THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

Julian and Helenka .PREFACE V To Joanna.

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............... XI Preface ................................................................... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( .............PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ..............................................................................

.............................. 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ......... 156 2.......... 181 Bibliographies ......................................................................... 182 General studies and surveys .. 1 Abbreviations ............................................................................ GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ..... 156 1...................................................... 177 I........................................................................... Sources/References ....... Technical terms in the glossary ............................................................. .............. 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK...................................... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................... 181 Periodicals ................ 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ...........................................................................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

....... 6........................................................... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ...... TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING .................................................... 236 Painted illustration ......................................... 8.................... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works.................................................. 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship ................................. 241 Bookbinding .. 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ..................................................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration .............................................. 239 Lacquer .................... 242 c) Other studies..................) ............................................................. 251 Facsimile editions .......................... 7...................... 247 1...................... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues ..................................................................................... etc............................................................. 259 ............. 256 1...................... 243 2............................. 226 Calligraphy . 255 IX........................................................ 242 a) Bibliography............................ 5.............. 4....... 4............................. 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries ... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ........................................... 256 Some specific cases ............. 3................. 240 Papercuts ...... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments........................... ................... 3....................................... 247 Later QurÐans................................... 238 b) Other studies .............................. 2............................................................................................................................................... 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas .................................................................................................................................... VIII............... Exhibition catalogues.. 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper............................................. General studies ......................................................................... 238 a) Drawing............. 2..............

................... 5............ ......................... 263 XII....... 261 XI......................... COLLECTIONS............ Catalogues of edited manuscripts .... 3. PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION .. Descriptions of collections and catalogues .....X CONTENTS PREFACE X......................................................................... 266 1......... CATALOGUING........................... 2....... 4.. Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts ........................................................... ETC............ Catalogues of catalogues ............................ CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS.... 266 266 267 267 268 ...........

PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. . without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. Last but not least. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions.

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papermaking and bookbinding. the preparation of inks. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. Along with this manuscript output.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. both religious and scientific in nature. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. scholars. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. 2). VII. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. Arab authors. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.VKE O G 1231).). DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.10/16th cent.

EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO. RI .

Furthermore. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials.

Finally. who in his work on education. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. as well as on the collation and correction of books.984/1577). RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). lineation). The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. which deals with the preparation of inks. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. al-Durr al-na{ G (TP).

It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. writing surfaces and implements used. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. unless their exact meanings could not be verified.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. some of the most important research in this field published to date. e. contemporary studies and catalogues. as well as extant specimens. which spans almost 14 centuries. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. bound and decorated. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). respectively.g. Nevertheless. corrected. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. could be very misleading. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. for the first time. are recorded the way they appear in various sources.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. . A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. book lovers and cataloguers. medieval and postmedieval texts. even in its present form. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. especially those relating to book formats. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. this chapter has been omitted. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. The glossary is a by-product. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. To translate. It brings together. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. as it were. Some terms. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed.

for example. book cover). In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. however. for example. envelope flap).PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. OLV Q (‘tongue’. catchword. recto. catch- . wajh (‘face’. fore-edge. lower margin. great caution is in order. case (box). khadd (‘cheek’. and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. been largely omitted here. marjiÑ (Morocco). These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. may have been used exclusively in those circles. however. and V TLÃah (Yemen). The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. recto. OLV Q (central Arab lands). medallion. as yet. serif. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. Thus. outer or inner margin). have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. Áadr (‘chest’. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). upper margin. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. fore-edge). udhn (‘ear’. This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). Ñaqib (‘heel’. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. for example. North Africa). on the other hand. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. Ñaqb. Therefore. inkwell and the like. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). catchword). miqlab (Levant. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. upper cover). period and/or region in which they were employed. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. Iraq). flap). raÐs (‘head’. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). Thus. Some. Here. flap). raddah (Levant). Here we find. We do not. incipit.

Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script. On the whole.XVI PREFACE word). As far as transliteration is concerned. Most words are traced to a source. . Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. either contemporary or earlier.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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ibrah (pl. 154. 107. among other things. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. 176-178) 2. I. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. 18-19. 215. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). 97. index. 392). II. I. 59. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. MB. GA. SD. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI.v.  EU  ZDUDT DO. 60. of minfadh (q. GA. from Pers. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. SA. 2: ibrishmah). IA. 8).) (DD. ST. muµabbar – sewn (KC. 8). 9. syn. RN.v. I. AG. 13. 104. I. III. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq.EU . 182). 12. 103. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. ibar) – needle (UK. 97-98. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. miµbar 1. AG. I. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. DB. 107.). needle case (DM) 2. TS. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. ebrû. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS.

 .

LEU VLP. LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP.

I. abbrev. explicit (TP.14). ilá NKLULK – et cetera. taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. (DB. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). – closing matter of the text (composition). 53). 62. n.

201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. 175-176). 71-72. I. adam(ah). 106-108) 2. DG P (pl. IW. AE. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. 52). 63. scribal etiquette 2. leather (UK. passim. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. udum) 1. – etiquette (EI. tanned red leather (DB. I. MF.

MU. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. XIV. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah.

comp. DGG P – tanner (DM). jild. DG K SO DGDZ W..

– V\Q ODK (EI. instrument.g. DGDZ W O W. tool. e. 345). implement. I.

DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 153-156. writing MB. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

JKXU E – the last hour of day. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. VI.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. 250). al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV.

alDZ NKLU .Oá (al-uwal) (1-10). al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al.NKLUDK DO-ukhar. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).

li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. -30) (SA. e. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. VI.g. 248-249).

EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. 244-249). 244-248). lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . nos.VI. VI.EQ . al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA.g. 235). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month.DP O 3 VK 73  CI.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR .EQ . 178). II. e. 106.

al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9. -248).

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. ar„ \DK – background (LC. 670). taµU NK-L PDODN . 218: ar  \DW DO-matn.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 6$ 9.C. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . 262. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. 22. JL.1st 5509 B. (EI. FZ. X. ER. IV.D.

 .

713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). II. XVK UDK.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ.

punch (TS. IA. ST. AG. IK. I. 115). 107. a¦l (pl. – awl. sifr 4. 90. 43: VKDI . 10: ishfah. 15. MB. uÁ O. 103. 59. IB. 11. KM.

 ..  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9..

SD. 26. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. MH. original (main) text. MU. VIII.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). exemplar. 27) 3. II.

 .. XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. 136). MI. 2024. but also 0= .

23) 4. major work (TM. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 126. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. SM. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

ià U W XÃur) 1. 25. frame (within a border) (TF. 24. DB. 928). i¨ U (pl. .  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. UI. 27) 6. 80) 3. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. textual surround (LC. headpiece (LC. 29) 5. rectangular panel (LC. FT. border (of a book cover) (LC. . rules. I. 402) 2. rule-border.e. KR. 24. 145). 24). 24. i. tabula ansata (UI. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC.

6. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. 32). DIVK Q (Pers. taµO I DK.8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-. according to other sources al. 581-582). writing circa 1375’ (DW. 46).) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. ER. I.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages.

(pl. taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W.

 muµallaf (pl. muÐDOODI W.

33. umm. . X. EI. ummah . comp. muÁannif. – composition. I. compilation. taÁQ I muµallif – author.1 . work (of prose or poetry) (SD. comp. writer. 360).

SO XPPDK W.

used in mosques (KN. . 246) 3. original (main) text. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. 130) 4. I. archetype (LC. shar¨ (IN. . I. exemplar. SD. transcript (from which another copy is made). umm al-NLW E 1. 26). copy. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. as opposed to a commentary. 29). 35. TM. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. 26.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

KF. 294). II. . Umm al-EXOG Q. 39). 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. textus receptus (NT. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. Umm al-qurá. LP P – exemplar. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. 37. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. II. II. archetype. 99.

one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. II. 2812). taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q).GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. II. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. comp. xiv. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. tadabbur. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. 99). abbrev. I. (CI. LL.

 . . or /'    $'  (.

 FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã. XQE E DK.

SO DQ E E.

taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. III. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. 31. unnibbed reed (FN. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). BA. III. KU. – unpared. 370). 31). II. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. LM. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. LQV see sinn. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. 370.

264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. (TP. JA. incipit. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. initia. n.14. 52. I. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). AA.

 .

taÐ Z O. taµZ O (pl.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM).

taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q. explanation (e.g. – interpretation.

passim) 2. incomplete (of text) (KC. bu¨ U. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. baŒr (pl. acephalous. **** PDEW U 1. imperfect. 34).

JL. – panel on a book cover. 110. AG. 33. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . . cartouche (TS.

40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). bidl '% . WDENK U – fumigation (TS. badal. 355). . tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &. [LLL.. .

RU badal respectively (KG. conjectural substitution. DT.3. suppl. II. wifq (US. 153-154. fasc. alteration (CL. also WDEG O – subal-matn. 100-103). SD. 49. . conjecture. I.3-4. 296). stitution. 59-60. fasc. EI. comp. MZ. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. 412) 2.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl.

lin. I. 390: for trimming). qirà V mibrad – file. 64-66). 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. papyrus sheet or roll (DB. comp. QS. I. VIII. WS. 417. IV. II. DD. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). EDUG \DK – papyrus. rasp (HT. 521-522. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). 407. IA. EI. sifr 13.84. publishing (KM. 60.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG .

barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. 545). EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . . I.

ST. n. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . EDUVK P. 81. 17-18. – endband (headband) (ST.148). IB. 8. index.

 al-PXE UDN DK.

ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.

ELUN U SO EDU N U. etc. DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. nuskhah.

(pair of) dividers (SA.9. – compass. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 .  '0. III.

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

12. . 18). Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS.

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

trimming (of a reed ) (IR.v. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 232.). KK. ELU \DK – paring. SA. III. bary.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). 455 6. 49). 85. PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. 154: IK. EDUU \DK.  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q.

– pen knife (AA.. 90. 591). MP. I. 64. bas¨ – spreading out. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. 8. 81). I. SD. flattening (of a letter). DA: mibzagh. mibzaq – lancet-like knife. 88. index.. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . DB. IK.   $6 .

rectilinear (of a script. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. 144) 4. 120) 2. line (KU. AS. original (comprehensive). syn. 87) 3. 34. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). III. mukhtaÁar. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. unabridged work. KH. comp. horizontal stroke. jazm (IK. PDEV ¨ 1.

13. TW. 322). basmalah SO EDV PLO. 144). maÁ ¨if. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. 365. 47. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

161. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. LF. 63. slip (of paper) 2. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). 78: ‘racler. LF. TS.) (AS. lin.111) 2. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. baà Ðiq) 1. IA. buà Q. MP. bi¨ TDK (pl. EI. bashr 1. 78. 58. I. bashra¨ 1. also known as al-JKXE U (q. PDEVK U – pared. erased.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. 155). lin. 9. and opening a composition (TP. register (AD. 52. silk endband (headband) (HT. ratisser des peaux’. 23-24.97. catalogue. ba¨n (pl. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP.v. paring. 58. AG. HT. dressing (of leather) (UK. 145). ST. 1084-1085). ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. index. piece. 12). silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. 109.

ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. flesh side (of parchment). inner cover. al-NLW E. E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side.

paste-down endpaper. 22-23. lin. 117. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. 159. endleaf (ST. IA.73-79) 3. MA. AG. 49. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. IB. 47. pasteboard (UK. – inner cover. 23. 60. baà Ðin) 1. MB. HT. doublure (TS. passim. 102. 408) 2. 89. 112). endpaper. doublure (LC. UK. lining (FT. HD. IV. bi¨ QDK (pl.

 EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . 92). .

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. MU.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. XIV. 9. lining of the insides of book covers with paper. index. leather or silk (ST.

bary. III. 2. II. ba¶du – after. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah.v. 87). /( . MB. abbrev. 61. BA. paring (of the calamus) (KD. used for a transposed word. removal of sha¨mah (q.) from the reed (IK. 370). comp.

n. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah).20). 53. also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. tab¶ „ – word division. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. separation (MM.

103. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. 153. 104. (MB. (pair of) dividers (UK. – compass. MP. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 103. 59. 58. biUN U WDEN U. IA. etc. 105). 101. MB. IB. 44. 60. comp. TU. 156. measuring distances.

59). comp. 380. 42. 153. 391). UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. MB. I. IA. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. 103. IB. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. DD. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah.

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . 45: EXO JK). comp. 268. CT. JA. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin.119. damaged (TS. I.9 SO. TP.  EDO . E OLQ – worn. 56.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. E E SO DEZ E. kha¨¨L E KDU. 36). FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). EI. IV.

0. . – chapter. abbrev.

20). 609. n. 53. murattib. bayt SO EX\ W. mubawwib – compiler (DF. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. IV. TP. 376). comp.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

110) 4. frame (as part of the border. KR. 97. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. compartment (in such a box) 3. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. Bayt al-Maqdis. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. AG. 32. Ãurrah) (TS. 31-33. 110). 95. . AG. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 82). 33). 31. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

AG. . also TS. tibr – gold. W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 82).GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. gold dust (AQ. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 110). 97. KR. 30-31. 95.

 takht SO WXNK W.

WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. I. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. lin. earth. 156. 127-. IV. KU. 22. TD. WXU E – dust. IB. wooden pressing board (TS. 24. AG. 9). sifr 13. 94.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. 42. 82.  . 6. 120). sand. 107) 3. HT.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. KM. 9. index. index. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

478-480). 6$ II. tarjamah SO WDU MLP.

122) 3. title (of a book) (LC. chapter heading (IN. detailed title of a book. II. 28) 4. 165). 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . key word (LC.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 28. AH. indicating its contents (DB.

 decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. disc) or margins (e. paragraph (LC. medallion) . headpiece or tailpiece (LC.g. 27) 6. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. 27) 7. 27) 8.g.

IT. 224) 12.g.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. biographer 2. DB. 1021) 13. biographical note. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. cryptography (AA. 260.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. illuminator (TW. X. translator. translation (EI. 186. turs SO WXU V. 224) 10. 29. exegesis (DB. tirs. also mutarjam (e. mutarjim 1. 1021). biography (EI. interpretation. 28. II. X. 270). 29-31. explanation. ‘QaÁ GDW . II. 30) 9.

comp. 95. 44) 3. PA. turunj(ah) 1. rosette (HD. 9. writing tamma (lit. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. IP. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. IB. illuminated oval medallion. WDWP P – completion. 69. 82). corner-piece (ST. shamsah. 116). 97. KR. oval. 103. execution. 145. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. taftar see daftar. index. 28) 2. LC. 15). citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB.

continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). II. RU CM. WDP PDK (pl. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. 177-178). WDP Ðim) – amulet. X. . tatimmah – supplementation. ¨add. . &. xiii). talisman (EI. [LLL at the end of the colophon. WDP P – end. abbrev. comp. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. supplement . comp. finish. 46). used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’).

100.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. no.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. 101. FK. II. copying (MH.

thabat (pl. atKE W. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’.

muÑjam. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. I. 157) 2. 234. record of attested study (HB. 288: syn. written testimony (SD. GA.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. document.

18) 2. authentication (formula). WKDE W – signature (SD. I. LWKE W 1. usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. vocalization (AD. 157). also WDWKE W – attestation.  WDEOH RI contents.

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

53. CT. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. n. GA. 289).25. 45. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. muthabbit.

45). thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. I. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. 330). CT. 101. writer of the audition note (MH.

WKDT O (lit. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. 11. AG. . 147). AS. 107). ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. III.

in Persia. abbrev. TU. (TN. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. III. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. 51). 349). . hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. T OLE. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. I.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM.9 . al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 1125in Turkey). al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. JM.

VII. DO-thumn. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. 795-. octagon (EI.

. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. Taf. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. 102). I. 232-234. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 232-234) . 12. MI. no. SA. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). 361). VI. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. 361). . hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points).. [LY )0 167. FRPS NK WLP muthamman.13.  RU &.VI. MZ. abbrev. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. I. see also mashÐalah.

either illuminated or stamped (KI.GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. decorative medallion or panel. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .

5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK .  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 88. JL. 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . 87.

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

jabr – repairing. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. 87). 83. 99). nos. 99.41. braid. PDMG O SO PDM G O. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. corner-piece (JL. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. 43). interlace (TF. mending. WDMG G – repair. restoration (KR. repair (SJ. 141). 100). restoring manuscripts.

DT. 160) 2. 63) 3. 148. thong (KC. magic square. 370. talismanic seal (EI. 56. 24) 4. KC. – leather strap. 108). ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. mujadwal – ruled (LC. 175) 5. diagram. 50. creating rule-borders (WB. rules. I. 32). table (LC. 42). column (of text) (SD. TW. no. 26). chart. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). 33. table of contents (CM. . jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. II. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC.6/2) 6.

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

 FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah..   . jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ ..

collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. 27). I. WDMU G 1.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). 112. abridgement (SD. KF. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. mijrad(ah) – file. DG. register. 184. jard al-matn see matn. 107. extract. inventory (SD. I. DD. MDU GDK – list. I. II. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. scraper (MB. 183).

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

 HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. majran SO PDM ULQ. passim). jirm wasaÃ. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ.

8 154). shaving (MB. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . jazz – trimming. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. passim: Œazz. IA. 62).

rough copies 2. 132. VII.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. 103). MU. n. . I. inset (UI. KF. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. 19.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid.

booklet. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. single-quire codex. AI. 79. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ.

128). small piece of writing. DEEUHY RU (CI. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. VII. independent. 128) 6. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. usually not more than a quire (IJ. I. II. 90). tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. 711). small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. tomaison) (SJ. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. xii) 4. 705).

IK. 99. 421). MB. 90). LL. 38). (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. 7-9. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. MP. I. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. 143. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. 87: qalam jazm. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 89. jazm – reed pen.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

for other signs representing jazmah see GL. 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. . 13). LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). 23). Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. – background (UK.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

)1   ... ..  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ .

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

 G Z Q MDO (SA. . WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. III. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. 1123). IV.

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

mujallid – bookbinder (QS. majlis SO PDM OLV. LC. 123 and IX. 47. VIII. 416-417). 26). II.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU.

majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI..  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. 1020). VIII. sitting. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. . – session.

al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. II. KU. 459-460. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). jalam SO DMO P. julfah – nib (of the calamus.

-XP Gá al. -XP Gá al. 230).190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). / / (OS. CM. IR.Oá. CI. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. IK. 91-92. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. – (pair of) scissors (DS.NKLUDK DO. II.NKLU. 89. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar. no. abbrev.

contraction (of letters) (KU. / (OS. abbrev. 89). composition. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. 34) 3.9 . jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. III. rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. compilation. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . SA. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. 126.

e. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . 352). . major original compilation.  FN.g.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. the QurÐ Q 8.

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

 FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. III. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ). 359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. II.

  '' . writing case. 380). I. DG. 12. TM. tool box.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). inkwell 6' . AG. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. escritoire (TW. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. box (NM. NH. codex compositus (LC. 25). 52. 106. SD. 52. 37. mujamma¶ (UA. 217. 13) 3. 32) 2. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). jumal.  composite volume. 393) 1. 683) 4. 233. case with compartments (TS. case.

10). 107: for cutting gold leaf . (CI. MDZ E (pl. 10). MI. 110.v. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. MDQ Œ (pl. abbrev. AG. knife (TS. ajwibah) – responsum. IA. better known as al-JKXE U (q. xiv. 145).) (AS. – book cover (ST. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. index. ST. 11. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. index.111). II. 109. 61. IA. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

1020-1021. IJ). LB. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. – authorization. VIII. 27. III. licence. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. 24. certificate of transmission. 273-275. ER. EI. 126-130.

LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. .GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. 181).9 . (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (.

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH. OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license).

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

DS. 381: jawn. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 154: wa-al-M EDK . NH. II. 133. 468. KU. 179. AT. LQNZHOO (HI. SA.

see also the quotation under miqlamah). DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . also known as waqabah.

a¨E U. **** Œibr (pl.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

MJ. IV. MP. UK. Œibr al-raqq. sifr 13. 18-21. n. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. -100 and MB. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks.53. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. 8. IR. 101-110 and MB. MP. 13. KM. 6: wa-al- .

68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. AT. IK. see LL. IV.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . I. 127-131. LM. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . MR. MA. II. SA. AE. 134-135. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. 349. IK. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn.

embellishment (DB. FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. 354). III. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. miŒbarah (pl. 2016). ma¨ ELU.

  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ . 372. II. III.  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. SA..

II.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. 443. 468-. SA.

472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. muŒabbir – author. embellished writing (composition) or copying. a¨E V. inscribing in ink (SM. inking. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. II. transcription (TE. SA. 87. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. 15. SK. elegant. compiler (SS. taŒE U 1. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. I. Œubs (pl. WR. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). 89). 119). FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U.

 taŒE V (pl. ta¨E V W.

. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). Œabk 1.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. .15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. MB.. stitching (of a book) (TM. 109. 154. comp. endbanding with silk 2. waqf.. also Œabkah – endband (headband). 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . sewing. 28). TS. 62. 132) 3. 157. MM. bequest note (LC. 104 ff. AG. 18-20. IA. decorative endband (UK. n.

 VSLQH 74 .

 al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. 109. AG. 19. AG. 19. 109). al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O.

 .

ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. I. AD. 19. AG. 246). 478).GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 11. 109). Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. 19. bookbinder (IB. n. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. AG. 109). 28). al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. 19.

hone (TS. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). 89). Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. abbrev. 10). maŒjar (pl. 60). ma¨ MLU. amulet (DT. ajar al-¨XP ¨im). ŒLM E (pl. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). ¨ujub) – talisman. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. 69). Œajar al-misann – whetstone. miŒjar. (OS. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA.

MP. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U .10. 38.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. AG. index. MB. 142: 12. 107. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. 36). 36) 2. UK. 99. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. ST.

 .$ .

H.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. FN. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U. 2733.

I . FRPS .

II. taŒG G – whetting.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. ¨XG G. Œadd (pl. honing (of a knife) (KD. 711).

ŒDG G DK. end. – limit. used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih).

29. 393. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. 105. TS. 188). 138). ¨XG U. MJ. MP. AG. 109. 59). Œadr (pl. 59. IA. MB. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. 31. (pl. 10.

e. ER. XVII. 109. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. ornamental surround. 38. 50). MU. muŒarrir – 1. redaction (CM. AG. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. EI. TE. III. AF. 64. terminal of a letter) (AA. muŒarrar (pl. frame. 16) 6. 215-227). 15) 3. PA. author. IV. IV. 52. editor. 58. 10. 15) 4. 48. TE. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . taŒU U 1. 16) 5. 16. index. 15. AQ. elegant writing. 145. composition (GA. with black ink (TE.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. 2408. transcription (TE. penman. editing (of a manuscript text). copying. 73) 2. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI.g. 214) 8. secretarial style of shikastah script. 286). outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. ÁaÑd. – descender (down-stroke. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. 119) 2.. ŒDU U – silk (ST. 701. 13. revised version (edition). 1124. mu¨DUUDU W. fair copying (TE. SK. outline. IV. calligrapher. compiler (SS. DB. 246) 7. IP. 50. comp.

53). calligraph (DP. Œard al-matn see matn. – piece of calligraphy. .

a¨U ] ¨XU ].GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl.

amulet (DT.g. IV. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. e. maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. – talisman. 69). MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB.

lin. cutter). word 2. e. 230. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. ¨iraf) – edge. 549). II.g. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. border. ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. distortion. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná.80-86). sharp edge (of a knife. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . Œarf (pl. LM. LL. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. II. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. letter. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. 596-560). Œarf (pl.9 . I. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. III. trimming (HT.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. 39-42) 2. 463. KK.' . taŒU I 1.. error.  . miŒra„ah. DS.

. FRPS TLU Ðah.

comp. 57. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. ¨DUDN W. MJ. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. Œarakah (pl. falsification (of a text). 224). III. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr.32 GLOSSARY  08 . MQ. 59. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ).

shakl. 704. Mecca and Medina. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. MB. comp. 8). 65. – vowel (GL. KD. MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. miŒU N – spatula. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. 112-113. 393). UA. taŒU N – vocalization. vowelization (DM). II.

 al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. (OS.). 89). al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. Œizb (pl.v. a¨] E. abbrev.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

28.. ST. 11). taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. index. 11. ST. Œazm .

computation. . 54: EI. chronosticon (TP. III. 468). ŒLV E – calculation. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram.

GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. 269-270. ¨DZ VKLQ. II. abbrev. EI. 302). with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . see SA. VI.

border (on a book cover) (MB. often abbreviated as or . IA. 217-219. margin (of a page) 4. lin. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. FZ.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. MB. 63) 2. apostil. marginalia. IA. 119. 118. 63. MD. scholium. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK.112. collection of glosses. 109) 3.

al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. IV.54. 977). al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. 65. pl. JM. 268-269. III. 60. AG. EI. ¨DZ VKLQ. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 71) 2. parenthesis. interpolation. 73  00 139. Œ VKLQ (pl. 63. 30. AS. 412. 1820). DB. 89-90). decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. FI. 110. FT. Œashw(ah) 1. IX. gutter. 145. 222. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA.

taŒshiyah – glossing. nos. glossed. 26. muŒashshin – glossator. 34). . 332). xi. Œa¦ramah – paring. muŒashshá – provided with glosses.74. 322. CI. 296. III. II. (MI. trimming (of a reed) (BA. gloss (AM. abbrev. AD. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // .

I. transcription (FK. no. 546). . taŒ¦ O – copying.89.

60. comp. 6. smoothing leather (ST. 29. AG. IA. burnisher. polisher (KM. 107. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. I. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling.31). TS. ÑDU T W.v. sifr 4. n. 34).). often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. 5. 118: mikhaÃà (!). 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. IB. MB.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing.

22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). 302) 2. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . 24). Œa„ UDK (pl. 34. headpiece (LC. RN. frame (SD. surround. KH. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. I. 35. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1.

box (KC. preservation. small box (DG. memorization (TP. ŒLI „ (pl. a¨fiÌah). 51).8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . 44) 2. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. NT. 55. Œif„ – learning by heart. II. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. miŒfa„ah – case.

text editing. MR. FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . 89. critical edition (of a text) (MH.

 muŒaqqiq – corrector. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. editor. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q.

RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. 12. 13) 2. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA.U T and alZDUU T (FN. III.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. 1125. 1123.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. LM.in Persia. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. TU. 78.in Turkey). EI. IR. comp. III. IV.

112. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. 104. IA. 392. 141) 2. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab.) (UK.v. miŒakk al-rijl 1. Œakk – rubbing out. MM. ¨DODT W. IA. scroll (in design) (UI. NH. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). I.v. erasure. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q.) (DD. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. mibrad (q. Œalqah (pl. 137). 62) 2. 58. ¨alaq. syn. 31). 59) 3. miŒakk(ah). effacement (TP. pumice (MB. syn.

372) 2. II. 48.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. AI. part of a clasp) (BA. 27). ma¨ O T. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. study circle. scholar’s circle (SL. III.

136. – tendril (FT. 139). 422. AB. .

204-209). al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah. taŒliyah – decoration.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. 150-151). Œilyah.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. 416). embellishment (KT. Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. taŒP G DK.

EI. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah.20. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. TP. 122-123). Œumrah 1. III. TB. red ink (LC. rubrication. 24) 2. 38. rubrics (CM. n. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. 53. red colour. 95).

¨DP Ðil) – talisman. 566. book cradle (TC. ta¨ Q VK. archetype (KM. 56-57. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 86) 3. WA. amulet (DT. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. 51). ME. 24. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. 15. TP. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . 169. 29). TP. exemplar. ŒDP ODK (pl. codex (MA. 286. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2.  ‘pupitre’). maŒmil 1. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. IV. IV. also miŒmal. 69). taŒQ VK (pl. 24). 55). sifr 13. LC. ÑUthmanic canon. TW.

44). rope work. index. . ST. (pair of) dividers (IB.) (MP. compass. 11) 2. interlace (TF. 138. 58. 143) 3.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc.

II.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD.  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O. 700).

8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). miŒwar (pl. ma¨ ZLU.

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

144). 138. maΠU DK. as opposed to the border (TF.  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover).

taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). II. 483). Œ µil. 97. TP. 171. 109. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. 58: as a means of cancellation. ¨awr (LL. 665). often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. TP. Œawqalah. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. MH. I. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 99. 104-105). 149-150).

73 . RQH LVQ G from another. abbrev.

 .

colophon (TM. tool. stamp. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. seal. 24. tooling 2. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U .g. panel (in decoration) (UI. 3. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. khatm 1. MI. 214) 3. sealing. 31). **** NK QDK – compartment. 35).38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. stamping. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ.

RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS). khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' .

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ . recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. – 1.9 .

. . NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P .

I. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). IA. 130. 108) 3. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. CI. e. 109. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star).g. 110.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. 29. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. 144). DT. AG. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. 63).9 1105. talismanic seal (DT. 169. 34. . OS) 2.

tailpiece (HD. n. conclusion. 396) 4. 5. 108). 8. FT. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. explicit. 52. colophon (UI. .14) 3. epilogue 2. LNKWLW P 1.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

– inner or outer margin (IM. 165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ .

backing (of the spine) (HN. 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. also LVWLNKU M (TW. takh„ ¶ – rounding. 385). WDNKU M LNKU M 1.

126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK. RI WKH material from the original work (TW.

explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ . FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce.

la¨aq (TP.0 . insertion. comp. 187-188. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . TM. 58. ) 4.  omission.

KF.73: in the form of a curved line. I.) . copying. I.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. n. insertion 2. 606) 6. transcription (TW. ÑaÃfah. omission. 718). 169) 7. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK. or a caret.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. extract from a book. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. quotation (TM. 58. WDNKU MDK 1.. reference mark (signe de renvoi). pl. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

 mukharraj. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukhraj – insertion (MH.

selector (DF. catchword. 683). TW. IV. 126130). vox reclamans (MA. copying (DM) 2. excerpting. NM. 384. 39). mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. II. LVWLNKU M 1. mukharrij – compiler. . mustakhrij. 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih.

punch (SA. 12. 481. 35. DS. index. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. OM).40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. ST. 99. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. II. 59). NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. 181). MP.

khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK. 70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94).

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. comp. Ã P. Ãurrah.  DQVD roundel. palmette (KH. 36).

347. SA. 59) 3. 157. khiraq) 1. 17. MB. polishing cloth (MB. blank. 114. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. 109) 2. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. MI. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. 481) 2. IA. gap. khirqah (pl. 154. 459). HT. 104. lin. 27.166). 60. MB. scrap (of paper) (DM). eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. sewing (of quires) (UK. MP. undoing the sewing (ST. 15. kharm 1. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. comp. II. 12. index. II. lacuna (SJ.

 .

KF.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. incomplete (TC. en vrac. 233: feuillets décousus. 26). 26. TC.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. II. PDNKU P. fragments (HB.NKLU. munkharim – imperfect.

7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. 527). imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. IV. II. khazz SO NKX] ]. sifr 13. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete.

25-26). 14-15. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. comp. xiii-xiv. II. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. AD. AG. suspension. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. VII. I. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. NKL] QDK. . TP. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. 23-24) 3. kharm and ¨azm. 55-56. – silk. abridgement. siglum. 119). PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. AG. 107). 46). 159-160. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. 536-540. 107. library. abbreviation (contraction. comp. 27. maktabah. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. epitome (EI. EA. GL.

khuà Ã) 1. mark. script. writing. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . sign.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. penmanship (ML. calligraphy. stroke. 34-38) 2. handwriting. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH.

29) – proportionate writing or scripts. al-DTO P DO-sittah. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal).EQ 0XTODK 6$ .. EI. scriptio defectiva. copied by (e. 41. al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). 83. I. CI. 103). script (text) see also Ñajam. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin.g. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. 144). khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. 358). al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. 114. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK.. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. 887: ER. also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . AS.8  51  $6 . which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . comp. 681). scriptio plena. III. LM. comp. IV. yad.

 khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .8  $6 .

I. 80). comp.1. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. paleography (KJ. 26). makh¨ ¨ (pl. 380). khi¨ ¨ah – writing. no. makhà à W. calligraphy (WR. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. penman.

12). 110. 118. takh¨ ¨ 1. index. drawing (MB. MB. ruling (of lines). 110) 2. straightedge (LL. 760). reed pen. IA. 60. tracer (ME. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. 760. manuscript codex. writing. 61) 2. implement (made of wood. 98. LL. I. mikha¨¨ 1. calamus (AA. I. 555. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. 103.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. tracing. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). . UA.

IV. akhÃibah) 1. note. khi¨ E (pl. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. sifr 13. letter.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. address.g.1). speech 2. honorific (e. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n.

pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. RIWen unpointed) (GL.20). al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. 156. n. epitome. AG. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. 53. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). 18. X. 14). preface (LC. 123). IB. abridgement. 145). TP. 25. abbrev. extract. comp. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. trimming (TS. 105. 44: ornament). 59. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt.g. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. NKDI I (lit. 109).  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. MB. IA. mukhtaÁar.

XVII. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. MU. XI. 95. 58). varia lectio (e. MH.g. 52. . XII. 273. TP. LNKWLO I – variant reading. 46.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. 126. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1.

 SO WDNK P V.

PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. 50. 123-125). I. 95. X. 401). 405. pentameter (SD. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W.). 97). LNKWL\ U. – pentastich amplification of a poem. AD. EI.v. al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.

I. IB. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. AG. 12. 19. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. 12. thick needle (ST. MB. index. IR.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . index. endbanding without silk (TS. i. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. 43. 109). – anthology (EA. 12). index. 94-95).e. 107-108).

 .

250). VI.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA. G E M SO GDE E M.

– silk brocade (MU. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. XIV.

exordium. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY. preface. G E MDK 1.

tadabbur – consideration. 115). creating headpieces (AD. 52. GLE JK DK.v). 259) 2. WDGE M 1. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. headpiece. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. 65. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. /& ) 2. reflection. frontispiece (MD. adorning something with arabesques. 127. PA. composition (of a text) (DM). TW.

– tanning (MB. I.. IA. EI. 60). 63. 172). suppl. MP. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. 114-115. 140-143. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. fasc.3-4.

  IR. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.

dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. darj.

SO GXU M DGU M.

IK. I. LL. 138: al- . 868: also daraj. parchment or paper (AJ. roll. SA.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. I. 141. 138. 68. rotulus (IK. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2.

46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .$  Q.

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

287). dirafsh – awl. 60). 13. punch (IA. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 107). darmak – farina. 432). I. dast(ah) SO GXV W.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. AG. 142) 3. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. inset (SD.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

39. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. 59. 92. 145. 81. comp. GXVW U SO GDV W U. IA. MA. I. 94. 524) 2. 156. WS. burnisher (UK. wide polisher. IV. 44). kaff 3. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). PT. rizmah. 92. AB. 96. 105. SD. MB. IB.

 KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN.  ..  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP .) .

also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. holograph (LC. I. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. 23) 3.  DXWKRU’s original.

HB. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. unbound book. dasht – loose leaves. book consisting of loose leaves (KF. . II. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’).

617-618) 2. ‘prayer of request’ (EI. AA.GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. formula of benediction.. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. etc. assimilated (KU. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). adÑiyah) 1. 150-156). daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. pious invocation.+ 35). hence mudgham – contracted. (see e.g. supplication. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. II.. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ .  . 54. TP.

al-daffah al. 13). daftar *U GLSKWHUD. pasteboard (ST. index. index. 104) 3. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. index. 13.Oá (ST. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). book cover. also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. 13). al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. ST.

SO GDI WLU.

KK. 4. n. . beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. pounding (MP.18) 3. volume (IK. see LS) 2. 481). II.g. QRV  096) 3. 29. . pen wiper (SA. 321. taftar (SK.. Daftar kutub. 40 x 14 cm. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). register (EI. 192). IA. rubbing. 48. daqq 1. 14 leaves. fine writing (TM. 60) 2. SL.. 22-25. notebook (e. account book. 63. 77-81. II. I. 108. bound or unbound codex .

107). 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. midlak – polisher. index. OH. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. AG. FJ. 139). GDON WDGO N – polishing. glazing (ST. waraq damghah see waraq. KM.163. 217. 461). 48-50. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. SD. lin. 11.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). 110. 85. MB. sifr 4. 87). burnishing. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. NH. I. HT. I. KR. 118. 13. 23.

' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . midhan. mudhun – container for oil (IR. Isfahan. .E GDK – Yazd. Tabriz.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. 230: LL. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. grease. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. oil. – fat. 905-906). ' U DO-¶. I. 927). ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. Herat. ' U DO-.

  73 . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1.

ta¨U I.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. WDGZ U 1.g. MB. straight. 59) 5. 30. roundel. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). (5) 4. 105. TS. I. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. i. medallion. UD. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. disc (UK. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. even (as opposed to oblique. 156. e. JA. 56.e.

G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. 35). RN.g. 61) 3. curvilinear (e. rounding (of the spine) (IA. 22. LM. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 39-40) 2. 10. hence PXVWDG U – round. LM. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. 9.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

II. I. SA. EI. EI. collecting (collection). writing down (of ¨DG WK. 323. II. I. office. 323). 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. IV. 90) 2. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. sifr 13. WDGZ Q 1. collection of poems written by one author (DM). 129. UHJLVWHU account book. chancellery (KM.

  73 . (. .

15. TE. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . transcription (LC. copying. 28. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. UI.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

IV. IURP which it is derived (EI. GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. 1125-6).

 -85. BA. escritoire. 370) 2. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. ..  LQNZHOO . 169-170. KU. III.

50 GLOSSARY ruler. 53). EI. 53) 2. 54. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD.v. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1.3-4. suppl. AT.132-133. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. 203-204. 713. III. dhabr. VII. ND. aide-mémoire (EI. memorandum. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. tadhkirah 1. MB. GDZZ µ. II. 372) 2. fasc. midhbar see mizbar.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. UK. X. 77. 65. ER. DG. 440-443. descender (of a letter) (AA. 137-139). wiper and sand) (SA. 73). II.

+%  (. 53). dhanab SO DGKQ E. X.

477. paint (MU. MB. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. UK. 226. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . ¨arf (SA. supplement (AD. 13). P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. I. LL. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. 983: ‘water-gold. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. dhahab.’). LC. index. II. – tail (foot) of a letter. 151). 59). SA. 24. 89-91. 21). I. etc.V. UD. III. WDGKQ E – appendix. 130-132. 25.

IX. KA. 27. 145). TE. chrysography (LC. gilding. WDGKK E 1. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. AS. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. 222. writing with liquid gold. 15.

 SO WDGK K E.

132. 385). 141). XV. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. JLOW REMHFW 6' . MU. PA. TE. chrysographer (AB. 490). 15). LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. 27. dhayl SO GKX\ O. mudhahhib – gilder.

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. 23). dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. 206). ruÐ V.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. lower margin. al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl.

 KHDG RI D letter. i. (qalam) al-riµ V . character. 26).g. raµs al-NLW E). raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. 107. 136. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. 14.e. 108. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. LC. frontispiece (LC. 172). as opposed to the spine (MB. upper margin (TS. page or book. beginning of something. TM. fore-edge of the codex. 24. e. IA. IA. raµs al-waraqah. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM.g. 109. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. III. e. 26) 2. 62) 4. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . 26). 109). envelope flap (MB. raµs al-¦afŒah. SA. 61) 3.

RN.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 83-84. 146. 33. 236.. vox reclamans (NZ.5 -242. 65). 126. KH. 100. WDUZ V 1. U EL¨ah – catchword. AQ.202/817-8) (FN. 37. AS. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 100). 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . MO. script akin to a large naskh. TU. 35. 84. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. 215). HI.. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. 213. 226. 144. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). JM. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . FZ. 30. 12. 13) 2.

5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. DO-rub¶.

abbrev. 5DE ¶ al. CM. 89. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). – the third month in the Muslim calendar. / / (OS. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q .NKLU (al-PXE UDN.

– the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl. rabaÑ W.

 VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' . .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  &$ . MS.21.  6' . 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. 48. nos. 51.

128). stalk (?) (TS. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . lin. 109). al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. AG. 11.

AM. composition (MU. arrangement (of the text). 50. I. no.170) 2. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K .GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1.

20). compact writing. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. sifr 13. murattib – author. n. IV. SS. comp. 384. compiler (DF. II. mubawwib. copying (KM. 72).¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. 53. ratm – close.

al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm. Rajab (al-murajjab. abbrev.  26 . al-aÁabb.

1 . 376). often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0.   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . VIII. XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. didactic poem (EI. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). raj¶ (pl. .

U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. KM. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). retouchage (of a letter). barrière qui ferme une rivière’. 109). 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. writing in bold characters (TE. comp. source (in a text) (IN. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. FRPS SD. I. 252). WDUM ¶ 1. 99. polychrome illumination (TE. 17) 2. AG. UXM ¶ – reference. 17. III. 513: ‘barrage. IV. MJ. I. sifr 13. muÑallaqah. retouching. 28.

62). epilogue (AD.  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. .

185). RI. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. 13). index. 137. ST. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q .% 81. 31: MD. index. 13).54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶.13. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. n. book support (MD. index.

3099. 1038. 1035. 1223. numrah) (TP. nos. 1055. UXNK P DK. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. 294. 2152. abbrev. VA. 54. 1062. 419.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 584. comp. 3185).

TS. 59. raddah – envelope flap (TM. AG. 103. marble slab (MB. . 107. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. OM). pl. 10. . UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. ST. 11. IA. XXIB). 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. 14. TP. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab).

92.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. 145. rizam) 1.v. ream (of paper). consisting of five quires. AB. .) (PT. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . AJ. dast (q. 39. WS.

524: ‘cahier’). FRmp. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. I. dast 2. ULV ODK 1. treatise. tract. epistle 2. 532). VIII. monograph (EI. LUV O DK. letter.

¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná... 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð. LM. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK .

14) 2. copying. designing. 100. PA. 561. e. rasm al-muÁ¨af.VIII. marking. writing. drawing. epistolography (DM). execution. MB.g. tarassul – art of letter writing. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. 451-. 101. index. 100. rasm 1. EI. sketching (ME. 45) 3. making a mark (ST.

 SO UXV P.

I. 527) 7. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. faÁl. I. I. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. line (traced with a pen) (SD. 527). chapter (in a composition) (SD. 15) 6. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. painter (ME. 528). bi-rasm see mustanad. 527) 5. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. unpointed letter or word ( NO. I. – stroke. SD. comp. 560. designer.

UDVKP WDUVK P 1. calamus (BA. 14) 2. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. index. . wood block (AB. 14). – woodcut. 370). marking (syn. rasm) (ST. 164) 3. index. tooling (HT. 137).129. III. lin. UDVKVK VK – reed pen.

18) 2. ream (of paper) (SD. marsham SO PDU VKLP. I.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. 532). comp. mark (TS. rizmah. marshim.

hot iron (SD. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. 125) 2. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. I. 532). illumination.  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. decoration (MS. tar¦ ¶ 1. 135).

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

TE. 17) 3. 126). . ta¨U U TY. 103.3 145. covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. decoration (with liquid gold). gilding the inside of the surround (outline).

$) .

35) 2. KH. writing. tar¦ I 1. ra¦f. III. SA. 79. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. composition (NS. joining letters together (AP. 140.

89. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. AR. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD.    73 54. abbrev. 125). 34. KH. MI. 15. used for the companions of the Prophet. SL. 35. tar„iyah. II.

 FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah. DQW RI \ ELV.

14. istir¶ µ \DK – note. 16. AS. . – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. statement (LC. 24). 15. 19. 144).

137). n. 44.11.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. I. support (for an inkwell) (AA.133. lin. book cradle (IN. 111-112). 230. book support. mirfa¶ 1. KK. riqq SO UXT T. ND. raqq. 231. 70) 2.

407-410.. embellished writing. al-raqq al-a¨mar. elegant. making something multicoloured (LL. UDTT JKD] O see jild. LL. 269). WS. KK. raqshah – pointing. IV. 93. 105. I. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. 53. AE. sifr 13. 60-63. I. VIII. 1135) 4. 85). UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. 683. calamus (IR. diacritical pointing (TE. -485. 1135) 3. 108-111.1. 407). 53. IK. paper or other writing surface (MU. KR. 353). piece (slip) of leather. 119. mirqash – reed pen. VIII. parchment leaf (ND. diacritical point (JA. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). I. 230). SK. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . no. UDTT ¦ – catchword. EI. AK. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. 74-75. copying (TE. IW. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. vox reclamans (NM. 17. 17. arabesque decoration (KA.67). KM. parchmenter (DG. EP) 2. KJ. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. n. vocalization by means of points.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . AA. I. 105.

(kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. note.  OHWWer. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. brief message.

DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. 1126). IV. .

VII. sifr 13. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. 1123. IV. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings.in Turkey). often sewn in). passim. MN. IV. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. 86). drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. 602-603). LM.) script (AS.v.in Persia. 139. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. 1125. raqm 1. 146. inset (MK. 78-82. EI. writing (KM. patchwork. JM.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

NI. calligraph (AC. 266) 4. DP. 41. AW. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. – piece of calligraphy. 54. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV.

. .  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ.

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

fasc. sifr 13. – abbreviation. IV. TE. SK. AW. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. 372. 183). mirqam – reed pen. sifr 13. 1140). BA. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. 183. 5. AM. KJ. raqn – compact writing (KM. no. siglum (CL. 2. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. 147. UDT P – inkwell (KM. 383. 160). LL. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. GA. 468-9: AN. III. 30). 230. 17. copyist (AC. I. 82. calamus (TE.3. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. 387-388. III. IV. GA. 106). 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. IK. 244. 17. IR. 154).76). 45. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. 141. no. arqam.

 .

sifr 13. IV. embellishing ( a text. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. writing) (KM.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

24-27. 58. e. comp. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. 109. boarding (TS. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock).5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). on the line) (MY. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . MP. UA. SA. 681) 2. ST. linking (joining) one letter with another. III.73. ligature (e. 389. WDUN E 1. IV. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 393). ¨ibr 2. markaz SO PDU NL]. ¨ibr. 83). 14.g. murakkab 1. hybrid (of a script) (LM. ligatured. lin. 78) 3. index. 45). al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. 50. (Turk.g. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. comp. 60ff). AG. I. HT.

rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. UXN ¶ . 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). – support (for reed pens) (UA.

406). DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. rukn SO DUN Q. EI. 36. VIII.

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

.5 .

II. rakwah (pl.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. . IB. 703). 107) 3. AG. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). 31. 69). 14. index. 30. corner piece itself (ST. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD.

60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. ramz SO UXP ].9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada). restoration (DM).0 . murammim – restorer. WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .

428) 2. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. VIII. 159) 3. 427) 4.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. VIII. chronosticon (EI. secret alphabet (EI. 468. code. cypher. TW. III. chronogram. 55. WB.

V. 209.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. . KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC.

abbrev. Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 .

TD. I. 86.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. UA. 127136).  '' . PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). . 393). WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. I. II. 478- $7  6' .

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

syn. mik¨ O '' . 393. 1186. LL.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. UA. I. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. – little stick for the application of kohl. DM). UXZ K.

XII. VIII.) (TP. 53. II. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. KF. variant reading. EI. varia lectio (MR. 94). version (versio). 417418 and 500-501) 3. ULZ \DK 1. 545-547) 2. 26. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. 109-111). recension (recensio) (LC.v. link in the chain of transmission (TP. transmission. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. 53). – transmitter. tradition (traditio). also known as sanad (q.

100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). IV. JM.) script (AS. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI. VIII. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  .in Turkey). rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. 38. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. 43: wa-T OD . 146. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. MP.in Persia. 144. 73-77. 545-547).EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. MB.v. 1125. 1123. LM.

also dhabr – writing. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. copying. IV. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink.v.). q. 18. sifr 13. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. transcription (TE. CI.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. ]DEU WD]E U 1. ¨ibr. inscription on stone (KM. I.

] ELU ]DE U – scribe. 18. II. 80. copyist (TE. zab U (pl. IK. 444. 92). zubur) – composition. work (SA. ND. 80. ND. KK. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E.

SA. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. TE. IR. polychrome illumination (TE. elegant. copying (KK. 85. calamus (TE. 230). 53. 444-465. embellished writing. IK. 18) 2. II.18. 18). elegant. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. TE. copying (KK. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. embellished writing. zakhrafah 1.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

87).  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. 80). decorator (WR. muzakhrif – illuminator.

25. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. Ñurwah. . 135). 34. 110. comp. KT. AG.

I.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . decoration in gold and colours (LL. 19: in 12). zalf (MN. 109). ‘curl’). AG. 689). V. 69. ER. 682. ]LP P DK. IV. ]XO \MDK. fastener (TS. 360) 1. lit. 1222).. 25. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). index. zulayjah (]DO MDK./Turk. zulf (Pers. 35. ST. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. see DC. MN.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. ‘hair lock’.

I. catalogue (SD. (pl. azimmah) 1. register (IK. 181). 601). 222: al-WDUP N . (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. pt. GA. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. 95) 2. list. NA. account book. 383-385.9. 127.

KF. comp. MB. vermillion ink (SA. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. zinjafr – cinnabar. 101. II. . 478). ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. II. 145. 315. 320).

box (DG. 38. zawj SO D]Z M. WD]K U – floral decoration. hence muzahhar.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case.1. floriated (KJ. KR. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). 91). no. 44.

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

also WD]Z UDK – elegant. embellished writing. 283. 18) 2. 409). 376). I. X. 391). ]DZZ U – painter (AD. GA. ER. 90-100). X.120b. VII. f. AG. 825 and VIII. 107) 2. conjugate leaf (AG. 73). 408-409. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. muzawwir – forger (EI. X. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. copying (TE. 107). TK. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. forgery. falsification (UI. 73. 6. EI. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. AD. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. WD]Z U 1.

 HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ . ..

miniature painting (WA. 11) 3. lin. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. ]DZZ T – illuminator. WA. 105). ]LZ TDK – art of illumination. multi-colour illumination (HT. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. miniature painter (ME. 12). n. 560. writing. 560) 4. 4). MS.  decoration.102.4. .

GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. ]L\ GDK 1. 59. abbrev. superfluous. 98) 3. corner. 52. 73). interpolation. 62). 127) 2. MH. dittography (TM. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. square (an implement) (MB. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. MI. 111. post-scriptum (AD. IA. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . 136). ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. addition (TP. 60. index. addition (CM. angle 2. 184) 2. 9). 9). index. interpolation.

embellished writing (SK. elegant. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. FRPS TDUU Á.

 HPEHOOLVKPHQW GHFRUDWLRQ '0.

128) 2. asÐilah) 1. jaw E (CI. . suµ O (pl. II. MI. comp. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. abbrev. preamble to a fatwá. xiv. quodlibet.

53. 461. 696. 1853. 3214) 2. nos.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. used after the word All K 73 . n. VA.20. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’.

I.) (SD. IB. index. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. parchment) (IB. etc. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. piece (of poetry.185). 81. 13. 637). lapsus calami (DM). siŒ µah – piece. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). 11-12). sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. n.

WDVG G – copying. 17). . transcription (TE. asiddah) – stopper. plug (in the inkwell) (IK. 83). VLG G (pl.

comp. prelector (TP.) 1. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. reading. 40. 1347). 115. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. 39.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. 1347). misrad – awl. 56. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. awling.52). recital. sifr 4. punching (SK. I. I. I. 122. n. punch (SK. 122) 2. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. Áurrah. KM. LL. hence V ULG – reader. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL.

sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others.. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. AF. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. munsa¨iŒ – flat. . 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . 82). KR. MD. 36). 27. also known as lawzah (JL.. 95. 127. 97. horizontal stroke (UD.  frontispiece.

asà U VXà U. asÃur. sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan.

II. . 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). – line (KD. line of writing.

IN. WA. creating a line (of writing) (SA. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 59). LC. III. ruling. tas¨ U 1. 12. 174) 3. 104. 103.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. 25) 3. V ¨ir. TS. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). WS. 105. 155. number of lines per page (TK.%  Q LC. 17. 59). pasteboard (HT. 247) 4. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. IB. designing (UK. ruling (of folios). KA. 59). used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. copying (TE. 155. SDVVLP 6$ . 155. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. 155. MB. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. lineation (LC. 73. writing. 43). 113) 6. MB. MB. 28. redaction. 104- 7. 134) 4. lining.. IA. lin. TS. 28) 5. 91. index. 86. TA.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. folder (UK. 87). 28. 104. 15. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. 78. 155). WR. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. straightedge (UK. ff. 18. TM. 104-105). mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. stencil (AF. 155). mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. lineation. 13. 48) 5. number of lines per page (LC.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. IA. ruler. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. I. 17). IA. composition (AD. (grid of) guidelines. 77). ruling board (ST. 50. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK.

. .5  // . 1364. DM: snuff box).

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

MS. book.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. codex. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild.

 FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.

0 . safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. V ILU (pl.

 WDVI U 1. bookbinding (e. ST.g. index .

 SO WDV I U.

al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). index. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 150). VIII. HT. – book cover (MB. lin. . TF. AG. VDI QDK 1. 97. MB. I. EI. 110). fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). AD. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. tail (of the page). al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 109) 2. 15. 31. AG. passim). lawzah (mandorla) (TS. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). 158. 78). oblong format (of a book) (MD. end of a letter or book 2. 11. 660. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. spine (of a book) (UK. lower margin. 742) 2.115. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. IV.

XII. 97. 58.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. 97). diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 95. saqa¨ (MU. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 238) 1. KR. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. MH. 87) 2. 95. also LVT ¨ – omission. see above) (JL. haplography (TP. 88).

VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. VXN Q 1. comp. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. WS. lin. 133.133. circle-like tool (HT. jazmah 2. comp. 107. IR. IA. 230). ÑLO M PLVT K. 60). AT. 80). 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. 482. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. 137). 148. 118. II.

pen knife (IK. 90-91.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. SA. II. 115- . 711. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. LM. 248). 103-104. silsilah SO VDO VLO. AA. KD. 465-466. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. II. VI. 31-33). – knife.$  8. SK.

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

I. 611). (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . stemma codicum (AL. IX.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. 27). silsilat al-nasab – stemma.

VDO P. IV. AG. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. 107). 15.GLOSSARY 71 146. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. KK. 1124). sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. JM. 5863. EI.

mas P U. VA. 2211. DEEUHY / / / / (TP.1830. PLVP U (pl. 128). 54. xiii. CI. MI. no. I.

peg (part of a clasp) (BA. 372. TM. – nail. III.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

MU. XVII. n. TP.. abbrev. KF. TP. 267. .25. 278. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. 69. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. 485493). VIII.. EI. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. (CW. MU.g. certificate). 27. II. auditor. 53. 1019-1020).  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement.. X. LC. 53. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session.

268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . audition note. 45) 2. I. certificate (JA. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT.

 musammi¶. musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK.

FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. 45). audition leader (master). certifier (CT. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. authoritative commentator.

comp. PDTU Ð. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ. ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ.

1. IV. title of a book (ism al-NLW E). 179-181) 2. . proper name (EI.

title (of a work) (LC. 53.v. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. n. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 100).20) 3. tasmiyah 1. 28. TP. 28) 2. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah.) (MH. sinn SO DVQ Q.

  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. shaqq ) (UK. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6.

 6$ . .9  LQV – left side.  .  (.. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // . ..

hone (UK. misann ÃXOD\O ". MB. 103. 60: misann akh ar. 153. IA. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone.

  $7 133. . 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . AG. 10.. 107. NH. TS.5  6$ .

q. musannanah – chevron (FT.v. 395). sanad SO DVQ G. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).). misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨.

 DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. 56). musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. 53.

.   (.. 9. . 6/ .

EI. sifr 13. FN. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . 2. 8. I. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. 47). also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. TW. 365. 692). VII. IV. 14. FRPS muÁannaf. 704-705). RN. 5.

232). CM. VI. 264-265. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. II. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. OS. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. 88.

Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK.D. 252). VI. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. comp.).

27. 320. AI. – Muslim era (DD. I. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. 384. 388). VDZ G 1. SK. black ink (LC.

rough copy (LC. VI. XIII. 27. MU. MU.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 .9 . MU. XV. 126. 161.

237). 97. marring (of a text). nos. copying by an apprentice (TE. 50A) 3. 18. copying (TE. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. 98) 4.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. making it difficult to read (MH. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . vox reclamans (NZ. WDVZ G 1. 45. 18). calligrapher (AW. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. preparation of a draft (TE. 18) 2. AM. musawwid – copyist. FRPS PXED\\D ah.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

– woodworm. .

musawwas – worm-eaten. comp. 105. 463. KK. SA. KD. 17-18). taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. 28). 50.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. II. II. 702). damage caused by worms (LC. (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. trimming the textblock (TS. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK.

RA. sayr SO VX\ U. 24-24). DR. was known as qirmah (GA.in Persia. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. 183). A variety of this script. 178-180. 1124. 1125.in Turkey. IV. used in Ottoman Egypt.

$ .  VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .

 endband (headband) strip (ST. 114. HT. 16.96). lin. index. MB. sayf SO VX\ I.

60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. cutter (UK. – trimming sword. 103. MB. 154. IA. 104.

nos. 407. 19. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. **** VKDE NDK 1. endband (headband) (HT. 73).88-106. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. lin. WDVK E N. (pl. 33. 115. 20) 2. DH. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. WDVKE N 1.

passim). . – interlace (TF.

GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. 406). Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV.

. shajjah SO VKLM M.  VKDE WXK ¨adduh).' .. comp.. .  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ . jilfah.

creating a genealogical tree. EI. LM. I. shaŒm(ah) – pith. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). composing a text in a schematic. 87. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. white interior substance of the reed (IK. 86. arabesque decoration (WR. 35-35). shaŒdh – whetting.73) 2. mishŒadh – whetstone. WDVKM U 1. 390). stemma (AL. shajarah – genealogical tree. shaddah. tree-like way. UD. DH. hone (DD. no. II. also mushajjar – foliated design. 27). I. WDVKG G DK. 14. honing (of a knife) (KD. 711). 967) 3. I. stemma (SL. VII. 9. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ).

14). shidq SO DVKG T. – doubling (of a consonant). doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL.

27. book cover. case binding (TS.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). .

fore-edge flap (?) (NH. comp. fakk 2. sharaj SO DVKU M.76 GLOSSARY AG. 369). 109).

– plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W. 372).) (BA. III. sharŒ (pl.v.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

139.. long commentary. 100. shuraÃ) – line. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . comprising the text commented upon (matn). 385. OM). ashriÃah) 1. MI. rules. DD. . al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. shars – pasting. IB. 5051). I. II.0 . MM. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. 174-175). also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). VLU V and V U V (DM). al-sharŒ al-PD]M . also VKLU V. 401). 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. paste (MB. comment-text book. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). al-VKDU I DK. 106-107. &. fillet (in decoration) (FT. decorative band (UI. abbrev. 217. MB. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. FZ. rule-border (LC. 60. MD. cutter (IA. EI. shar¨(ah) (pl. I. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. xiv. 29) 4. 27) 2. 397-320. CI. NH. 60. 158. [Lv). IX. 109) 3. (LC. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. IA. 392: for opening sealed documents. 27. mishra¨(ah) – knife. stroke (DM). EA. abbrev.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE .GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. 322). as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. 250). used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT.). nuskhah and the like.v. ligatured Maghrebi script. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. 47. 365. VI. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. TW.

)'  .

 FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. 28: IN.  arb. AG. polisher (NH. cancellation (LC. sha„ \DK (pl. burnisher. comp. mish¨ab – 1. shaÌ \ . I. duster. 11. shaqq. whisk (?). eraser (TS. 251). I. 390). 113) 2. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. 756).

stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . 35. III. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. KH. à Ð \ Ð. AA. serif-like stroke (LM. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' .8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. 13) 2. also tash„ \DK – line.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. 88.

 FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-mukarram. al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I.

– the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

 .

78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. shi¶r (pl. ashÑ U.

nos. II. 116). scribal verse (see e. versification.g. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. 12. no. CI. 81. CI. I. – poetry. 82.

al-musha¶¶ar. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). AI. illumination in gold. trimmer (HT. 103. pt. bookbinder’s sword. NA. tash¶ U 1. shafrah 1. 104. 9. lin. AF. paring knife.104.83. scraper (ST.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. 250). 11. 127. outlining. index. 112. shaqq SO VKXT T. shaving (HT. 91-93. LM. lin. MB. SA. WDVKI U – trimming. IP. cutting edge (SK. 59. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. 45. III. parer. 59) 3. 109). 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . AG. 161) 2. 50) 3. II.159). also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. 16. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. MJ. VI. III. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. 145. 161). 224). shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. 153. 144. UK. outline (KF. 58). JM. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. IA. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

. 97. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. slit (of the nib). SA. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. IM. II. MH.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. 171) 3. 59. 460-462).

shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. IV. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. IV. punch (UA.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. preliminary endbanding (IA.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. 1124. IV. 62) 2.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle.1. . 43. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. ER. sewing endbands (headbands). no. WDVKN ] – 1. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. 393). ER. 694). 699-702). 1124. awl. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. IV.

hence mushakkal – vocalized. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q.g. III. vowelization. 12) 2. comp. diagram.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. SA. III. 125. KH. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. 160-167. III. vowelized (for various practices see SA. IM. 59. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. shaqq. GL. 36). vowel marks. 150). 81).

+  8'   . .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. 63). 110. passim. 135). 118. PA. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. 51). IA. 27. MB. rosette (LC. 116). AF.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

g. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

document (DM). 340-. 53. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. EI.20. 201 and X. – copy of a letter. IX. n.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

Mashhad (al-)´usayn. 90). Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS.

al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU.DUEDO Ð). – .HUEHOD . al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.

II. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. 1612). ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. month (LL.). al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q.v. – new moon. shuhrah.

 .. EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &. .

 .

al-PXE UDN.GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram.

 26 . abbrev. – the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.

VI.v.5. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. fihrist. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. i¦E ¶ (pl. pt. RN. 117. KH. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. 725).) – endband (headband) (LA. mashyakhah (pl. VK U ]DK (Pers. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. 250). . comp. VI. 19-20.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. fahrasah. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 118). PA.). 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). 8.

95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). 120-129. 63. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. ¦LE JK – pigment. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. MP. 114-118. NH. dye. I. thus (JA. NW. abbrev. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. 671-672. abbrev. mara  and saqam). CT. emendation 2. sic. 267-268). MH. writing word in the text (GA. MB. tint (UK.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. 285. correction. AR. attestation (of correctness in transcription). II. QS. IA. 136. 29-32. 35. (KG. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. VIII. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). 73  . ¦aŒ Œ – correct. LE. 45). tinting. 473.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

¦ Œib (pl. comp. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. 53. preparation of a critical edition. editor. signing (a document) 4. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. n.25). aÁ¨ E.

 DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). abbrev. isti¦Œ E – ownership. . possession (OS). owner (OS). 0.

I. 24). codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. -835) 2. I. 22. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). BA. III. sheet of writing material. folio (folium). sifr 13. mu¦Œaf. mi¦Œaf (pl. . 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. leaf (TC. 9. IK. notebook (SL. ma¦Œaf. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. IV.  parchment. Áu¨uf. papyrus or parchment roll (SL...8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. papyrus or paper (KD. 22) 3. page (DM) 4. maÁ ¨if) 1. often leather. II. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. small pamphlet.. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ .

17. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. 107) 3. 668-669. 107. volumes) (EI. KF. AG. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. 17. 25.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. MS. 17. 16). 316. 107. JM. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. 146. VII. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. 54-57). parchment textblock (TS. AG. AG. sometimes two. n. MS.GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. II. 25.4). 16).

distortion.  .  . error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. ta¦Œ I 1.g.

  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.. 04  6$ .

ta¨U I TY. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). syn.

(.5. bookbinding (LA. . -348) 3. pt.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ.

9. 118) 2. II. bookseller (QS. IB. II. ¦adr (pl. 269-270). ÁXG U. ¦aŒŒ I 1. 13. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. 11. HD.

preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. preamble. also ta¦G U – incipit. ¦DG UDK 1.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . fore-edge (TS. II. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). 15) 5. 156. 218). 27) 4. MJ. MB. 59). 464. fore-edge flap (TS.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 44. IA. 16. 105. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. wajh (SA. 107) 6. as opposed to inner side. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. IB. AG.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

¦urrah – center-medallion. MD. mandorla (FZ. ÁuÑ G. ¦a¶d (pl. 109. 83. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. comp. 99. 110). surrah. JL.

50. 34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. TU. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA.

362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. ta¦affuŒ – examination. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. study (KF. KD. AG. ¦DI Œah (pl. 192). vox reclamans (TT. 227. 107). II. 27). ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. siglum) (TP. II. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. 11. 371. 58). ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. verso of the first folio (LC. FN. 30. ta¦I Œ – catchword.

al-Ìafar. al-PXE UDN. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). al-muÌaffar. iafar (al-khayr.

aÁI U. – the second ¦ifr (pl.

(OS. month of the Muslim calendar. – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. . abbrev. 89). TP.171. 59).

GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl. maÁ ILQ.

strainer. ¦aql – polishing. KA. 393: for ink). sieve (UA. passim. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. – filter. burnishing (MB. 134). maÁ TLO.

aÁlub. 149. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. MB. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). – polisher. I. aÁO E. 149. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. ¦ulb (pl.  DS. IB. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. 105. IA.. DD. 156. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 99. 44. 142.

making pasteboards (MB. 59). IA. 1712. 62) 3. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. bookbinding (IA. original text (LC. no. i¦O Œ 1. text-column (LL. LC. ta¦O E 1. . also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. main. II. 27) 2. correction (FK. II. MB. 166. 27). 119). 62). 111. comp. matn.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins.

 UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .&   7: .

no. suspension. CI. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. siglum) (TP. i¦¨LO Œ. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. 191. 55-56. II. MM.

 .

¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. . wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. [LLL (. . used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. abbrev. -359).      73  Q 73  &.86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P.

ta¦P P – design. 83). 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. sketching (MO.v. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.). ÁDQ G T. ¦LP P – plug.

– wooden chest. box (for copies of the QurÐ Q.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. Ñamal. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦un¶. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ta¦Q I (pl. taÁ Q I.

98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. – composition. work (MU. III.

EI. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. compiler. 39. often the author of the original text PDWQ. 662663. II. 705). VII.v. work. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. mu¦annif – author.) (SL. as opposed to musnad (q.

craft (EI. I. xi). (CI. IX. duction by artisans. art. E\ $E +LO O. 625-626). abbrev. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨).

 .

X. 121. taÁ¨ ¨. 559). painted illustration (EI. transcript (e. ME. mu¦awwir – painter. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. comp. box (NT. DH. illustrator (PA. pt. 57). ¦ UDK (pl. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2.2. 225. 889892 and X. correctness. **** LI Ì. ¦LZ Q (pl. example (JA. miniature painting (MU. „abbah (pl. microfilming. XVI. ta¦Z E (pl. aÁwinah) – case. 56) 3. 361. 361-363) 2. 143. EI.212). apograph (TP. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. TP. MU. 136. copy. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE.141: ‘portraitiste’). 268) 4. Áuwar) 1.g.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. taÁZ E t) – correction. no.  LE E. IX. ¨ ¦awn. preservation (DM). al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. I. comp. XV. ta¦Z U 1. exact copy.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

64. a  E U. ta„E E. thus (TP. MH. n. 95-96). 57. also known as WDPU „. 95-96). i„barah (pl. MH. 57. DEEUHY 73  AR. 30) 2. sic. marking the word with a  abbah (TP.

sifr 13. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. IV. a number of leaves or sheets put together. quire .. bundle of documents (IK. a„barah. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. KM. „LE UDK 1.

44. 112) 4.  XU E.. 17. II. collation (of quires) (TS. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU .  DZ ELÃ) – compass. „ EL¨ 1. n.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). 107. 26. (pl.) . 16. 97) 2. (pair of) dividers (TS.16.120a-b).) . 11) 2. ta„E U 1. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. TK.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . 13. index. AG. AG. ST. 18. f. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. 12. AG. 388). 107) 3.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. binding (IB. orthographer (MH. 5) 3.177). IB. 19. 29. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. album (FT. 18. textblock (TS. specialist in  abÃ.

59). AG. 62). 109) 2. erasure (MF. a U V  XU V. „irs (pl. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. stalk?) (TS. KF. – cancellation. 11. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. small tool (resembling a drum stick. mi„rabah 1. mallet (LF. II.

also TS. 109-110). AG. 12. interlace (TS. 32-33.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. „i¶f (pl. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. AG. 109) 2. a Ñ I.

 ta„¶ I (pl. ta  Ñ I.

II. 1792. MU.  /& . interline (LL. – space between lines.. XVII. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // .

 .

12. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. 413) 2. ma„I U – plaited. polygon. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. 45).g. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. plait. 32.406). 110). III. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. Á G à Р.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. „DI UDK (pl.  DI Ðir) 1. 107). braid (FT. 44). mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. interlaced (FZ. e. „awµ (pl. (SA. ‘eye’ (of a letter). passim). 217). 11. 33. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. AG. 44. AG. 30. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. a Z Ð) – counter. interlace (TF.

76   $* .

134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). ¨ EL¶. 96).medallion) (HT. signet. mi¨ba¶ 1.  ODUJH stamp (for a center. stamp (IK. ÃDZ ELÑ ). . ¨ ED¶ (pl. lin. seal. comp.

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

 PRXOG VKHHW of paper. roll (AJ. WS. . 144.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). comp.

83.5 . 979) 5. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . (KU. DB. tirs. 154. III. 2019) 4. sarwah) (JL. center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE.

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

marginalia. border (on a book cover) (TS. 113. 60). 107. Ãurar) 1. 372). ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. ¨urrah (pl. 28. margin (LC. marginal note. AD. 21. 1020. abbrev. turn-in (TS.120a) 4. AG. VIII. Taf. 109) 2. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). 110) 3. f. edge. TK.7. ¨LE T – large sheets. 102). ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. audition note (EI. AG. MZ. leaves (of paper) (NH. gloss. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). I. . 73  Q $. IA. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

SA. 46. 29) 6. SD. margin (TP. VI. 58. ML. address (ÑXQZ Q. II. 313.

illuminated headpiece (LC. IV. annotation (WA. n. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. 28) 8. 28. KH. f. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. . ansa. TP. 28) 9. lin. 16).120a).120a. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. 28) 13. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. 57. 689). HT. 58. 36) 12. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. 682. tailpiece (LC. 28) 10.67). annotated (WA. 28) 11. f. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. 16).85). X. comp. Ãughrá 7. ta¨U U – glossing. palmette (LC. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. mu¨arrar – glossed.

ÃXU V DÃU V. ¨irs (pl. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. 133).GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. PA. celui qui fait le tracé initial. sketcher. 159: ‘dessin. 61. 118. PA. MB. 118. manuscript restorer. outline (HD. HD. ÃXU ¨). 132. 141: ‘dessinateur. 103). ta¨U Œ – sketch. 69. composition’). 101. Ãar¨’) 2. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. draftsman (AB. ¨DUU Œ 1.

75-76. VIII. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU . 1840). IW. EI. 408.  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. LL. II. 63-64. IK. comp. 93.

¨araf (pl. III. 371). IV. 8.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . LF. BA. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 140. aÃU I. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). HJ µ.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. sifr 13. ta¨U V – obliteration. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir.

ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. 107. AG. 57. AG. mi¨raqah – mallet. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. 11. 30. hammer (TS. . 15. 11. 87). 109). TH. 166. 60). 31. AG. IA. 107). 38.

28) 4. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. 595-598) 3. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. IV. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). ¨XJKU µ (pl. X. 28). 109). (MU. inlay work (AB. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. ta¨¶ P – inlay. à ¨ughrá.) 2. sifr 13. 11. 406).v. 134. AG. headpiece (LC. FT. erasure (KM. X.

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

83). ¨alŒ. 52). 27. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. SD. 147. 92. 483). AJ. WS. UK. ÃDO ¨ \. 145. leaf (of paper) (TS. ¨alaŒ – sheet. I. II. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG.

87: al-darj. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). SD. . – sheet (of paper from the mould). roll (WS. 52). II.

7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. comp. erasure (ND. IV. sifr 13.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). thus differing from Ãirs’). ¨ilsam. ¨ilsim. NH. 82. II. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. ta¨O V – obliteration.) (pl. Ãirs. syn. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. ¨alsah.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . LL. 373: ¨ulsah). NH.0 . 63. ÃDO VLP. 373: ¨als. ¨ilsim (etc.

v. iÁE Ñ (q. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. 11. X. ¨ OL¶ (pl.) (KH. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. – talisman. ascender (of a letter). 56). 500-502). magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). tion of words (EI. WB. 258). mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. headpiece (TW. incipit (WA. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. naÌDUD ZDTDID. beginning of the text. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah.

/&  26 .

al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. . 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . naÌar. III. FRPS WDTU Ì. 144. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. 59. 29: ‘common. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. III. 224). popular class of scripts’). MJ. RN. SA.

of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. passim) 2. II. ¨ams 1. II. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. 58. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. daubing.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. I. coating. KD. obliteration. 136). pasting (MB. erasure (JA. gilt and the like (MB. gilding (SD. DG. 278. 110). ‘eyes’.

144). 36. KH. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. AS.. 6$ .. -47. 242. IR.

36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. a¨Q E (sg.

107. f. MB. xviii). 32. sheet (piece. unabridged work. Áilah. 120b) 2. musta¨ O 1. 109. 135) 3. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. IA. 31. I. rules. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. 35. comp. rule-border (LC. abbrev. MB. 111. / / / (CI. 61). 62. IA. layer) of paper (TS. 26) 2. 157. 17. 26). strand (UK. mu¨awwal – original. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. AG. ¨DZ O – long. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). ¨ TDK 1. . cartouche (LC. TK. AG. rectangular panel (AB. 110).

.%  $-  .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U.GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .

KM. sifr 13.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. IV.

 (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. III. 11. 12). 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. 49-57). mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). It was written with a reed pen. ÃDZ P U. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

f.120a). person. abbrev. – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK. .  0.

212). ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. 206.g. musta¨ E DK. misk) (e. MJ.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

CM. 18). ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K.g. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e. 3. II. CI.

WKDU KX – requiescat. 182). AH. **** „arf (pl. inset (EM. 98. ÌXU I. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume.

. .  UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ .

1910. LL.  FDVH ER[ /& 29. . ME. 575). II.

„ufr (pl. al-„afar. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. 495).).v. aÌI U. II.

3. 29). 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. ta„O O (lit. usually the thumbnail) (TM. no. ‘shading’) – outlining. outline (KJ. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails.

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

blank reverse of a letter (LC. „DKU \DK 1. 57. comp. baÃn. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. xv. back of a document. 29). 59) 2. GA.64. I. front of the textblock (LC. 285). often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. placed in the margin. n. „ahr – back. 29). SL. abbrev. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). verso. (TP. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. hair side (of parchment). 29. – conjecture. II. CI.

11. 109). . comp. obvious. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. ‘external. ME. „ KLU (lit.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . first page(s) of the textblock (KF. ‘alleged. I. 8 and II. abbrev. 88. evident’. AG. II.  IO\-leaf (SD. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture.Oá).

 .

WS. 40. AJ.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. 148-149. 147. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. 80-82). ¶ajz. ¶ajuz (pl. aÑM ]. MP.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

P P DO-0DKG . n. V.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. TP. 21-22. 52.14).

 . mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . treatise.. sifr 13. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. III. vocalization (KM. 26).. diacritical point 3. . 146.  (. RA. DEEUHY MI. 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). IV.

ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. 57). pointed letters (TP. ¶ajm. 90. i¶M P WD¶M P 1. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. SA. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. .

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

(pl. taÑ U M.

¶arsh (pl. ÑXU VK.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). curvature (of the descender) (SA. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. – curve. 30). III.

230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U. al-sa¨r – base line (TW.

lattice-work (AB. 45). 464. 45).  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. 202). mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar.. 136). ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. I. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . abbrev. trellis (FT. reciter (CT. MH. SA. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. II. LC. 218. 29). 56. mu¶ UL„ – collator.. 25. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. 423) 2. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). ¶ar„(ah). taÑ U T. III. JA. TP.9. KU. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. SA.  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. ¶LU „(ah).

sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. 22. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. 11. 37. SA. 50. KU. 36. 40. KH. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. III.

(al-kha¨¨) al-¶. .U T see mu¨aqqaq. ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. FRPS PXÑaqqaf. 11).

.. 34. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 110.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. Ñuran) – thong. KT. 25. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ . AG.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q.

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

I. DEEUHY / (CI. ¶ashr (pl. aÑVK U. xiii).

 ¶ VKLUDK (pl. ÑDZ VKLU.

 ¶ VKLU \DK – mark...  6' . decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .7  // .  8. .

ta¶VK U 1. dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM).

¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 116: gha  UDK . 11. 109). 109). 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. 109) 2. stamp with vegetal design (TS. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. ¶ushar 1. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. AG. 108.7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). AG.

155. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. IB. also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. mi¶¦arah (pl. . 84). SD. II. 154. 134). IK. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 154-155. 154). 42).

curved line (used as a reference mark.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. caret (MR. signe de renvoi). 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . lin. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB.130) 2.

abbrev. / / / (AR. connection. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. introd. 37) 4. 147. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. 35.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH.). MI. 36. 145. AM. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction.

176. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. TP. 00 132. 54). MR. 93. TM.

17. LL. margin (ST. ¶LI ¦ – plug. ¶af¦ – galls. ¨ibr) (MP. 83. 16. 19). gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. index. 2091). II. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . ST.

¶aqib (pl.+  10  SJ. 344). 27) 2. note. aÑT E. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . comment (LC. ta¶T EDK 1. catchword. ¶aqb. vox reclamans (TN.

58. 36) 2. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. counter. – end of the text (matn) on a page. 11. AG. 47. lower ¶uqdah (pl. III. 109). knot-like tool (TS. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. KH. 46. . Ñuqad) 1.

37). ‘perhaps. taÑU T ¶allahu. 126).GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. la¶allahu (lit. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. comp. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV.

 . WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0.

WS. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB. 90. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.Q DO-ÑLO M.

ligature (KU. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . transcript (AD. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. composition. copy.9 . 124). transcription. script. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. copying (TE. writing. 119) 3. 15) 2.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

) . . .

taÑ O T WDÑO T W. 107) (pl.  (MI. abbrev.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.

27. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. 1124. 71. II. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. 15. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. MU. scholium. IV.v. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. name often given. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. comment.). to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. 165) 6. EI. in the Turkish/Arabic context. 26). explication (TE. 694-696) 2. ER. IV. 162). IX. – marginal gloss. LC. X.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

FRPS U MLÑ.. 104). III.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. . AG. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . 26. 77). also TS. 28.. al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK.

 mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . 371. III.

 ¶alam (pl. aÑO P.

164. signing a document (AA. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. XII. 352) 4. index. – decorated border (LL. II. 135. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. ta¶O P 1. II. 18) 2. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. 22). ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. marking quires before sewing (ST. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. II. book mark (e. mark.g. 164). ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. autograph (LC. SD. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. marking. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. signature (SD. TS. motto. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. 27) 2. EI. 381). I. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. 2140). ¶DO PDK – 1.

no.DUEDO Ð) (CM. al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI . 100).39).¶  0.HUEHOD . ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

. abbrev. ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. III. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. 372).

II. ¶amal (pl. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. 2153: ‘text of the book’). aÑP O.

compilation (MU. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ.  FRPSRVition. VII.

q. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. writing. VII. main work of a painter (PA. used in opposition to Ãar¨. 47-48. colouring. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution.e. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. IX. EI.v.). 123). SA. laà I DO-Ñamal. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. i. 30) 3. comp. (SJ. chronosticon (TI. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. taÑZ U 2. etc. 229. ta¶miyah 1. TC. 257-258). cryptogram. painting.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

(MW. PK. 110. ¶XQZ Q (pl. ÑDQ Z Q. 211. EI. 16. 260-261). I. SL. VII.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. X. EI. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. comp. 2183). section heading (LC. 871-872) 3. 29. PA. 116. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. II. title (of a book) (LC. EI. 36. tarjamah 2. 66. EI. 870-871) 4. 870). . chapter. X. 29). 29. X.

200-203). al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. curved (of a line. VWURNH. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. i¶ZLM M – curvature. I.

g. 14). isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. . VII. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. e. 7). UD. 74). repetitor (EI.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. 13. I. ta¶awwudh. IN. collation master. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. collation session (MF. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). 12. 230). X. 726). taÑ Z GK.

123-124). 114. ¶ P (pl. comp. 69). – talisman. Ãams. ‘eyes’. KU. 95. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. aÑZ P. amulet (DT. of letters) (AP.

¶ayn (pl. 194. 43). – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. comp. sanah. 252-253). . LM. comp. Ñuqdah. VI.

n. OD. MP. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. MP. DW. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. 19-23. 42. 145). IB. EI. IV. NW.18) 2.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. 12-13. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. VI. 141. adhesive (TS. 74). al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. II. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. 141. 90. 250). 45-47). 88. NW. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. AS. MP. IK. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. VI. 47). 199). 244). MB. 145. 97. red and black colours (SD. NW. 32-34. taghriyah 1. rasm al-JKXE U. 97. North Africa. 41. aghriyah) – paste. 37. index. IB.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). 1124). JM. 74. AG.60-72. ghubrah – mixture of white. VI. HT. lin. 233. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. sizing (of paper) (AB. 107. 37. 47. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. pasting (ST. 58-63. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. 73). IB. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. MB. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. 250).

IU T  . FRPS .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

II. case. passim). KC. 214. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. 36. binding (TS. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. 35. aghshiyah) 1. box (SD. ME. book cover. 554. JKD] O see jild. JKLVK µ (pl. covering of the board. 564) 2.

III. CD. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. pl.

 ODVW SDJH V.

 473). I. binding (IN. 257).) . RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. I.. taghshiyah – book covering. LVWLJKI U DK. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .

.. 217) 2. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness..  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ .  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' .

ghal¨ah – error. 150). ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã).  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. bold character. 192). mistake. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). . ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. OHWWHU 6. abbrev. a word) (MI.

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

108). – book cover (MD. 157). binding (FZ. WDJKO I – book covering. 132). JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. AB. mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 214. 213.

128). **** I I U – papyrus (EI. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ.. SA. 261). – WDLOSLHFH . VIII.).v.) . mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. also iftit Œ. 114. 46.Ñuqdah.  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). 47. comp. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. III.

. LQFLSLW 08 . LC. 23) 2.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& .9. preface. XV. prologue. proem (MU.

IDZ WLŒ al-suwar.g. headpiece (KF. II. 23) 4. LC.  KHDGLQJ (e. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT.

AG. 104. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. IDW ODK 1. . also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. 62.18. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. 59). IA. TS. 109) 2. press screw (MB. IA. VI. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. 245).

leaf (of paper) (SA. SD. VI. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. II. comp. 189.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. 249).

conjugate leaf. WDUN E TY.v. 28). as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM).). al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. – one of a pair. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. one half of a piece of leather (TS. LIU G – letter in its isolated.

6$ ... .

230. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. 154). shaqq (q. SA. AT. DD. I. 83).v. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. far„ al-qalam – syn. IR. 60. 390).) (KU. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. 133.g. II. 481. MY. III. fur„ah (pl.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

 .. // .

most probably a variant of PLTU „.18). apograph. witness (MR. index.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. annotation (TM. note. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. 23) 2. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK . mifra¨ – cutter (ST. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. LC.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

15.) (UD. q. 269) 4. argument resulting from a legal point. 131). IDU JK SO IDU JK W. application as opposed to theory. JL. 87. 93. scroll (FI. aÁl. (AD. SM. 88.v. KR.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. abbrev. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. 82).

completion. 41) – end.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO. execution. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.

23).+  /0 . 26. also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. lacuna (LC. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. blank. 23. farkah (MN. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. GA. 289) 3.

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. comment. 1. explication.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

mufassir – commentator. SA. MS. 83). 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. paragraph mark (TP. 23. disc. commentary and/or translation. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . FRPS VKDU¨ 2. fa¦¦ (pl. III. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 55. LC. three dots. AK.g. e.5 . 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. X. 351. from Greek into Arabic (EI.

 .

110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl. fuÁ O.

 . 145-146) 2. MM. QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. 55. taf¦ O 1. SA. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). word division (in a text). space between words or passages. spacing (TP. 134. 138. III.

MB. MP. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. 92. 33). fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . comp. 37. silver-based ink (UK. 53. 271). TP.20).  FKDSWHU 6' II. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. 130-133.. n..  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA.

DM). fiqrah (pl. I. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. section of a text. SD. 273. II. abbrev. 23. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). xiii. fiqar) – passage. comp. AK. 351). taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. paragraph (LC.

BA. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. 385. III. – book cover (HN.

 FRPS VKLGT .

GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. 45).g. fihris. funuq) – case. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). mufakkak – loose. disbound (e. box (KC. fihrist (pl IDK ULV. IDQ T (pl.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

comp. 36). I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. LC. II. 149. EI. gloss. mashyakhah 2. list. abbrev. II. 207. RU &0  RU 66. record of attested study. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. also I µidat al-a¦l. cataloguing. abbrev. catalogue (SD. fahrasah 1. nota bene (notabilia). 50). digressional remark (in a text) (SD. II. 743-744) 4.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. 286. 23. 293) 2. 49. (CA. marginal note. AR. bibliography.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

Qubbat al-. Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). . 107).VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. 76  AG. 15).

12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. IV.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. 471). 302). . II. lit. abbrev. SD. qub¨al.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. 107. AG. qabr. qabla – before. straightedge (TS. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. (when used for a transposed word) (LE.

n. collation note (statement). VII. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. 490492).TP. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. 56. corrector. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah.52. muÑ UD ah 2. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. PXT ELO – collator. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . comp. MH. EI. II.

107). miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. CI. etc. / / / / / (TP. 701. 18. 10. comp.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. II. 24. . AG. AA.37. abbrev. I. n. qidd (pl. aqudd) – strip (of leather). TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. 109). WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. 54. FRPS ] Ðidah.xiii. CI. xiv). qaÃÃ. 11. II.

comp. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. 17. 495-496). 173). MI. 26. TP. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. preface. 120. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. also TS. abbrev. 52. introduction (EI.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. VII. 107). 59. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. muqaddimah – forward. AG. fore-edge flap (TS.

variant reading (varia lectio). punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. recitation (LC. 9 -129) 3. reciter. reading. 26) 2. 139). commentary (AD. prelector. gloss. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. – marginal note. collection of glosses. TLU µah 1. manner of recitation. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader.

  73 . $/ .

KF. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. FRPS ¨arf. II.g. TP.25. 494-498). n. 53. FRPS VDP Ñ. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. 110). AG. 36. 104. 35-36. aqribah) 1. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. TLU E (pl. sheath (SK. 36. 110). AG. sleeve case (TS. SA. II. . 466) 2. 110). AG.

ST. 19. IA. IB. compact writing (KM. II. 20). MP. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. 63). PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. 107. qar¦a¶ah – fine. 60). TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. index. 18. 59). index. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. 63.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. screw press (MB. IK. 91-92. 19. index. 44. 47). 21. 10. 94). PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA.19. 417). MP. sifr 13. AG. IB. putting something into a press (ST. 107. IK. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. 44). 103: PLTU   (!). ST. IV. QS. AG.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

66-93. 261. 108. V. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. 66-76. WS. VIII. AE. 82-91). I. 407) or paper (SA. UD. 173-174. IW. parchment (AE. 17). 98. EI. comp. II. 50. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. VIII. AE. EI.

. often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

XIV.GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. 335- WDTU   W .

 %/ $0 QRV     122. muà ODÑah.  qarmadah. comp. 313). 182. 136. sifr 13.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . compact writing (KM. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. qarma¨ah – fine. 143. muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL. 186). IV.

IV. DS. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. IV. 86. 69). 41). 393: not defined). 80).19. EI. 42. EI. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. HT. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. IB. qirmah see VL\ T. IA. see also UA. 103. qa¦¦. 181. index. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. MB. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. AA. 153. . qa¦ab(ah) – reed. 60. qurnah – corner (MB. reed pen (IK. 146. 59. 682. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. IK. JM. miqsam(ah) (lit. trimming (ST. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). al-qurnah al-yusrá).

miqaÃÃ. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. MP. 154).116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. qa¦amah. 86). comp. 32). miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 153). qa„m – syn. 130. qa„ P DK. tin-based ink (UK.

qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . KU. 102. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. II.. 2-463. 50. – white hide.) breadthwise (KD. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). the point itself. leather (IW. 93). KM. I. AA. etc. nibbing. cutting (of leather. sifr 4. IK. KK. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. 153. LM. 109-110. 72-74.

II. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P.e. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. I. i. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. longer than the left’. LM. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. LL. 462.

217). qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. 2996. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. 217). opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. straight point of the nib (SA. 154). II. ivory. II. . 462). 1742. MJ. II. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. MJ.

AT. LS.742. IP. 65. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 62. IV. 45. MM. 76. II. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 105: maqaÃÃ. MK. qa¨¶ (pl. 54.GLOSSARY 117 etc. SA. qaÃÑ al-thumn. SK. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. 468. 133). ND. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. MB. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ.

piece of poetry) 2.g. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. 475). 110). piece of calligraphy. decoupage (ER. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. calligraph (AC. qi¨¶ah 1. . principle of the interlace. VI.  irs (AG. piece of something (e.

taq¨ ¶ 1. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. collage. papercut(s).  (5 9. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. muqaÃÃa¶ ). VI. . decoupage. cutting instrument (DM) 2.. 91). WS. 9. 107). PA. mishraÃ. 475). AG. comp. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. format (of a book) (TL. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. 11. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. 144. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah.  +'   T ÃiÑ. 90) 4. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. (pair of) scissors (IK. 21) 2. filigree work (IP.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

abbrev. – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.  26 .

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

377). – clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. .

14. 15. 15. 15. AG. AG. 107. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. 15-17. taqfiyah – backing (TS. al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. 107). comp. AG. 107). index. ST. 641). qalb. 107). AG. 20). ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. flat back (TS.

 PRXOG 8.  .

83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. index. 14.3. LC. MK. ST.19. 26. no. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. 26.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS.

JL. 43). FZ. 214. 59. 93) 4. miqlab SO PDT OLE. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. folder (IB. FI. 88. stamp (for book cover design) (IA.

7XUN PLNOHE.

WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. 83. 26). – envelope flap (MT. 68). DW. 202-203).

.  76 .  SLHFH RI ZRRG .

232. 45-87.  calamus. IK. copper pen.e. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. 13 (AA. KU. see TW. i. also qalam al-qa¦ab. reed pen. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. SA. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". II. 44-465. TC.

IV. MB. 144. MP. 100).. 71-75. AT. -50. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . EI. ductus. 471) 3. UK. MB. hand. . 59-64. script. 38-39. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. handwriting. 356. 133-134.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. see khaÃÃ.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. 11-12). an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. 335). I. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. muqawwar. used in talismans and amulets (IT. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin.

IK. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. 153. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. 145). 144). Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. DO-mu¨aqqaq. al-thuluth. 85). al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS.

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

$  Q..  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah.  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  . . SA..  $. .

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

79). I. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. 43. 2565). trimming (a reed). . 43. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. KR. 85). 109). WDTO P – paring. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. II. II. AG. 49-51. chest (LL. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. 11. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books).

120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. 11. 37). comp. AS. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . 144). muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. III. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. 144). al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

PDT ODK 1. – quotation. 154. MI. 155. xiv. 190. II. passage. short composition. tract 2. MU. treatise. 238). chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. XII. TP.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

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283. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. KF. 82. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. I. I. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. 83. DF. 86. 327. III. 377. folio (folium) (MK. 190. KF.

 al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. 22).g. erect. mDEV Ã. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. PXVWDT P – upright. comp. . RN.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

  DPP DO-Ñ.U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 . – HQGSDSHU 8.

qayd SO TX\ G. al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq.

qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1. 17. – note. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. composition (TE. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . statement.. committing something to writing.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

binding.  tying. IA.. . diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. III. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. 62) 4. IK. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . 113. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh.

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

gloss (LC. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). – marginal note. author 2. N JKL¨. muqayyid 1. glossator (AM. 43). N ]DQ – mallet (UK. no. 153.187). 27). **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. IB.

98-105. N JKLGDK – sheet. waraq. 419-420.VO P . etc. . 77-85). al-5 P . SO NDZ JK Ã. AE. al-kalŒ . 136). WS. IV. WS. 77) – paper (EI. see waraq. leaf (of paper) (AJ. comp. al-N JKDG DO-.

136. kubab) – ball (of fibre. munkabb – inclined. as in the beginning of w Z. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. in papermaking) (OM). N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. kubbah (pl. WS. 374). 85-86).

8'  /0 .

AG. II. 91. TS.) (US. 440. SD. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. 169). WDNE V – pressing (QS. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . KL. 416. UA. 416). q. mikbas.) 2. Ranunculus asiaticus. katb.v. 40. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. II. TH. comp. CM. mun¨anin. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. 393). II. 49-53. Asiatic crowfoot (bot.107. NDE NDM 1. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. kitbah (MH.

copying. transcription. NLW E NLW EDK – writing. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . composition.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. +. NI. Turkish ketebehü. 45: ‘hence katabah. CT.

554-760). amanuensis (EI. . 180). mu¨arrir. scrivener 2. comp.  VHFUetary. IV. scribe. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI.

95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. chapter in a book (SL. V. archetype. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. 388: mukattab). codex (MA.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library.) .115). NH. lin. maktab – place designated for writing. 86). IV.. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. 23. PDNW E SO PDNW E W. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. piece of writing. copying (KK. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). I. 207-208). al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. tail (of a book or document) 2. 384). book. KD. letter. 53. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU .GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. IK. spine (of a codex) (HT. II. document. VI. 705. 197-200). EI. maktabah – library (EI. booklet.

LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. muktib. calligraph (DP. 705). sifr 13. 4. 53). KD.g. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. KM. II. 51. – piece of calligraphy. mukattib (e. master calligrapher (KK. IV.

0 .. .  26 .9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .

pointing (of a wall) (FT. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). I. kohl. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. outline (of letters) (DH. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). 187). kuŒl – antimony. 393. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. IR. mukŒul – kohl container (UA.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. outlining. 414) 2. takŒ O 1. no. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. mikŒ O see mirwad. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). 230).

comp. RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. 68). misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ.

OLQHV LQ .

124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK. 142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.

12. 33.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs. AG.

  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). 42). 0. sic. 154. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . IB. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. NDGK – thus. abbrev.

48. TM. ditto- NXUU V DK. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). 162). takarrur – graphic error. dittography (e. WLNU U. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. 184).g.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT.  . TS. x. kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. 84. reading stand (MD. CI. ra¨l. 468-471. 14. AG. II. TS. AA. II. SA.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. 60). 131. 107) 2. abbrev. . 48. NXUV – book cradle.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ .0 . 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. 60). 700).92). II. comp. KU. passim. SL. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. quire (gathering). SK. IK. 132). lin. II. KD. 100.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .

mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P. QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH .P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE.

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

miksar SO PDN VLU. 363). kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH.

79. 391). NH. 137. 58). miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. DD. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). 128). knife (for making erasures) (IR. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . 389. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. of bashr (LF. IR. I. TP. syn. 274. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN.

126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl. kuÑ E.

usually 25 sheets (PT. II. NXQQ VK DK. 94). IA. FT. 84. 82). main de papier). 406). kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. 109). inlay (SA. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. 109. DM). tongs (MB. kaff(ah). 109). AJ. passim. dast. WDNI W – inlaying. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. 145. AB. KR. 977. 90). 95. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. 61. WS. DE. comp. rizmah. 92. 92. – spine (back of a codex) (MB. 442. 39. 97. flat back (MB. JL.

SO NDQ Q VK.

25. – 1. HB. . commonplace book (LC.

mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . V. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI.  kunyah (pl. 395-396).

GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. I . an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-. I 1. originally and properly speaking.

OD). 27ff. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV. 363. 11-13. 8-9.g. FN. MV. comp. AV.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e.

76  $*  86 .

 FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. 478). 119. 85). MP. al¨ T OL¨ T. laŒaq (pl. II. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. 145. 139). JM. SA. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 29. azure ink. paint (UK. ultramarine. 114. 27.

 ilŒ T. . mulŒaq – omission. insertion (TP.

128 GLOSSARY  . IB. TM. OL] T – paste. 154.14). 279).. comp. LC. adhesive (KD. JA. 42). liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. 703). 185. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. 24. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. I. II.

I. 107.24. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. 230. DD. IR. II. 481) 2.  76  11. 133. n. SA. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). malzamah SO PDO ]LP. 481. AG. 14. copyist’s book support.169. II.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. WA. book cradle (TW. SA. 15. 390) 3.

abbrev. /&  /( . where each gathering is numbered separately).  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books.

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

HT. 132). index. 25. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. 25). lin. 20. MM. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. OLV Q (pl. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. 13. LC. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. $'  /( 137) 3. 119. 90. JL.109. ST.

 .

mulaffaq. DD. malediction. spool (DS. 131. RA. 391. or (MI.166). II. 230) 2. 181.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. IR. I. wrapper (DM). 480. 26). lin. lafŒ – tooling. adhesive (SA. passim). stamping (HT. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. DM). alÁiqah) – paste. laqab SO DOT E. 530). abbrev. 167. SD. OL] T la¶nah – curse. milaff 1. 145. comp. II. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ .

– nickname. 109) 2. 618-631). mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. WDOT P – inlaying. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). honorific title (EI. pincers. . inlay (FT. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. V. 406). tweezers (MB. I. DD. (pair of ) tongs. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam.

11. lak. lakk RU O N '* . stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. 49). LM.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line.

 ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. lamq – elegant writing. namq. 16).v.g. glazed. AG.). lacquer. comp. 11. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. 140). 109). q. varnish (AB. law¨ W. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. copying (TE. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. burnished (e. ODPP ¶ – glossy.

wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. 125).123. wooden board (TS. 25. 99. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. II. 124) 3. MB. 142-143. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. (Turk. gloss (DM). illuminator (HD. 24. MS. 29. 5) 5. . 58-59) 2. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. 402). 11. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. lin. panel (in decoration). HT.or tailpiece) (LC. 31) 6. headpiece (FT. OM) 4. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. usually framed). head. pasteboard (ST.

raÐs al-lawzah. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). 44. AG.v. see also nuqÃah) 3. central medallion (on a book cover). 156. 109. 59. oval figure 2. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. 105. also known as sarwah (q. IA. mandorla 4. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. 11. TS.). 38).GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. 31. MB. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. IB.

IB. MJ. 208). II. 230. lawn SO DOZ Q. IR. – spatula. 478. AT. 133. 45. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA.

tint (EI. AI.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. JA. . pigment. – colour. 148. V. 698-707.

see also the quotation under sha¨m). 27) 2. polychrome illumination (WA. IK. tinting (of paper). 86. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. III. WDOZ Q 1. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. LC. 11. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. WDO\ ¨ 1.

84. . 55. 160) 3. O TDK (pl. 370). 111-119. paper pulp (OM). UK. n. coloured ink (SA. MJ. 13. IK. colour. 133). also PLO T (UA. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. II. 26-29. 26-29. tint (AD. 79-84. 702. liyaq) 1. III. AT. II. 203) 2. MP. tuft of unspun silk. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. 477-478.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. index. MP. 20. 393) tow (wad. BA. MB.

370) – compartment for ink (KD.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. also PLO TDK (BA. III. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 . amliqah) 1. II.

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

.. . %$ .

 layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. 144. KH.

 al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. comp. muraÃÃab. **** matn SO PXW Q. such as al-thuluth. muqawwar. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

VI. 1. V. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. 843) 2. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. EI. II. text-column (MU. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . main body of the text (as opposed to margins).

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. ¨ VKL\DK.

MD. 25). LC. 53). EI. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. VI. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. SD. IX. 568). 1. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). (qalam) al-matn. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. . Œard al-matn (HN. 24. 214. 109. II. P WLQ – author of the original composition. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. TP. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. 843) 4.

khirqah. 90). 55. III. MP. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. obliteration (by means of a cloth. KH. 13. blind tooling.52. . apograph (CD. SA. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. PLG G (pl. UK. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. ¨ibr. VI. III. AT. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. comp. or licking) (TP. BA. 127-131. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. JL. 134-135. tamŒ ¨ 1. 86. ¨aÃÃ. LVWLPG G PD¨¨.) .115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). maŒ UDK (q. 89). 216). amiddah) – soot ink. process of softening leather (making it flexible. 38.) . 67-71. 21. erasure. 15-18. ink (in general) (SK.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. 58. 471-477. 1031).  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. IV. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. maŒw – ink removal. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. comp. 138-140. index. 371). n. transcript. AE. II.  madd. 38. comp. MJ. IV.v. 79: dalk) 2. UK. 79-90. TP. EI. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. KR. 238). MJ. 36-37). amthilah) – copy. MP. pl. MB. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. 121-122.

midyah) (pl. pen knife (SA. midan) – knife.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). 103- 8$  . also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. mudan. I  mudyah (madyah.5  . SK. II. 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). 465-467. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG .

 FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M. WDPU „ see  abbah.

 . II. 202). 133. 166. 114). I. AT. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. 230. masŒ – rubbing. 391). sackcloth (DG. SA. 60: misann almis¨) 2. 481-482. DD. see shar¨. coarse haircloth. 110. wiping (MB. misŒ 1. IA.

 FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð. .

116-117. 16) 3. AA. IR. transcription (TE. hasty.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. mashq 1. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . copying. 55) 2. I. 230). 60. inelegant hand.I. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. scribbling (MM. mush¨ – comb (IA.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. elongation (of letters) (JA.. SK.

IK. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. mashqah 1. KK. 164) 6.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. KT. 151). fine elongated stroke (SK. calligraphic exercise.’). (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. calligraphic model (AD. calligraphic hand (CM. 83) 5. for example. 16. according to some opinions. MY. 48. elegant. copying from a model (TE. 134: ÑDQ . is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. 4. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. fine elongation. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G.

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. 183). P VKLT – calligrapher (NI.

 . '' .

signature. FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. autograph (DM) 2. signing. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   .

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

also malasah – burnisher. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. 27). PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. 107) 2. Makkah (al-mukarramah. 107). al-musharrafah. II. 8). VII. EI. ex-library. 478). LC. I  mimlasah 1. 11. AG. AG. 390. 25. polisher (NH. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca.). maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. ex-dono. TS. FRPS QDÌar 3. LC. 88. etc. 11. 411). LPO µ SO DP OLQ. al-maghrah al-¶. 31. plane-like instrument (TS. milk – ownership (OS. 60-61). 88.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN.

KF.  GLFWDWLRQ $. SDVVLP :6 -13. work (known as al-DP O . 85-94) 2. I.

48). SL. passim. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus.VII. GA. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. VII. 725-726. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. VII. passim. 725-726). signet. stamp (EI. famulus (AI. 472-. II. muhr – seal. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. EI. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib).

VII. stamping (EI. 472-473). FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. .

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

sifr 13. 50-52) 2. WS. 8-9. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. 472. (IW. leaf (of paper) (SA. KM. 79-82. 105-106. AE. II. II. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. sheet. IV. sheet.

60. mawzah – burnisher. 63). polisher (IA. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V.

– pen knife. UD. trimmer (TW. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK .$  maws. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] .

 P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU.  1+  '' . 25). 64). II.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. V. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. LC. 226.

tilting (of a script). . inlaying (SA. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. slanting (of the line. script) (UD. hence P µil – inclining. gilt (SD). 403). 12. SA. 442) 2. II. 45). II. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. coating. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT.

WDQE K – note. remark (in the body of a composition). PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). 146. KM. nota bene. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. sifr 13. IV.138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. JM. 16. copying (TE. 40).

paring. index. UD. naŒt 1. 43: P MDPDK). – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. minjam – mallet (ST. 232. 36). 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. 21. IB. trimming (of a reed) (IR.

MP. etc. (MG. basmalah. I.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. 35). copper-based ink (UK. . e. ¨amdalah. nuŒ V – copper. 133-134. 482).g.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

95. II. KR. 94-95). I. DM). 230. 384). munkhul – sieve (IR. 97. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. nasab SO DQV E. selector (DF. 82). muntakhib – compiler. – anthology (EA.

nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. etc. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. genealogy. nisbah (pl. religious sect or school. ending in – (EI. pedigree (EI. tribe. 967-968). – lineage. VII. VIII. 53-56).

DO-PDQV E DK.

which according to the Mamluk tradition. 1127 (in Muslim India). IV. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T.5. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. naskh-ta¶O T). IV. 57) 2. 1126 (in Turkey). KM. see khaÃÃ. KK. index. 21). 696-699). PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. transcription (TE. (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. 1124 (in Persia). The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. par excellence. 17. naskh 1. IV. ER. sifr 13.

al-nuskhah (al-kutub.      $5  $. XVI. IV. 26). 89). archetype (LC. transcript. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. LE. 1127. nuskhah (pl. xiv). al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. recension (MU. LM.  0.in Persia. EI. xv.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. catalogue (AD. 123. nusakh) 1. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. comp. al-makh¨ ¨ W. QDVNK 1. 47. CD. abbrev. IV.in Muslim India). list. 1123. 149) 2. 128. VIII. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. but erroneously. II. CM.171). 1125. badal) 4. 146. LM. version. 182. I. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. personal) nature (CI. CA. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. al-naskh al-mu¶W G. 36./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. CI. commonly. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. MZ. variant reading (varia lectio). 141. 138. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS.in Turkey. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn.12) 2. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . I. n. pl. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. copy (EI. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq.

al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. 26). 26). Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. archetype (LC. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. unicum.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

MA. 17. TW. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. passim). 47). 16. WB. muntasikh – copyist. 348. scribe (TE.

g.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. no. III. . munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. epistolography (EI. LQVK µ – construction. e.. layout (mise en page ) (FK. 1241-1244). I. 9. of letters. documents or state papers. letter-writing. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). style or composition.

94. IK. nashr. I. 134. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. 278. WDQVK U. 136). AI. 173. TD. 67). I. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

76   $*  .$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV.

MB. I. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. II. 480. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). IR. 13. 106. . OM. I. 136). minshafah – blotter (TD. 50. II. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). index. IB. 230: minshaµah). UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. 21. dhurah) (OM). starch paste (TS. nashan – wheat starch. 60. 133. SA. AT. IA. index. 390. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. ST. 21). 395). PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. 12. DD. starch paste (made of sorghum.

103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ . 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. 241. .  . 137). the letter alif (IR.. pallet-like tool (HT.133. 249. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. stroke. ni¦ E 1. lin.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. handle (SK. straight line. 240..

43. 101. III. MB. IB. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. LM. UD. 59). IA. 156. 47. up-stroke (SA. 11. 59) 3.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. 103. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. munta¦ib – ascender.

218.g. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. FZ. medallion. reading note. 93. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). 88. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. e. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. 43). na„ar – study note. III. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. 217. ZM. JL.

  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .) .

abbrev. FRPS PXà ODÑah. XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I. un„ur – ‘see’.

 Q „ir (pl. nuÌÌ U.

versification.170). II. no. . I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. comp.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. curator. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. shiÑr. na„m. 2812).

awl (SA. 208. DD. MJ. awling (MB. AT. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. 230. WDQT Œ. minfadh – punch. QDTT U – carver. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). revision (KF. epigraphy (KM.3.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. II. IV. sifr 13. II. 481. sifr 13. no. 23). bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. engraving (on stone). nafa¨ (sg. nafÃah) – pockets of air. 5). nafdh – punching. engraver (KM. IR. tanaqquŒ – correction. I. IV. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). naqr – inscription. 392). 133. passim). 391: for sewing of quires).

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

471. 5). IK. II. 469. 49. naqsh SO QXT VK. KM. sifr 13. SA. 84. – ink (KK. IV.

29-32. IA. inscription. 105. 400). engraving. naqr 2. comp. VII. 931). epigraphy (FT. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. QLT VKDK 1. TS. painting. 63) 3. MB. 156. illumination (EI. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK.

ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. IA. . 59).  0% 105.

144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. 5) 2. 155. engraver (KM. III. 266). VII. 141. illuminator (PA. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. WDQT VK – writing. 931-932). carver. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. designer. copying (FK. miniature painter. sifr 13. 159). Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. IV.

KH. 160. III. III. nuqaÃ. 16-17) 2. 151. SA. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. TE. haplography (TP. naq¨ 1. III. 58). haplographic error. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. 38). SA. nuq¨ah (pl. 16-17. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. letter-pointing (TE. naq¦.

  T OD .EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.  GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.

Q TLO (pl. 105. 16. 68) 5. quotation 3. TE. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). transcription (MU.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. . copyist. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. exact copy (apograph). 16) 4. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. 12. calligrapher (TE. HT. naql 1. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). 218) 2. naqalah) 1. MB. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). 33. extract. nimrah – number. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . translation. numrah. orthographer (LT. figure. citing. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. 133. IA. copying. XII. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. IA. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. 368). 137. AW. abbrev. quoting. translator.

16. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. 53. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. AM. 45. copying (TE. 62. KK. numbering. namq WDQP T – elegant. SK. 91).GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. 53. embellished writing.

Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC. NI. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). 45. 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( .

119. painted illustration (KF. AA. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. sifr 13. namnamah 1. elegant. AW. calligraph. n. 369.1). 105) 2. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). 237). II. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. copying (SK. IV. embellished writing. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). compact writing (KM. calligraphic composition (NI. 38). WDQP O – compact writing. 181. copying (KH.

of mufatta¨. IB. 26. 43). al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. – floral design. 69). PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . index. of maÃP V q. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. PXQ U – syn.v. having an open counter (ant. IB.) (LM. 22. 44). arabesques (on book covers) (LC.

III. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. KF.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. II. EI. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. 498-450. 27).

IK. II. 106. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. KD. 700. – inkwell (SK.

used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. 87. I. termination. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. SL. 110. GA. xi. CI. / / / (for intahá) (MW. LQWLK µ – end. II. CI. 285). xiii. II. abbrev.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

+   ID-NDWDED ODKX LQK ÐDQ I NKLU NLW E DO]DN K PLQKX. .

36). hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. hudb. hud hud SO KDG KLG. **** DKG E (sg.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

 LKG µ – dedication (FN. WDKGK E 1.  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). abridgement. ... revision (DM) 2.. 23). correction. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . epitome (EA. I.

73) 2. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. backing (MB. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. EI. I. compiler (SS. abridger. IA.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. 72. epitomist. 69. rounding (of the spine). 61). 181. 483. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. 109. X. author. MG. muhall. 108) 2. WDKO O 1.

 . VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9.

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

..  PDUJLQ ') .   .

 PDUJLQDO note. /&  0. . abbrev. gloss.

. glossing. annotation (TT. WDKP VK 1. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ .  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn).. 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $. .

 muhammash – glossed. annotated (TW. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK.

  K PDW DO-alif). . al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. 57. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. raÐV HJ 6$ . MH. K PDK – head (of a letter). syn. IR. GL. unpointed letters (TP. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah.. 90).. 4. 57. 244).

II.. 31.. transcription in full. 31) 3. wajh al-hirr (lit. upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. epitome (DM). wajh(ah) 1. IV. page (MU. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). face. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( .148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. 43-45). recto (of a document or leaf) 4. 25) 2. 25. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . upper cover (TS. ¶alá al-wajh – copying.

 -92). wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. 6$ . MK. 82). 109).Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 29.. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK.. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al.

waŒy – writing. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. SA. waŒVK see sinn. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. 218). – verso (of a leaf) (LC. MJ. KK. 53). . IV. 464. II. 5. 29. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. 82). 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. KM. sifr 13. MK.

lobed medallion (DH. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. no. 95. waraq SO DZU T. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. DA).73). muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH. no.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing.73).

85-. WS. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. -195.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

 waraqah 1. abbrev. folio (folium). leaf. piece (of paper. parchment or leather) 2.  $5  .

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 25). 109). 29). 11. wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. (TS. AG.

VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. I. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 85). DO-.

75. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 77) 2. 378). European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. French paper (PT. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. I. 31). DO-5 P 1.

waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. OM). paper bearing an imitation watermark. 31). DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. Tre Lune) (PT. 30. SA. 193. VI. .

150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O. 32).

104) 2. WS. 394). al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. 487. 32. 82). II. 88. MS. 107. 84). – glazed paper (PT. MD. SA. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . pasteboard (JL. JL. 35. 87. 380). cardboard (FT. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. WS.

ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. 82. 161). KF. professional copyist. bookseller. – marbled paper (DM. 28. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. LC. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. 148) 2. IK. transcription (WS. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. WS. EI. 9. II. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. stationer. 65). WDZU T 1. MN. index. IV. I. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. 87. copying. 81. 22. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. WR. IB. 14. 558-561). 94). 93. I. 495). II. JL. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). 380). 69. scribe (SL. index. 88. 16. maysam SO PD\ VLP. bookbinder (QS. FI. MP. foliated arabesque design (ST. 22.

– tool. 135). stamp (AB. mawsim SO PDZ VLP.

For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. II. 10). MP. festival. – feast. washŒ – decorating.g. 22. CI. 65). index. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST.

186) 2. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. lin.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1.125. . stamping (of leather) (HT. writing. 93) 3. also WDZVK P – tooling. drawing (AD.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

– pattern (created by tooling). 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). washy. wa¦l. lin. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. UK. 18.126). awÁ O ZDÁO W. wi¦l. stamp (HT. wu¦l (pl.

110). 90).  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. 234. 144) 3. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. 812. 88. SA. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. darj). vox reclamans (NM. HB. piece. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. wa¦lah 1. II. 10. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . VI. NZ. 683. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. 65) 2. collema (kollema) (WS.

$' .

187. wa„¶ (pl. I. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. 62. 3132). 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). KF. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 12. arrangement (of a text) (MU. aw  Ñ ) – composition. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. PA. comp. VI. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD.

376). . IV. author (DF. Z „i¶ – compiler.

proem (DM). prologue. P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G.152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface.

56. – collation session (TP. TM.  .192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $.

case. DA). 87: ZDT ¶ah. 19. ME. wi¶ µ (pl. awÑiyah) – 1. container (OM). ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. 16. wifq SO DZI T. box (MS. 575) 2.

royal edict. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. 189. LC. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. I. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. 392. AD. 10) 2. decree (EI. WDZT ¶ 1. stamp (IK. LC. signature (EI. gloss. 125) 4. writing something down. autograph. 108). P IDT – seal. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). X. al-WDZ T ¶. motto. KF. 28. 124. . I. 189). taking something down in writing (SL. 100. 69. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. X. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . KM. apostil (usually signed) (AD. 392-393) 3. sifr 13.. 28. IV. 96).

tashÑ U W.GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines.

187). reading. 146. KF. II. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. 90. 63). perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). wakf 3. LC. 90). waqf 1.g. JM.9 1123. 73-77. endowment.g. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . WDZT I (KF. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. unfinished stroke (e. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e.. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS.29. 146. 441). 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (.. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. 146). 428-442). WDTU Ì (q.v.) (BL. KF. 146. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. LM. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. AS. bequest note (OS. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. II. PDZT I 1. 38) 2. waqfiyah. .g. 100. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. LM. III.in Turkey). 69). LM. 43-46. 1125. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. (AS. 61. KH.in Persia. II. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e.

28). AA. 95.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. 122). AA. overlining (TP. sifr 13. IV. comp. . 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). K P – omission (IK. taÐammul 2. error (IK. wahm – mistake. 95. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. 123). 55).) (LC. logograph. wakt – letter pointing (KM.

96). al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. 95-96. III. SA. III. III.154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146).

ray¨ Q QDVNK. maÁ ¨if. DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq.

144). al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 6$ III. of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. \ ELV – rectilinear. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). ant. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah.

6$ ..  8'  $6  /0 ..

yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ. FRPSPDEV Ã.

in the hand of) (OT. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. UA. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. – hand. 86. DM. \DU ¶(ah) – reed. I \DG. . reed pen (IK. KD. 393. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. 42). 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). II.

39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. no.g. CM.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

 . RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &..  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK.

 .

ed. A. Vol. ±aydar Ghaybah. 2 (1989): 37-53. Beirut. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. 1967. Paris/ London. Akimushkin and Anatol. Wien.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. Riyad. Damascus. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. B. 1981. AE = Adolf Grohmann. AF = Oleg F. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . 1989. ed. Algiers. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. 1414/1994. AG = Adam Gacek. 1923. Ivanov. Arabische Paläographie. Al-.VKE O LQ KLV µ. von Karabacek. AD = E. transl. “The art of illumination”. Max Weisweiler. “Das arabische Papier”. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. 1979: 35-57. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-.1.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. AC = Adam Gacek. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. ed. Fagnan. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. Gray. AJ = J.ABBREVIATIONS 1. AI = ÑAbd al-. The arts of the book in Central Asia. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer.

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Montreal. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Arberry. 1958. CL = Jan Just Witkam. 4 (1991): 35-53. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . 1984-85. Dublin. CD = Arthur J. Leiden. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal..158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. CM = Adam Gacek. Oriens. CI = Adam Gacek. 1982 . MacKay. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. 1991. London.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. CT = Pierre A. The Chester Beatty Library. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. -CCA = Adam Gacek.

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Leiden. 1995: 93-101. -EEA = J. Al-)XQ Q DO-.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. 1998. Part 1. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature.). London (later Costa Mesa. 1979. Cairo. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library.S. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá.. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. à W´ Al-Mawrid.d. 1982 . New ed. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.S. -FFD .VO P \DK. Yarshater. Istanbul. London/ Oxford. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. 1993. n. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. London. eds. 1997.. E. New York. Dimand. 1999. 5 . EP = François Déroche. 1986. ed. 1995: 17-57.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. London.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. Calif. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. Baghdad. 1960 . Meisami and P. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Starkey. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley.EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168.EU K P . FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. transl. FM .

Cambridge. Kaziev (Gaziev).VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . Cairo. HN = Ñ \LGDK . HD = A. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. ed. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. HT = Adam Gacek.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. . 50-99.U. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. Manuscripts of the Middle East. ³. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. Istanbul. 1987. A Grammar of the Arabic language. Fischer.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. 1982. 1992.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. 1987. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. 6 (1991): 41-58. 1967. Cairo. Wright. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). 1994. 1966. herausgegeben von W. transl. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. Rabat. 3rd ed. Wiesbaden. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. GL = W. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. Baku.

IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. Cairo. Bosch.1987? . ed. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. Damascus. Petherbridge. Richard. Paris.H.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. 1983. 1973. ed. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. The Oriental Institute.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. Carswell and G. . 1981. Chicago. )DKP 6DÑd.. IB = G. à W´ Al-Mawrid.August 18. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. Cairo/ Tunis. F.2 (1979): 221-284.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q . 1995: 123-136. 1319 A. London. 8.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. A¨mad ‚aqr. May 18 . IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  .1981. no. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Beirut. of Chicago. Beirut. IM = Ñ. Déroche and F. ed. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. Qum. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. 1389/1970. 1997: 57-63. Univ. J.

LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie).D. 38 (1989): 7-103. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK.. 1983. 6 pl. Qum.1961.G E (Cairo). Damascus. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. 1962. 1363 [1984].KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. Riyad. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I .l. no. . 1982. 20. Cairo. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  ..ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. [Tehran?]. s. ed.G E DOV PLÑ. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. 0DMDOODW .XOO \DW DO. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E.n. Ph. University of Michigan.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. 1962.. S. 1985. Baghdad. Beirut. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E.1 (1958): 81-106. 1969. Al-0DQ KLO.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. ed. 1997. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-. Algiers. ÑIzzat ±asan.

KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. Fehervari and Y. London. Leiden. KM = Ñ$O LEQ .LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo).3 (1964): 1933.240 (1984): 61-68. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³. Á KL = G. Cairo. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. 2 (1946): 9-18. 1316-21 A. 1 (1963): 26-48. no.H. by Arthur Jeffery. Al. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. no. 1981.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. 2. no.VO P .164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. Safadi.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK .2 (1973): 43-78. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. 1.H.DWW Q  ³. 1978.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. “Al-. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue. 1. 1937: 125-161. KS < VXI DO-. RDVK G DOÑ.LW E. no. ed. ed.

EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . ed. 1976. . Raif Georges Khoury.LW E DO-zuhd. . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá. . Wiesbaden.LW E DONXWW E. .XZDLW 1977. ed.

LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. 2 (1987): 68-87. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. Leiden. ed. 1790-1930. Manuscripts of the Middle East.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. Cairo. van Koningsveld and Q. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. 1984. 1978 (catalogue no. LD = P. Rev. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. LB = Jan Just Witkam. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. Ben Cheneb. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”.J.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. Arabic-English lexicon. Samarrai. 1911-1931. Baghdad. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah.500). -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. 1992. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. LC = Adam Gacek. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. LL = Edward William Lane. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. MELA Notes.S. ed. 1929. LE = M. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. Brill. 48 (1989): 21-29. Cambridge. Revue africaine.

1980. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. Journal asiatique. no. ed. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . ME = A. Damascus.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. MC OL¨ \DK . 1992. Cairo. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. 1992.OP DO-Ñ. 1995. Beirut. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. 1349 [1930]. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . ed.G DO-Mawlá. Damascus. Beirut. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. 1913.U T .d. Beirut. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ.4 (1986): 185-248. 1972. 15. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. 20 (1970): 88-137. n. Lamare. 230 (1938): 551-575.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. . MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . 1391/1971.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Beirut. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. ed. Leiden. MK = Etan Kohlberg.

MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. ed. no.2 (1989): 201-203. 32 (1987): 105-114. MW . Revue des études islamiques.1 (1969): 3-47. MV = François Déroche. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. London/Oxford. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. no. Cairo. 14.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ .S. MT = Adam Gacek.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379. MP = Martin Levey. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. 1992.4 (1962).6 (1993): 641649. pt. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. 18. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. MY = François Déroche. . 1976-87. Al-Mawrid. 15. 1936-38. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. N. no.. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. 52. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.

1418/1998: 341-393.2 (1992): 679-683. Sadan. 1367/1949. NH .EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ. Cairo. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. Bonebakker. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. NO = Dimitri Gutas. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid.A. 1. NS = S. no.. 2 (1987): 8-17. 45 (1977): 1-87. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . 2 (1987): 126-130. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. 1 ILPELU  HG . Damascus. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. 1342/1923 .3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. 1928.VO P  . “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . Revue des études islamiques. 13. Manuscripts of the Middle East. London. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. ND = J. NC = Adam Gacek. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). Cairo.EU K P 6KDEE ¨.

Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. 1994 : 75-81. -PPA = Yves Porter. 1992. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. “O. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. M.W. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. . OM = Adam Gacek. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. Derek Latham. Paris/Teheran. OH = J. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). 2 (1987): 88-95. 1985: 29-48. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). Manuscripts of the Middle East. PT = Terence Walz. ed. New York. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. OS = Adam Gacek. Daly. Rabat. PK = S.H. 26 (1976): 199-212. 5 (1960): 124-143. 10 (1998): 41-63. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche.

-RRA = William L. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. SL = Nabia Abbott. Dozy. Costa Mesa. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. ed. RN = Nabia Abbott. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. Paris. . Chicago.4 (1986): 259-270. Bookbinder. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. Cairo.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. a new direction”. Bull.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . 3rd ed. Beirut.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). SD = R. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. SJ . RI = W. Beirut. 1938. Chicago. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. 15. 1410/1990. 2 (1956): 339-372. 1960. Paris. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. 1973. 195772. 1967. 1995.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. 1 (1987): 21-38. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. no.

Q Q  London. Paris.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG .H.1 (1997): 55-90. no. MS (Paris.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Rabat.H. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. Paris/Istanbul. TE = Adam Gacek.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-.DWW Q  . 1303 A. . “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. 1925. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. ed. Ricard. 1994: 11-32. 41. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. Rabat. 1997: 135-150. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. 1989: 49-50. Beirut. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. Damascus. 1965. 1346-49 A. MELA notes. arabe 6844). 1995. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. François Déroche. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. ed. Bibliothèque nationale. P. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK.VO P . ed. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Damascus. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab.

Déroche.VKE O  ³. 1353/1934. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. ed. TP = Adam Gacek. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. ±amd al-. Hyderabad. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. pl. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. Rabat. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. . Damascus. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK .VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. F. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. Ñ$EG $OO K .EU K P DO-. xx-xxxii. 1949. n. TS %DNU LEQ . Paris/Istanbul. 1991.d. 1989: 51-60. 1982. Kuwait.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. ed. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. Jedda.

2 (1977): 45-56. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt.10 (1975): 80-92. 18. Graz. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. Beirut. 1992. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. no. . Beirut. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. 16. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. no. DaÑwat al-|aqq. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1983. Hildesheim/New York. 23. 1981-83. 1 (1986): 49-53. Dublin. Manuscripts of the Middle East. no. DaÑwat al-|aqq. Chester Beatty Library. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. 17 (1971): 43-172.4 (1982): 10-24. 1980.

17. 6 pl.NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O.G E (Cairo). Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW . 2.Oá / -XP Gá al.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá.XOO \DW DO. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).1 (1955): 43-48. no. Tehran.

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar).

numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P. ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah).

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

Á ¨ib. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. Áa¨ ¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX.

‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ra L\D $OO K .

 abbah (ta E E.ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).

ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. Ñ UL a. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. rajÑ. = Ãurrah.

/ = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu). fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V.

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. tamma. Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . malzamah. NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). aÁl.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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Bischoff. 1976-1980. 1983. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. Jerusalem. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. London/New York. Beit-Arié. Munafò. Gumbert. Paris. It does not. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. Carla. 1979). Bozzolo. 1988. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. 1997. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Paris. Leonard. ed. Alphonse.P. Bernhard. 2 vols. Paris.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Les manuscrits. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage.1. 1984. Indeed. Cockerell. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. . Transl. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. Vatican City. Dain. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Sydney M. A. Boyle. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. Malachi. 5 vols. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. 1993. Leiden. 1976. Bookbinding. 1990. 5th ed. Toronto. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. Cambridge. 1993. Maniaci and P. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Gruys and J. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. however. Paris. ed. 1953 (repr. M. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology.

Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages.H. Gruijs. 2nd ed. Diringer. 1983. 2nd ed. 1985. & lettering. C. Proceedings of the British Academy. Paul O. 1986. . 1984. Maniaci. Jean. Italo. Gallo. 11-13 septembre 1972. Albert. The birth of the codex. 1974. L. enluminure. 1988. Denis. Le livre au Moyen Age. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. London/New York. Writing & illuminating.C. Bernard. Paris. codicologie et archéologie du livre. 1988.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex. Glaister. Paris. Kristeller. 1983. Muzerelle. Rome. ed. John E. London. T. Paris. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. Del. ed. Encyclopedia of the book. Jacques. 1998. François and Guineau. 1974 : 19-25. 40 (1954): 169-204. Geoffrey Ashall. New York. Turnhout. Reynolds. Johnston. Lemaire. Greek and Latin papyrology. M. Hoffmann. A. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. 1953.G. David. Delamare. peinture. études historiques et physico-chimiques. and Wilson. Paris. Paris. 1977. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. 1990. 1999. Blanchard. The hand-produced book. Edward. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. Paris. M. P.. C. New York. N. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. M. New Castle. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. Dukan. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. London. Paris. Paris. 1989. 1 (1976): 84-90. Glenisson. Codicologica. Paris. 1996. 1985. and Skeat. Louvain-la-Neuve. Oxford. Roberts.D. “The codex”. 1996. Les matériaux de la couleur. Murdoch. Introduction à la codicologie. H. Roberts. 1989. “Paléographie.

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2. 16 (1954): 258-270. ——— “La transmission de la mašya©a (Ansal al-PDT Áid wa-aÑdab alPDZ ULG. al-. Transmission of individual works Fück.DWW Q  < VXI ³. Rosemarie. Schacht. “Deux éditions inconnues du ‘MuwaÃÃaÐ’”. Vajda. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Johann. 477-492. ——— ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ LI 7LUP GK ’V µ. “Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bu© U ’s Traditionssammlung”. Joseph. 50 (1998): 191-222. University of London. 1995. ——— “La transmission de l’éloge de Zayn al-Ñ ELG Q´ Journal asiatique. 244 (1956): 433-437. 14 (1952): 579-588. Geneviève. Humbert. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.216 BIBLIOGRAPHY V. “La recension maghribine du ‚a¨ ¨ d’al-Bo© U ´ Journal asiaique.LW E GH 6 EDZD\K. 202 (1923): 209-233. 4 (1957): 304-307. 92 (1938): 60-87. Quiring-Zoche. Studi orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida. ³/D WUDQVPLVVLRQ GH OD µ. Bulletin d’études orientales. (1949): 46-60. Lévi-Provençal. 240 (1984): 61-68. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Rome.PLÑ’”. “How al-Bu© U ’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]’”. 5REVRQ - ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI $E ' Z G’s ‘Sunan’”.LI \D I PDÑrifat uÁ O Ñilm alULZ \DK¶ G¶DO-Haà E Dl-Ba G G ´ Arabica.KDWDP W ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. /HV YRLHV GH OD WUDQVPLVVLRQ GX . Georges. 1956: 2. Leiden. ——— “The transmission of Muslim’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’”. University of London. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. E.

A¨mad Rama  Q Al-. G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”.M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h. Rivista degli studi orientali.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad. ilá . 9  . 48 (1973-74): 55-74../10 m.

“An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. Taxation in Islam.Y. Le Muséon. Islamic quarterly. 4 (1981): 82-103.1-2 (1974): 3-7.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. Leiden. 1967. and Young.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE .J.L. 87 (1974): 445-465.] Ebied. A. [Vol. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”. M.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. 18. R. Ben Shemesh. nos.

Amsterdam. no. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ . Koningsveld. Studies on Islam.1 (1997): 55-90. 1998. “Al-. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. 35-36 (1414 A. 1974:92-110. -DOO E ±asan. . Les . 26 (1994): 75-96.S.): 270-372. 326 (1997): 97-102.H. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). van. Amsterdam. 18-19 October 1973.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.H. Iran. 32 (1994): 115-123.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. P.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. 41. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. ed. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. . Gérard. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-.] Lecomte.

21 (1968): 347-409. ——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K. Bulletin d’études orientales.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”.

1996 – . “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . Damas: Institut français. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566.”. 34 (1994): 57-75. Leder. Stefan. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Suppl. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas./12.1. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. Pierre A. Jhdt. 550-750/1155-1349. Oriens. MacKay.

´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. ——— “Al-. EI. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. no. no. 4 (1924): 345-355.. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.4 (1971.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Sayyid. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”..s. 1. ed. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”. Hespéris.1 (1408 A. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ.1 (1955): 232-251. 2.H): 107-114. no.H): 172-182. 61. al-Munajjid. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK.1 (1407 A. no. Hamdard Islamicus.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”. “Al-. new ed. 8.2 (1406 A.1 (1985): 7-20. 8: 1019-1020.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ .H): 115-117. no.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ . n. 1. 7 (1989): 238-252. “Al-. 3. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101. no. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad.

 5DPD  Q ³$KDPP \DW Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q DO-ÌDKU \DK.

VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.Q Q  London.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. . 1997: 179-196.

Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. 1981. The LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.10.Q Q  London. 8: 273-275. new ed. ——— “Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris”. ed. Berlin. VI. ——— “Un opuscule inédit d’as-6LODI ´ La transmission du savoir en Islam (VIIe-XVIIIe siècles). E. 1. London. vol. Wilhelm. ——— “Idj ]D´ EI. “The human element between text and reader.3 (1954): 337-342. 3: 1020-1021. Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. 1957. 1993.BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 SteZDUW 'HYLQ - ³(M ]D´ Encyclopaedia Iranica. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. ARABIC ALPHABET. Yarshater. Paris. Georges. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. Hildesheim/ New York.UDQ. 1899.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. ——— “Al-ÑUnÁ U DO-EDVKDU ED\QD DO-naÁÁ wa-al-T ULÐ: al-LM ]DK I DOmakhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. Arabica. Albums and exhibition catalogues Ahlwardt. London.. no. Zwölf arabische Schrifttaffeln.] $P Q  )DNKU DO-' Q 1DÁ U  *DQM QDK-Ði khuà Ã-i ÑXODP Ð-i aÑO P YD G QLVKPDQG Q-L NLU P YD VKXÑDU -yi ÑiÌ P YD NK VKQDY V Q-i FK UDKGDVW YD PXÑ ÁLU Q 7DMU VK . 1995: 123-136. Witkam. 1997: 163-177. 1. Jan Just. 1983: 85-92. SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY VI. Vajda. [Also in: idem.

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W. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. Steiner. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . English Summaries and Extensive Citations.). Arabic Literature of Africa. Manuel de recherche. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. S. B. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. Porten. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. 1994. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI.). Jagd. (eds. (eds. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. K. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. S. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. 1994. M. J. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. Nouns. Volume I. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ .T. Phonology. Judaism in Late Antiquity. I. A. H. A. S.1: Text. Marín. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M .L. V. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. und Sardshweladse. Band 22 . Ibrahim. (ed. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. J. References and Index of Texts Cited. 1980-1993. With Full DefiniKinberg. Y. 1994. V.). ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. 1996. R.Lagarde. 1994. Compiled by John O. 1994. O’Fahey. N. Compiled by R. Hamidu Bobboyi.C.). ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. O. und Herb. 1994.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. O. Hunwick. A. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. 1994. J. Abu Salim. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. and Peters. Roman Loimeier. L. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . E. (ed. Vikør. S. (ed. 1996. 1900. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. 2: Ab-bildungen. Spiel. and Jongeling. 1996. 1994. S. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. (éd. V. Bd. with the assistance of M.F. Radtke and K.). Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. 2 Parts. 1995. 1995. and Stolbova. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. K. Chief consultant to the editor. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. R. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. M. J.). Orthography. 1995. Numerals. M. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. Mosak Moshavi and B. Tanz und verwandten Themen. V. Hofheinz. Materials for a Reconstruction. Bd. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. 1995. and O’FAHEY.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . With appendices by R. M. 2nd ed.

ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. Vol. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. M. J. T. J. 2: 1988-1992. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. and Wyatt. J. 1: A. III. J. W. The Rise of the Fatimids. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. 1996. 1999. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. van. 1999. 2 Volumes. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. Mesopotamian Lexicography.F. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. 1. W. V. The Mishnah. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili.2. H. Index of Names. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. 1999.J. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. B. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. R.L. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. and Porten. and Sou‘ek. 1998. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. The Empire of the Mahdi. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. D.1: B. G.W. 1999. 2000.H. The Mishnah. Translated from the German by M. 1999. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. 1997. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. B. L. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. Vol. H.J. Vol. Bonner. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. A. 1998. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. 1999.1. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. 1999. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. H. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. 1999. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. Terms and Topics. and Neusner. R.E. A Bibliography. 1999. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. H. 1997. J. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. G. 1997. Judaism in Late Antiquity.Band 26 Halm. J. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). H. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. and Healey. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. 1997. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. J. and Pingree. Judaism in Late Antiquity. D. 1999. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic.G. III. 1997. F. Religious Perspectives 1999. Social Perspectives 1999. N. The Kingdom of Kush. M.

1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World.J. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. Comparing Judaisms. Culture. and Society in Eastern Arabia. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek.4. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. A. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar.. 2001. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. Band 56 Avery-Peck. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. B. Theory of Israel. Ch. (2 Volumes) 2000. 1 : Glossary 2001. R. and Chilton.J. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. A. 2001. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. The Arabic manuscript tradition. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. and Neusner. C. J.2. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. R. J. A. U.J. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. A. and Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. 2000.. World View. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. J. 2001. 2001. Neusner. Dialect.Band 50 Tal.E. B..3. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. 2001. A. A.. Neusner. and Chilton.. J. 2001. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong.J.1. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . de. 2000.

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