). shafrah 1. 145. JM. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. 9. 58). bookbinder’s sword. 109). NA. 104. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. MB. outline (KF. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). LM. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. 16. pt. paring knife. 161) 2. trimmer (HT. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. shaving (HT. illumination in gold. 91-93. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. scraper (ST. 153. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD.83. MJ. AI. III. lin. index. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I .104. parer. lin. 250). al-musha¶¶ar. tash¶ U 1. UK. 50) 3. 45. 127. shaqq SO VKXT T.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

slit (of the nib).  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. SA. 171) 3. 59. IM. 460-462). MH. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. 97. . II. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh.

1124. IV. 1124. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. . mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. no. awl. WDVKN ] – 1. punch (UA. ER.1. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. preliminary endbanding (IA. IV.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild).GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. sewing endbands (headbands). ER. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. IV. 393). IV. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. 694).) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. 62) 2. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. 699-702). 43.

160-167. hence mushakkal – vocalized. 125. 81). vowel marks. comp. KH. vowelization. SA.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. 59. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. 150). diagram. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. IM. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. GL. 36). vowelized (for various practices see SA.g. III. 12) 2. shaqq. III. III.

+  8'   . .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

27. passim. MB.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. 116). PA. AF. 110. 63). 51). IA. rosette (LC. 135). sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. 118. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

– quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.g.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

EI. n.20. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. 53. 340-. IX. 201 and X. – copy of a letter. document (DM).

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

Mashhad (al-)´usayn. Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. 90). Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU .

shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU. al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. – .DUEDO Ð). al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.HUEHOD .

v. II. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. – new moon. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q.). month (LL. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. 1612). shuhrah.

EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &. .. .

 .

GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram. al-PXE UDN.

– the tenth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

fihrist. RN. 250). 118). For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. VI. 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. VI. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. 117. VK U ]DK (Pers. fahrasah. PA. mashyakhah (pl.5. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI.).U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. 19-20. comp. i¦E ¶ (pl.) – endband (headband) (LA. . 8. pt. KH.v. 725).

82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. 473. tinting. 73  . abbrev. ¦LE JK – pigment. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. 267-268). tint (UK. emendation 2. 63. IA. correction. MH. thus (JA. VIII. 35. NW. LE. dye. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. attestation (of correctness in transcription). ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). 114-118. 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. AR. (KG. 45). sic. QS. MB. mara  and saqam). 120-129. NH. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). CT. II. writing word in the text (GA. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. abbrev. MP. 285. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. I. 136. 29-32. 671-672.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

comp. signing (a document) 4. ¦ Œib (pl.25). ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. preparation of a critical edition. editor. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. aÁ¨ E. 53. n.

abbrev. possession (OS). isti¦Œ E – ownership. owner (OS).  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). 0. .

. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ .  parchment. 22) 3. mu¦Œaf. notebook (SL. small pamphlet. often leather. leaf (TC. Áu¨uf.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. folio (folium). Áa¨ Ðif) 1. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. III. I. 9. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. sifr 13. papyrus or paper (KD.. sheet of writing material. BA. 22. IK. maÁ ¨if) 1. I. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). -835) 2. IV. . II. 24). ma¦Œaf. page (DM) 4.. mi¦Œaf (pl. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM.

(qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. 17. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. 668-669. parchment textblock (TS. 107. 17. MS. KF.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. 25. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . 146. II. 316. MS. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. JM. 107. volumes) (EI. AG. sometimes two. AG. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. 107) 3. 16). 54-57). 17. AG. n. 25. VII.4). al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. 16).GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6.

error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. ta¦Œ I 1.  .g.  . distortion.

. 04  6$ .  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.

ta¨U I TY. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). syn.

5. -348) 3. (.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. . bookbinding (LA. pt. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ.

11. HD. 9. II. 13. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. bookseller (QS. ¦adr (pl. 269-270). IB. ÁXG U. ¦aŒŒ I 1. II. 118) 2.

preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. preamble. ¦DG UDK 1. also ta¦G U – incipit.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

MJ. IA. II. 107) 6. MB. fore-edge flap (TS. as opposed to inner side. 156. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . IB. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. wajh (SA. 16. 15) 5. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). 27) 4. 105. 59).  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 44. 464. AG. fore-edge (TS. 218).

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

ÁuÑ G. comp. 110). 109. ¦a¶d (pl. mandorla (FZ. 83. MD. surrah. 99. JL. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). ¦urrah – center-medallion. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á.

– ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. TU. 34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. 50.

II. study (KF. 192). ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. siglum) (TP. 27). 30. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. 227. ta¦I Œ – catchword. KD. 107). ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. 58). 371. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. FN. II. 11. ¦DI Œah (pl. AG. vox reclamans (TT. verso of the first folio (LC. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. ta¦affuŒ – examination.

al-PXE UDN. al-muÌaffar. iafar (al-khayr. al-Ìafar. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨).

– the second ¦ifr (pl. aÁI U.

59). TP. (OS. 89). . month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.171. – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM.

maÁ ILQ.GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl.

sieve (UA. strainer. passim. 393: for ink). KA. ¦aql – polishing. burnishing (MB. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. maÁ TLO. 134). – filter.

– polisher. aÁO E. MB. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. DD. IA. I. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). 156. 149.  DS.. ¦ulb (pl. 142. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . IB. 149. 44. 105. aÁlub. 99. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK.

II. 166. i¦O Œ 1. II. IA.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. 27). 62) 3. main. bookbinding (IA. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. text-column (LL. no. 119). 111. ta¦O E 1. 27) 2. 62). 59). 1712. MB. . LC. comp.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. original text (LC. correction (FK. making pasteboards (MB. matn.

&   7: .  UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .

55-56. CI. MM. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. suspension. II. i¦¨LO Œ. 191. siglum) (TP. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. no.

 .

abbrev. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’.86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. -359). used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. [LLL (. . wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK.      73  Q 73  &. .

 al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. ¦LP P – plug. ÁDQ G T. ta¦P P – design.). stopper (in the inkwell) (IK.v. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. sketching (MO. 83).

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. ta¦Q I (pl. taÁ Q I. Ñamal. ¦un¶. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ).

work (MU. – composition. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. III.

II.) (SL. VII. 705).v. mu¦annif – author. as opposed to musnad (q. 662663. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. 39. compiler. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. often the author of the original text PDWQ. EI. work.

art. xi). IX. craft (EI. 625-626). I. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). abbrev. (CI. E\ $E +LO O. duction by artisans.

 .

ME. 225. ¨ ¦awn. microfilming.g. 361-363) 2. ¦ UDK (pl. 136. example (JA. ta¦Z E (pl. taÁ¨ ¨. copy. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. „abbah (pl. 889892 and X. comp. TP. transcript (e. 121. comp. pt.  LE E. X. MU. apograph (TP.141: ‘portraitiste’). Áuwar) 1. 57). XV. illustrator (PA. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. IX. **** LI Ì. EI.212). mu¦awwir – painter. correctness. exact copy. aÁwinah) – case. 143. taÁZ E t) – correction. ta¦Z U 1.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. ¦LZ Q (pl. no. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. 268) 4. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. 559). painted illustration (EI. box (NT. preservation (DM). XVI. DH. 56) 3. miniature painting (MU.2. I. 361.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

i„barah (pl. MH. 95-96). marking the word with a  abbah (TP. a  E U. MH. DEEUHY 73  AR. also known as WDPU „. 57. 57.64. thus (TP. 95-96). ta„E E. n. 30) 2. sic.

a number of leaves or sheets put together.. sifr 13. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. KM. quire . IV. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. a„barah. „LE UDK 1. bundle of documents (IK.

 DZ ELÃ) – compass. 29. (pl. (pair of) dividers (TS. 44. textblock (TS. 107) 3. IB. AG. n. 18. 11) 2.. 12. ST. TK.120a-b). 18. 112) 4. „ EL¨ 1. specialist in  abÃ. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . index.  XU E.16.) . 19. 107. AG. f. ta„E U 1. album (FT. 26.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. 13. AG.) . 16. 97) 2. 388). orthographer (MH.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). II. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. 5) 3. 17.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . collation (of quires) (TS. binding (IB.177). „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ.

AG. II. 59). 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. – cancellation. 11. 109) 2. erasure (MF. „irs (pl. a U V  XU V. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. 62). stalk?) (TS. mallet (LF. small tool (resembling a drum stick. mi„rabah 1. KF.

12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. a Ñ I. „i¶f (pl. also TS. 109-110). interlace (TS. 32-33. 12. AG.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. 109) 2. AG.

ta  Ñ I. ta„¶ I (pl.

XVII. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . 1792.. interline (LL. MU. II.  /& . – space between lines.

 .

11. 107).g. ‘eye’ (of a letter). passim). braid (FT. 32.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. a Z Ð) – counter. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. polygon. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. 110). mu„alla¶ – polygonal. AG. AG. 45). Á G à Р. e. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. interlace (TF. 44). (SA. plait. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. 30. 413) 2. interlaced (FZ. ma„I U – plaited. 12. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. 33. 217). al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq.  DI Ðir) 1. III. „awµ (pl.406). 44. „DI UDK (pl.

76   $* .

comp. lin. ÃDZ ELÑ ). ¨ ED¶ (pl. mi¨ba¶ 1. signet. 96).medallion) (HT. stamp (IK. . seal.  ODUJH stamp (for a center. ¨ EL¶.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ).

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

144. WS. .  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. roll (AJ.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO. comp. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq).

III. sarwah) (JL. DB. 979) 5. tirs. 83.5 . 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. 2019) 4. 154. (KU. center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE.

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

marginalia. Ãurar) 1. 73  Q $. f. AG. border (on a book cover) (TS. ¨LE T – large sheets. IA. margin (LC. 107. 60). TK. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. 28. 21. MZ. edge. I. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. 1020. ¨urrah (pl. Taf. 102). record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). 109) 2. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). AD. 113. leaves (of paper) (NH. audition note (EI.120a) 4. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. gloss. 110) 3. AG. 372). marginal note. . abbrev. turn-in (TS.7. VIII.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

58. II. 46. 313. address (ÑXQZ Q. VI. margin (TP. 29) 6. ML. SD. SA.

f. 57. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. ansa. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK.67). al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. palmette (LC. 682. KH. 28) 13. 58. ta¨U U – glossing. lin. 28) 8. 36) 12. 16). RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. f. 28) 11. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. 28) 10. . n. X.85). comp. HT. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. annotated (WA. 16). Ãughrá 7. 689). 28.120a. illuminated headpiece (LC. annotation (WA. 28) 9. TP.120a). tailpiece (LC. IV. mu¨arrar – glossed. center-medallion on a book cover (LC.

celui qui fait le tracé initial. 103). 61. 133). 118. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. PA. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. 141: ‘dessinateur. Ãar¨’) 2. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. ta¨U Œ – sketch. ÃXU V DÃU V. ¨DUU Œ 1. HD. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. 159: ‘dessin. MB. PA. draftsman (AB. composition’). ÃXU ¨). manuscript restorer.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. sketcher. 132. ¨irs (pl. 101. 118. outline (HD. 69.

 SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. comp. 1840). 93. IK. EI. 408. IW. VIII. II. 63-64. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU . 75-76. LL.

sifr 13. aÃU I. ¨araf (pl. III. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. ta¨U V – obliteration. 371). effacement (of the original writing) (KM. LF. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. 140. 8. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). BA.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. HJ µ.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . IV.

87). mi¨raqah – mallet. TH. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. 107. hammer (TS. 57. 30. 60). 11. AG. 15. 109). IA. AG. 11. 38. 166. 31. AG. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. . 107). ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS.

92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. inlay work (AB. 134. X. headpiece (LC. 595-598) 3. ¨XJKU µ (pl. erasure (KM.) 2. 28) 4. 28).v. X. (MU. ta¨¶ P – inlay. AG. à ¨ughrá. FT. 109). 406). 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. 11. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. sifr 13. IV. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS.

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. leaf (of paper) (TS. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. 483). 83). II. 27. ÃDO ¨ \. ¨alaŒ – sheet. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. ¨alŒ. UK. AJ. I. 92. SD. 145. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. WS. 52). 147.

II. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). 52). SD. . roll (WS. – sheet (of paper from the mould). 87: al-darj.

ta¨O V – obliteration. II. syn. Ãirs. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM.0 . 63. ¨alsah. ¨ilsim (etc. comp. NH. erasure (ND. thus differing from Ãirs’). LL. IV. NH. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. ¨ilsam. 373: ¨ulsah). 1866: ‘written paper or the like.) (pl.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . ÃDO VLP. ¨ilsim. sifr 13.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). 82. 373: ¨als. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba.

56). naÌDUD ZDTDID. beginning of the text. incipit (WA. 258). – talisman. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). ascender (of a letter). 11. WB. 500-502). ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2.v. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. X. ¨ OL¶ (pl. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. headpiece (TW.) (KH. iÁE Ñ (q. tion of words (EI.

/&  26 .

al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. 29: ‘common. III. RN. . 224). naÌar. FRPS WDTU Ì. 59. III. popular class of scripts’). (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. MJ. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . SA. 144. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ.

KD. obliteration. 278. pasting (MB. coating.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. II. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. DG. I. 110). 58. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. gilding (SD. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. II. ¨ams 1. of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. erasure (JA. 136). daubing. passim) 2. ‘eyes’. gilt and the like (MB. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z.

 -47. AS. 6$ . ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. 36.. 144).. 242. KH. IR.

Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. a¨Q E (sg. 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter).

AG. 111. comp. ¨ TDK 1. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). mu¨awwal – original. 35. 120b) 2. rule-border (LC. AG. xviii). layer) of paper (TS. 31. 107. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. MB. 110). 135) 3. 62. 61). musta¨ O 1. IA. Áilah. I. cartouche (LC. MB. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. 26). 26) 2. IA. f. rules. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. ¨DZ O – long. sheet (piece. 109. . TK. rectangular panel (AB. 157. strand (UK. 32. / / / (CI. 17. unabridged work. abbrev.

GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .%  $-  .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U..

 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. KM. IV.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. sifr 13.

al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. It was written with a reed pen. III. 12). ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. ÃDZ P U. 11. 49-57). (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

– 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK.120a). abbrev. .  0. person. f.

212). ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. musta¨ E DK. misk) (e. MJ. 206.g.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

3. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e.g. CI. CM. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. 18). II.

AH. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. WKDU KX – requiescat. 98. **** „arf (pl. ÌXU I. inset (EM. 182).

 UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ .. .

1910.  FDVH ER[ /& 29. . LL. II. 575). ME.

II. aÌI U. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. 495).96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. „ufr (pl.v. al-„afar.).

29).3. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. outline (KJ. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. ‘shading’) – outlining. ta„O O (lit. no. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). usually the thumbnail) (TM.

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

I. n. 29). baÃn.64. „ahr – back. xv. 285). GA. 57. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. front of the textblock (LC. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). hair side (of parchment). SL. back of a document. placed in the margin. verso. blank reverse of a letter (LC. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. 29. II. „DKU \DK 1. 29). comp. 59) 2. (TP. CI. – conjecture. abbrev.

109). obvious. 88.Oá). . comp. „ KLU (lit. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. 11. first page(s) of the textblock (KF. AG. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 .  IO\-leaf (SD. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. 8 and II. abbrev. ME. I. II. ‘alleged. ‘external. evident’.

 .

40. ¶ajuz (pl. 80-82). ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. 148-149. WS. aÑM ]. 147.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. AJ. ¶ajz. MP.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

52.P P DO-0DKG . n.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU.14). 21-22. TP. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. V.

vocalization (KM. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). 146.  (. IV. .. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . . diacritical point 3. 26). RA. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract.. sifr 13. 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. III. treatise. DEEUHY MI.

 FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. pointed letters (TP. i¶M P WD¶M P 1. 90. 57). ¶ajm. SA. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. .

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

taÑ U M. (pl.

curvature (of the descender) (SA. – curve. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. ÑXU VK. ¶arsh (pl.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). III. 30).

al-sa¨r – base line (TW. 230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U.

154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. lattice-work (AB. 56. 45). abbrev. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. 423) 2. TP.. I. 464.  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 .. 29). ¶ar„(ah). SA. SA. taÑ U T.9. 202). KU. 136). ¶LU „(ah).  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. 45). 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . 218. III. JA. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. mu¶ UL„ – collator. LC. MH. reciter (CT. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. II. 25. trellis (FT.

sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. KU. 50. III. 37. 22. 36. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. KH. SA. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 11. 40.

(al-kha¨¨) al-¶. 11).U T see mu¨aqqaq. ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. . FRPS PXÑaqqaf.

25.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q... Ñuran) – thong. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. AG.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. 110. KT. 34. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ .

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

aÑVK U. I. DEEUHY / (CI. xiii). ¶ashr (pl.

 ¶ VKLUDK (pl. ÑDZ VKLU.

.  8. decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   . ¶ VKLU \DK – mark. .  6' .7  // ..

dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). ta¶VK U 1.

126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . 109) 2. stamp with vegetal design (TS. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB.7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). AG. ¶ushar 1. 11. 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. 116: gha  UDK . ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 108. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. AG. 109). 109). WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD.

155. II. IB. SD. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. 84). . also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 134). 42). mi¶¦arah (pl. IK. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. 154). 154. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. 154-155.

lin. curved line (used as a reference mark.130) 2. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 .100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. signe de renvoi). caret (MR.

MI.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. 147. 37) 4. abbrev. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. 35. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. AM.). introd. 36. connection. / / / (AR. 145.

TM. TP. 54). al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. 00 132. 176. MR. 93.

stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 19). II. margin (ST. 2091). ¶LI ¦ – plug. ST. 83. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. ¶af¦ – galls. LL. 16. 17. ¨ibr) (MP. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . index.

 ta¶T EDK 1. ¶aqib (pl. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . vox reclamans (TN. comment (LC. ¶aqb. 27) 2.+  10  SJ. note. catchword. aÑT E. 344).

– end of the text (matn) on a page. . Ñuqad) 1. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. 46. KH. 58. counter. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. III. 47. 11. lower ¶uqdah (pl. 109). 36) 2. AG. knot-like tool (TS.

la¶allahu (lit.GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. ‘perhaps. 126). comp. taÑU T ¶allahu. 37).

 . WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0.

WS. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.Q DO-ÑLO M. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB. 90.

copying (TE. 15) 2. writing. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . copy. script. composition. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. transcript (AD. ligature (KU. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. transcription. 124).9 . 119) 3.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

) . . .

107) (pl.  (MI. taÑ O T WDÑO T W.  DOVR ta¶O TDK. abbrev.

162). insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD.v. 15. 71. explication (TE. 165) 6. 1124. LC.). comment. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. EI. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. 694-696) 2. in the Turkish/Arabic context. IV. name often given. IV. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. 27. IX. II. MU. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. 26). ER. – marginal gloss. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. scholium. X. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. . AG. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA.. 104). FRPS U MLÑ. 28.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. 26. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . 77). III.. also TS. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn.

371. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. III.

aÑO P. ¶alam (pl.

18) 2. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. II. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. 27) 2. signing a document (AA. ta¶O P 1. SD. motto. marking quires before sewing (ST. index. XII. mark. marking. autograph (LC. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. signature (SD. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. 22). ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. 381). TS. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah.g. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. 352) 4. 164). also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. – decorated border (LL. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. I. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. 164. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. book mark (e. 135. EI. II. 2140). II. ¶DO PDK – 1.

no.¶  0.DUEDO Ð) (CM. 100). ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.HUEHOD .39). al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

abbrev. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. . III. 372).

¶amal (pl. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah. II. 2153: ‘text of the book’).GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. aÑP O.

 FRPSRVition. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ. VII. compilation (MU.

ta¶miyah 1. TC. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. painting. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. main work of a painter (PA.e. colouring. writing. 229. chronosticon (TI. taÑZ U 2. VII. used in opposition to Ãar¨. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre.v. 123).). etc. IX. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. 30) 3. cryptogram. 257-258). (SJ. EI. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. i. comp. 47-48. laà I DO-Ñamal. q. SA. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

VII. 260-261). SL. 110. I. (MW. PK. ÑDQ Z Q. 211. EI. 16. ¶XQZ Q (pl.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

chapter. EI. . 29. II. 870-871) 4. 116. comp. EI. 29). PA. EI. title (of a book) (LC. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. 66. 29. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. 870). tarjamah 2. X. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. 871-872) 3. X. section heading (LC. X. 36. 2183).

I. i¶ZLM M – curvature. VWURNH. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah. curved (of a line.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. 200-203).

8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. UD. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). collation session (MF. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. X.g. e. 726). 230). IN. 74). 12. I. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. 13. VII. repetitor (EI. collation master. taÑ Z GK. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. 14). . 7). ta¶awwudh.

95. ¶ P (pl. comp. KU. 114. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. of letters) (AP. 69). 123-124). – talisman. amulet (DT. aÑZ P. Ãams. ‘eyes’.

. VI. 252-253). LM. 43). 194. sanah. ¶ayn (pl. comp. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. comp. Ñuqdah.

233.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. pasting (ST.60-72. MB. 145. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. HT. 141. 45-47). 97. MP. index. 145). 107. 58-63. 244).GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. AG. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. ghubrah – mixture of white. EI. MP. 37. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. JM. North Africa. 74). AS. VI. 19-23. 47). 97. 12-13. 141. 37. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. sizing (of paper) (AB. NW. NW. lin. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. OD. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. 250). 88. DW. aghriyah) – paste. 47. 1124). 42. 73). VI. rasm al-JKXE U. red and black colours (SD. 74.18) 2. IB. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. IV. VI. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. 199). IB. 250). MB. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. n. II. IK. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. MP. adhesive (TS. 90. NW. 32-34. IB. taghriyah 1. 41.

 FRPS .IU T  .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

aghshiyah) 1. covering of the board. passim). binding (TS. JKLVK µ (pl. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. 36. 564) 2. II. 35. JKD] O see jild. 214. KC. 554. case. ME. book cover. box (SD.

71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. CD.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. pl. III.

 ODVW SDJH V.

LVWLJKI U DK. 257). I. 473). binding (IN. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. I.) . 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK . taghshiyah – book covering..

 217) 2...  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' . prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ ..

WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. 150). 192). mistake. OHWWHU 6. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters).  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. ghal¨ah – error. . bold character. a word) (MI. abbrev.

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

– book cover (MD. AB. 213. 132). 214. 157). binding (FZ. JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 108). WDJKO I – book covering.

LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ.v.. III. – WDLOSLHFH . 261). I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU.Ñuqdah. 47.) . SA. VIII. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. also iftit Œ. comp. 114. 46. 128). **** I I U – papyrus (EI.).  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal).

  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah.9. XV. LQFLSLW 08 . 23) 2. LC. preface.. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . proem (MU. prologue.

 KHDGLQJ (e.g. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. headpiece (KF. LC. II. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar. 23) 4.

109) 2. 62. press screw (MB. 245). 104. 59). . IA. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB.18. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. TS. AG. VI. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. IDW ODK 1. IA.

SD. VI. leaf (of paper) (SA.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. II. comp. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. 189. 249).

LIU G – letter in its isolated. as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. conjugate leaf. one half of a piece of leather (TS.v. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.). 28). al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. – one of a pair. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). WDUN E TY.

6$ ... .

) (KU. 154). 390). MY. 133. 83).g. far„ al-qalam – syn. AT. I. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. fur„ah (pl. DD. shaqq (q. IR.v. II. SA. 230. 60. III. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. 481. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

// . ..

=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«.18). 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. mifra¨ – cutter (ST. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. note. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK . 23) 2. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. annotation (TM. witness (MR. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. index. LC. apograph. most probably a variant of PLTU „.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

82). scroll (FI. 93.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. 15. 131). 88. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. JL. application as opposed to theory. argument resulting from a legal point.) (UD. (AD. abbrev. SM. q. 87. 269) 4.v. KR. aÁl. IDU JK SO IDU JK W.

execution.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W. 41) – end. completion.

116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. 289) 3.+  /0 . also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. 26. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . 23. GA. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. 23). blank. farkah (MN. lacuna (LC.

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

1. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. comment. explication.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . mufassir – commentator. 83). 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. disc. paragraph mark (TP. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. 23. e. MS.5 . three dots. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. SA. fa¦¦ (pl. commentary and/or translation.g. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. AK. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. III. X. LC. 55. 351. from Greek into Arabic (EI.

 .

fuÁ O.110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl.

 QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. . word division (in a text). MM. 138. III. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). spacing (TP. 145-146) 2. taf¦ O 1. 134. space between words or passages. 55. SA.

or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. 92. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . MB. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA.. 37.20). TP. 53. 130-133.  FKDSWHU 6' II. 271).  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. MP. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. 33). comp.. silver-based ink (UK. n. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’.

abbrev. SD. comp. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). 273. section of a text. paragraph (LC. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. 351). AK. I. 23. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. fiqar) – passage. fiqrah (pl. DM). xiii. II.

BA. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. III. 385. – book cover (HN.

 FRPS VKLGT .

mufakkak – loose.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. disbound (e. IDQ T (pl. 45).g. box (KC. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). funuq) – case. fihris. fihrist (pl IDK ULV.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

marginal note. 286. RU &0  RU 66. abbrev. catalogue (SD. gloss. nota bene (notabilia). digressional remark (in a text) (SD. 49. EI. 207. also I µidat al-a¦l. 23. (CA. comp.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. 743-744) 4. 36). record of attested study. 293) 2. 50). cataloguing. LC. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. II. abbrev. II. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. mashyakhah 2. II. AR. bibliography. fahrasah 1. list. 149.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. 15). Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). Qubbat al-. 107). 76  AG. . WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan.

qabr. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. AG. qub¨al. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. 471). IV.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. qabla – before. straightedge (TS. .‘grave’) – pen box (EI. lit. abbrev. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. 107. II. 302). SD.

collation note (statement). comp. II. muÑ UD ah 2. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. 56. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. n. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. 490492). 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. EI.52. corrector. MH. VII.TP. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. PXT ELO – collator. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL.

qaÃÃ. AG. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. / / / / / (TP.37. I. II. AA. 54. 109).xiii. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. II. abbrev. xiv). FRPS ] Ðidah. aqudd) – strip (of leather). qidd (pl. n. CI. 11. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. 18. 10. etc. 701. CI. 107). . 24. comp.

GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. muqaddimah – forward. comp. 120. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 52. MI. AG. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. TP. abbrev. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. introduction (EI. 495-496). fore-edge flap (TS. 17. 26. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. also TS. VII. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. 59. 173). 107). 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. preface.

26) 2. gloss. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. manner of recitation. reciter. prelector. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. – marginal note. reading. variant reading (varia lectio). recitation (LC. collection of glosses. TLU µah 1. 139). commentary (AD. 9 -129) 3. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader.

$/ .  73 .

 FRPS ¨arf.g. FRPS VDP Ñ. 53. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W.25. KF. II. TP. n. 494-498). LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. sleeve case (TS. sheath (SK. 36. SA. 104. 35-36. aqribah) 1. II. AG. TLU E (pl. 110). AG. 466) 2. AG. . 110). 110). 36.

index. IB. 63). IV. IK. 19. index. AG. MP. putting something into a press (ST. IA. 63.19. 417). screw press (MB. 47). 19. 60). 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. 10. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. 91-92. 107. 107.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. 44). 59). ST. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. MP. IB. AG. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. qar¦a¶ah – fine. 94). PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. 44. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. ST. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 20). index. sifr 13. compact writing (KM. IK. QS. 21. 18. II. 103: PLTU   (!).

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

comp. V. 108. WS. 173-174. EI. parchment (AE. AE. 261. 50. 407) or paper (SA. VIII. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. 82-91). AE. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). 17). 66-76. II. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. EI. UD. 66-93. VIII. IW. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. I. 98.

often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. . – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

XIV. 335- WDTU   W .GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA.

IV. compact writing (KM. 136. 182.  qarmadah. 313). 143. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. sifr 13. muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL. muà ODÑah. comp. qarma¨ah – fine. 186). %/ $0 QRV     122.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK .

IB. trimming (ST. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). EI. 59. 60. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. JM. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. 181. HT. IA. see also UA. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. 41). miqsam(ah) (lit. IK. index.19. 153. AA. . 86. DS. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. 103. EI. 80). miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. MB. qirmah see VL\ T. reed pen (IK. 146. qa¦¦. qurnah – corner (MB. 42. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. 69). al-qurnah al-yusrá). 393: not defined). IV. 682. IV. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA.

130. comp. 153). qa„ P DK. 86). qa„m – syn. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. qa¦amah. MP. miqaÃÃ. 154). qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 32). qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. tin-based ink (UK.116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin.

93). 102. leather (IW. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. sifr 4. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). IK. 109-110. 50. II. cutting (of leather. etc. LM. 2-463.. I. 72-74. AA. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. – white hide. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . KU.) breadthwise (KD. 153. KK. nibbing. KM. the point itself.

 al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. i. LL. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. I. II. LM. 462. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. longer than the left’.e. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P.

MJ. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. MJ. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. II. ivory. straight point of the nib (SA. 154). . qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 1742. 217). II. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. 2996. 462). II. opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. 217).

for nibbing a calamus) (UK.742. 468. MM. 133). SK. II. IV. qaÃÑ al-thumn. MB. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. IP. 105: maqaÃÃ. qa¨¶ (pl. AT.GLOSSARY 117 etc. 54. 76. 62. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. LS. 45. ND. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. SA. MK. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. 65. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn.

42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. decoupage (ER.  irs (AG. VI.g. . qi¨¶ah 1. calligraph (AC. principle of the interlace. 475). 110). al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. piece of poetry) 2. piece of calligraphy. piece of something (e.

11. VI. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. (pair of) scissors (IK. AG. decoupage. mishraÃ. collage. 21) 2. 107). tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. taq¨ ¶ 1. WS. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. papercut(s). 144.. muqaÃÃa¶ ). qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. 475). 90) 4. format (of a book) (TL. cutting instrument (DM) 2. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. PA. . filigree work (IP. 91). 9. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER.  +'   T ÃiÑ.  (5 9. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. comp. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

 26 . abbrev. – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

– clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. 377). .

taqfiyah – backing (TS. 20). 15. AG. 15. 641). 15-17. 107. AG. 14. AG. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. qalb. al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. index. 15. flat back (TS. AG. 107). comp. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. 107).118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. 107). ST.

 PRXOG 8.  .

index. 26. MK. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. 26. ST.19.3. 14. no. LC.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U.

88. 59. miqlab SO PDT OLE. folder (IB. 93) 4. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. FZ. 43). FRPS TDÃÑ 3. 214. JL. FI.

7XUN PLNOHE.

68). DW. – envelope flap (MT. WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. 26). 202-203). 83. qalam SO DTO P TLO P.

 SLHFH RI ZRRG ..  76 .

SA. II. also qalam al-qa¦ab. copper pen. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK.  calamus. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. 45-87. IK. 44-465. TC. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". i. reed pen. 232. KU.e. see TW. 13 (AA.

MP. 133-134.. handwriting. ductus. 71-75. . MB. 38-39. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . 356. hand. script. 144. -50. UK. IV. 100). AT. MB. 59-64. EI. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. 471) 3.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. see khaÃÃ.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

used in talismans and amulets (IT. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. 11-12). an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. 335). muqawwar. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. I.

IK. 144). 85). al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. 153. DO-mu¨aqqaq. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. 145). al-thuluth. and used extensively in the main Arab lands.

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

SA. ..  $. ..  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  .  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah.$  Q.

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

. 2565). For a list of words used for such containers see SL. 109). II. 49-51. KR. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. 11. II. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. 43. WDTO P – paring. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. trimming (a reed). 43. chest (LL. AG. 85). 79). I.

al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. 144). 144). 37). III. AS. 11. comp.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

XII. xiv. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. passage. 155. PDT ODK 1. tract 2. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. – quotation. treatise. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. TP. II. short composition. 238). 154. 190. MI. MU.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

KF. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. 86. 327. I. III. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. folio (folium) (MK. 377. I. 283. DF. 190. 83. 82. KF. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶.

PXVWDT P – upright. RN. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. 22). rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. comp. erect. . mDEV Ã.g.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 .  DPP DO-Ñ. – HQGSDSHU 8.

qayd SO TX\ G. al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq.

committing something to writing. composition (TE.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. – note. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . statement.. 17. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. binding. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . . 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. 113.. 62) 4. IK. IA.  tying. III. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA.

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

43). no. N ]DQ – mallet (UK.187). IB. 27). author 2. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. glossator (AM. N JKL¨. muqayyid 1. – marginal note. gloss (LC. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). 153.

AE. 98-105. al-N JKDG DO-. al-kalŒ . 136). 77) – paper (EI. IV. waraq.VO P . etc. 419-420. 77-85). see waraq. N JKLGDK – sheet. al-5 P . . SO NDZ JK Ã. WS. WS. leaf (of paper) (AJ. comp.

munkabb – inclined. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. 136. 85-86). 374). ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. kubab) – ball (of fibre. WS. in papermaking) (OM). as in the beginning of w Z. kubbah (pl.

8'  /0 .

91. Ranunculus asiaticus. II. SD. AG. TH. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. WDNE V – pressing (QS. q.) (US. KL. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. 416. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. II. 440. 40. CM. UA. NDE NDM 1. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. TS. kitbah (MH. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ.v. 169).) 2. 49-53. mun¨anin. mikbas. 416).107. comp. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . II. katb. 393).

kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . copying. transcription. composition. NLW E NLW EDK – writing.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). 45: ‘hence katabah.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. Turkish ketebehü. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. CT. NI. +. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah.

IV. amanuensis (EI. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. 554-760). 180). comp. scribe. . mu¨arrir. scrivener 2.  VHFUetary.

197-200). book. II. V. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. IV.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 86). archetype. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. maktab – place designated for writing. letter. maktabah – library (EI. I. piece of writing. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . VI. 53. PDNW E SO PDNW E W.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah.) . lin. 705. EI. tail (of a book or document) 2. 388: mukattab). NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. spine (of a codex) (HT. copying (KK. 384). 23. codex (MA. chapter in a book (SL. KD. 207-208).. NH. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). booklet. document. IK. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1.115).

calligraph (DP. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. 4. – piece of calligraphy. master calligrapher (KK. II. 51. 705).g. KM. KD. mukattib (e. 53). IV. sifr 13. muktib. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ.

0 .9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .. .  26 .

miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. takŒ O 1. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). 187). paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). mikŒ O see mirwad. kohl. outline (of letters) (DH. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. outlining. no. 393. 230). I. kuŒl – antimony. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. 414) 2.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. IR. pointing (of a wall) (FT.

misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. 68). RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. comp.

OLQHV LQ .

142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK.

tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. AG. 12. 33. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs.

  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). 154. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . 42). 0. NDGK – thus. IB. sic. abbrev.

TM. 162).g. takarrur – graphic error. ditto- NXUU V DK. WLNU U. 184). mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. 48. dittography (e.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

II. SL.  . KU. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. SK. II. 107) 2. x.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . 60). 468-471. 60). 700). WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. AA. CI. 48. 131. TS. ra¨l. II. TS. II. AG. abbrev. KD. passim. SA. 132).0 .  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. NXUV – book cradle. quire (gathering). reading stand (MD. comp. kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. 84. lin. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah.92). 100. IK. 14. .

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

- QR  . .

P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE. QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH . mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P.

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

miksar SO PDN VLU. kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. 363).

– fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. 389. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. 391). of bashr (LF. syn. I. 274. 137. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. TP. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). NH. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . knife (for making erasures) (IR. DD. 58). 128). IR. 79.

126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl. kuÑ E.

kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. AB. 92. AJ. 442. 109. passim. 145. 92. tongs (MB. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. 109). 94). KR. II. WS. DM). 977. JL. 39. dast. kaff(ah). 406). DE. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. 109). rizmah. main de papier). FT. WDNI W – inlaying. usually 25 sheets (PT. – spine (back of a codex) (MB. comp. 61. 90). al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. inlay (SA. IA. 82). 84. flat back (MB. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. NXQQ VK DK. 95. 97.

SO NDQ Q VK.

. commonplace book (LC. HB. 25. – 1.

al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK .  kunyah (pl. mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). V. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. 395-396).

originally and properly speaking. I . I 1. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI .GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-.

11-13. comp. AV. MV. 363. OD). FN. 27ff.g. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. 8-9.

76  $*  86 .

(qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 29. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. ultramarine. al¨ T OL¨ T. 119. 139). 114. 478). azure ink. laŒaq (pl. paint (UK. SA. II. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. 145. MP. 85). 27. JM.

mulŒaq – omission. . insertion (TP. ilŒ T.

JA.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. I.14). laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK. 185. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. LC. 24. 42).. OL] T – paste. II. adhesive (KD. 154. IB.128 GLOSSARY  . 279). comp. 703). liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. TM.

copyist’s book support. 15. 14. 133. DD. SA.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. 390) 3. book cradle (TW.24. n.  76  11. 107. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. WA. AG. 481.169. I. 481) 2. II. SA. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. IR. 230. II. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam).

where each gathering is numbered separately). /&  /( . abbrev.  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books.

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

lin. 90. 132). large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. OLV Q (pl. 20. 25). LC. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. HT. 13. ST.109. JL. MM. 25. $'  /( 137) 3. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. 119. index.

 .

181. milaff 1. spool (DS. 145. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. II. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. II. mulaffaq. 230) 2.166). IR. RA. 530). passim). alÁiqah) – paste. 167. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . adhesive (SA.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. DM). 391. comp. SD. I. or (MI. stamping (HT. wrapper (DM). laqab SO DOT E. 131. abbrev. lafŒ – tooling. 26). OL] T la¶nah – curse. 480. lin. DD. malediction.

618-631). – nickname. . 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). tweezers (MB. I. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. pincers. WDOT P – inlaying. inlay (FT. honorific title (EI. 109) 2. DD. 406). mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. (pair of ) tongs. V.

130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. 11. 49). lak. stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. LM. lakk RU O N '* .

ODPP ¶ – glossy. lacquer. q.). 109). 140). lamq – elegant writing. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. AG. law¨ W. namq. glazed. copying (TE. comp. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. 16).v. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ.g.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. burnished (e. varnish (AB. 11.

125). usually framed). wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK.or tailpiece) (LC. 142-143. lin. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. MB.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. gloss (DM). MS. headpiece (FT. 11. 402). 31) 6. 24. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. panel (in decoration). HT. OM) 4. . illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. 5) 5. illuminator (HD.123. pasteboard (ST. II. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. 25. 58-59) 2. (Turk. 99. 124) 3. 29. wooden board (TS. head.

TS. 156. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. IB. 31. mandorla 4. 105. MB. IA. 109. also known as sarwah (q. 11. central medallion (on a book cover). 44. 59. see also nuqÃah) 3.v. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. AG. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). oval figure 2. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf.). 38).GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. raÐs al-lawzah.

II. – spatula. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. 208). 478. MJ. IR. AT. IB. 133. 230. 45. lawn SO DOZ Q.

148. JA. AI.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. – colour. V. tint (EI. 698-707. . pigment.

shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. LC. WDO\ ¨ 1. WDOZ Q 1. 11. IK. 86. tinting (of paper). O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. polychrome illumination (WA. 27) 2. III. see also the quotation under sha¨m).

O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. also PLO T (UA. 79-84. MP. 477-478.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. . tint (AD. 111-119. 203) 2. O TDK (pl. colour. 702. MJ. n. 26-29. IK. index. MB. 13. II. II. AT. liyaq) 1. UK. 370). BA. III. 133). 393) tow (wad. paper pulp (OM). 160) 3. tuft of unspun silk. MP. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. coloured ink (SA. 26-29. 84. 55. 20.

370) – compartment for ink (KD. III. also PLO TDK (BA. II. amliqah) 1.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 .

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

.. . %$ .

144. KH. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U.

comp. **** matn SO PXW Q. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. muqawwar. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. such as al-thuluth. muraÃÃab.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

1. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. text-column (MU. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. V. EI. VI. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). II. 843) 2.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. ¨ VKL\DK.

214. (qalam) al-matn. 24. LC. P WLQ – author of the original composition. TP. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. 53). II. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). 568). SD. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. 1. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. . EI. 25). VI. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. MD. IX. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. 109. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. Œard al-matn (HN. 843) 4.

. index.  madd. VI.) . 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. MP. MB. 38. AE. ¨ibr. 55. comp. II. 1031). pl. KR. 238). III. PLG G (pl. transcript. MJ. 127-131. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. 38. 58. 90). BA. 15-18. 138-140. blind tooling. process of softening leather (making it flexible. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. 371). JL. tamŒ ¨ 1. maŒw – ink removal. comp.) . hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. 13. 79-90. KH. apograph (CD. IV. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST.52. MJ. 86. obliteration (by means of a cloth.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. 79: dalk) 2. EI.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). III. khirqah. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. 21. SA. 471-477. n. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. 67-71. amthilah) – copy.v. AT. comp. amiddah) – soot ink. UK. ¨aÃÃ. 216). maŒ UDK (q. 36-37). 121-122. 89). or licking) (TP. IV. erasure. UK. ink (in general) (SK. TP. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. 134-135.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). MP. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA.

134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah).5  . SK. II. midyah) (pl. 465-467. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. mudan. I  mudyah (madyah. 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). midan) – knife. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . 103- 8$  . pen knife (SA.

WDPU „ see  abbah. FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. 133. masŒ – rubbing. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . I. IA. AT. 202). 481-482. 60: misann almis¨) 2. coarse haircloth. see shar¨. 114). . SA. 391). 110. 230. DD. misŒ 1. wiping (MB. 166. sackcloth (DG. II.

 FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð. .

GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. SK. 55) 2.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . 16) 3. scribbling (MM. I.I. 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. copying. transcription (TE. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . 116-117. 60.. mush¨ – comb (IA. mashq 1. AA. inelegant hand. 230). IR. elongation (of letters) (JA. hasty.

(kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. calligraphic hand (CM. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. mashqah 1. 164) 6. MY. 83) 5.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. 134: ÑDQ . 151). unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. for example. copying from a model (TE. according to some opinions. fine elongated stroke (SK. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. KK. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. elegant. 4. IK. 48. calligraphic model (AD. KT. fine elongation.’). calligraphic exercise. 16.

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

183). P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG.

 . '' .

 FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. signing. signature. autograph (DM) 2. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   .

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

27).). also malasah – burnisher. 88. VII. LC. ex-library. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. EI. 25. Makkah (al-mukarramah. 107). 11. 8). 88. II. 390. 60-61). 478). 411). AG.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. AG. 107) 2. TS. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. al-musharrafah. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. polisher (NH. al-maghrah al-¶. FRPS QDÌar 3. milk – ownership (OS. LC. 11. ex-dono. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . plane-like instrument (TS. 31. etc. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. I  mimlasah 1.

KF.  GLFWDWLRQ $. 85-94) 2. I. work (known as al-DP O . SDVVLP :6 -13.

725-726). EI. VII. SL. 725-726. 472-. signet. passim. VII. stamp (EI. passim.VII. II. famulus (AI. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. GA. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. 48). muhr – seal. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI.

 FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. . VII. 472-473). stamping (EI.

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

WS. 50-52) 2. 79-82. AE. 105-106. IV. II. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. sifr 13. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. sheet. leaf (of paper) (SA. (IW. KM. 472. II. sheet. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. 8-9.

63). P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. mawzah – burnisher. 60. polisher (IA.

16: al-maws al-6K U ] . – pen knife. UD. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK .$  maws. trimmer (TW.

LC. V. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. 226. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. 25). 64). II. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK.  1+  '' .

inlaying (SA. hence P µil – inclining. 12. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. SA. script) (UD. 45). coating. slanting (of the line. II. gilt (SD). II. tilting (of a script). 403). . 442) 2. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen.

JM. 40). sifr 13. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). IV. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. 16. 146.138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. remark (in the body of a composition). QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. WDQE K – note. KM. nota bene. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). copying (TE.

index. naŒt 1. 43: P MDPDK). trimming (of a reed) (IR. paring. 36). minjam – mallet (ST. IB. 21. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. UD. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. 232.

I. basmalah. etc. . 35).  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. (MG. ¨amdalah. 133-134. MP. nuŒ V – copper. 482). e. copper-based ink (UK.g.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

– anthology (EA. munkhul – sieve (IR. DM). 97. 94-95). 384). 230. nasab SO DQV E. KR. selector (DF. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 82). I. II. muntakhib – compiler. 95.

al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. tribe. genealogy. 53-56). ending in – (EI. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. pedigree (EI. VIII. etc. religious sect or school. nisbah (pl. 967-968). – lineage. VII.

DO-PDQV E DK.

KK. 1124 (in Persia). KM. transcription (TE. par excellence. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. 21). IV.5. index. IV. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. 1126 (in Turkey). In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. 696-699). see khaÃÃ. which according to the Mamluk tradition. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . IV. 57) 2. 17. 1127 (in Muslim India). also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. ER. sifr 13. naskh 1. naskh-ta¶O T).

LE. al-naskh al-mu¶W G. personal) nature (CI. list. CD. 141. xiv).140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. 47. commonly. 89). 149) 2. recension (MU. n. pl. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. XVI. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. 1127. IV.  0. MZ. CI. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. I. IV. 1125. 412: – nuskhahaÁl.in Muslim India). al-nuskhah (al-kutub. badal) 4.      $5  $. archetype (LC. 123. CA. nusakh) 1. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . transcript. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. LM. I. 1123. catalogue (AD. 128. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. comp. II.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. 138. nuskhah (pl.12) 2. QDVNK 1. abbrev. EI. al-makh¨ ¨ W. 36.in Turkey. VIII.in Persia. CM. variant reading (varia lectio). version. LM. 146. xv./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. but erroneously. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. 182. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. 26).171). al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. copy (EI. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn.

al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. 26). 26). unicum. archetype (LC. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. Q VLNK SO QXVV NK.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

17. WB. scribe (TE. MA. 348. passim). 16. muntasikh – copyist. TW. 47). ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK.

1241-1244). 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). III. style or composition. of letters. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. 9.g. I. e. . letter-writing. LQVK µ – construction.. no.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. layout (mise en page ) (FK. epistolography (EI. documents or state papers.

94. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. 134. nashr. I. TD. 278. AI. 173. 136). WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. 67). WDQVK U. I. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. IK.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

76   $*  .$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV.

13. 480. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. DD. II. 12. AT. IR. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. 230: minshaµah). minshafah – blotter (TD. 133. II. 390. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. I. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. 106. starch paste (made of sorghum. IA. OM. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). SA. dhurah) (OM). 395). QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). 21. I. 50. ST. starch paste (TS. 60. nashan – wheat starch. . MB. 21). IB. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. 136). index. index.

103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ . 137).142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1.  . pallet-like tool (HT. . 249..133. handle (SK. ni¦ E 1. lin. 241. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. the letter alif (IR. stroke.. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. 240. straight line.

LM. 103. III. 59). IB. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. munta¦ib – ascender. 43. UD. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 59) 3. up-stroke (SA. MB. 47.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. 11. IA. 101. 156.

III. reading note.g. 88. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. na„ar – study note. FZ. 43). 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). 217. 218. e. JL. ZM. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. medallion. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. 93.

  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .) .

un„ur – ‘see’. XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I. abbrev. FRPS PXà ODÑah.

 Q „ir (pl. nuÌÌ U.

comp. no. .  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. 2812). curator. shiÑr. na„m.170). I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. II. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. versification.

epigraphy (KM. no. IV. sifr 13. DD. engraver (KM. tanaqquŒ – correction. naqr – inscription. 392). I. minfadh – punch. passim). II. 208.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. awl (SA. WDQT Œ. nafÃah) – pockets of air. 5). IV. nafdh – punching. 133. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. 230. nafa¨ (sg. II.3. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. QDTT U – carver. IR. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). sifr 13. MJ. revision (KF. awling (MB. 391: for sewing of quires). 481. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). engraving (on stone). 23). AT.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

SA. IK. 469. KM. IV. – ink (KK. sifr 13. naqsh SO QXT VK. II. 5). 49. 471. 84.

painting. naqr 2. QLT VKDK 1. TS. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. 400). 63) 3. inscription. 931). engraving. illumination (EI. VII. comp. 105. epigraphy (FT. 29-32. IA. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. 156. MB.

  0% 105. 59). ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. IA. .

155. illuminator (PA. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. 159). VII. copying (FK. engraver (KM.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. III. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. 141. 266). miniature painter. 931-932). designer. 5) 2. sifr 13. IV. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. carver. WDQT VK – writing.

naq¨ 1. 16-17) 2. 58). letter-pointing (TE. III. nuqaÃ. KH. TE. 151. 38). naq¦. 16-17. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. III. nuq¨ah (pl. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. III. SA. 160. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. haplographic error. SA. haplography (TP.

EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.  T OD .  GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.

MB. 33. copyist. 12. calligrapher (TE. TE. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. naql 1. quotation 3. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. transcription (MU. abbrev. HT. 368). numrah. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). 16) 4. quoting. 137. translator. copying. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. citing. naqalah) 1. 68) 5. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. nimrah – number. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. 16. AW. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . Q TLO (pl. . IA. figure. XII. translation. IA. 105.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. orthographer (LT. 133. extract. 218) 2. exact copy (apograph).

WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. namq WDQP T – elegant. copying (TE. SK. AM. 53. 62. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . 45. KK. 16. embellished writing. numbering. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. 91). 53.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark.

45. NI. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC.

181. 38). 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). II. sifr 13. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. 105) 2. WDQP O – compact writing. calligraph. copying (KH. painted illustration (KF. elegant. copying (SK. AW. compact writing (KM. 237). AA. 369. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. 119. IV. n. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). embellished writing. namnamah 1.1). calligraphic composition (NI.

69). IB. 22. PXQ U – syn. arabesques (on book covers) (LC.v. – floral design. IB. of maÃP V q. 44). PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . 43). of mufatta¨. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. 26. having an open counter (ant. index. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina.) (LM. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST.

86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. II. EI. 498-450. 27). KF. III. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF.

IK. – inkwell (SK. KD. II. 700. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. 106.

LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. CI. II. 110. CI. II. xi. GA. abbrev. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. 87. I. SL. xiii. 285). termination. / / / (for intahá) (MW. LQWLK µ – end.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

.+   ID-NDWDED ODKX LQK ÐDQ I NKLU NLW E DO]DN K PLQKX.

hudb. 36). **** DKG E (sg. hud hud SO KDG KLG. hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

correction.. WDKGK E 1. epitome (EA. abridgement.. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . .  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). I. LKG µ – dedication (FN. revision (DM) 2.. 23).

73) 2. muhall. abridger. compiler (SS. 181. I. EI. 109. 483. 69. 61). al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. backing (MB. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. author. 72. WDKO O 1. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. epitomist. IA. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. 108) 2. MG. rounding (of the spine). X.

 . VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9.

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

 PDUJLQ ') ...   .

/&  0. . abbrev.  PDUJLQDO note. gloss.

 K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ . glossing.. WDKP VK 1. annotation (TT..  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn). 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK.

 .  PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $.

 muhammash – glossed. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. annotated (TW.

4. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. syn. IR. 244). 57.. 90). K PDK – head (of a letter)..  K PDW DO-alif). raÐV HJ 6$ . . unpointed letters (TP. 57. MH. GL. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah.

wajh(ah) 1. transcription in full. wajh al-hirr (lit. 25. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. 31. 31) 3. 43-45).   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . IV. page (MU.. face. 25) 2. upper cover (TS.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. II. upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. ¶alá al-wajh – copying.. epitome (DM). 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') .

. wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. 109). 82). MK. 6$ .. 29. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al.Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. -92).

sifr 13. waŒy – writing. 464. waŒVK see sinn. SA. 5. 29. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. II. IV. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. . 82). piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. 53). wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. MK. KM. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. KK. 218). MJ.

lobed medallion (DH.73). 95. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. no. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. no. waraq SO DZU T.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH.73). DA).

 SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. WS.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. 85-. -195. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

 $5  . folio (folium). parchment or leather) 2. abbrev. leaf. piece (of paper. waraqah 1.

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. (TS. 29). AG. 25). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 11. 109). wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC.

DO-.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. I. 85). al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

French paper (PT. 77) 2. 378). 75. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. 31). European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. DO-5 P 1. I. al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

VI. Tre Lune) (PT. OM). DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. . 31). waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). paper bearing an imitation watermark. 30. SA. 193.

al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O. 32).150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT.

107. pasteboard (JL. II. MD. 84). WS. MS. cardboard (FT. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. 380). 87. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. WS. – glazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . 104) 2. 35. 32. 88. 394). 487. SA. 82). JL. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1.

II. index. 558-561). 88. 69. IV. bookseller. 82. professional copyist. stationer. 22. transcription (WS. FI. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. 81. I. 65). ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. KF. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). – marbled paper (DM. index. I. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. 87. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. EI. 16. 161). 148) 2. IK. 380). 93. MN. foliated arabesque design (ST. maysam SO PD\ VLP. 495). WR. scribe (SL. bookbinder (QS. 14. II. LC. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. WS. JL. IB. 94). 28. 22. 9. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. MP. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. copying. WDZU T 1. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book.

– tool. stamp (AB. 135). mawsim SO PDZ VLP.

MP. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. CI. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. 10). – feast.g. washŒ – decorating. festival. II. 65). ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . index. 22.

drawing (AD. also WDZVK P – tooling. lin.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1. 186) 2. stamping (of leather) (HT.125. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. writing. . 93) 3.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

washy. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. lin. 18. wa¦l. UK. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah).126). awÁ O ZDÁO W. wi¦l. wu¦l (pl. – pattern (created by tooling). stamp (HT.

leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. 10. 812. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. SA. vox reclamans (NM. VI. piece. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. 65) 2. 88. NZ. 683. 110). 144) 3. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . 234. wa¦lah 1. 90). collema (kollema) (WS. HB. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. darj). II.

$' .

187. comp. aw  Ñ ) – composition. arrangement (of a text) (MU. 12. PA. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. 3132). ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). wa„¶ (pl. 62. I. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. KF. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. VI.

author (DF. 376). Z „i¶ – compiler. . IV.

proem (DM).152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. prologue. P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G.

192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $. TM.  . 56. – collation session (TP.

case. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. 87: ZDT ¶ah. wi¶ µ (pl. container (OM). 19. box (MS. 16. 575) 2. ME. awÑiyah) – 1. wifq SO DZI T. DA).

I. 189. writing something down. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. LC. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). LC. apostil (usually signed) (AD. 69. taking something down in writing (SL. 125) 4. AD. autograph. 28. motto. KF. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. 189). royal edict. IV. 28. I. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. X. 10) 2. signature (EI. X. 108). WDZT ¶ 1. gloss. al-WDZ T ¶. . 392-393) 3. 124. sifr 13.. 96). stamp (IK. 100. P IDT – seal. 392. decree (EI. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. KM.

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

II. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). KF. reading. PDZT I 1. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. . WDZT I SO WDZT I W. II.. 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. 146. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. II. 63). WDZT I (KF. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . wakf 3.) (BL.g. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. 100. 428-442). endowment. KH.in Persia. 473) – endowment certificate or statement.g. 146. (AS.v. III. JM.. 187). number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. 90). perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). 90. bequest note (OS. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. LM. 61.29. 73-77. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. 441). unfinished stroke (e.in Turkey). (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. AS. WDTU Ì (q. waqfiyah. 146. KF. LM. 146). LC. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS.9 1123. LM. waqf 1. 38) 2. 43-46. 69).g. 1125.

error (IK. 28). K P – omission (IK.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. 95. 123). sifr 13. 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). comp. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. 55). 95. wakt – letter pointing (KM. AA. logograph. taÐammul 2. AA. IV. wahm – mistake.) (LC. 122). which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. overlining (TP. .

III. III. 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146). 96). 95-96. SA. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. III. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( .154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA.

DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. maÁ ¨if. ray¨ Q QDVNK.

\ ELV – rectilinear. al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 144). of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). 6$ III. ant.

.. 6$ .  8'  $6  /0 .

yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ. FRPSPDEV Ã.

86. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. II. reed pen (IK. UA. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). DM. \DU ¶(ah) – reed. in the hand of) (OT. 393. 42). – hand. KD. . I \DG.

g. CM.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e. no.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK.. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &. .

 .

Akimushkin and Anatol. ed. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. 1979: 35-57. “The art of illumination”. 1923. AG = Adam Gacek. Algiers.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.ABBREVIATIONS 1. A. B. transl. 1967. Paris/ London. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. AI = ÑAbd al-. AC = Adam Gacek. Riyad.VKE O LQ KLV µ. ±aydar Ghaybah. “Das arabische Papier”. Arabische Paläographie. Ivanov. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. AF = Oleg F. 1414/1994. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. 1981.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . Vol. ed. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. AD = E. AJ = J. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. ed. AE = Adolf Grohmann. Wien. von Karabacek. 2 (1989): 37-53. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. Beirut.1. Al-. The arts of the book in Central Asia. Max Weisweiler. Gray. 1989. Fagnan. Damascus.

“Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. AQ = David James. Manuscripts of the Middle East. London/Oxford.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. 1992. New York. “Arabic numerals”. 1982: 1. 1992. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. 1. AW = Nabil F. 2 (1987): 45-67. ed. AN = Richard Lemay. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. 4 (1989): 144-149. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. 382-398. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. McGill University.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. AL = . “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. Descriptive catalogue. London/Oxford. Montreal. AV = François Déroche. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. AS = Adam Gacek. 15.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. no.D. 8 (1941): 65-104. . Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. Manuscripts of the Middle East. decoration. binding and paper”. Ars Islamica. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. Safwat.4 (1986): 131-137. London/Oxford. nos. AP = Nabia Abbott. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. 1996. AO = Adrian Brockett. 1996.

. CM = Adam Gacek. CT = Pierre A. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. -CCA = Adam Gacek. 1991. CD = Arthur J. Leiden. 27-28 (1981): 177-196.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. Oriens. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. London.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. Montreal. MacKay. 1984-85. 1982 .O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. CL = Jan Just Witkam. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. Dublin. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. 1958. CI = Adam Gacek. 4 (1991): 35-53. The Chester Beatty Library. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. Arberry. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies.

Chouémi and C. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. Paris. Dictionnaire arabe-français. London. M. Denizeau. De Biberstein Kazimirski. -DDA = A. CW = A.S. N. Iskandar.Z.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. 1960.4 (1971). Dictionnaire . 1967. Blachère. no. DB = R. 61.

-L. DG = Werner Diem. ed.. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. 1993 . A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. Paris. de Premare. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. 2 (1998): 93-193. J. Paris. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. Beirut. ed. .1 (1937): 69-110. DR = Donald P.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. . 4. DT = Tawfik Canaan. 1984. fasc. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”.2 (1938): 141-151. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. ±amd al-. Kuwait. 1994. DM = Hans Wehr. 59 (1991): 229-235. Ithaca. NY. 0DPO N studies review. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Archeological studies. ed. 1994. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah.M.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. Frankfurt. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr.. Wiesbaden. Beryus. 4 (1989): 44-55. fasc. DC = A. Little. 4th ed. Revue des études islamiques.1986.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. 1967. Cowan. DP = Adam Gacek. 5. 1989.D. DQ = François Déroche. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. Dictionnaire arabe-français.

1960 . Leiden. Meisami and P. New York.S. Al-)XQ Q DO-. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. Dimand.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1999..EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. 5 . 1982 . A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. eds. 1979. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Yarshater. transl. -FFD . Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. Part 1.). n.VO P \DK. FM . FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. Calif. London. London/ Oxford. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Cairo. London. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. à W´ Al-Mawrid. 1997.d. 1998.EU K P . 1995: 93-101.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”.S. -EEA = J. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. 1995: 17-57. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. Istanbul. EP = François Déroche. 1993. 1986. London (later Costa Mesa. ed.. Baghdad. E. New ed. Starkey.

Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. Cairo. Wright. ed. Baku. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. 50-99. GL = W. 6 (1991): 41-58. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. Istanbul. 1967. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. Cairo. 1987. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. Rabat. herausgegeben von W. 1982. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1987. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). HN = Ñ \LGDK . 1994. A Grammar of the Arabic language. transl. 3rd ed. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. HT = Adam Gacek. Wiesbaden. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. . Fischer.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. ³. Cambridge. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva.U. 1992. 1966. Kaziev (Gaziev). A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . HD = A.

)DKP 6DÑd. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1995: 123-136. ed. 1389/1970. ed.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q . 8. Paris. Beirut. Carswell and G. 1973.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. A¨mad ‚aqr. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ.August 18. F. 1997: 57-63. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. Damascus. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. Univ. . IM = Ñ. Chicago. IB = G. 1983. The Oriental Institute. Richard. ed. Déroche and F. J. 1981.1987? .1981. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . Cairo/ Tunis. Beirut. no.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. May 18 . Qum. Cairo. London. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. of Chicago.. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. Petherbridge.H. Bosch. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. IJ = Jan Just Witkam.2 (1979): 221-284. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. 1319 A. à W´ Al-Mawrid.

PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD.n.1 (1958): 81-106.XOO \DW DO.D..LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. no. Damascus. Qum. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð.. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . ed. 1363 [1984]. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. S. 6 pl..PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-.l. 20. s.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. . University of Michigan. ed. ÑIzzat ±asan. Al-0DQ KLO. 1985. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . Beirut. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 1962.1961. Algiers. Riyad. 0DMDOODW . 1997. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK.G E DOV PLÑ. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. 1969.G E (Cairo). JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I .KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. Cairo. 1962.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). Baghdad. 1982. [Tehran?]. Ph. 1983. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G. 38 (1989): 7-103. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU .LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie).

1. no.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. no.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . 1981.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue. Cairo. Fehervari and Y.240 (1984): 61-68.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. “Al-. 2 (1946): 9-18. 1.H. ed.2 (1973): 43-78.DWW Q  ³.VO P . Leiden. KS < VXI DO-.H.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. ed. by Arthur Jeffery. 1978.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”. Safadi. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. London. 1316-21 A. Al. 1937: 125-161. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. 2. no. 1 (1963): 26-48. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. RDVK G DOÑ. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. no.LW E.3 (1964): 1933. Á KL = G.

. ed. Raif Georges Khoury. Wiesbaden. ed. . 1976.LW E DO-zuhd. KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá. .EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  .LW E DONXWW E. .XZDLW 1977.

ed. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. LD = P. 48 (1989): 21-29.S. van Koningsveld and Q. Rev. MELA Notes. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. LB = Jan Just Witkam. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah.J. 1929. LL = Edward William Lane. 2 (1987): 68-87. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . LE = M. Brill. Cairo. 1992. Arabic-English lexicon. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1790-1930. 1911-1931.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. ed. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. 1984. Baghdad. Leiden. Ben Cheneb. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. 1978 (catalogue no.500). Revue africaine. Samarrai. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. LC = Adam Gacek. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Cambridge. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait.

Cairo. MC OL¨ \DK .XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . 20 (1970): 88-137.U T . Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. 1349 [1930]. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . 230 (1938): 551-575.OP DO-Ñ. Journal asiatique. 1972. 1992. ME = A. ed.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. Leiden. 1992.d. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. 1913. Beirut. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. n. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK.4 (1986): 185-248.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. ed. MK = Etan Kohlberg. Beirut. 15. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. 1995. ed. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . 1980. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. no. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. .G DO-Mawlá. Damascus. 1391/1971. Beirut. Lamare. Damascus. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. Beirut. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ.

MT = Adam Gacek. no.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . MY = François Déroche. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. Cairo.2 (1989): 201-203. 32 (1987): 105-114. MV = François Déroche.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. 14. 1976-87. Al-Mawrid. 1992.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. 52. 18.1 (1969): 3-47. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. 15. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart.4 (1962). no. no. . ed. MP = Martin Levey.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . 1936-38. Revue des études islamiques.. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. pt. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-.S. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”.6 (1993): 641649. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. MW . London/Oxford. N.

LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. London. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. Sadan. 1 ILPELU  HG . Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. NC = Adam Gacek.A. Manuscripts of the Middle East. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). NS = S. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. NH . NO = Dimitri Gutas. 45 (1977): 1-87. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. Cairo. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ..VO P  . 2 (1987): 8-17. 13. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1367/1949. no. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. Revue des études islamiques. 2 (1987): 126-130.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . Cairo.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. 1418/1998: 341-393. 1342/1923 . Bonebakker. 1928. 1. ND = J. Damascus.2 (1992): 679-683.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- .

1985: 29-48. PT = Terence Walz. OM = Adam Gacek. OS = Adam Gacek. 1992. -PPA = Yves Porter. OH = J.H. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. PK = S. 1994 : 75-81. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. 2 (1987): 88-95. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. Rabat. Daly. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 5 (1960): 124-143. 10 (1998): 41-63. . Manuscripts of the Middle East. ed. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. 26 (1976): 199-212. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. Paris/Teheran. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). M. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. Derek Latham. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). “O.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”.W. New York.

Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. 195772. RI = W. Beirut. Paris. Chicago. Beirut. Costa Mesa. 15. 1410/1990. Cairo.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. no. .  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. Bookbinder. 1973. Dozy. 1960. Chicago. RN = Nabia Abbott. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 1 (1987): 21-38. Paris.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. SJ . “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. -RRA = William L. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1938. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. SD = R. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. ed. 2 (1956): 339-372. 3rd ed. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). SL = Nabia Abbott. 1967. a new direction”. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð.4 (1986): 259-270. 1995. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. Bull.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW .

“Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. MELA notes. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. arabe 6844). 1994: 11-32.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . Ricard. ed. P. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. ed.Q Q  London. MS (Paris. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. Bibliothèque nationale. no. Damascus. 1303 A. 41.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 1965. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN.H. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. 1989: 49-50.1 (1997): 55-90.VO P .VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. . Paris. Rabat. TE = Adam Gacek. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. 1925.H. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. François Déroche. 5DVK G DO-Ñ.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK.DWW Q  . TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. Paris/Istanbul. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). 1997: 135-150. Damascus. ed. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. 1995. 1346-49 A. Beirut. Rabat.

[Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. TP = Adam Gacek. ±amd al-. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. TS %DNU LEQ .VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. Déroche. 1991. Kuwait. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-.d. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”.EU K P DO-.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. Jedda. Ñ$EG $OO K . Paris/Istanbul. Damascus. Rabat. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. 1353/1934. 1982.VKE O  ³. ed. . ed. 1989: 51-60. pl. F. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . 1949. Hyderabad. xx-xxxii. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. n.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim.

DaÑwat al-|aqq.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. 17 (1971): 43-172. 23. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. Beirut. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. no. 1992. 1983. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. Chester Beatty Library.10 (1975): 80-92.2 (1977): 45-56. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. Graz. Beirut. 1981-83. 1 (1986): 49-53. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. Hildesheim/New York. no. no. Dublin. DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1980. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. 16. 18. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. .4 (1982): 10-24.

Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW .1 (1955): 43-48. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed). 17. 6 pl. 2. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al.Oá / -XP Gá al.XOO \DW DO.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá.NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O.G E (Cairo). Tehran. no.

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P.

numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P. ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah).

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

Á ¨ib. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. Áa¨ ¨. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX.

 Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . ra L\D $OO K .

ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).  abbah (ta E E.

Ñ UL a. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. rajÑ. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. = Ãurrah.

/ = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu). fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V.

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. aÁl. tamma. NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . malzamah.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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Dain. however. Paris. . Paris. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Toronto. Gumbert. Sydney M. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. Bookbinding. Les manuscrits. Maniaci and P. Transl. ed. Cockerell. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. 5th ed. Cambridge. 1976. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. It does not. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. 1997. 1953 (repr. 5 vols. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Bischoff. Leiden. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Beit-Arié. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Indeed. 1983. Boyle. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. Alphonse. A. Bernhard. M. 1976-1980. Jerusalem. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. Leonard. Paris. 1990. 1993. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Paris. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew.1. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. 1988. Munafò. 1984. 2 vols. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. 1979).BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. Carla. London/New York. 1993. Malachi. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. Bozzolo.P. ed. Gruys and J. Vatican City.

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1993. 3. 31 (1988): 67-81. The transmission of knowledge in medieval Cairo: a social history of Islamic education. The rise of colleges: institutions of learning in Islam and the West. N. Brinkley. ——— The rise of humanism in classical Islam and the Christian West with special reference to scholasticism. 32 (1970): 255-264. Berkeley/Oxford. Reichmuth. 8: 545-547. ——— “Madrasa and university in the Middle Ages”.BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 V. Nasr. “Murta  D]-=DE G G. ——— ³5LZ \D´ EI. George.. Messick. Studia Islamica.. 1990. new ed. Seyyed Hossein. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE V. Oriens. Makdisi.J. General studies Berkey. Princeton. Edinburgh. Stefan. 1992. Journal of Islamic studies. “Authorship and transmission in unauthored literature”. “Oral transmission and the book in Islamic education: the spoken and the written word”. Leder. 1981.1 (1992): 1-14. Stefan. 1. no. Jonathan Porter. Edinburgh. The calligraphic state. Textual domination and history in a Muslim society.

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LI \D I PDÑrifat uÁ O Ñilm alULZ \DK¶ G¶DO-Haà E Dl-Ba G G ´ Arabica.PLÑ’”.216 BIBLIOGRAPHY V. 244 (1956): 433-437. 1956: 2. ——— ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ LI 7LUP GK ’V µ. “How al-Bu© U ’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]’”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. 14 (1952): 579-588. Joseph. 1995. ³/D WUDQVPLVVLRQ GH OD µ. 5REVRQ - ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI $E ' Z G’s ‘Sunan’”.LW E GH 6 EDZD\K. 4 (1957): 304-307. University of London. “La recension maghribine du ‚a¨ ¨ d’al-Bo© U ´ Journal asiaique. al-.KDWDP W ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. “Deux éditions inconnues du ‘MuwaÃÃaÐ’”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Georges.DWW Q  < VXI ³. Leiden. 202 (1923): 209-233. Transmission of individual works Fück. ——— “La transmission de la mašya©a (Ansal al-PDT Áid wa-aÑdab alPDZ ULG. Studi orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida. University of London. Humbert. ——— “La transmission de l’éloge de Zayn al-Ñ ELG Q´ Journal asiatique. “Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bu© U ’s Traditionssammlung”. 16 (1954): 258-270. 477-492. /HV YRLHV GH OD WUDQVPLVVLRQ GX . Geneviève. Bulletin d’études orientales. Rome. 2. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Johann. ——— “The transmission of Muslim’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’”. 92 (1938): 60-87. 50 (1998): 191-222. Rosemarie. Quiring-Zoche. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Lévi-Provençal. (1949): 46-60. Schacht. 240 (1984): 61-68. Vajda. E.

/10 m.. 48 (1973-74): 55-74.M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h. Rivista degli studi orientali.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-. G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”. ilá . 9  .

/16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. R. and Young.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. Islamic quarterly. 87 (1974): 445-465. Ben Shemesh. Taxation in Islam.1-2 (1974): 3-7. Le Muséon. M. 4 (1981): 82-103.J. Leiden. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”. A.] Ebied.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . 18. [Vol. 1967.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. nos.L.Y. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.

Koningsveld. . 1974:92-110. 35-36 (1414 A.S. Iran. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. “Al-. no. Gérard.H. Studies on Islam.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq.H. Amsterdam. 41. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ .K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. P. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles.): 270-372. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. . 1998. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. ed. 32 (1994): 115-123. Les . al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. -DOO E ±asan. 18-19 October 1973. Amsterdam.1 (1997): 55-90. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). 26 (1994): 75-96. 326 (1997): 97-102.] Lecomte. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). van. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”.

——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”. Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K.

Oriens. Damas: Institut français. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. Jhdt. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. MacKay. 550-750/1155-1349. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. 34 (1994): 57-75. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6.”. Pierre A. 1996 – . “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE ./12. Suppl. Leder. Stefan.1.

H): 115-117. Hamdard Islamicus.H): 172-182. 4 (1924): 345-355. no.4 (1971.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ . Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . no. 8. 8: 1019-1020. 2. 1.1 (1955): 232-251. Sayyid.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. no.H): 107-114.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-.. al-Munajjid. “Al-. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. ed. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”. EI. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”.2 (1406 A. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101.. 7 (1989): 238-252. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”. no. 1. ——— “Al-.1 (1408 A. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”. “Al-. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. no. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. no. n. 3.s.1 (1407 A. Hespéris. new ed.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ . 61.1 (1985): 7-20.

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VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. .VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. 1997: 179-196.Q Q  London.

“The human element between text and reader. Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation.UDQ.. 1. London.10.3 (1954): 337-342. Yarshater. Georges. 1997: 163-177. ——— “Al-ÑUnÁ U DO-EDVKDU ED\QD DO-naÁÁ wa-al-T ULÐ: al-LM ]DK I DOmakhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. Jan Just. ——— “Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris”. Albums and exhibition catalogues Ahlwardt. Zwölf arabische Schrifttaffeln. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. 1993. ——— “Idj ]D´ EI. 1981. Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. Arabica. Witkam.Q Q  London. Paris. ARABIC ALPHABET. Berlin. ——— “Un opuscule inédit d’as-6LODI ´ La transmission du savoir en Islam (VIIe-XVIIIe siècles). SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY VI. no.BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 SteZDUW 'HYLQ - ³(M ]D´ Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 1957.] $P Q  )DNKU DO-' Q 1DÁ U  *DQM QDK-Ði khuà Ã-i ÑXODP Ð-i aÑO P YD G QLVKPDQG Q-L NLU P YD VKXÑDU -yi ÑiÌ P YD NK VKQDY V Q-i FK UDKGDVW YD PXÑ ÁLU Q 7DMU VK . E. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. Vajda. 3: 1020-1021. 1. new ed. Wilhelm. The LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. VI. 8: 273-275. ed. 1995: 123-136.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. Hildesheim/ New York. London. [Also in: idem. 1899. 1983: 85-92.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ.

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Beirut. al-$WKDU  0X¨ammad Bahjah. $OELQ 0: ³. MELA notes. ÑAbd al-Laà I DO-5 Z DQG ÑAbd al.113-138) a compilation by the editor entitled: 7DWLPPDK I naqd al-DWK U DO-maÑU IDK Ñan al-khaÃà wa-al-NLW EDK.BIBLIOGRAPHY 229 5LI Ñ DO-Qasà O  0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK by Mu¨ammad al-=LIW Z  Bi  Ñat al-mujawwid by Mu¨ammad al-6LQM U DQG Shar¨ almanÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm al-NLW EDK by Ibn BaÁ Á and Ibn al-Wa¨ G@ ³5LV ODK I ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW Eah”. 13 (1978): 27-35.4 (1987): 760-795. American journal of Semitic languages and literatures. 65. Sharikat al-MaÃE Ñ W 97.LW E DO-qalam li-$E 0X¨ammad al-6DUU M al-%DJKG G ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. %DJKG G DO-MajmaÑ al-Ñ.1 (1988): 50-65. 15.1 (1994): 70-73. al-6 ZLU  ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] ³.4 (1986): 141-148. Der Islam. 15.4 (1986): 345-376.QGH[ RI SHQPHQ LQ 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q’s ‘MuÁawwar alkhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ’”. Mu¨ammad „al¨DK %LO O -HGGD ' U DO-0DGDQ   [Contains (pp. al-=DE G  0X¨ammad Murta á. Ekkehard. ed. al-SaÑG DO-MawÁLO  6 OL¨ ³8UM ]DK I Ñilm rasm al-khaÃÔ. “Der Wettsreit der Schriftarten – eine arabische Handschrift aus der Forschungsbibliothek Gotha”. no. 62. no. Ta¨T T W ZD-taÑO T W Ñalá kit E µDOKhaÃà à al-BaghG G Ñ$O LEQ +LO O DO-PDVKK U EL-Ibn alBaww E’. Rudolph.U T   al-AÑÌDP  :DO G Jamharat al-khaÃà à Q DO. [Contains a facsimile of *K \DW DOPDU P I WDNK Ãub al-DTO P by Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $¨mad al0DTGLV @ SaÑG ) U T 5LV ODK I DO-khaÃà wa-bary al-qalam li-Ibn al-‚ Ðigh.OP DO-Ñ. no. 15.] d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas Á $EE V DP\ Ð Mu¨DPPDG ³1LV Ð khaÃà à W´ Al-Mawrid. Nabia. %DJKGDG :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK ZD-al-IÑO P ' U DO-ShuÐ Q DO7KDT I \DK DO-Ñ PPDK 1989. no. no. Heft 2 (1988): 301-316. ed. ed. Ñ . 2 vols. “The contribution of Ibn Mu¯lah to the North-Arabic script”. Abbott.%DJKG G \ Q PXQGKX taÐV V %DJKG G ¨attá nih \DW DO-qarn al-U ELÑ Ñashar al-KLMU .I T.O K 1DEK Q Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK ELDimashq. Zuhayr = KLG DQG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 56 (1939): 71-83. ²ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DO. 63.

al-Bahnass  Ñ$I I MuÑjam muÁÃala¨ W DO-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkhaÃà à Q. 1. ——— “NuÁ Á LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid.D.1-2 (1980): 334-352. 1908. Paris. Ahmed Moustafa M. ——— ³0DVK K U DO-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE I 7XUNL\ ´ Sumer. NY. 5 (1949): 85-91. ed. nos. Les calligraphes et les miniaturistes de l’Orient musulman.4 (1896): 149-156. London Institute – Central Saint Martin’s College of Art and Design.U T I Ñahd al-0DP O N´ Sumer. %HLUXW ' U Dl-Gharb al-. Huart. Atiyeh.3 (1964): 8093.EQ DO-‚ Ðigh al-khaÃà à wa-madrasatuh”. “The Ottoman roots of a Tunisian calligrapher’s ‘tour de force’”.XUG  0X¨ammad „ KLU TaÐU NK DO-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ZD. Ankara (forthcoming). Cairo. 7 illus. no. George N. . François. 5 illus. al--XE U  0D¨P G 6KXNU ³$O-KhaÃà à < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP ´ AlMawrid. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Hassan. no. 36. ——— “Al-KhaÃà wa-PDVK K U DO-khaÃà à Q I DO-waÃan al-Ñ$UDE ´ HG )  il Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  Sumer.230 Ñ BIBLIOGRAPHY $]] Z  Ñ$EE V ³. The book in the Islamic world: the written word and communication in the Middle East.VO P   . 1 M  +LO O Ibn al-%DZZ E – ÑDETDU DO-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE Ñabra al-ÑuÁ U PDMP ÑDK QDI VDK PLQ NKXà à Ibn al-%DZZ E. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  %HLUXW ' U DO-. %HLUXW 0DNWDEDW /XEQ Q  Déroche.G EXK. Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). al-. “The scientific foundation of Arabic lettershapes according to the theory of ‘the proportioned script’ by Ibn Muqla (272-328 AH / 886-940 AD)”.1-2 (1982): 284-302. Gacek. Z. 4 (1989): 44-55. Albany. ed. Ph.KDÃà al-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I ZD-al-khaÃà à al-6K K Ma¨P G DO-1 V E U ´ Sumer. 15. 1995: 141-148. Adam. 1. 1939.EU K P ÑAbd al-Laà I ³. [Also published: Riyad.3-4 (1972): 180-186.LW E al--DG G  ——— “Women’s roles in the art of Arabic calligraphy”. Yasa Yaman. al-JamÑ \DK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK al-SaÑ G \DK OLO-7KDT IDK ZD-al-)XQ Q @ al-Munajjid. 1989. no. ——— ³0DVK K U DO-khaÃà à Q I DO-Ñ. Sanatta etkilesim (= Interactions in art). Cl. no. 38. 23 (1967): 151-156.

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S. S.). A. E.). Abu Salim. 1996. N. S. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa.).r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. (eds. 2: Ab-bildungen. Ibrahim. Arabic Literature of Africa. V. J. 1900. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. Compiled by R.F. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. 1995. (ed. R. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. K. With Full DefiniKinberg. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. 1994. B. H.T. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1994. W. O. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions.Lagarde.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Manuel de recherche. and O’FAHEY. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. Materials for a Reconstruction. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. 2nd ed. S. (ed. O. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. J.L. References and Index of Texts Cited. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. A. (ed. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. Spiel. and Jongeling. Bd.). ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. 2 Parts. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. V. (eds. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. 1994. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . Nouns. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. Tanz und verwandten Themen. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. Phonology. S. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. 1996. Y. and Stolbova. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. 1994. Bd. M. V. 1980-1993.1: Text. und Herb. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . 1994. Mosak Moshavi and B. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. Hunwick. L. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. R. Jagd. with the assistance of M. and Peters. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ .C. Steiner. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. K. 1994. Hofheinz. M. J. Chief consultant to the editor.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. Hamidu Bobboyi. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . Band 22 . Volume I. 1994. A. Vikør.). (éd. With appendices by R. Numerals. 1996. Roman Loimeier. M. Compiled by John O. Radtke and K. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. Marín. V. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. Porten. M. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . 1995. 1994. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. 1995. 1995. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. Orthography. I. J. O’Fahey. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. und Sardshweladse.).

1997. The Empire of the Mahdi. and Neusner. H. Bonner. H. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. III. J. Religious Perspectives 1999. Vol. 1997. G. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan.G. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. Terms and Topics. J. III. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. 1999. 2 Volumes. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. J. 1999. The Mishnah. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. 1999. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. 1999. Index of Names. A.J. 1997. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson.2. 1997. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. J. and Pingree. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. 1: A. 1998. 1999. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. F. G. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. W. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. L. J. M. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1999.F. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic.1: B. 1999. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). Judaism in Late Antiquity. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. The Kingdom of Kush. and Sou‘ek. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. 1999. J. The Mishnah. 1997. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon.W. 1996. H.1. Vol. B. 1999. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. and Wyatt. Social Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. M. 2000. and Porten. D. D. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II.H. 2: 1988-1992. 1998. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. R. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. N. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. R. V. 1. H.E. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. Mesopotamian Lexicography. Translated from the German by M.Band 26 Halm. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. T. J. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. W. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. The Rise of the Fatimids. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East.L. H. Vol. 1999. A Bibliography. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. and Healey. B.J. van.

Judaism in Late Antiquity V. A. Dialect. and Chilton. ISBN 90 04 12000 9.J. A. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. and Neusner. A.. (2 Volumes) 2000. Band 56 Avery-Peck. and Chilton.Band 50 Tal. 2001. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. Theory of Israel. 2001. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. The Arabic manuscript tradition. B. 2000. 2001. 1 : Glossary 2001. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. Comparing Judaisms. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. R. U.4. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. and Neusner. A. J. J. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. World View.J. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. Ch.J.J. Culture. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. 2000. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. 2001. Vol...1. C. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl.. The Special Problem of the Synagogue.2. Neusner. Neusner. J.. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. de. A. and Society in Eastern Arabia. B. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. A.3. J.E. R. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. 2001. 2001. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World.

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