A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography



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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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..............................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ................................. XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ........................ XI Preface ......................................................................

.......... 181 Periodicals ....................................................................... 156 1.......................... 181 Bibliographies ........................................................................................... 182 General studies and surveys ................................... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK......................................................... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES .......... Sources/References .......... 177 I......... Technical terms in the glossary ...................................... 1 Abbreviations .................................. 182 Conference proceedings and composite works .......................... 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ......................................... 156 2................................................................... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................... ....................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.




a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221



b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

..... 3.................................................... VIII....................... 240 Papercuts .......... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues .............................. 242 c) Other studies................................. 242 a) Bibliography................ 255 IX........................... 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries .................... 241 Bookbinding ................................................................... 4........................... 251 Facsimile editions ................................. 232 Ornament and painted decoration ........................................................................................................... 226 Calligraphy ...................................................................................................... 8. 256 1................................................................................................. ............................. 259 ......................................................................... etc.......... 236 Painted illustration ..... 238 a) Drawing........... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ............................ 6............................................... Exhibition catalogues............................ 243 2.................... 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ...................................................................... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper.................................................................................... 5................................................... 256 Some specific cases ................................................ TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ............. 238 b) Other studies ............... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship ................. 238 c) Descriptions of individual works......... 2........... 247 1..... 247 Later QurÐans.............. 4................................................................... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) .............................................. 7........ 2................................................) .................................................. 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ......... 3....... 239 Lacquer .......................... General studies ............. 247 Early QurÐans and fragments........................................

................................. 266 266 267 267 268 ........................................... 266 1. Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts ... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ......... . 263 XII............................ PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ............................. CATALOGUING........ 5..............X CONTENTS PREFACE X... 3............. Catalogues of catalogues ........ CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS............................................ ETC..... 4............ COLLECTIONS........................ 2.......................................................... Descriptions of collections and catalogues . 261 XI.......

PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. Last but not least. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. . David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave.

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and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. the preparation of inks. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. both religious and scientific in nature. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. papermaking and bookbinding. scholars. Along with this manuscript output. 2). calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. VII.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. Arab authors. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

VKE O G 1231).). the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7. DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.10/16th cent.

RI .EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO.

the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. Furthermore.

mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. lineation). as well as on the collation and correction of books. which deals with the preparation of inks.984/1577). Finally. who in his work on education. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307).

To translate. Some terms. e. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. writing surfaces and implements used. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. respectively. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. this chapter has been omitted. The glossary is a by-product. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). some of the most important research in this field published to date. which spans almost 14 centuries. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. medieval and postmedieval texts. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. contemporary studies and catalogues. It brings together. as it were. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. especially those relating to book formats. could be very misleading. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. Nevertheless.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. bound and decorated. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). even in its present form. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). . nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. for the first time. corrected. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. book lovers and cataloguers. as well as extant specimens.g. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English.

serif. incipit. Here we find. recto. as yet. raddah (Levant). recto. wajh (‘face’. great caution is in order. Iraq). for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. case (box). catchword). We do not. Here. upper margin. inkwell and the like. Thus. marjiÑ (Morocco). miqlab (Levant. book cover). This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. khadd (‘cheek’. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. Áadr (‘chest’. OLV Q (‘tongue’. may have been used exclusively in those circles. Some. and V TLÃah (Yemen). been largely omitted here. raÐs (‘head’. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. flap). fore-edge. however. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. Thus. on the other hand. lower margin. Ñaqb. for example. outer or inner margin). In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. envelope flap). It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. for example. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). medallion. upper cover). however. catch- . catchword. udhn (‘ear’. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. Therefore. OLV Q (central Arab lands). for example. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. fore-edge). period and/or region in which they were employed. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). Ñaqib (‘heel’. flap). North Africa). the list contains a considerable number of synonyms.

Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. As far as transliteration is concerned. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Most words are traced to a source.XVI PREFACE word). Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. On the whole. either contemporary or earlier. . The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script.


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8). 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). from Pers.EU . I. 176-178) 2. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. 107. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. 103. AG.). 392). DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. TS. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. 59. 97.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. 12. ibar) – needle (UK. IA. 107. AG. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. 13. GA. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. muµabbar – sewn (KC. I. II.) (DD. 182). RN. 154.v.  EU  ZDUDT DO. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. 9. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. III. GA. 104. miµbar 1.v. MB. 97-98. SD. 2: ibrishmah). DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. 8). needle case (DM) 2. 60. I. of minfadh (q. among other things. 215. ibrah (pl. 18-19. I. DB. index. ST. ebrû. I. SA. syn.



abbrev. I. – closing matter of the text (composition). DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). (DB. 53). ilá NKLULK – et cetera.14). 62. taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. explicit (TP. n.

scribal etiquette 2. 52). adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. MF. 106-108) 2. – etiquette (EI. udum) 1. IW. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. 63. leather (UK. adam(ah). I. AE. 71-72. 175-176). I. passim. DG P (pl. tanned red leather (DB.

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. MU. XIV. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah.

. DGG P – tanner (DM). comp. DG K SO DGDZ W. jild.

– V\Q ODK (EI. e. implement. instrument.g. 345). I. DGDZ W O W. tool.

153-156. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W. writing MB.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).



urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. JKXU E – the last hour of day. VI. 250).6 GLOSSARY hour of night. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV.

Oá (al-uwal) (1-10).NKLUDK DO-ukhar. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al. al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20). alDZ NKLU .

VI. li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. e. -30) (SA.g. 248-249). al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month.

235). 178).DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . 244-248). e.EQ . VI. al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. nos.g. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK .DP O 3 VK 73  CI. II.EQ . EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. 244-249). 106. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM.VI.

al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. -248). PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9.

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. JL. (EI.D. 6$ 9. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 262.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 218: ar  \DW DO-matn. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . ER. taµU NK-L PDODN . ar„ \DK – background (LC. IV. 22.1st 5509 B. FZ. X.C. 670). taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A.


II.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ. XVK UDK. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah).

IA. 59. 90. I. 15. – awl. sifr 4. KM. 43: VKDI . 10: ishfah. 11. IB. 103. 107. IK. punch (TS. 115). ST. a¦l (pl. uÁ O. MB. AG.


as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). SD. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. exemplar. 26. original (main) text. VIII. MH. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. 27) 3. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. MU. II.

136). but also 0= . XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. 2024.. . MI.

al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. major work (TM. 23) 4. 126. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. SM.


67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

24). rule-border. rectangular panel (LC. 25. i. ià U W XÃur) 1. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. 402) 2. 27) 6. border (of a book cover) (LC. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. 145). . FT. textual surround (LC. 928). 24. 24.e. i¨ U (pl.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. 24. KR. DB. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. . 29) 5. frame (within a border) (TF. rules. headpiece (LC. tabula ansata (UI. UI. 80) 3. I.

DIVK Q (Pers. writing circa 1375’ (DW.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. ER. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. I.8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages. 581-582). 32). taµO I DK. 6. 46). according to other sources al.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO.

(pl. taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W.

muÐDOODI W. muµallaf (pl.

1 . ummah . taÁQ I muµallif – author. comp. X. muÁannif. umm. comp. writer. 33. – composition. I. EI. . 360). work (of prose or poetry) (SD. compilation.


original (main) text. 26). 35. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. exemplar. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. umm al-NLW E 1. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. used in mosques (KN. . 130) 4. 29). I.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. archetype (LC. TM. as opposed to a commentary. 246) 3. . SD. copy. shar¨ (IN. transcript (from which another copy is made). 26. I. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2.


137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). II. Umm al-qurá. archetype. II. Umm al-EXOG Q. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. 39). 99. . al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. 294). 37. II. LP P – exemplar. textus receptus (NT. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. KF.

abbrev. I. tadabbur. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. xiv.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. LL. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. II. II. (CI. 99). comp. taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. 2812). usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P.

 . or /'    $'  (. .



KU. – unpared. II. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). unnibbed reed (FN. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. LQV see sinn. 370). 370. 31. 31). BA. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. III. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. III. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. LM. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY.

264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. JA. n. incipit.14. AA. I. 52. initia. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). (TP.


taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taµZ O (pl.

g. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q. – interpretation. explanation (e.

 **** PDEW U 1. acephalous. 34). truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. baŒr (pl. bu¨ U. incomplete (of text) (KC. imperfect. passim) 2.

 . AG. cartouche (TS. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . – panel on a book cover. 33. JL. 110.

WDENK U – fumigation (TS. bidl '% . badal. . 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. 355).



 . [LLL. RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &..

MZ.3-4. alteration (CL. also WDEG O – subal-matn. RU badal respectively (KG.3. suppl. fasc. comp. . 100-103). SD. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. wifq (US. stitution. fasc. 412) 2.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. DT. 153-154. 296). 59-60. EI. conjecture. II. I. conjectural substitution. 49.

papyrus sheet or roll (DB. WS. publishing (KM. 407. 60. 390: for trimming). 521-522. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). qirà V mibrad – file. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). lin. comp. QS.84. rasp (HT. EI. 417.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . DD. I. IV. sifr 13. VIII. I. IA. II. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. EDUG \DK – papyrus. 64-66).

EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . 545). barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. I. .

ST. 81. 8. – endband (headband) (ST. index. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK .148). IB. EDUVK P. n. 17-18.


– epithet of the months of ‚afar. ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY.


  '0. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 . III.9. (pair of) dividers (SA. – compass.


. Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS. 18). 12.



ELU \DK – paring.). 232.v. SA. PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. EDUU \DK. trimming (of a reed ) (IR. bary. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. III. 85.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ).  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. 49). KK. 455 6. 154: IK.

8. MP. flattening (of a letter). bas¨ – spreading out.. 64. DB. I. SD. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . 88. index. DA: mibzagh.   $6 . 81). mibzaq – lancet-like knife. – pen knife (AA.. IK. 90. 591). I. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST.

unabridged work. line (KU. AS. PDEV ¨ 1. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). 144) 4. 120) 2. jazm (IK. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. comp. horizontal stroke. mukhtaÁar. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. KH. 34. rectilinear (of a script. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. III. original (comprehensive). syn. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. 87) 3.

TW. 144). 47. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. 13. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. 365. maÁ ¨if. basmalah SO EDV PLO. 322). (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS.



HT. 12). MP.111) 2. IA. silk endband (headband) (HT. bashra¨ 1. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. I. baà Ðiq) 1. register (AD.) (AS. slip (of paper) 2. 58. 58.97. 52. AG. buà Q. PDEVK U – pared. piece. 78: ‘racler. bi¨ TDK (pl. 145).v. 23-24. TS. bashr 1. 9. index. lin. erased. dressing (of leather) (UK. 1084-1085). 161. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. ratisser des peaux’. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. paring. 155). LF. lin. 63. also known as al-JKXE U (q. and opening a composition (TP. catalogue. ba¨n (pl. 78. 109. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. EI.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). ST. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. LF.

 E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. inner cover. flesh side (of parchment). al-NLW E.

doublure (TS. UK. endleaf (ST. bi¨ QDK (pl. 102. AG. doublure (LC. IB. 49. passim. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. MA. 47. IA. IV. baà Ðin) 1. 159. 408) 2. 22-23. HT. 89. endpaper. 23.73-79) 3. 112). paste-down endpaper. 60. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. lining (FT. 117. – inner cover. MB. lin. pasteboard (UK. HD.

 92).  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . .

XIV.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. leather or silk (ST. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. 9. MU. index. lining of the insides of book covers with paper.

removal of sha¨mah (q. 87). MB. abbrev. 370). BA. II. comp. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. ba¶du – after. 61.) from the reed (IK. /( . bary. III.v. used for a transposed word. paring (of the calamus) (KD. 2.

n. also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E.20). E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. separation (MM. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. tab¶ „ – word division. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). 53. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP.

TU. (MB. 58. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. comp. 156. 103. measuring distances. – compass. 101. IA. 104. MB. etc. 60. 105). 59. 103. IB. MP. 153. biUN U WDEN U. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. 44. (pair of) dividers (UK.

 JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. 391). MB. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. DD. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. 153. 103. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. IA. I. 380. 59). IB. comp. 42.


 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . JA. CT. comp.  EDO . I.9 SO. 268. 56. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . damaged (TS. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin. E OLQ – worn. 45: EXO JK). TP.119.


 FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. IV. kha¨¨L E KDU. 36). E E SO DEZ E. EI.

0. abbrev. . – chapter.

20). n. mubawwib – compiler (DF. TP. 376). IV. 53. 609. comp. murattib. bayt SO EX\ W. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

Bayt al-Maqdis. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. AG. 110). 97. 31. KR. 33). bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. AG. Ãurrah) (TS. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 110) 4. 82). 95. 31-33. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. . 32. compartment (in such a box) 3. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. frame (as part of the border.


 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.


– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).




6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 82). tibr – gold. 95. 30-31. W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. also TS. gold dust (AQ. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 97. . KR. AG. 110).

 takht SO WXNK W.

7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. sand. 120). KU. IV. earth. index. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. wooden pressing board (TS.  .  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. AG. 82. 127-. IB. 9). 9. index. I. 42. HT. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. 24. sifr 13. TD. KM. WXU E – dust. lin. 6. 22. 94. 156. 107) 3.

 FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox. compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY.

tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 478-480). 6$ II.

28. AH. II.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . 122) 3. detailed title of a book. title (of a book) (LC. indicating its contents (DB. 28) 4. chapter heading (IN. 165). key word (LC.

headpiece or tailpiece (LC.g. medallion) . decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. 27) 6.g. paragraph (LC.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. 27) 8. disc) or margins (e. 27) 7.

186. 260. translation (EI. biography (EI. ‘QaÁ GDW . 1021) 13. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. 29-31. illuminator (TW. translator. exegesis (DB. biographical note. 224) 10. mutarjim 1. IT. 30) 9. X.g. X. biographer 2. DB. tirs. explanation. turs SO WXU V. 224) 12.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. cryptography (AA.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. also mutarjam (e. 270). 1021). interpretation. II. 29. II. 28.

97. IP. corner-piece (ST. 145. 103. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. KR. illuminated oval medallion. LC. execution. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. 9. 15). PA. comp. 69. shamsah. IB. rosette (HD. taftar see daftar. 82). 44) 3. WDWP P – completion. oval. 116). index. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. 28) 2. writing tamma (lit. turunj(ah) 1. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 95.

continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). comp. WDP P – end. [LLL at the end of the colophon. comp. . talisman (EI. finish. WDP PDK (pl. xiii). used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). supplement . II. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. WDP Ðim) – amulet. tatimmah – supplementation. ¨add. abbrev. RU CM. X. 46). &. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. 177-178). .

copying (MH. FK. no. 100. II.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. 101.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E.

atKE W. thabat (pl. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’.

muÑjam. 234. GA. record of attested study (HB. I. 157) 2. document. written testimony (SD. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. 288: syn.

WKDE W – signature (SD. usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. authentication (formula). 157). vocalization (AD. also WDWKE W – attestation.  WDEOH RI contents. 18) 2. LWKE W 1. I.



muthabbit. 53.25. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. CT. 289). RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. GA. n. 45.

thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. writer of the audition note (MH. 330). SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. 101. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. 45). I. CT.

107). III. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. 147). WKDT O (lit. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. . AG. AS. 11. ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA.

1125in Turkey).20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. I. . 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. TU. 349). WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. JM. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. ( Persia. abbrev. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. T OLE. III.9 . 51).

al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. octagon (EI. 795-. DO-thumn.VII.

VI. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 232-234) .13. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. I. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points). . see also mashÐalah. 232-234. [LY )0 167. abbrev. MI. 102).  RU &. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below.. 361). 361). PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. no. . Taf. SA. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. 12.VI. I. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). MZ.

either illuminated or stamped (KI. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& . decorative medallion or panel.GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1.

JL. 87.  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK . 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . 88.


99. jabr – repairing. corner-piece (JL. repair (SJ. 100).41. WDMG G – repair. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. nos. 43). braid. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. mending. PDMG O SO PDM G O. 99). 141). restoration (KR. restoring manuscripts. 87). interlace (TF. 83.

mujadwal – ruled (LC. column (of text) (SD. 42). 24) 4. table (LC. 175) 5. table of contents (CM. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. talismanic seal (EI. 26). 33. 63) 3. creating rule-borders (WB. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. TW. – leather strap. KC. DT. thong (KC. diagram.6/2) 6. 32). 160) 2. no. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. 50. magic square. 108). also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). 148. II. . I. rules. 370. 56. chart.


 LQVHW '0.

   . jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ .. FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah..

I. jard al-matn see matn. scraper (MB. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . abridgement (SD. II. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. KF. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. 183). 27). 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. inventory (SD. mijrad(ah) – file. I. 184. WDMU G 1. I. 112. extract.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). register. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . DG. 107. DD. MDU GDK – list.

 jirm SO DMU P.


majran SO PDM ULQ. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. jirm wasaÃ. passim). HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm.

– FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . IA. passim: Œazz.8 154). 62). shaving (MB. jazz – trimming. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W.

rough copies 2.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. KF. .2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. VII. 132. I. n. 19. inset (UI. MU. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. 103).

117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). booklet. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. 79. single-quire codex. AI.

tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. xii) 4. 711). 128) 6. II. DEEUHY RU (CI. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. 90). small piece of writing. 128). tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. I. 705). usually not more than a quire (IJ. tomaison) (SJ. VII. independent. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD.

38). 87: qalam jazm. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 143. 99. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. 7-9. LL. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. 421). IK. I. 90). 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. 89. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. MP. jazm – reed pen. MB.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS. . 13). for other signs representing jazmah see GL.


149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). – background (UK. WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. 23). Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG.


 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

 . )1   .  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ ....

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.


WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. . III. IV. 1123). G Z Q MDO (SA. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI.




 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

majlis SO PDM OLV. 47. LC. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. 416-417). 123 and IX. VIII.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. 26). II.

majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. . VIII. 1020). – session. majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. sitting.  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV..

 MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. II. jalam SO DMO P. julfah – nib (of the calamus. the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. KU. 459-460. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary).

89.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). IR. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. 91-92. II.NKLU. CM. -XP Gá al. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. – (pair of) scissors (DS. -XP Gá al. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar.NKLUDK DO. / / (OS.Oá. no. IK. 230). CI. abbrev.

composition. rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. SA. 126. contraction (of letters) (KU. abbrev. compilation. 89). 34) 3. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1.9 . / (OS. III.

g. the QurÐ Q 8. . FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . e.  FN. major original compilation.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. 352).


III. 359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. II. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ).

217. case with compartments (TS. 683) 4. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. case. AG. 233. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. TM. codex compositus (LC. 32) 2. 37. 52. inkwell 6' .  '' . I. 393) 1. DG. 12. escritoire (TW. 380). 25).  composite volume. tool box. mujamma¶ (UA. writing case. 106. SD. NH. 52.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). 13) 3. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). jumal. box (NM.

110. (CI. abbrev. 61. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. 10). II. 145). 11. 107: for cutting gold leaf . – book cover (ST. index. ajwibah) – responsum. MDQ Œ (pl. MI. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. IA. IA. knife (TS. 10). AG. ST.111). 109. MDZ E (pl.) (AS. better known as al-JKXE U (q. index. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. xiv. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter.v.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

licence. certificate of transmission. 273-275. IJ). LB. 1020-1021. ER. VIII. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. EI. 24. III. 27. 126-130. – authorization.

 . LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (.9 . LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI.GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. 181).





468. KU. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. II. DS. 381: jawn. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. NH. SA. 154: wa-al-M EDK . AT. 179. 133. LQNZHOO (HI.

also known as waqabah. see also the quotation under miqlamah). (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq.

a¨E U. **** Œibr (pl.


13. 101-110 and MB. MP. -100 and MB. UK. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. IR. Œibr al-raqq. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. 18-21. MJ. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. sifr 13. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. IV.53. n. 8. KM. 6: wa-al- . MP.

MR. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . SA. MA. IK. IV. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. I. 134-135. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . 349. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. AE. II. see LL. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. IK. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. 127-131. LM. AT.

III. ma¨ ELU. embellishment (DB. miŒbarah (pl. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. 354). 2016). FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish.

443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ . 372.  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA.. III.  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . II. SA.

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. II. 443. SA. 468-.

15. I. transcription (TE. 89). inking. a¨E V. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. SK. taŒE U 1. embellished writing (composition) or copying. 119). 87. compiler (SS. WR. inscribing in ink (SM. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). elegant. Œubs (pl. muŒabbir – author. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. II. SA.

ta¨E V W. taŒE V (pl.

28). 157. 154. 104 ff. IA. comp. waqf. . TS. MM. sewing.. 109.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK.. 18-20. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . AG. decorative endband (UK. 132) 3.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. n. 62. bequest note (LC. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding).. stitching (of a book) (TM. endbanding with silk 2. Œabk 1. also Œabkah – endband (headband). MB.

 VSLQH 74 .

109. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. 19. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 19. 109). al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. AG. AG.


GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 109). 28). 19. ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. AG. 19. 109). 19. 11. AG. I. n. AD. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. 246). bookbinder (IB. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. 478).

(OS. 60). ajar al-¨XP ¨im). 10). abbrev. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. ma¨ MLU. hone (TS. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). ¨ujub) – talisman. maŒjar (pl. ŒLM E (pl. 89). Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). amulet (DT. Œajar al-misann – whetstone. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. miŒjar. 69).

MB. ST. 107. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. MP.10. AG. 36). UK. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . 38. 36) 2. index. 142: 12. 99.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB.

$ . .

H. 2733. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. FN. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U.

 FRPS . I .

honing (of a knife) (KD. Œadd (pl. 711). taŒG G – whetting.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. II. ¨XG G.

used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. – limit. end. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). ŒDG G DK.

MJ. 188). 31. IA. 59). MP. ¨XG U. (pl. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. TS. 59. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. 138). Œadr (pl. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. 29. 10. 105. 109. 393. AG. MB.

TE. author. copying. 73) 2. XVII.g. frame.. SK. 109. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. comp. 16. 48. ER. ÁaÑd. e. AG. editor. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. 50. elegant writing. mu¨DUUDU W. 1124. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. secretarial style of shikastah script. muŒarrar (pl. with black ink (TE. IV. muŒarrir – 1. AF. compiler (SS. IP. composition (GA. PA. IV. redaction (CM. 15) 3. ŒDU U – silk (ST. 16) 5. EI. 52. 701. 145. 50). terminal of a letter) (AA.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. AQ. DB. index. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . MU. 286). outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. ornamental surround. 58. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. 2408. 15) 4. transcription (TE. 38. 16) 6. IV. 214) 8. 246) 7. III. TE. 15. 13. outline. 119) 2. penman. 215-227). 10. revised version (edition). 64. editing (of a manuscript text). calligrapher. taŒU U 1. – descender (down-stroke. fair copying (TE.

calligraph (DP. – piece of calligraphy. Œard al-matn see matn. . 53).

GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl. a¨U ] ¨XU ].

maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. – talisman. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. 69).g. amulet (DT. IV. e.

  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. Œarf (pl. III. 230.g. word 2. LM. 549).. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah).9 . DS. distortion. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. 463. e. 596-560). oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. ¨iraf) – edge. cutter). KK. LL. I. error. Œarf (pl. taŒU I 1. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. lin. 39-42) 2. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. letter.' . ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1.  . II. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. II. miŒra„ah. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI.80-86). trimming (HT. sharp edge (of a knife. border.

 FRPS TLU Ðah. .

Œarakah (pl. 224). 59. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. III. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. MJ.32 GLOSSARY  08 . 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). MQ. 57. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. ¨DUDN W. comp. falsification (of a text).

65. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. miŒU N – spatula. MB. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. taŒU N – vocalization. – vowel (GL. KD. vowelization (DM). Mecca and Medina. comp. shakl. 112-113. II. UA. 8). MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. 704. 393).

v. 89). Œizb (pl.). al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. abbrev. (OS. a¨] E.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

11). ST. Œazm . 11. index. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. ST. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 28.. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB.

III. computation. 54: EI. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. ŒLV E – calculation. 468). . chronosticon (TP.

abbrev. EI. ¨DZ VKLQ.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. 269-270. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . see SA. VI. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. II. 302).

supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. 109) 3. IA. 119.112. 118. MD. MB.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. apostil. marginalia. 63. border (on a book cover) (MB. collection of glosses. 63) 2. often abbreviated as or . margin (of a page) 4. 217-219. scholium. FZ. lin. IA.

30. gutter. JM. EI. 71) 2. 65. DB. 145. 110. III. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 268-269. Œashw(ah) 1. ¨DZ VKLQ. FT. 73  00 139. 63. IV. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. FI. 977). 1820). 60. 412. Œ VKLQ (pl.54. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. AG. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. 89-90). AS. interpolation. parenthesis. IX. 222. pl.

gloss (AM. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. muŒashshin – glossator.74. 332). 34). 296. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . CI. III. taŒshiyah – glossing. xi. II. abbrev. Œa¦ramah – paring. 26. glossed. 322. trimming (of a reed) (BA. (MI. . nos. AD.

. I. no. 546). taŒ¦ O – copying.89. transcription (FK.

inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. 60. IA. I.). burnisher.31). 29. ÑDU T W. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. MB. 5. smoothing leather (ST.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. 34). sifr 4. 107. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. AG. 6. IB. n. polisher (KM. 118: mikhaÃà (!). comp.v. TS.

34. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . surround. 24). headpiece (LC. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. Œa„ UDK (pl. RN. frame (SD. KH. 35. I. 302) 2.

ŒLI „ (pl. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . 55. box (KC. Œif„ – learning by heart. a¨fiÌah). 44) 2. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. 51). small box (DG.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. memorization (TP. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. miŒfa„ah – case. preservation. II. NT.

critical edition (of a text) (MH. text editing. FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . MR. 89.

editor. muŒaqqiq – corrector. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1.

12. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA.U T and alZDUU T (FN. III. 13) 2.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.


50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. comp. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑ Turkey). 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. 1123. TU. EI. LM. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. 78. IV. IR. 1125.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. Persia.

v. syn. miŒakk(ah). Œakk – rubbing out. syn. 137). IA.) (UK. 59) 3. miŒakk al-rijl 1. Œalqah (pl. 31). 62) 2. 58. pumice (MB. MM. ¨alaq. 392. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. 104.v. ¨DODT W. mibrad (q. 112. 141) 2. erasure.) (DD. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. effacement (TP. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. scroll (in design) (UI. NH. I. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). IA.

AI. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. study circle. 372) 2.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. 27). II. III. 48. ma¨ O T. scholar’s circle (SL. part of a clasp) (BA.

136. 139). 422. – tendril (FT. AB. .

embellishment (KT. Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. 150-151).  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. taŒliyah – decoration. al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. 416). 204-209). Œilyah. taŒP G DK.

rubrics (CM.20. 122-123). n. 53. rubrication. 38. Œumrah 1. TP. red ink (LC. III. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. EI. 24) 2. TB. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. red colour. 95). – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD.

15. sifr 13. TW. ŒDP ODK (pl. book cradle (TC. ta¨ Q VK. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 566. WA. exemplar. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . TP. 55). maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. 169. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. 24). EL-al-Œumrah (LC. 24. 51). TP. ME. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. amulet (DT. archetype (KM. 56-57. maŒmil 1.  ‘pupitre’). LC. 286. IV. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. 69). taŒP U – rubrication (TE. IV. also miŒmal. ÑUthmanic canon. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. taŒQ VK (pl. 29). 86) 3. codex (MA.

) (MP. 143) 3. compass. 11) 2. 44). index. 58. (pair of) dividers (IB. ST. . rope work. interlace (TF. 138.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc.

 munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O. II.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. 700).

ma¨ ZLU. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). miŒwar (pl.


$% .

138. as opposed to the border (TF. 144). maΠU DK.  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover).

Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. Œawqalah. 58: as a means of cancellation. TP. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. 99. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. 109. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. I. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). 171. 483). 97. ¨awr (LL. 104-105). 149-150). see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. MH. 665). TP. Œ µil. II. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM.

73 . RQH LVQ G from another. abbrev.


g. colophon (TM. seal. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . 35). tooling 2. **** NK QDK – compartment. stamp. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. khatm 1. sealing. 214) 3. 24.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. tool. panel (in decoration) (UI. stamping. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. MI. 31). 3.



recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ . – 1.9 .


stamp or medallion (on a book cover). 130. CI. . OS) 2. 169. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. 108) 3. talismanic seal (DT. AG.g. 144). NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. DT. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. I. 34. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). 63). e. 109.9 1105. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. 110. IA. 29.

n. epilogue 2. FT. 108). 8. tailpiece (HD. conclusion. explicit. 52. 396) 4. . 5. colophon (UI. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP.14) 3. LNKWLW P 1.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

– inner or outer margin (IM. 165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ .

385). WDNKU M LNKU M 1. 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. backing (of the spine) (HN. also LVWLNKU M (TW. takh„ ¶ – rounding.

kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK. RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

) 4.0 . 187-188. la¨aq (TP. comp.  omission. insertion. TM. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . 58.

copying. ÑaÃfah. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK. 718). KF. n.. insertion 2. transcription (TW.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. 58. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . WDNKU MDK 1. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. omission. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. I.73: in the form of a curved line.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. pl.) . 606) 6. reference mark (signe de renvoi). extract from a book. I. quotation (TM. 169) 7.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. or a caret.


mukhraj – insertion (MH. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukharraj.

selector (DF. copying (DM) 2. excerpting. LVWLNKU M 1. mustakhrij. vox reclamans (MA. 126130). TW. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. 39). IV. 384. . NM. 683). II. mukharrij – compiler. catchword.

OM). book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. MP.40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. DS. 35. punch (SA. 99. II. 59). PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. index. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. 481. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ST. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. 12. 181).

khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK. 70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94).

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

 DQVD roundel. khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. comp. palmette (KH. Ã P. Ãurrah. 36).

154. 17. blank. gap. IA. khiraq) 1. II. 59) 3. lin. 114. 60. SA. kharm 1. sewing (of quires) (UK. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. 347. 12. polishing cloth (MB. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. MB. – nib (of a calamus) (SA.166). 157. undoing the sewing (ST. 27. lacuna (SJ. MB. khirqah (pl. 109) 2. 459). MI. 481) 2. scrap (of paper) (DM). HT. comp. 15. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. II. index. 104. MP.


II.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. 233: feuillets décousus. 26). 26. KF. fragments (HB. munkharim – imperfect. PDNKU P. incomplete (TC.NKLU. en vrac. TC.

 PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. sifr 13. kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. IV. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). khazz SO NKX] ]. II. 527).

al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. library. maktabah. xiii-xiv. . abbreviation (contraction. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. 55-56. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. 119). NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. GL. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. suspension. 159-160. 107). comp. 27. – silk. 46). kharm and ¨azm. 25-26). 107. 536-540. 23-24) 3. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. siglum. 14-15. epitome (EI. TP. II. comp. abridgement. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. AG. AD. NKL] QDK. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. VII. AG. I. EA.

calligraphy. penmanship (ML.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. sign. khuà Ã) 1. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. writing. mark. script. 34-38) 2. stroke. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . handwriting.

g. III. I. EI.8  51  $6 . CI. AS. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). LM. 358). 114. copied by (e. 41. al-DTO P DO-sittah. 144). 83. 681). also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters.. 103). used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. IV. script (text) see also Ñajam. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. comp. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  ..EQ 0XTODK 6$ . 887: ER. scriptio plena. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. comp. scriptio defectiva. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . yad.

8  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .

penman. 26). 380). 80).1. makhà à W. calligraphy (WR. makh¨ ¨ (pl. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. paleography (KJ. no. I. comp.

reed pen. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. I. 103. index. UA. IA. manuscript codex. 555. takh¨ ¨ 1. MB.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. 60. 760. 118. implement (made of wood. ruling (of lines). 98. 110) 2. . LL. 760). writing. mikha¨¨ 1. I. 12). straightedge (LL. calamus (AA. tracer (ME. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). 110. 61) 2. tracing. drawing (MB.

akhÃibah) 1.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. honorific (e. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. khi¨ E (pl. note. letter. speech 2. address. sifr 13. IV.1).g. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q.

IA. AG. 145). 44: ornament). preface (LC. 59. 18. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. n. NKDI I (lit. extract. comp. abridgement. 109). trimming (TS. 53. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. IB. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. RIWen unpointed) (GL. 105. 25.g. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. abbrev. TP. X. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. mukhtaÁar.20). althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. 156. epitome. 123).  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. 14). mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). takhallu¦ – pseudonym. MB. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK.

95. XVII.g. 46. 52. 58). varia lectio (e. LNKWLO I – variant reading. . XI. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. XII. TP. 273. MU. MH.




RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 126. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1.


401). NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. AD. 95. – pentastich amplification of a poem.v. LNKWL\ U. al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. EI. X. pentameter (SD. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. 405. 123-125). 97).). I. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 50.

 '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . 19. index. index. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. thick needle (ST. MB. 109). 94-95). NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. endbanding without silk (TS. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. index. – anthology (EA. 107-108). 12). 12. 43. i. 12.e. AG. I. IR. IB.


VI. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA. 250).GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. G E M SO GDE E M.

– silk brocade (MU. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. XIV.

embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY. preface. exordium. G E MDK 1.

of fataÐammal(hu) (q.v). 115). 65. 52. TW. reflection. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. creating headpieces (AD. PA. /& ) 2. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. WDGE M 1. adorning something with arabesques. frontispiece (MD. composition (of a text) (DM). 259) 2. 127. tadabbur – consideration. GLE JK DK. headpiece.

EI.3-4. IA. I. fasc. 172). 140-143. suppl. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. MP.. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. 60). – tanning (MB. 63. 114-115.

236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.  IR.

dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. darj.


868: also daraj. I. 138: al- . rotulus (IK. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. I. parchment or paper (AJ. SA. IK. 138. 141. roll.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. 68. LL.

$  Q.46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

darmak – farina. AG. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. 287). paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. dirafsh – awl.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. 432). bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. dast(ah) SO GXV W. 60). inset (SD. 142) 3. punch (IA. 107). I. 13.


I. GXVW U SO GDV W U. 39. AB. comp. MA. 145. 92. rizmah. kaff 3. IA. 524) 2. IB. PT. 94. burnisher (UK. 44). stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). SD. MB. wide polisher. WS. IV. 105. 156. 96. 81. 92. 59. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ.


 DXWKRU’s original. I. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. holograph (LC. 23) 3.

357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. . 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). HB. book consisting of loose leaves (KF. II. unbound book. dasht – loose leaves.

daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. hence mudgham – contracted. pious invocation. II. TP. 54. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. etc.. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ .GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl.  . adÑiyah) 1. AA. supplication.g. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. ‘prayer of request’ (EI.+ 35). formula of benediction. 150-156). 617-618) 2.. assimilated (KU. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). (see e.

book cover. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. 13). al-daffah al. index. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. index. ST. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. pasteboard (ST. 104) 3. index. 13). 13.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB.Oá (ST. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover.


77-81. pounding (MP. 108. 481). fine writing (TM. 40 x 14 cm. notebook (e. taftar (SK. 29. QRV  096) 3. II. 63. see LS) 2. SL. 321. Daftar kutub. 22-25. rubbing. n. IA. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). 14 leaves. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). I. II. 48. account book. volume (IK. pen wiper (SA. . . bound or unbound codex .g.. daqq 1. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. 4. KK.18) 3. register (EI. 60) 2.. 192).

lin. FJ. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. 87). glazing (ST. 85. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. 23. 461). MB. KR. 110. 13. AG.163. index. midlak – polisher. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. NH. 11. waraq damghah see waraq. I. KM. 217. 139). HT. 48-50. 118. 107). burnishing. GDON WDGO N – polishing. SD. OH.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). I. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. sifr 4. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q.

' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . ' U DO-¶. Isfahan.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. mudhun – container for oil (IR. ' U DO-. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. 905-906).UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. Tabriz. oil. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. I. – fat. 230: LL. grease. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. midhan. . 927).E GDK – Yazd. Herat.

  73 . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .

roundel. UD. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. TS. 59) 5. ta¨U I. WDGZ U 1. MB. 56. 105. (5) 4. 156. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. even (as opposed to oblique. I. medallion. i.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. 30.e. disc (UK. JA. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. straight. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). e.g.

9. 10. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. RN. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 22.g. LM. LM. 35). QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. curvilinear (e. 39-40) 2. 61) 3. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. hence PXVWDG U – round. rounding (of the spine) (IA.


I. 129. EI. 90) 2. WDGZ Q 1. chancellery (KM. writing down (of ¨DG WK. SA. I. EI. II. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. office. IV. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. collecting (collection). II. UHJLVWHU account book. 323. 323). collection of poems written by one author (DM). sifr 13.

(. .  73 .

15. TE. UI. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . copying. transcription (LC. 28. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.


GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. IV. 1125-6). IURP which it is derived (EI.

 LQNZHOO . 370) 2. . BA. -85. KU. 169-170. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. escritoire. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens.. III.

II. VII. memorandum. descender (of a letter) (AA. ND. 73). 53).132-133. tadhkirah 1. GDZZ µ. wiper and sand) (SA. midhbar see mizbar. MB. AT. 203-204. EI. 713. 137-139). aide-mémoire (EI. ER. 54. III. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. 53) 2.3-4. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. suppl.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA.50 GLOSSARY ruler. 440-443. II. UK. fasc. 372) 2. 65. X. DG.v. 77. dhabr.

dhanab SO DGKQ E. +%  (. X. 53).

59). 130-132. 24. 151). paint (MU. WDGKQ E – appendix. UK.’). 21). II. supplement (AD. LL. ¨arf (SA.V. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. MB. 25. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. 89-91. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . index. LC. UD. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. 226. dhahab. 477. I. I. 983: ‘water-gold. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. SA. etc. 13). III. – tail (foot) of a letter.

KA. TE. 222. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. 145). 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. IX. gilding. AS. writing with liquid gold.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. 15. chrysography (LC. WDGKK E 1. 27.


chrysographer (AB. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. mudhahhib – gilder. 385). 27. 490). 141). 132. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. dhayl SO GKX\ O. 15). XV. MU. TE. LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. PA. JLOW REMHFW 6' .


 VXSSOHPHQW appendix. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. 23). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. 206). ruÐ V. lower margin.

e. IA. frontispiece (LC. 136.g. TM. III. e. raµs al-waraqah.g. raµs al-NLW E). raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. 26). character. as opposed to the spine (MB.e. LC. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. raµs al-¦afŒah. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. (qalam) al-riµ V . fore-edge of the codex. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . 26).  KHDG RI D letter. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. upper margin (TS. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. 107. IA. page or book. 24. 172). ruµ V DOsu¨ U. 109. envelope flap (MB. 61) 3. 14. 109). i. 108. 62) 4. 26) 2. SA. beginning of something.

84. 226. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 83-84... 213. 13) 2. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). HI. AS. 37. 146.5 -242. 100). KH. 100. RN. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . TU. JM. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2.202/817-8) (FN. vox reclamans (NZ. 30. 144. 35. AQ. 126. 236. U EL¨ah – catchword. 65). WDUZ V 1. script akin to a large naskh. MO. FZ. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . 215).52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 12. 33. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. (qa¨¶ or T OLE.

DO-rub¶. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. 5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I.

abbrev. / / (OS. 5DE ¶ al. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . – the third month in the Muslim calendar. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G).NKLU (al-PXE UDN. CM. 89.

– the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl. rabaÑ W.


 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  6' . 51.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +.  &$ . MS.21. 48. nos.

WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. 11. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting.128). …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . AG. lin. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. stalk (?) (TS. 109).

AM.170) 2. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K .GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. composition (MU. I. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. no. 50. arrangement (of the text).

384. IV. n. sifr 13. ratm – close. 72). SS. 53. compiler (DF. copying (KM. compact writing. II. murattib – author. mubawwib.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP.20). 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. comp.

 26 . Rajab (al-murajjab. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm. al-aÁabb.

   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory.1 . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. 376). DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). VIII. raj¶ (pl. didactic poem (EI. .

IV. retouching. UXM ¶ – reference. AG. WDUM ¶ 1. I. 252). KM. 99. 28. FRPS SD. 513: ‘barrage. 17. III. I. 17) 2. writing in bold characters (TE. MJ. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). retouchage (of a letter). 109). polychrome illumination (TE. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. source (in a text) (IN. muÑallaqah. comp. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. sifr 13.

.  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. 62). epilogue (AD.

31: MD. 13). index.13. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. n. 137.185). 13).% 81. book support (MD. index.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. ST. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . raŒl(ah) – book cradle. index. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. RI.

3185). 584. 2152. 1223. abbrev. nos.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 1035. 3099. 294. VA. 1055. comp. 54. numrah) (TP. 1038. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. 1062. 419. UXNK P DK.

103. marble slab (MB. . TS. 107. AG. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. IA. OM). similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). ST. raddah – envelope flap (TM. 59. pl. XXIB). 14. 11. 10. TP. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. . 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá.

) (PT. WS. 145. rizam) 1. . 39.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . 92. ream (of paper).v. AJ. consisting of five quires. AB. dast (q.

epistle 2. VIII. 532). also ruzmah – booklet (SD. treatise. letter. I. ULV ODK 1. dast 2. tract. LUV O DK. 524: ‘cahier’). FRmp. monograph (EI.

 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð. LM. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH.. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK ..

PA. e. EI. 14) 2. copying.g. 100. writing.VIII. sketching (ME. 45) 3. epistolography (DM). rasm 1. tarassul – art of letter writing. execution. 561. 100. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. making a mark (ST. 101. 451-. drawing. index. designing. rasm al-muÁ¨af. MB. marking.


mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. unpointed letter or word ( NO. 15) 6. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. SD. 560. 527) 7. designer. comp. I. chapter (in a composition) (SD. I. I. 527). line (traced with a pen) (SD. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. painter (ME. 527) 5. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. – stroke. faÁl. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. 528). I. bi-rasm see mustanad.

marking (syn. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. 370). 137). – woodcut. 14). wood block (AB. lin. 14) 2. index. rasm) (ST. . UDVKP WDUVK P 1. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. 164) 3. tooling (HT. III. calamus (BA.129. index.

marshim. rizmah. 18) 2. mark (TS. marsham SO PDU VKLP. comp. I. 532). ream (of paper) (SD.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1.

135). I.  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. hot iron (SD. tar¦ ¶ 1. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. illumination. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. decoration (MS. 125) 2. 532).


ta¨U U TY. 126). gilding the inside of the surround (outline). covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. . 17) 3. 103. decoration (with liquid gold).3 145. TE.

$) .

writing. tar¦ I 1. composition (NS. joining letters together (AP. KH. ra¦f. 140. 79. 35) 2. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. SA. III.

MI. used for the companions of the Prophet. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. 34. 125). 89. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. abbrev. 15. AR.    73 54. II. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. 35. KH. SL. tar„iyah.

 FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah. DQW RI \ ELV.

statement (LC. 19. 14. 15. istir¶ µ \DK – note. . 16. 24). AS. 144). – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD.

n. 231.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. support (for an inkwell) (AA. 44. book cradle (IN. KK.11. lin. raqq. book support. I. mirfa¶ 1. 111-112).133. 137). ND. riqq SO UXT T. 70) 2. 230.

calamus (IR. diacritical pointing (TE. KK. vox reclamans (NM. 407-410. no. 119. 85). UDTT ¦ – catchword. sifr 13. KJ. IW. vocalization by means of points. 17. piece (slip) of leather. IV. 74-75. AA. 1135) 4. EP) 2. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. raqshah – pointing. 105. 108-111. 683. parchment leaf (ND. embellished writing. UDTT JKD] O see jild. EI. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . 93.. I. arabesque decoration (KA. n. mirqash – reed pen.67). WS. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. I. making something multicoloured (LL. 230). 42: al-raqq al-azraq. 407). 60-63. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. IK.1. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. 353). AK. SK. KM.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . 17. diacritical point (JA. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). VIII. 53. 269). LL. parchmenter (DG. 105. -485. al-raqq al-a¨mar. 53. copying (TE. AE. VIII. elegant. KR. I. paper or other writing surface (MU. 1135) 3. I.

note. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk.  OHWWer. brief message.

IV. . DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. 1126).

v. JM. writing (KM.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. IV. LM. Persia. 1125. 78-82. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. 139. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. MN. raqm 1. Turkey). 86).) script (AS. sifr 13. inset (MK. passim. 602-603). often sewn in). ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. 1123. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. EI. 146. IV.



calligraph (AC. NI. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. 266) 4. 54. AW. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. DP. 41. – piece of calligraphy.




arqam. sifr 13. – abbreviation. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. KJ. copyist (AC. 1140). sifr 13. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. IV. IR. no. AM. IV. 45.3. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. 2. III.76). GA. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. UDT P – inkwell (KM. calamus (TE. 244. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. BA. SK. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. 230. III. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. 383. mirqam – reed pen. 106). al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. 154). siglum (CL. 183. AW. 17. fasc. 147. 30). LL. no. 17. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. 141. raqn – compact writing (KM. 82. 183). TE. 5. 387-388. I. 468-9: AN. 160). IK. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. GA. 372.


embellishing ( a text. IV.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. sifr 13. writing) (KM. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK.


HT. 83). comp. boarding (TS. 58.73. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. AG. murakkab 1. e. III. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. (Turk. IV. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together.g. on the line) (MY. ¨ibr. ST. 60ff). SA. comp. ¨ibr 2. MP. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . 389. linking (joining) one letter with another. WDUN E 1. 393). 681) 2. 14. ligature (e. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. 50. markaz SO PDU NL]. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. 109.g. 78) 3. I.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). 45). 24-27. UA. ligatured. hybrid (of a script) (LM. lin. index.

rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. UXN ¶ . 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). – support (for reed pens) (UA.



.5 .

 ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. II. . 14. index. 31. rakwah (pl. 30. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. 107) 3. 703). IB. 69). corner piece itself (ST. AG.

60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair.0 . murammim – restorer. ramz SO UXP ].9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada). restoration (DM). WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .

WB. cypher. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. 159) 3. secret alphabet (EI. 428) 2. 468. code. 427) 4. chronosticon (EI. III. TW. chronogram. VIII. VIII. 55.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (.

V.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. 209. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. .

 Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

I. al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). TD. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. I. 127136). WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. UA.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box.  '' . 86. II. 393). . 478- $7  6' .


393. – little stick for the application of kohl. mik¨ O '' . U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. DM).  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. LL. I. syn. UXZ K. 1186. UA.

– transmitter. transmission. ULZ \DK 1.) (TP. 545-547) 2. 53). EI. KF. VIII.v. recension (recensio) (LC. varia lectio (MR. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. 94). 26. XII. 53. variant reading. link in the chain of transmission (TP. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. 417418 and 500-501) 3. 109-111). II. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. tradition (traditio). version (versio). also known as sanad (q.

43: wa-T OD . 73-77. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script ( Turkey). rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. Persia. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. 38. 146.EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. LM. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. MP. 144. 545-547). JM. IV. 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. MB. 1125.) script (AS. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. 1123.

65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. 18. CI. ]DEU WD]E U 1. inscription on stone (KM. I. copying. sifr 13. also dhabr – writing. transcription (TE. IV. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. q. ¨ibr.v.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol.).

] ELU ]DE U – scribe. II. 444. zubur) – composition. 92). 80. zab U (pl. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. work (SA. IK. KK. ND. 18. copyist (TE. ND. 80.

II. 230). calamus (TE. copying (KK. SA. elegant. 444-465. polychrome illumination (TE. embellished writing. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. IK. IR. copying (KK. 18). TE.18. embellished writing. 85. elegant. 18) 2. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. TE. 53. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. zakhrafah 1.


muzakhrif – illuminator.  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. 87). zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. decorator (WR. 80).

. comp. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. 110. KT. 135). AG. 25. Ñurwah. 34.

69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. zalf (MN. 19: in 12). ER. fastener (TS. ‘hair lock’. V. 1222). see DC. I. ]XO \MDK. ]LP P DK./Turk. AG.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. 682. decoration in gold and colours (LL. zulayjah (]DO MDK. ‘curl’). MN. ST. 689). ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . 69. zulf (Pers. 35. lit. 25.. index. 109). 360) 1. IV. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book).& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?).

I. register (IK. 95) 2.9. 383-385. pt. (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. 127. list. account book. (pl. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. 181). NA. 601). 222: al-WDUP N . catalogue (SD. GA. azimmah) 1.

ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. comp. 315. MB. 320). vermillion ink (SA. . zinjafr – cinnabar. 478). 145. II. 101. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. KF. II.

floriated (KJ. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq).1. 91). box (DG. 44. hence muzahhar. 38. KR. zawj SO D]Z M.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. no. WD]K U – floral decoration.


WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. AD. conjugate leaf (AG. AG. 107) 2. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. I. 825 and VIII. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. f. VII. ER. 107). WD]Z U 1. 408-409. TK. falsification (UI. 73).120b. 283. forgery. EI. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. X. 18) 2. 90-100). 376). embellished writing. 6. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. X. GA. 73. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. 409). copying (TE. 391). muzawwir – forger (EI. X.


painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. . MS. 105). ]LZ TDK – art of illumination.  decoration. writing. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. multi-colour illumination (HT. 12). 560) 4. 4). miniature painting (WA. WA. n. 560.4. ]DZZ T – illuminator.102. 11) 3. miniature painter (ME. lin.

also takht al-]L\ U (ST. 52. square (an implement) (MB. index. interpolation. 136). 98) 3. 184) 2. MI. superfluous. 9). MH. ]L\ GDK 1. 111. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. abbrev. corner.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. IA. 60. addition (CM. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. angle 2. 59. dittography (TM. post-scriptum (AD. addition (TP. index. 9). 73). ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. 127) 2. interpolation. 62). ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ .

embellished writing (SK. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. elegant. FRPS TDUU Á.


. preamble to a fatwá. MI. asÐilah) 1. 128) 2. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. comp. xiv. II. abbrev. jaw E (CI. quodlibet. suµ O (pl.

1853.20. VA. nos. 696.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. 461. n. 53. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. used after the word All K 73 . 3214) 2.

siŒ µah – piece. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). 13. 637).185). VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). etc. 81. 11-12).) (SD. index. I. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. lapsus calami (DM). n. parchment) (IB. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. IB. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. piece (of poetry.

. 17). plug (in the inkwell) (IK. VLG G (pl. 83). WDVG G – copying. asiddah) – stopper. transcription (TE.

52). headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. punch (SK. 1347). V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. sifr 4.) 1. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. I. 1347). awling. hence V ULG – reader. 122) 2. comp. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. 39. I. reading. Áurrah.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. recital. 122. prelector (TP. 115. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). 56. 40. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). n. I. LL. KM. punching (SK. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. misrad – awl.

36). MD.  frontispiece. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . munsa¨iŒ – flat. 127. also known as lawzah (JL. 82). double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. .. AF. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. 27. horizontal stroke (UD. 97.. KR. 95.

sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U. asÃur.

line of writing. – line (KD. . II. 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð).

lineation. 50. WA. 48) 5. 73.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. MB. 103. writing. pasteboard (HT.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. creating a line (of writing) (SA.. IA. 155). IA.%  Q LC. 28. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. 134) 4. 113) 6. 104. 104-105). mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). 104. lining. 59). V ¨ir. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. 18. 155. 25) 3. ruling board (ST. IN. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. 105. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. lin. 28. ruler. designing (UK. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. ruling (of folios). 247) 4. 155). I. 155. stencil (AF. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. III. 78. copying (TE. 86. 155. redaction. MB. 43). 12. MB. 91. lineation (LC. 17). IA. 17. 77). TS. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. number of lines per page (LC. 174) 3. 59). (grid of) guidelines. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. index. SDVVLP 6$ .68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. IB. ruling. number of lines per page (TK. 59). LC. 155. 15. composition (AD. 87). TM. TS. KA. straightedge (UK. 28) 5. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . TA. 13. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. tas¨ U 1. WS. ff. WR. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". folder (UK. 104- 7.

 1364.5  // . DM: snuff box). . .



book. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. MS. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. codex.


 V ILU (pl.9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 .

ST.g. WDVI U 1. index . bookbinding (e.


. 110). al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. lower margin. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. 158. HT. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. lin. MB. 97. end of a letter or book 2. spine (of a book) (UK. IV. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. 742) 2. AD. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. VIII.115. – book cover (MB. 11. EI. AG. passim). oblong format (of a book) (MD. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. I. 660. 31. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 150). index. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. VDI QDK 1. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. 109) 2. 78). TF. AG. tail (of the page). lawzah (mandorla) (TS. 15.

diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 88).70 GLOSSARY saq¨. 97). haplography (TP. 87) 2. XII. see above) (JL. saqa¨ (MU. also LVT ¨ – omission. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 238) 1. MH. 95. KR. 95. 58. 97.

230). saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK.133. VXN Q 1. 80). mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. 107. WS. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. ÑLO M PLVT K. 133.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. comp. 60). comp. circle-like tool (HT. jazmah 2. 137). IA. 118. 148. 482. AT. II. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. IR. lin.

248). 90-91. – knife. II. VI.$  8. KD. SA. silsilah SO VDO VLO. AA. SK.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 711. II. 31-33). LM. pen knife (IK. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. 465-466. 103-104. 115- . VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ.


76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

stemma codicum (AL. 27). (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . silsilat al-nasab – stemma.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. I. 611). IX.

EI. IV. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. 107). WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. JM. 15. VDO P. 1124). KK.GLOSSARY 71 146. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. 5863. AG.

no. VA.1830. mas P U. PLVP U (pl. 2211. 128). CI. MI. 54. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. I. xiii.

III. 372. – nail.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. TM. peg (part of a clasp) (BA.



&7 .

(CW.25. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. MU. auditor. 53. XVII. LC.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. VIII. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . certificate). 27. 485493). TP. II. abbrev... KF. EI.. TP. MU. X. 1019-1020). n. . 69.g. 278. 53. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. 267.

268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. certificate (JA. 45) 2. I. audition note.

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

audition leader (master). authoritative commentator. FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. 45). certifier (CT.


proper name (EI. . 179-181) 2. IV. 1. title of a book (ism al-NLW E).

the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q.) (MH. tasmiyah 1.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name.20) 3. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. TP. 100). such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. sinn SO DVQ Q. 28) 2. title (of a work) (LC. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. 28. n. 53.v.

154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. shaqq ) (UK. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit.

 .  . .. 6$ .9  LQV – left side. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // ..  (.

MB. 60: misann akh ar. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. misann ÃXOD\O ". hone (UK. 153. IA. 103.

384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ .. NH. 107. 10.  $7 133.5  6$ . TS. AG. .

q. 395).). misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. sanad SO DVQ G. musannanah – chevron (FT.v. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).

53. 56). DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G.

6/ . . 9.   (...

al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. EI. 365. IV. 692). sifr 13. I. 704-705). 14. VII. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. TW. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . FRPS muÁannaf. 2. 47). misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. FN. 8. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. 5. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. RN.

OS. 264-265.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. 232). sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. VI. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. II. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. 88. CM.

D. comp. VI. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A.).  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. 252).

147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. I. black ink (LC. – Muslim era (DD. VDZ G 1. SK. 320. 27. 388). 384. AI.

MU. MU. XV. rough copy (LC. XIII. VI.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. 161. 27. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . 126. MU.9 .

copying (TE. 18). also LVZLG G (!) – writing. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. 98) 4. copying by an apprentice (TE. FRPS PXED\\D ah.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. AM. making it difficult to read (MH. nos. calligrapher (AW. musawwid – copyist. 237). vox reclamans (NZ. 45. marring (of a text). 50A) 3. 18) 2. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . preparation of a draft (TE. 97. 18. WDVZ G 1.

 V V DK.


– woodworm. .

damage caused by worms (LC. II. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. 28). ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. 702). musawwas – worm-eaten. 463. trimming the textblock (TS. KK. 17-18). 50. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. comp. 105. II. KD.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. SA.

in Persia. IV. sayr SO VX\ U. 1125. A variety of this script. 183). used in Ottoman Egypt. RA. DR. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. Turkey. 178-180. was known as qirmah (GA. 24-24).


16. 114. sayf SO VX\ I. lin. index. MB. HT.96).  endband (headband) strip (ST.

– trimming sword. cutter (UK. MB. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. IA. 154. 103. 104.

WDVKE N 1. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. 115. DH. (pl. endband (headband) (HT. lin. 407. **** VKDE NDK 1. nos. WDVK E N. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. 73). also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. 20) 2. 33.88-106. 19.

passim). . – interlace (TF.

GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. 406). Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT.

' . jilfah.  VKDE WXK ¨adduh).. . comp.  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ ... shajjah SO VKLM M.

arabesque decoration (WR.73) 2. composing a text in a schematic. 27). DH. hone (DD. stemma (AL. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. 711). al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. 390). I. LM. mishŒadh – whetstone. 35-35). also mushajjar – foliated design.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). UD. 86. tree-like way. EI. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . WDVKM U 1. creating a genealogical tree. white interior substance of the reed (IK. I. shaŒdh – whetting. 967) 3. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). shaddah. shajarah – genealogical tree. WDVKG G DK. shaŒm(ah) – pith. VII. II. 87. stemma (SL. 14. no. honing (of a knife) (KD. 9. I.

shidq SO DVKG T. 14). doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. – doubling (of a consonant).

. book cover. case binding (TS. 27.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment).

369). 109).76 GLOSSARY AG. sharaj SO DVKU M. comp. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. fakk 2.

– plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. sharŒ (pl. III. 372).) (BA. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.v.


al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. decorative band (UI. rule-border (LC. shars – pasting. VLU V and V U V (DM). 27) 2. 397-320. 401). 139. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. 29) 4. abbrev. fillet (in decoration) (FT. 174-175).0 . MD. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . 109) 3. MI. [Lv). 217. I. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. FZ. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). 5051). 106-107. MM. also VKLU V. stroke (DM). IA. OM). paste (MB. mishra¨(ah) – knife. 392: for opening sealed documents. 60. NH.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. rules. IB. II. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . MB. I. 385. al-VKDU I DK. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). cutter (IA. 27. 60. comment-text book. xiv. 158. (LC. shuraÃ) – line. long commentary. EI. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. DD. comprising the text commented upon (matn). EA. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator.. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. shar¨(ah) (pl. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. &. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. IX. abbrev. CI. ashriÃah) 1. 100. .

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. nuskhah and the like.).GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. ligatured Maghrebi script. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. 322). 250). shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. VI. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . TW. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA.v. 365. 47. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size.

)'  .

 FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. duster.  arb. 11. eraser (TS. sha„ \DK (pl. mish¨ab – 1. 390). I. polisher (NH. I. 28: IN. comp. 113) 2. whisk (?). shaÌ \ . tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. burnisher. 251). 756). AG. cancellation (LC. shaqq.

8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. 13) 2. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. also tash„ \DK – line. AA. KH. serif-like stroke (LM. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  .  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . 35. III. à Ð \ Ð. 88. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD.

al-mukarram. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I.

abbrev.  26 . – the eighth month of the Muslim calendar.


ashÑ U. shi¶r (pl.78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam.

116). CI. CI. 12. 81. nos.g. I. scribal verse (see e. versification. 82. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. – poetry. II. no.

bookbinder’s sword. AI. 145. tash¶ U 1. MJ. paring knife. 9. LM. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. UK. illumination in gold. lin. outline (KF. shaving (HT. 50) 3. IP. NA. trimmer (HT. index. 161). design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. shaqq SO VKXT T. SA. 112. 16. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. 127. 45. JM. parer. IA. 153. pt. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . outlining. VI. cutting edge (SK. 161) 2. AG. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. 224). WDVKI U – trimming. 59.159). 59) 3. 11. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. scraper (ST. lin. AF. 250). 104. 91-93. III. MB. 103. al-musha¶¶ar. II. 144. 58).83.104. 109).+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. shafrah 1. III.


8' -12: SK. 117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK.

splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. II. 460-462). SA. 59. . 171) 3. 97. MH.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. slit (of the nib). IM. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh.

punch (UA. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. IV. 1124. preliminary endbanding (IA. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. 43. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. ER. sewing endbands (headbands). . 1124. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. no.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). ER. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. WDVKN ] – 1. 393). 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf.1. 62) 2. 694). awl. IV. IV.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. 699-702). IV.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T.

150). VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. vowelized (for various practices see SA. shaqq. 59. IM. 12) 2. vowel marks. comp. III. 36). SA. hence mushakkal – vocalized. vowelization. 160-167. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. III. diagram. KH. GL.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q.g. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. 125. 81). III.

+  8'   . .


80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

135). AF. 118. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. rosette (LC. 63). 116). PA. MB. 110. 51). VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. 27. passim. IA.


– quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e.g. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.


EI. – copy of a letter. 340-.20. 201 and X. IX. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. n. document (DM). 53.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.


Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . 90). Mashhad (al-)´usayn. Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS.

al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas. al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU. – .HUEHOD .DUEDO Ð).

). – new moon.v. 1612). month (LL. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. II. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. shuhrah.

. EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &. . .


GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram. al-PXE UDN.

 26 . – the tenth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. . 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. 8. comp. 250). pt.) – endband (headband) (LA. mashyakhah (pl.5. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. 117. VI. i¦E ¶ (pl. RN. PA. fahrasah. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. VI. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 725).). 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). 118). **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. fihrist.v. VK U ]DK (Pers. 19-20. KH.

267-268). thus (JA. 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. abbrev. 29-32. 114-118. ¦LE JK – pigment. mara  and saqam). 45). IA. tinting. correction. LE. 63. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). 35.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. abbrev. writing word in the text (GA. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. CT. (KG. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. VIII. 120-129. MH. tint (UK. MP. MB. 73  . NH. attestation (of correctness in transcription). dye. AR. 473. emendation 2. I. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. 285. II. 671-672. NW. QS. sic. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. 136.


aÁ¨ E. n. comp. signing (a document) 4. ¦ Œib (pl. preparation of a critical edition.25). ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. 53. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. editor.

owner (OS). . isti¦Œ E – ownership. 0. possession (OS). abbrev.  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E).

sheet of writing material. BA. I. page (DM) 4. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ .  parchment. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an.. often leather. I. papyrus or paper (KD. maÁ ¨if) 1. 24). 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (..8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. 22. notebook (SL. sifr 13. -835) 2. IK. ma¦Œaf. leaf (TC. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). Áa¨ Ðif) 1. III. folio (folium). 9. small pamphlet. 22) 3. Áu¨uf. mi¦Œaf (pl. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. II. . IV.. mu¦Œaf.

4). but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. 107. II. AG. 16). 107. parchment textblock (TS. 668-669. MS. n. 17. 54-57).GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. VII. 146. 17. volumes) (EI. 25. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. 17. 16). AG. 25. MS. JM. AG. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. 316. KF. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . 107) 3.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. sometimes two.

distortion.  .  .g. error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. ta¦Œ I 1.

  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.. 04  6$ .

ta¨U I TY. syn. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing).

U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. . (. bookbinding (LA. pt.5. -348) 3. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ.

269-270). 118) 2. II. HD. IB. 9. ÁXG U. ¦aŒŒ I 1. 13. II. ¦adr (pl. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. bookseller (QS. 11.

also ta¦G U – incipit. preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. preamble. ¦DG UDK 1.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

MB. fore-edge (TS. 15) 5.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 105. 44. fore-edge flap (TS. as opposed to inner side. AG. 16. 156. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. MJ. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. IA. 59). wajh (SA. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). 27) 4. 218). 464. 107) 6. IB. II.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

109. ¦a¶d (pl. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. JL. ¦urrah – center-medallion. 83. 99. 110). comp. mandorla (FZ. MD. ÁuÑ G. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. surrah. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM).

50. TU. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. 34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK.

ta¦affuŒ – examination. 107). 11. FN. AG. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. II. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. 27). 227. 371. study (KF. verso of the first folio (LC. vox reclamans (TT. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. ¦DI Œah (pl. 30. II. ta¦I Œ – catchword. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. 192). siglum) (TP. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. 58). KD.

al-Ìafar. al-PXE UDN. iafar (al-khayr. al-muÌaffar. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨).

aÁI U. – the second ¦ifr (pl.

(OS. TP.171. . month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev. 89). 59). – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM.

GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl. maÁ ILQ.

¦aql – polishing. 393: for ink). maÁ TLO. KA. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. sieve (UA. 134). passim. – filter. burnishing (MB. strainer.

99. aÁO E. 44. ¦ulb (pl. IB. DD. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 149. I. – polisher.. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. 142.  DS. MB. 105. 149. 156. IA. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. aÁlub.

ta¦O E 1. LC. 62) 3. 166. II. IA. 27) 2. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. . no. II. comp. 119). 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. correction (FK. 59). ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. bookbinding (IA. MB. matn. 111. making pasteboards (MB. original text (LC.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . 27). 62). i¦O Œ 1. text-column (LL. main. 1712.


mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. i¦¨LO Œ. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. 191. MM. siglum) (TP. CI. suspension. II. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. 55-56. no.


 . -359).86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P.      73  Q 73  &. [LLL (. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. . abbrev.

). ¦LP P – plug. ta¦P P – design. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. ÁDQ G T. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK.v. 83). sketching (MO.

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

0'  7% -94). ¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  .

 ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. Ñamal. ta¦Q I (pl. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦un¶. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. taÁ Q I.

III. work (MU. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. – composition.

compiler. 39. II. mu¦annif – author. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. as opposed to musnad (q. 705). work. often the author of the original text PDWQ. 662663. EI.v. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. VII.) (SL.

625-626). DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). art. I. craft (EI. (CI. E\ $E +LO O. xi). duction by artisans. abbrev. IX.


comp. Áuwar) 1. ta¦Z E (pl. copy. box (NT. taÁ¨ ¨. no. X. EI.212).2. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. 57). exact copy. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. MU. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. ME. transcript (e.  LE E. preservation (DM). ¦LZ Q (pl. IX. 121. ta¦Z U 1. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. 361. miniature painting (MU. illustrator (PA. 225. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting.141: ‘portraitiste’). taÁZ E t) – correction. comp. 559). 56) 3. 361-363) 2. DH. pt. ¨ ¦awn. 268) 4. XVI. apograph (TP. mu¦awwir – painter. I. painted illustration (EI. 889892 and X. aÁwinah) – case. correctness.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. 143. XV. TP. „abbah (pl.g. 136. ¦ UDK (pl. example (JA. microfilming. **** LI Ì.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

 DEEUHY 73  AR. MH. ta„E E. 95-96). 57. n. i„barah (pl. a  E U.64. 57. also known as WDPU „. 95-96). 30) 2. sic. marking the word with a  abbah (TP. MH. thus (TP.

„LE UDK 1. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. bundle of documents (IK.. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. a number of leaves or sheets put together. a„barah. IV. quire . sifr 13. KM.

AG. II. textblock (TS. 388). (pair of) dividers (TS. 5) 3.16. 26. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . f. IB. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. 44. (pl. collation (of quires) (TS.) .88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. 18. 112) 4. TK. binding (IB. 19. ta„E U 1. 13. ST.. 12. 107.120a-b). „ EL¨ 1. 16.) . index. 18.177). 11) 2. 29. AG. 97) 2.  DZ ELÃ) – compass. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. n. specialist in  abÃ.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. orthographer (MH. album (FT. AG.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl).  XU E. 17. 107) 3.

mi„rabah 1. 11. AG. – cancellation. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. 62). small tool (resembling a drum stick. mallet (LF. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. 59). „irs (pl. a U V  XU V. erasure (MF. 109) 2. KF. II. stalk?) (TS.

„i¶f (pl. 109) 2. also TS. 109-110). a Ñ I. 12. 32-33. interlace (TS. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. AG.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. AG.

 ta„¶ I (pl. ta  Ñ I.

54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . interline (LL. 1792. – space between lines..  /& . MU. II. XVII.


interlaced (FZ. ma„I U – plaited. 32. (SA. 30. 11.406). 107). 45). 413) 2. III. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. „DI UDK (pl. „awµ (pl. AG.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. braid (FT. 110). AG. 12. 44. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. mu„alla¶ – polygonal.g. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. a Z Ð) – counter. Á G à Р. plait. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq.  DI Ðir) 1. e. ‘eye’ (of a letter). passim). 217). 44). al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. 33. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. polygon. interlace (TF.

76   $* .

signet. lin. seal. ¨ EL¶. 96).134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ).  ODUJH stamp (for a center. ÃDZ ELÑ ). mi¨ba¶ 1. ¨ ED¶ (pl. stamp (IK.medallion) (HT. . comp.

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

.  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. WS. 144. roll (AJ.


6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). comp. qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. 154. 979) 5. 83. III. (KU. tirs. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . sarwah) (JL. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah.5 . 2019) 4. DB.

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

AG. 113. gloss.7. 372). TK. ¨LE T – large sheets. 73  Q $. 21. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). f. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). VIII. margin (LC. AG. IA.120a) 4. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. 102). abbrev. Taf. leaves (of paper) (NH. . 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. 1020. Ãurar) 1. ¨urrah (pl. 109) 2. audition note (EI. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. 107. MZ. 28. marginal note. 60). turn-in (TS. 110) 3. marginalia. AD. I. border (on a book cover) (TS. edge.


SD. margin (TP. 29) 6. VI. ML. 313. address (ÑXQZ Q. 46. II. SA. 58.

. 28) 10. 28) 9. TP. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. mu¨arrar – glossed. n. IV. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. lin. ta¨U U – glossing. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. palmette (LC. KH. 16). f. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. HT.67). 682. 689).120a. f. 28) 13. 28) 8.120a). center-medallion on a book cover (LC. 16). 28) 11.85). ansa. 57. comp. tailpiece (LC. annotated (WA. X. Ãughrá 7. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. 58. annotation (WA. 28. illuminated headpiece (LC. 36) 12.

HD. PA. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. 159: ‘dessin. composition’). outline (HD. ÃXU ¨). al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. celui qui fait le tracé initial. draftsman (AB. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. manuscript restorer. Ãar¨’) 2. ÃXU V DÃU V. 141: ‘dessinateur. 118. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. ta¨U Œ – sketch.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. 132. 69. sketcher. 61. MB. ¨irs (pl. 101. 103). 118. 133). ¨DUU Œ 1. PA.

II. 63-64. LL. 1840). EI. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU . IW. 93.  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. comp. 408. IK. VIII. 75-76.

¨araf (pl. aÃU I.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . IV. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. 140.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. 371). LF. sifr 13. ta¨U V – obliteration. BA. III. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 8. HJ µ. pour s’en servir encore une fois’).

¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. 109). AG. 15. . 31. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. mi¨raqah – mallet. 57. 11. 30. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. TH. 11. 166. AG. AG. 107. 60). 87). IA. 38. hammer (TS. 107).

7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. (MU. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI.) 2. 406). 11. inlay work (AB. X. X. IV. ta¨¶ P – inlay. ¨XJKU µ (pl. 134. headpiece (LC. erasure (KM. FT. AG. 28).92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. sifr 13. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. 109). 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. 28) 4.v. à ¨ughrá. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. 595-598) 3.


SD. 483). 147. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. UK. I. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. 83). II. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. ¨alŒ. ÃDO ¨ \. 145. WS. ¨alaŒ – sheet. 52). 27. 92. AJ. leaf (of paper) (TS.

– sheet (of paper from the mould). . roll (WS. II. 87: al-darj. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). SD. 52).

63. NH. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. IV. Ãirs. ¨alsah. erasure (ND. NH. 373: ¨als. ta¨O V – obliteration.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). ¨ilsim. syn. ÃDO VLP. II. sifr 13. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. thus differing from Ãirs’).) (pl. LL. comp. 82. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ .0 . 373: ¨ulsah). 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. ¨ilsim (etc. ¨ilsam.

naÌDUD ZDTDID. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. 56). beginning of the text.) (KH. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. tion of words (EI. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). incipit (WA. iÁE Ñ (q.v. X. 500-502). 11. WB. 258). mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. ascender (of a letter). – talisman. headpiece (TW. ¨ OL¶ (pl.

/&  26 .

224). RN. 59. MJ. . 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . FRPS WDTU Ì. III. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. 29: ‘common. 144. SA. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. popular class of scripts’). naÌar. III. al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA.

of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. coating. pasting (MB. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. 58. ‘eyes’. gilding (SD. gilt and the like (MB. 136). erasure (JA. daubing.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. passim) 2. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. II. obliteration. KD. II. I. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. 110). ¨ams 1. DG. 278.

 -47. 36. 6$ .. KH.. AS. IR. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. 242. 144).

a¨Q E (sg. 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). Ãunub) – ascenders (TU.

a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. AG. 107. 120b) 2. 61). xviii). 31. 17. 111. unabridged work. strand (UK. cartouche (LC. 62. / / / (CI. 109. I. . ¨ TDK 1. 157. 135) 3. ¨DZ O – long. rectangular panel (AB. 26). al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. rules. MB. 26) 2. sheet (piece. IA. f. MB. musta¨ O 1. abbrev. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). 32. 110). rule-border (LC. AG. layer) of paper (TS. mu¨awwal – original. comp. IA. TK. Áilah. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 35.


sifr 13. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. KM. IV.

mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. 12). 11. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. It was written with a reed pen. III. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. 49-57). ÃDZ P U.


abbrev. – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK. f. person. .  0.120a).

 ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. MJ.g. 206. musta¨ E DK. 212). misk) (e.


CI. II. 3. 18). CM.g. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K.

prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. ÌXU I. inset (EM. 98. AH. 182). WKDU KX – requiescat. **** „arf (pl.


 FDVH ER[ /& 29. LL. ME. . 1910. II. 575).

al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. II.v. aÌI U.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. 495).). „ufr (pl. al-„afar.

– outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC.3. ta„O O (lit. usually the thumbnail) (TM. 29). ‘shading’) – outlining. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). outline (KJ. no. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ].

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

II. „ahr – back. SL. hair side (of parchment). front of the textblock (LC. I. 57. verso. 29). – conjecture. (TP. 59) 2. back of a document. placed in the margin. 29). „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC.64. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). 285). GA. 29. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. comp. CI. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. abbrev. „DKU \DK 1. baÃn. xv. blank reverse of a letter (LC. n.

evident’. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. abbrev. 8 and II. II. „ KLU (lit. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture.  IO\-leaf (SD. . 473: wajh al-waraqah al. ‘alleged. 88. comp. 109). 11. I.Oá). AG. ME. obvious. first page(s) of the textblock (KF.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . ‘external.


GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. ¶ajuz (pl. AJ. WS. ¶ajz. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. 147. 40. 148-149. MP. 80-82). aÑM ].


14). V.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. 21-22. TP. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. n. 52.P P DO-0DKG .

III. IV.. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract.. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. treatise. RA. vocalization (KM. . . sifr 13.  (. 26). 146. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). DEEUHY MI. diacritical point 3.

90. ¶ajm. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. i¶M P WD¶M P 1. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. . SA. 57). pointed letters (TP. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH.


taÑ U M. (pl.

¶arsh (pl. III. curvature (of the descender) (SA. 30). ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. ÑXU VK.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). – curve.

230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U. al-sa¨r – base line (TW.

mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. I. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . KU. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . lattice-work (AB. 45). II. 218. III. 202). taÑ U T. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. TP. ¶ar„(ah). LC.. SA.. mu¶ UL„ – collator. 423) 2. 56. SA. reciter (CT. abbrev. 464.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. 29).  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. MH. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. trellis (FT. 25. 136).9. JA. ¶LU „(ah). 45).

sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. 37. SA. 36. III. 40. KU. 22. 11. 50. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. KH. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z.

 FRPS PXÑaqqaf. . (al-kha¨¨) al-¶. 11).U T see mu¨aqqaq. ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB.

  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. KT.. AG. Ñuran) – thong.. 34. 25. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 110.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ .

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

xiii). ¶ashr (pl. DEEUHY / (CI. I. aÑVK U.


decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .7  // .  8. ¶ VKLU \DK – mark. .  6' ...

ta¶VK U 1. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W.

¶a¦r – pressing (MB. 116: gha  UDK . ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. AG. 108. 11. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS.7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. AG. ¶ushar 1. 109) 2. 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . stamp with vegetal design (TS. 109). 109).

mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. 155. 154-155. II. 84). ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. . IB. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 154). SD. mi¶¦arah (pl. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. IK. 42). 134). also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 154.

lin. signe de renvoi). caret (MR. curved line (used as a reference mark.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1.130) 2. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB.

ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. / / / (AR. MI. connection. introd. 37) 4. abbrev. 145. AM.).  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. 35. 147. 36.

176. TM. TP. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. 54). 93. MR. 00 132.

ST. 19). II. 17. 2091). 16. LL. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ¨ibr) (MP. ¶af¦ – galls. 83. margin (ST. index. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . ¶LI ¦ – plug. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks.

¶aqib (pl. 344). aÑT E. ¶aqb. vox reclamans (TN. comment (LC. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  .+  10  SJ. 27) 2. ta¶T EDK 1. note. catchword.

– end of the text (matn) on a page. 109). KH. 46. lower ¶uqdah (pl. Ñuqad) 1. counter. 11. 47. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. AG. . III. knot-like tool (TS. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. 36) 2. 58.

taÑU T ¶allahu. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU.GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. 126). comp. 37). ‘perhaps. la¶allahu (lit.


80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO. 90. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB.Q DO-ÑLO M. WS.

script. writing. transcript (AD. 119) 3. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. copying (TE. transcription. composition. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. ligature (KU. 15) 2. copy.9 . 124).


. .) .

107) (pl. abbrev. taÑ O T WDÑO T W.  (MI.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.

IV. X. IV. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. 165) 6. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. 71. name often given. EI. explication (TE. 27. scholium. 162). MU. 26). insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. in the Turkish/Arabic context. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century.v. IX. LC. II. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. 694-696) 2. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. 15. 1124. – marginal gloss.). mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. ER. comment.


76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

also TS. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . 28. al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK.. FRPS U MLÑ. III. AG. 77). closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. 26.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. . al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn.. 104).

371. mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. III. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K .

aÑO P. ¶alam (pl.

27) 2. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. SD. mark. ¶DO PDK – 1. 352) 4. signing a document (AA. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. index.g. XII. marking. II. signature (SD. EI. II. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. book mark (e. I. marking quires before sewing (ST. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. autograph (LC. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. 135. 2140). 22). – decorated border (LL. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. ta¶O P 1. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. 18) 2. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. II. TS. 164. 381). 164). ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. motto.

no.39). ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.DUEDO Ð) (CM. 100).HUEHOD .¶  0. al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .


a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. . 372). abbrev. ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. III.

al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah. aÑP O.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. II. ¶amal (pl. 2153: ‘text of the book’).

VII. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ.  FRPSRVition. compilation (MU.

TC. writing. ta¶miyah 1. (SJ. i. 47-48. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. comp. used in opposition to Ãar¨. q.). also mu¶ammá – cryptography. cryptogram. etc. chronosticon (TI. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. 30) 3. main work of a painter (PA. IX.v. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. EI. 229. 123). laà I DO-Ñamal. 257-258).e. VII. taÑZ U 2. colouring. painting. SA.


PK. 211. ÑDQ Z Q. 260-261). (MW. VII. 110. EI. I. SL. ¶XQZ Q (pl. 16.


 the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. PA. . II. 29. 870). 871-872) 3. X. EI. title (of a book) (LC. section heading (LC. 29). 116. 870-871) 4. tarjamah 2. EI. 36. X. 66. 29. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. EI. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. comp. X. 2183). chapter.

hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. 200-203). VWURNH. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. curved (of a line. I. i¶ZLM M – curvature.

8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. VII. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). 14). ta¶Z GKDK (pl. . IN. collation master. 7).g. UD. taÑ Z GK. 726). e. X. 12. ta¶awwudh. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. repetitor (EI. 74). collation session (MF. 230). i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. 13. I.

amulet (DT. ¶ P (pl. 95. of letters) (AP. ‘eyes’. 69). – talisman. aÑZ P. KU. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. 123-124). Ãams. comp. 114.

Ñuqdah. – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. comp. sanah. 43). ¶ayn (pl. 252-253). . LM. VI. 194. comp.

ghubrah – mixture of white. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. adhesive (TS. 97. 88. pasting (ST. VI. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. AG. index. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). North Africa. 141. 90. 73). 47. 47). NW.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. 45-47). 41. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. rasm al-JKXE U. 74. 1124). 250). IV. 97. JM. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. MP.18) 2. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. MP. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. EI. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. 74). OD. 42. NW. NW. red and black colours (SD. IB. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. IB. 145). IK.60-72. 19-23. 244). 199). 145. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. DW. taghriyah 1. AS. VI. 58-63. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. 107. MB. 141. MP. lin. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. 37. II. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. 250).289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. sizing (of paper) (AB. VI. 233. 32-34. aghriyah) – paste. MB. HT. 12-13. IB. 37. n.

 FRPS .IU T  .


mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. 35. 564) 2. 214. KC. case. JKD] O see jild. 36. 554. aghshiyah) 1. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. II. book cover. covering of the board. JKLVK µ (pl. box (SD. ME. binding (TS. passim).

CD. pl. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. III. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah.


 473). I. I. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. taghshiyah – book covering.. LVWLJKI U DK. 257). 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .) . binding (IN.

. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ ..  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ. 217) 2. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' ..

ghal¨ah – error. . a word) (MI. 150). OHWWHU 6. bold character. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). abbrev. 192).  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). mistake. WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM.


213. JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. 108). – book cover (MD. WDJKO I – book covering. AB. 132). mughallif – bookbinder (DG. binding (FZ. 157). 214.

128). 46. VIII. – WDLOSLHFH . also iftit Œ. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. III.). fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q.Ñuqdah. 261). LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ.) .  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). comp. 114.v. 47. **** I I U – papyrus (EI. SA. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1..

XV.9. 23) 2.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . proem (MU. preface. prologue.. LQFLSLW 08 . LC.

IDZ WLŒ al-suwar. LC.g. II.  KHDGLQJ (e. 23) 4. headpiece (KF. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT.

62. IA. . VI. press screw (MB. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. AG. 59). IDW ODK 1. IA. 109) 2. TS.18. 104. 245).

VI. comp.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. II. SD. 249). leaf (of paper) (SA. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. 189.

one half of a piece of leather (TS. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). WDUN E TY.v. conjugate leaf. as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. 28). al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. LIU G – letter in its isolated. – one of a pair. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.).

6$ . ...

390). 83). AT. 481. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.g. shaqq (q. 154). fur„ah (pl. DD. IR. III. SA. 230. far„ al-qalam – syn.v.) (KU. II. MY. I. 60. 133. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA.


// . ..

index. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK .=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. apograph. 23) 2. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy.18). witness (MR. note. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. most probably a variant of PLTU „. mifra¨ – cutter (ST. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. LC. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. annotation (TM.


q.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. 131). 87. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. 82). 93. application as opposed to theory. argument resulting from a legal point. scroll (FI. (AD. KR.v. JL. 88. 269) 4. aÁl. IDU JK SO IDU JK W. 15.) (UD. abbrev. SM.

execution. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W. completion. 41) – end.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO.

GA. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. 23. blank. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. lacuna (LC. also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. 23). 289) 3. 26.+  /0 . 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . farkah (MN.


comment. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 1. explication.


IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . commentary and/or translation. paragraph mark (TP. 23. 83). fa¦¦ (pl. from Greek into Arabic (EI. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. LC. three dots. III. SA. disc. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. 55. mufassir – commentator. e. MS. AK.5 .g. X. 351.


110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl. fuÁ O.

 . QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. SA. III. 138. word division (in a text). MM. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). space between words or passages. spacing (TP. 134. taf¦ O 1. 55. 145-146) 2.

TP. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ.. n. 271). fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . 53. MB. 33). or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn.  FKDSWHU 6' II. comp. 37. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA.20). 130-133. silver-based ink (UK. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver.. 92. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. MP.

23. 351). I. SD. 273. DM). AK. fiqrah (pl. II. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. abbrev. section of a text. xiii. fiqar) – passage. comp. paragraph (LC. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses).

BA. III. – book cover (HN. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. 385.


al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). funuq) – case. fihrist (pl IDK ULV. box (KC.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. 45). fihris. disbound (e. mufakkak – loose.g. IDQ T (pl.


RU &0  RU 66. mashyakhah 2. fahrasah 1. cataloguing. II. AR. 49. catalogue (SD. II. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. also I µidat al-a¦l. list. 293) 2. II. marginal note. 36). LC. 207. EI.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. (CA. abbrev. 50). 149. 743-744) 4. 286. comp. bibliography. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. gloss. nota bene (notabilia). record of attested study. abbrev. 23. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. 107). Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). 15). Qubbat al-. 76  AG. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. .

straightedge (TS.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. qub¨al. SD. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. abbrev. 471). 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. qabr. AG. qabla – before.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. . II. 107. 302). qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. IV. lit.

TP. n.52. 490492). II. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. EI. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . comp. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. 56. PXT ELO – collator. muÑ UD ah 2. collation note (statement). VII. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. corrector. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. MH.

24. n. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. xiv). abbrev. comp. AG. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. aqudd) – strip (of leather). 109). 107).37. 701. 54. FRPS ] Ðidah. CI. AA. etc. 11. qaÃÃ. CI. / / / / / (TP. I.xiii. II. II.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. 10. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. . 18. qidd (pl.

173). 26. 59. comp. MI. 52. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. introduction (EI. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 120. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. fore-edge flap (TS. TP. 17. abbrev. AG. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. also TS. VII. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. 495-496). 107). 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. preface. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. muqaddimah – forward.

recitation (LC. variant reading (varia lectio). manner of recitation. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. reading. prelector. reciter. TLU µah 1. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 139). gloss. collection of glosses. commentary (AD. 9 -129) 3. 26) 2. – marginal note.

$/ .  73 .

25. 53. FRPS ¨arf. 494-498). LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e.g. KF. n. FRPS VDP Ñ. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. TP. II.


sleeve case (TS. AG. II. 466) 2. . 110). SA. AG. TLU E (pl. aqribah) 1. 110). 110). sheath (SK. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. 104. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. 35-36. 36. AG. 36.

91-92. MP.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. 18. ST. 107. index. 21. 63. 63). 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. 60). 19. sifr 13. 19. AG. compact writing (KM. qar¦a¶ah – fine.19. AG. MP. 44). 59). qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. screw press (MB. IK. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. ST. 44. IB. IA. 103: PLTU   (!). PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. IV. 10. 20). 47). index. index. 417). II. QS. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. IK. putting something into a press (ST. IB. 107. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. 94). qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV.


UD. 66-93. AE. parchment (AE. IW. EI. 407) or paper (SA. AE. 173-174. 66-76. comp. VIII. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). 17). WS. 261. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. 98. II. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. VIII. 108. 50. EI. I. V. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. 82-91). 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK.

. often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. XIV. 335- WDTU   W .

 %/ $0 QRV     122. muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . 313). IV. comp. compact writing (KM. 136. sifr 13. 143.  qarmadah. muà ODÑah. qarma¨ah – fine. 186). 182.

60. IB. EI. 42. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. JM. qa¦¦. IV. 393: not defined). 181. index. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. AA.19. miqsam(ah) (lit. 59. DS. . 682. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. qirmah see VL\ T. HT. 153. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. 86. reed pen (IK. 69). qurnah – corner (MB. al-qurnah al-yusrá). 146. EI. 41). ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. 103. see also UA. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). IK. IV. 80). miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. IA. trimming (ST. MB.

MP. qa¦amah. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 32).116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. 153). qa„ P DK. 130. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. qa„m – syn. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 154). miqaÃÃ. comp. 86). tin-based ink (UK.

 2-463. 153. LM. KU. I. – white hide. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . AA. 102. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). sifr 4.) breadthwise (KD. KK. IK. II. nibbing. the point itself. 50. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ.. 109-110. 93). cutting (of leather. leather (IW. 72-74. etc. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. KM.

551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. LM. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. 462. longer than the left’. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. I. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher.e. LL. i. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. II.

2996. II. ivory. 462). 154). miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. MJ. 217). 1742. . MJ. straight point of the nib (SA. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. 217). opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. II. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. II. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL.

qa¨¶ (pl. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. 105: maqaÃÃ. qaÃÑ al-thumn. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf.GLOSSARY 117 etc. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. 133). for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 62. 468.742. 45. SK. AT. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. II. MM. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. ND. 65. MK. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 54. LS. SA. MB. IV. 76. IP.

 irs (AG. .g. qi¨¶ah 1. piece of poetry) 2. piece of calligraphy. decoupage (ER. 475). piece of something (e. 110). principle of the interlace. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. calligraph (AC. VI. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting.

 SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. (pair of) scissors (IK.. format (of a book) (TL. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. PA. cutting instrument (DM) 2.  (5 9. 90) 4. filigree work (IP. AG. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. papercut(s). mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. . 475). comp. 91). VI. 21) 2. 11. collage. WS. taq¨ ¶ 1. 107). muqaÃÃa¶ ).  +'   T ÃiÑ. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. 144. 9. mishraÃ. decoupage.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

abbrev.  26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

– clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. . 377).

107). ST. AG. AG. 15. 107). al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. index. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. flat back (TS. 107. 641). al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. AG. 14. qalb. taqfiyah – backing (TS.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. 15. 15. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. 107). 15-17. comp. 20). AG.

 PRXOG 8.  .

MK. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 26. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. 26. 14.19. no. LC. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. ST. index.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS.3.

FI. 59. 43). folder (IB. miqlab SO PDT OLE. JL. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. 214. 93) 4. FZ. 88.


83. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. 68). 26). – envelope flap (MT. TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. DW. 202-203). WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY.

.  SLHFH RI ZRRG .  76 .

69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. SA. 13 (AA. 44-465. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. i. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". see TW. IK. also qalam al-qa¦ab. 45-87. copper pen. II.  calamus. TC. reed pen.e. KU. 232.

133-134. 71-75. MB. ductus. IV. 100). -50. 59-64. EI. 144. hand. handwriting.. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . 471) 3. UK. AT. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. script. MP. 356. 38-39. . MB.

see khaÃÃ. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK.


11-12).GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. used in talismans and amulets (IT. 335). al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. muqawwar. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. I. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides.

IK. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. 85). al-thuluth. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. 144). 145). Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. DO-mu¨aqqaq. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. 153.




'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

I. 79). qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. 43. chest (LL. II. WDTO P – paring. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). AG. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. trimming (a reed). 49-51. 11. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. KR. . qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. 43. 85). II. 109). 2565).

al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . comp. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. 11. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. 37). WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. 144). 144). III. AS.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

– quotation. XII. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. treatise. PDT ODK 1. 155. 154. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. passage. xiv. MI. II. short composition. 238). tract 2. MU. TP. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. 190.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

82. KF. 86. III. 327. I. KF. 83. 283. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 377. folio (folium) (MK. 190. I. DF. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶.

erect. . mDEV Ã. PXVWDT P – upright. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. RN. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ.g. 22). comp.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.


 al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq. qayd SO TX\ G.

qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. committing something to writing. composition (TE. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . statement.. 17. – note.


 . 62) 4. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. III. 113. IA.. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . binding. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA.  tying. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. IK.


IB. author 2. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. 27). 153. no. muqayyid 1. gloss (LC. glossator (AM. N JKL¨. – marginal note. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. 43).187).

98-105. comp. see waraq. waraq. 136). etc. WS. N JKLGDK – sheet. SO NDZ JK Ã.VO P . . leaf (of paper) (AJ. AE. 419-420. al-N JKDG DO-. 77) – paper (EI. IV. WS. al-5 P . 77-85). al-kalŒ .

downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. 85-86).122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. WS. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. munkabb – inclined. in papermaking) (OM). kubab) – ball (of fibre. kubbah (pl. 136. 374). ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. as in the beginning of w Z.

8'  /0 .

q. 416. 91. WDNE V – pressing (QS. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. II. 393).) 2. 416). AG. CM. 49-53. comp. 169). mikbas. TH. NDE NDM 1. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ .107. UA. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. KL. SD. 440. TS. mun¨anin. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. katb.) (US. II. II.v. 40. kitbah (MH. Ranunculus asiaticus.

kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . transcription. composition. copying. NLW E NLW EDK – writing.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

CT.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. NI. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. +. 45: ‘hence katabah. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. Turkish ketebehü. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’).

 VHFUetary. 554-760). comp. scribe. mu¨arrir. IV. . scrivener 2. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. amanuensis (EI. 180).

 384). 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . booklet. 705. document. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. 197-200). NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 86). book. V. lin. IV. archetype. 207-208). maktabah – library (EI. VI. KD. 388: mukattab). maktab – place designated for writing. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . II. copying (KK. PDNW E SO PDNW E W. NH. tail (of a book or document) 2.115). I. codex (MA. 53. letter. EI. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). 23.. piece of writing. spine (of a codex) (HT. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y.) . IK. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. chapter in a book (SL.

muktib. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. II. – piece of calligraphy. 4. calligraph (DP. KM. 53). IV. 705).g. master calligrapher (KK. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. 51. mukattib (e. sifr 13. KD.


230). akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. outline (of letters) (DH. takŒ O 1. 187). mikŒ O see mirwad. kohl. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). no. outlining. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. 393. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). 414) 2. I. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393).383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. kuŒl – antimony. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. IR. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. pointing (of a wall) (FT.

68). RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. comp.


124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK. 142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.

tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs. AG. 12. 33.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS.

sic. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 .  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). IB. 0. 154. 42). abbrev. NDGK – thus. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK.

WLNU U. dittography (e.g. 162). ditto- NXUU V DK. TM. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). 48. 184). WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. takarrur – graphic error.



60). passim. AG. SL. II. II. SK. CI. IK. TS.0 . x. 100.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . II. lin.  . NXUV – book cradle. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT.92). 14.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. KU. . 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. SA. 84. AA. TS. 48. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. 107) 2. 700). 468-471. KD. ra¨l. 132). comp. II. 60). quire (gathering). kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. abbrev. 131. reading stand (MD.


 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .



 kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. 363). miksar SO PDN VLU.

389. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 137. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. syn. IR. 58). NH. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). DD. I. 274. knife (for making erasures) (IR. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . TP. of bashr (LF. 79. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. 128). 391). kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM.

126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl. kuÑ E.

– spine (back of a codex) (MB. 82). WDNI W – inlaying. rizmah. 90). JL. 84. 977. AJ. IA. 95. tongs (MB. 92. inlay (SA. 92. 97. DM). al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. 109). kaff(ah). usually 25 sheets (PT. FT. AB. DE. main de papier). 61. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. 442. KR. 109. comp. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. 109). II. 94). passim. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. 39. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. NXQQ VK DK. dast. 145. flat back (MB. WS. 406).


. HB. 25. commonplace book (LC. – 1.

kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI.  kunyah (pl. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). 395-396). mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . V.

originally and properly speaking.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. I . I 1. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-.

27ff. FN. 363. 11-13. AV. MV. OD).  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV.g. 8-9. comp.

76  $*  86 .

478). paint (UK. 85). 145. 139). laŒaq (pl. 114. 119. ultramarine. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 27. II. MP. 29. SA. al¨ T OL¨ T. JM. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. azure ink.

insertion (TP. ilŒ T. mulŒaq – omission. .

185. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK. IB. 279). 42). adhesive (KD..14). liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. II. 154. TM. 24. OL] T – paste. I. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP.128 GLOSSARY  .  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. JA. comp. 703). LC.

133. I. 14.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. II. IR. SA.  76  11. n. 107.169. 390) 3. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). DD. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. copyist’s book support. 481) 2. II. AG. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT.24. 15. WA. 230. 481. SA. book cradle (TW.

where each gathering is numbered separately). abbrev.  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. /&  /( .


PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. lin. 25). 25. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. 119. 90. OLV Q (pl. MM. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST.109. 132). 13. ST. HT. JL. index. 20. LC. $'  /( 137) 3.


stamping (HT. 391. passim). 145. DD.166). malediction.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. II. 167. 530). 181. DM). or (MI. laqab SO DOT E. SD. RA. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . lin. 131. adhesive (SA. OL] T la¶nah – curse. alÁiqah) – paste. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. IR. spool (DS. 230) 2. II. 480. 26). comp. lafŒ – tooling. mulaffaq. I. abbrev. wrapper (DM). milaff 1.

inlay (FT. 618-631). implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. tweezers (MB. pincers. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. 109) 2. WDOT P – inlaying. . I. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. honorific title (EI. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). DD. 406). V. (pair of ) tongs. – nickname.

lak.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. 49). 11. lakk RU O N '* . stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. LM.

q. law¨ W. copying (TE. AG.v. ODPP ¶ – glossy. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨.g. glazed. lacquer. lamq – elegant writing. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. 16). comp. namq. burnished (e. 140). 11. 109). varnish (AB.).

(Turk. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. 99. 142-143. usually framed). 125). head. headpiece (FT. HT. 24. 31) 6.123. 29. 11. gloss (DM). 124) 3. 402). wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. . MB. wooden board (TS. 25. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. OM) 4. pasteboard (ST. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. 5) 5. panel (in decoration). 58-59) 2.or tailpiece) (LC.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. lin. II. MS. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. illuminator (HD.

AG. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). 31. 156. raÐs al-lawzah.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. IB. 109.v. TS. 38). almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. see also nuqÃah) 3. MB. central medallion (on a book cover). WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH.). 105. 44. IA. also known as sarwah (q. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. oval figure 2. 59. 11. mandorla 4.

IB. – spatula. lawn SO DOZ Q. IR. 230. 133. II. 45. AT. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. 208). MJ. 478.

. tint (EI. 698-707. pigment. AI. JA. V. 148.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. – colour.

shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. 11. tinting (of paper). WDO\ ¨ 1. 27) 2. LC. see also the quotation under sha¨m). IK. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. WDOZ Q 1. 86. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. polychrome illumination (WA. III.

. 702. AT. MP. 477-478. II. 55.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. III. 133). O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. 393) tow (wad. UK. 203) 2. 20. 79-84. liyaq) 1. BA. MP. IK. 13. 111-119. O TDK (pl. coloured ink (SA. II. MJ. 26-29. MB. n. 160) 3. index. also PLO T (UA. 26-29. 370). paper pulp (OM). tuft of unspun silk. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. colour. tint (AD. 84.

III. II. also PLO TDK (BA. amliqah) 1. 370) – compartment for ink (KD. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 .132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl.


. .. %$ .

 layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. 144. KH. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U.

muqawwar. muraÃÃab. **** matn SO PXW Q. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. such as al-thuluth. comp. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ.


843) 2. 1. EI. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). text-column (MU. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. II. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. V. VI.


WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. shar¨ or gloss. ¨ VKL\DK.

VI. EI. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. 568). TP. LC. 843) 4. MD. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. IX. Œard al-matn (HN. 25). . 24. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). 53). 214. P WLQ – author of the original composition. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. SD. 109. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. II. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. 1. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. (qalam) al-matn.

hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. MJ. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. transcript. 138-140. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. comp. or licking) (TP. ink (in general) (SK. III. 127-131. EI. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. UK. ¨ibr. 86. 1031). BA. maŒw – ink removal. ¨aÃÃ.v. MJ. amiddah) – soot ink. 13.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). MP. IV. 121-122. AT. MP. 216). KR. erasure. 58. 21. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. PLG G (pl.) . khirqah. 79: dalk) 2. TP. IV. 15-18. 471-477.) .GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. 371). Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. II. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. 38. pl. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. AE. III.52. process of softening leather (making it flexible. 89). SA. blind tooling. comp. amthilah) – copy. KH. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. UK. index. maŒ UDK (q. 38. obliteration (by means of a cloth. 67-71. 134-135. 90). . VI. apograph (CD. 238). comp. 79-90.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih).  madd. JL. 55. tamŒ ¨ 1. 36-37). MB. n.

(al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . II.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). 465-467. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. 103- 8$  . SK. midan) – knife.5  . pen knife (SA. mudan. I  mudyah (madyah. midyah) (pl. 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM).

WDPU „ see  abbah. FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. 166. . masŒ – rubbing. wiping (MB. 110. AT. II. 202). sackcloth (DG. DD. misŒ 1. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. I. see shar¨. 481-482. 60: misann almis¨) 2. coarse haircloth. 391). 133. SA. IA. 230. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . 114).


16) 3.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. 230). scribbling (MM. SK.. copying. I. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. 55) 2. mashq 1.I. hasty. AA. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . inelegant hand. IR. elongation (of letters) (JA. 116-117. 60. 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. mush¨ – comb (IA. transcription (TE.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ .

89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. 164) 6. calligraphic model (AD. 151). 16. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. mashqah 1. calligraphic hand (CM. calligraphic exercise. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. 48. 83) 5. copying from a model (TE.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. KT. KK. 4. elegant. 134: ÑDQ . fine elongation. IK. MY.’). for example. fine elongated stroke (SK. according to some opinions. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own.


PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. 183). P VKLT – calligrapher (NI.

'' . .

autograph (DM) 2. FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. signature. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . signing.


88. 25.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. EI. etc. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. LC. 27). ex-library. 11. 31. milk – ownership (OS. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. 478). al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. AG. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. 60-61). 8). al-maghrah al-¶. 107). AG. 88. LC. FRPS QDÌar 3. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. 11. al-musharrafah. also malasah – burnisher. 411). 390. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . polisher (NH. TS. Makkah (al-mukarramah. plane-like instrument (TS. VII. 107) 2.). ex-dono. II. I  mimlasah 1.

KF. SDVVLP :6 -13. work (known as al-DP O .  GLFWDWLRQ $. 85-94) 2. I.

II. 472-. famulus (AI. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. SL. stamp (EI. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. 48). VII. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. 725-726). 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). passim. VII. EI. muhr – seal.VII. signet. GA. passim. 725-726. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus.

stamping (EI. . FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. VII. 472-473).



(IW. sheet. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. AE. 8-9. 79-82. IV. KM. sifr 13. II. WS. 472. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. leaf (of paper) (SA. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. II. 50-52) 2. sheet. 105-106.

polisher (IA. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. mawzah – burnisher. 60. 63).

UD.$  maws. trimmer (TW. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK . 16: al-maws al-6K U ] . – pen knife.

  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. 25).  1+  '' . P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. 64). 226. LC. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. V. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. II.

inlaying (SA. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. SA. II. 45). 12. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. tilting (of a script). II. 403). script) (UD. . WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. hence P µil – inclining. slanting (of the line. gilt (SD). coating. 442) 2.

QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. JM. copying (TE. 40). KM. WDQE K – note. IV. nota bene. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ).138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. sifr 13. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). 16. remark (in the body of a composition). 146.

trimming (of a reed) (IR. 43: P MDPDK). UD. index. 21. paring. 36). minjam – mallet (ST. naŒt 1. IB. 232. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU.

e. I. 482). .  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. nuŒ V – copper. ¨amdalah. 133-134. copper-based ink (UK.g. basmalah. MP. etc. 35). (MG.


95. II. muntakhib – compiler. nasab SO DQV E. KR. 82). 97. – anthology (EA. 384). 230. selector (DF. 94-95). narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. DM). munkhul – sieve (IR. I.

pedigree (EI. – lineage. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. etc. VIII. 967-968). tribe. VII. 53-56). religious sect or school. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. genealogy. ending in – (EI. nisbah (pl.


which according to the Mamluk tradition. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. 17. (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. see khaÃÃ. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . transcription (TE. sifr 13. naskh-ta¶O T). 21). KK. 1126 (in Turkey). par excellence. KM. naskh 1. 696-699).5. IV. ER. IV. 1124 (in Persia). PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. 1127 (in Muslim India). (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. 57) 2. IV. index. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts.

I.  0. nusakh) 1. 26). 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. LM. comp. 1125. 128. pl.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. al-naskh al-mu¶W G./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. catalogue (AD.171). al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ.12) 2. 89). copy (EI. personal) nature (CI. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. list. CI. 138. but erroneously. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. 1123.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. version. transcript.      $5  $. IV. 146. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. abbrev. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. archetype (LC. 1127. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . QDVNK 1. 123. xv. LE. EI. commonly. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see Muslim India). IV. XVI. MZ. 47. n. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. recension (MU. al-makh¨ ¨ W. 36. CD. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. 182. xiv). II. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. badal) 4. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. Turkey. 141. LM. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. nuskhah (pl. I. variant reading (varia lectio). VIII. 149) 2. Persia.

al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. unicum. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. archetype (LC. al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. 26). 26).


¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . passim). WB. 47). TW. 16. MA. 17. scribe (TE. muntasikh – copyist. PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. 348.

g. no. III.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. documents or state papers.. 9. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). epistolography (EI. of letters. . e. style or composition. layout (mise en page ) (FK. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. 1241-1244). LQVK µ – construction. I. letter-writing.

I. nashr. 94. I. TD. IK. 134. 67). 173. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. AI. WDQVK U. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. 136). 278.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.


OM. starch paste (made of sorghum. DD. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. II. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. 12. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. IR. 230: minshaµah). minshafah – blotter (TD. SA. 136). 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). MB. I. 480. AT. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. 21). 106. ST. dhurah) (OM). 50. 60. starch paste (TS. index. I. 13. IA. 390. II. nashan – wheat starch. 133. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. 21. IB. . 395). index.

stroke. 249..  . the letter alif (IR. handle (SK. .133.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. ni¦ E 1.. pallet-like tool (HT. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. straight line. 137). 240. lin. 241. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ .

49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. 59) 3. 43. 156. 11. IA. up-stroke (SA. UD.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. munta¦ib – ascender. IB. 47. 101. III. 59). MB. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 103. LM.

statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. na„ar – study note. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. ZM. III. 88. e. 93. reading note. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. JL. medallion. 43). 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). 218. 217. FZ.g.

) .  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .


 Q „ir (pl. nuÌÌ U.

I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL.170). no. curator. na„m. II. shiÑr. comp. .  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. versification. 2812).

503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). AT. engraving (on stone). I. 23). QDTT U – carver.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ.3. engraver (KM. 392). 391: for sewing of quires). 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). WDQT Œ. revision (KF. naqr – inscription. nafÃah) – pockets of air. awling (MB. sifr 13. 133. II. nafa¨ (sg. no. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. 481. DD. minfadh – punch. IR. passim). 208. 230. tanaqquŒ – correction. nafdh – punching. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. MJ. epigraphy (KM. 5). II. IV. awl (SA. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. sifr 13. IV.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

IK. sifr 13. 469. 5). II. SA. KM. naqsh SO QXT VK. 49. 471. IV. – ink (KK. 84.

comp. 156. QLT VKDK 1. illumination (EI. TS. painting. 63) 3. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. VII. 29-32. MB. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. naqr 2. epigraphy (FT. 931). IA. inscription. engraving. 105. 400).

.  0% 105. 59). IA. ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8.

sifr 13. 141. IV. engraver (KM. illuminator (PA. VII. carver. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. copying (FK. 155.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. miniature painter. designer. 931-932). III. 5) 2. 159). WDQT VK – writing. 266).

KH. TE. naq¦. SA. 38). 16-17. haplographic error. naq¨ 1. 151. nuq¨ah (pl. III. III. III. 58). letter-pointing (TE. 16-17) 2. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. 160. SA. nuqaÃ. haplography (TP.


IA. 33. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. Q TLO (pl. extract. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. . copying. nimrah – number. IA. exact copy (apograph). copyist. quoting. 16. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). abbrev. HT. calligrapher (TE. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. translation. quotation 3. TE. 137. numrah. naql 1. 12. MB. orthographer (LT. AW. XII. naqalah) 1. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). 16) 4. 218) 2. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). translator. citing. figure. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. 368). 133. 68) 5. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . 105. transcription (MU.

53. 45. 16. SK. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. 62. 91). 53. AM. copying (TE. numbering. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. namq WDQP T – elegant.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. embellished writing. KK. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 .

180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . NI. Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC. 45. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM).

embellished writing. calligraph. AW. painted illustration (KF. 237). 119. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). II. WDQP O – compact writing. copying (SK. n. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). 105) 2. copying (KH. compact writing (KM. 38). munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. sifr 13. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. namnamah 1. AA. IV. calligraphic composition (NI.1). elegant. 181. 369.

used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. having an open counter (ant. index. of maÃP V q. – floral design. IB. 43). 22. PXQ U – syn. 44). 69). of mufatta¨. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . 26.) (LM. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. IB.v. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina.

146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. KF. II. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. 498-450. III. 27). EI. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð.

700. KD. II. 106. IK. – inkwell (SK. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P.

SL. II. 110. xiii. CI. I. 87. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. xi. 285). CI. termination. II. LQWLK µ – end. / / / (for intahá) (MW. abbrev. GA. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W.



hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. **** DKG E (sg. 36). hudb. hud hud SO KDG KLG.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

I. abridgement. .. 23).. epitome (EA.. WDKGK E 1. correction. revision (DM) 2. LKG µ – dedication (FN. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 .  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah).

MG. 483. 69. muhall. 73) 2. author. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. I. 181. compiler (SS. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. 108) 2. 72. EI. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. abridger. WDKO O 1. backing (MB. epitomist. 61). rounding (of the spine). IA. X. 109.

VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9. .


..   .  PDUJLQ ') .

 . /&  0. gloss. abbrev.  PDUJLQDO note.

  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn).. annotation (TT. glossing. 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK. WDKP VK 1.. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ .


 muhammash – glossed. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. annotated (TW.

al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah.  K PDW DO-alif). 57. MH.. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. . raÐV HJ 6$ . 244). unpointed letters (TP. 57. IR. syn. 90). GL. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP.. 4. K PDK – head (of a letter).

. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . ¶alá al-wajh – copying. IV. 31. 31) 3. 25. 25) 2.. transcription in full. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. epitome (DM). ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . page (MU. wajh(ah) 1. II. upper cover (TS. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. face. 43-45).   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). wajh al-hirr (lit.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement.

 -92).Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 82). wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al. 29. 109). al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. 6$ ... MK.

5. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. 82). piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. II. MJ. IV. waŒy – writing. MK. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. . SA. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. 218). waŒVK see sinn. sifr 13. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. 53). 464. KM. KK. 29.

no.73). muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. waraq SO DZU T. no. lobed medallion (DH.73). 95.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. DA).

85-.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. WS. -195.


 waraqah 1. piece (of paper. leaf. parchment or leather) 2.  $5  . abbrev. folio (folium).


25). (TS. khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. AG. wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 29). 109). 11.

I. 85). DO-.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

DO-5 P 1. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. 31). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. French paper (PT. I. 378). 75. 77) 2.

30. 31). 193. paper bearing an imitation watermark. SA. VI. . DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. Tre Lune) (PT. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). OM).

32).150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O.

107. pasteboard (JL. 84). 104) 2. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . II. WS. 380). 35. 88. cardboard (FT. 82). MD. 394). – glazed paper (PT. 87. 487. MS. WS. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. 32. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. SA. JL.

bookbinder (QS. scribe (SL. MN. I. I. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. IK. MP. 22. IB. JL. 16. bookseller. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. 94). 82. IV. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). 148) 2. 14. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. 495). EI. 81. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. professional copyist. index. 87. 9. 22. 65). maysam SO PD\ VLP. WDZU T 1. 380). WS. – marbled paper (DM. KF. 161). FI. 69. WR. 93. II. LC. foliated arabesque design (ST. 28. index. transcription (WS. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. 558-561). foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. 88. stationer. copying. II.

135). – tool. stamp (AB. mawsim SO PDZ VLP.

washŒ – decorating. – feast. 65).g. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. MP. II. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . festival. index. 22. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. CI. 10).

lin. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK.125. drawing (AD.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1. . writing. stamping (of leather) (HT. 186) 2. 93) 3. also WDZVK P – tooling.


wu¦l (pl.126). washy. – pattern (created by tooling). wi¦l. UK. 18. wa¦l. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). lin. awÁ O ZDÁO W. stamp (HT. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE.

also Z ¦ilah – catchword. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. darj). leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. 144) 3. II. 10. HB. collema (kollema) (WS.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. 683. vox reclamans (NM. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . SA. 88. 90). 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. NZ. piece. wa¦lah 1. 234. 110). 65) 2. 812. VI.

$' .

¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. arrangement (of a text) (MU. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). 3132). 187. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. comp. VI. 62. I. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. PA. 12. KF. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. wa„¶ (pl. aw  Ñ ) – composition.

. author (DF. 376). IV. Z „i¶ – compiler.

P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G. prologue. proem (DM).152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface.

– collation session (TP. TM. 56.192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $.  .

575) 2. 16. awÑiyah) – 1. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. container (OM). case. wi¶ µ (pl. 87: ZDT ¶ah. wifq SO DZI T. 19. ME. DA). box (MS.

LC. 392. .. autograph. 100. KF. 28. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. X. apostil (usually signed) (AD. 69. P IDT – seal. 108). writing something down. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). 189. taking something down in writing (SL. decree (EI. stamp (IK. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. LC. AD. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. royal edict. 392-393) 3. I. 124. al-WDZ T ¶. 189). motto. IV. 125) 4. 10) 2. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . I. 96). 28. KM. sifr 13. gloss. X. WDZT ¶ 1. signature (EI.

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

LM. bequest note (OS. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. KF.v. 100. WDZT I (KF. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). PDZT I 1. 43-46. 441). perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). 187).in Turkey). KF. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. II. LM. reading. 146. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. LM. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . III. 38) 2. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. WDTU Ì (q. 428-442). 69).. II. 146). 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. waqfiyah. wakf 3.. waqf 1. 146. Persia. endowment.) (BL. . 73-77. 61.9 1123.29. 1125. KH. JM. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. 63).g. (AS. 90). (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. AS. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. 146.g. II. 90.g. unfinished stroke (e.

taÐammul 2. 122). overlining (TP. AA. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. IV. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. 123). 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). sifr 13. error (IK. 55). logograph. 95. wakt – letter pointing (KM.) (LC. wahm – mistake. AA. 28). K P – omission (IK.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. . comp. 95.


maÁ ¨if. ray¨ Q QDVNK. DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq.

ant. al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 6$ III. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. \ ELV – rectilinear. 144).

..  8'  $6  /0 . 6$ .


used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. in the hand of) (OT. \DU ¶(ah) – reed. 42). . – hand. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. II. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. DM. reed pen (IK. 86. UA. KD. 393. I \DG.

CM.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.g. no.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK.





Beirut.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. ed. Fagnan. Vol. Akimushkin and Anatol. AF = Oleg F. 1923. ed. Riyad.ABBREVIATIONS 1. Paris/ London. Max Weisweiler.1. Al-. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. Wien. ed. 2 (1989): 37-53. The arts of the book in Central Asia. 1967. “The art of illumination”. A. ±aydar Ghaybah. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. AC = Adam Gacek. “Das arabische Papier”. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. AI = ÑAbd al-. transl. AJ = J. Algiers. Arabische Paläographie. 1414/1994. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. B. AD = E. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. 1979: 35-57. 1989. Damascus. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. AG = Adam Gacek. Gray. Ivanov.VKE O LQ KLV µ. von Karabacek. AE = Adolf Grohmann. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- .LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. 1981.

by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. AS = Adam Gacek. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. no. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. Descriptive catalogue. London/Oxford. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. 15. McGill University. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. 1996. “Arabic numerals”.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. 1. 2 (1987): 45-67. nos. 1982: 1. AL = . 4 (1989): 144-149. Montreal. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Ars Islamica. AP = Nabia Abbott. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. AO = Adrian Brockett. 1992. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. London/Oxford.4 (1986): 131-137.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. . AW = Nabil F. decoration. 8 (1941): 65-104. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. Manuscripts of the Middle East.D. 1992. AN = Richard Lemay. Safwat. AQ = David James. London/Oxford. 1996. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. AV = François Déroche.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. New York. 382-398. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . ed. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. binding and paper”.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”.

CD = Arthur J. MacKay.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. 1984-85. 1958.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. London. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. 1991. Leiden. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. Oriens. The Chester Beatty Library. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. CM = Adam Gacek. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. -CCA = Adam Gacek. Montreal. Arberry. CL = Jan Just Witkam.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. 4 (1991): 35-53. CT = Pierre A. CI = Adam Gacek. 1982 .. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. Dublin.

4 (1971). London. no.Z. Paris. Dictionnaire arabe-français. 1960. -DDA = A.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. De Biberstein Kazimirski. DB = R. Denizeau. M. Blachère. Iskandar. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library.S. Chouémi and C. 1967. CW = A. Dictionnaire . 61. N.

DP = Adam Gacek. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. DQ = François Déroche. Frankfurt. fasc.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. 4 (1989): 44-55. 4. Beryus.. Cowan. J. Revue des études islamiques. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. ±amd al-.1986. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah.2 (1938): 141-151. Ithaca. Little. de Premare. DM = Hans Wehr. 1984. 4th ed.1 (1937): 69-110. Paris. 0DPO N studies review. ed. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. 1967.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. 1994. Wiesbaden. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. 59 (1991): 229-235. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. DR = Donald P. Archeological studies.M. 1994. fasc. ed. ed. Kuwait. DC = A.-L. 5.D. 2 (1998): 93-193. DT = Tawfik Canaan. DG = Werner Diem. . . 1989. Beirut. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Paris. 1993 .. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. NY. A dictionary of modern written Arabic.

EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. Leiden. EP = François Déroche.S. Yarshater. E. Baghdad. London. 1995: 93-101. Dimand. FM . -EEA = J.d.VO P \DK.S. London/ Oxford. 1997. 1979. 5 . EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New ed.EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. 1960 . Cairo.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. eds. 1993. 1982 . à W´ Al-Mawrid. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. Al-)XQ Q DO-. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Starkey. 1998. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”... transl.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. Part 1. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. 1986. -FFD . London (later Costa Mesa.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. 1999. New York. Istanbul.). Calif. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. Meisami and P. London. n. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. ed. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá.EU K P . 1995: 17-57.

1987. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. Cairo. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. 1966. . 1967. HD = A. 1987. 3rd ed.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). Rabat.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. ed. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. Wright. Cambridge. herausgegeben von W. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. Istanbul. A Grammar of the Arabic language.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. GL = W. 50-99. Kaziev (Gaziev). HT = Adam Gacek. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. 1994. Fischer. transl. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. Baku. Cairo. ³. HN = Ñ \LGDK .U. Wiesbaden. 1992.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . 1982. 6 (1991): 41-58. Manuscripts of the Middle East. FT = Oktay Aslanapa.

Paris. Qum. The Oriental Institute. Univ.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. 8.1981. Bosch. Beirut. London. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1995: 123-136. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. ed. à W´ Al-Mawrid. J. Cairo. )DKP 6DÑd. 1389/1970. IM = Ñ. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. Petherbridge. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. A¨mad ‚aqr.1987? . Carswell and G. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. Cairo/ Tunis.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. Richard.2 (1979): 221-284. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. Chicago. 1981.. F.H. May 18 . 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. . of Chicago. 1319 A. Beirut. Damascus. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. Déroche and F. ed. IB = G. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. no. 1997: 57-63. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q . “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.August 18. 1983. 1973. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . ed.

PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. Ph. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . Baghdad.. 0DMDOODW .PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I . KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . 6 pl. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. 38 (1989): 7-103.1961. Riyad. 1997.n. Algiers.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G. Damascus.l..XOO \DW DO. 1969. 1363 [1984]. ed. ÑIzzat ±asan.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”.G E (Cairo). 1982.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. s. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. 20. University of Michigan. [Tehran?]. Beirut. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed).1 (1958): 81-106..G E DOV PLÑ. 1962. . 1983. 1985. no. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . S. Qum.D. 1962. Al-0DQ KLO.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-. Cairo. ed. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”.

KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). ed. no.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK .H. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue. 1981.VO P . KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. no.H.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. 1 (1963): 26-48. 1937: 125-161. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . Cairo.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. 1. 1978. no.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. RDVK G DOÑ. by Arthur Jeffery. 2. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. no. Leiden. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. Á KL = G. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. Al. KS < VXI DO-. Fehervari and Y.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”.3 (1964): 1933. 2 (1946): 9-18.2 (1973): 43-78.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³.240 (1984): 61-68.LW E. 1316-21 A. 1.DWW Q  ³. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. Safadi. “Al-. London. ed.

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LL = Edward William Lane. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. Rev. 2 (1987): 68-87. MELA Notes. Cairo. Samarrai. LE = M. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. Ben Cheneb. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. LC = Adam Gacek.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. Leiden. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1929. 1984. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . 302-303 (1920): 134-138. 1790-1930. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. 48 (1989): 21-29. ed. 1978 (catalogue no. Arabic-English lexicon. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. LD = P. ed. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. Revue africaine. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. Baghdad. LB = Jan Just Witkam.J.S. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. 1911-1931. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Cambridge. Brill. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam.500). 1992. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. van Koningsveld and Q.

Damascus. 230 (1938): 551-575.G DO-Mawlá. Journal asiatique. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. Damascus. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. ed.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. 1913.d. Cairo. Leiden. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. MK = Etan Kohlberg. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. ME = A. n.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. no. 1995. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . Beirut.U T .XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . Beirut. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. Beirut. 1972. ed. 1391/1971. ed. MC OL¨ \DK .4 (1986): 185-248. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. 20 (1970): 88-137. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK.OP DO-Ñ. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. 1992. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. 1980. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . 15. 1992. 1349 [1930]. Beirut. Lamare. .

Al-Mawrid. Revue des études islamiques. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. 1992. MP = Martin Levey.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . pt. MY = François Déroche. no. . MV = François Déroche. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. 52. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. 1976-87.4 (1962). The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries.1 (1969): 3-47. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. 15.S. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. Cairo. no. N. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. MT = Adam Gacek. London/Oxford. ed..IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. 1936-38.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James.6 (1993): 641649. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . 32 (1987): 105-114. MW . 18. 14. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. no. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379.2 (1989): 201-203.

A. Revue des études islamiques. 1418/1998: 341-393. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). Sadan.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1342/1923 . 1928.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. Damascus. 2 (1987): 126-130. 45 (1977): 1-87. ND = J. 2 (1987): 8-17. London. NS = S. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 13. NC = Adam Gacek. Cairo. no.EU K P 6KDEE ¨.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. NH . Bonebakker. NO = Dimitri Gutas. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . 1367/1949. Cairo..VO P  . “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ.2 (1992): 679-683. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. 1. 1 ILPELU  HG . “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts.

Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. Manuscripts of the Middle East. -PPA = Yves Porter. 2 (1987): 88-95. Daly. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). 10 (1998): 41-63. Derek Latham. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”.H. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. 1985: 29-48. 5 (1960): 124-143. OS = Adam Gacek. “O. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). New York. OH = J. ed. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. PT = Terence Walz. M.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . 1992. . Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju.W. OM = Adam Gacek. Paris/Teheran. 1994 : 75-81. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. 26 (1976): 199-212. Rabat. PK = S.

RI = W. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. Beirut. SJ . SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. Costa Mesa. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. RN = Nabia Abbott. Chicago. 1995. . Beirut. Paris. 3rd ed. no. Paris. 195772.4 (1986): 259-270. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. a new direction”. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. 1938. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. 1410/1990. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. SD = R. Bookbinder. 1967. Hanaway and Brian Spooner.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . 15. 1960.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. Dozy. 1973. ed. 2 (1956): 339-372. Cairo. SL = Nabia Abbott. Chicago. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. 1 (1987): 21-38. Bull. -RRA = William L.

1346-49 A. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN. François Déroche.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie).Q Q  London. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Rabat.VO P . arabe 6844). ed. 1965.1 (1997): 55-90.DWW Q  . TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. Damascus. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. 41. 1925. P. Beirut. Rabat. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. 1989: 49-50. MS (Paris. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. MELA notes. . Paris. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . 1303 A. 1994: 11-32. 1995. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. Bibliothèque nationale.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient.H.H. Ricard. 1997: 135-150. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. ed. no. ed.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. TE = Adam Gacek. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. Damascus. Paris/Istanbul.

TS %DNU LEQ .LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh. Hyderabad. 1991. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. . xx-xxxii.d. F.EU K P DO-. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . ed. ed. Rabat. 1353/1934.VKE O  ³. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. Jedda. 1989: 51-60. n. Déroche. ±amd al-. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. 1949.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. Kuwait. 1982. pl. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. TP = Adam Gacek. Paris/Istanbul. Damascus. Ñ$EG $OO K .

no. 1981-83. 1980.10 (1975): 80-92. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. 16. 1 (1986): 49-53. . WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1983. no. 23. Beirut. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. DaÑwat al-|aqq. Dublin. 1992. Beirut. Graz. Hildesheim/New York.2 (1977): 45-56. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. 17 (1971): 43-172. DaÑwat al-|aqq. Chester Beatty Library. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. no. 18.4 (1982): 10-24.

NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O.Oá / -XP Gá al. 17.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. 2.XOO \DW DO.G E (Cairo). 6 pl. no. Tehran. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).1 (1955): 43-48. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW .

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

/ = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P.

 ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah). numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P.


Áa¨ ¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. Á ¨ib. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨.

ra L\D $OO K . ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah).

ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).  abbah (ta E E.

Ñ UL a. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . = Ãurrah. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. rajÑ.

waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. / = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu). fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . aÁl. tamma. malzamah.

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Dain. 1979). M. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. ed. Bischoff. Paris. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. 5th ed. 1993.P. Leonard. Sydney M.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Beit-Arié. Bozzolo. . Bernhard. 1983. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. London/New York. Cockerell. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. Indeed. 1993. ed. 1990. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. Jerusalem. Toronto. Cambridge. Les manuscrits. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Gruys and J. Bookbinding. 1976. Boyle. Alphonse. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. Gumbert. Maniaci and P. Paris. 5 vols. however. 1953 (repr. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Vatican City. Munafò. 1976-1980. Malachi. Transl. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. It does not. A. 1988. 2 vols. Carla. Paris. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. 1997. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Paris. 1984.1. Leiden. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology.

Edward. Paris.H. codicologie et archéologie du livre. Muzerelle.G. and Wilson. 1977. New York. 1988. C. Codicologica.C. Geoffrey Ashall. Diringer. ed. 1988. François and Guineau. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. 11-13 septembre 1972. 1998. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. Introduction à la codicologie. “Paléographie. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. 1974 : 19-25. The birth of the codex. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. Del. John E. M. 1989. Paris. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. Le livre au Moyen Age. P. & lettering. Albert. . 1974. Oxford. 2nd ed. 1985. Glenisson. Proceedings of the British Academy. 1 (1976): 84-90. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. L. N. 1996.. études historiques et physico-chimiques. Italo. Kristeller. Bernard. New York. The hand-produced book. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. Paris. “The codex”. London. and Skeat. 1983. David. C. 2nd ed. 40 (1954): 169-204. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. Dukan. Paris. Maniaci. Les matériaux de la couleur. London/New York. 1986. 1983. Roberts. Lemaire. 1989.D. 1984. London. Paris. Paris. Rome. Roberts. Blanchard. 1985. H. Glaister. Gruijs. Paris. Reynolds. Johnston. Paul O. Jacques. Paris.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex. A. Turnhout. Hoffmann. 1999. peinture. 1996. Writing & illuminating. Gallo. New Castle. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). Greek and Latin papyrology. Louvain-la-Neuve. 1990. M. Paris. enluminure. 1953. Encyclopedia of the book. T. ed. Murdoch. Denis. M. Delamare. Jean. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”.

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³/D WUDQVPLVVLRQ GH OD µ. Rome. Humbert. ——— ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ LI 7LUP GK ’V µ. 16 (1954): 258-270. 1956: 2. Rosemarie. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Geneviève. 92 (1938): 60-87. al-. 50 (1998): 191-222. University of London. 4 (1957): 304-307. ——— “La transmission de l’éloge de Zayn al-Ñ ELG Q´ Journal asiatique.LI \D I PDÑrifat uÁ O Ñilm alULZ \DK¶ G¶DO-Haà E Dl-Ba G G ´ Arabica. Lévi-Provençal.LW E GH 6 EDZD\K. Leiden. 240 (1984): 61-68. “How al-Bu© U ’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]’”. 1995. Joseph. /HV YRLHV GH OD WUDQVPLVVLRQ GX . Quiring-Zoche. University of London. “Deux éditions inconnues du ‘MuwaÃÃaÐ’”. Schacht. Bulletin d’études orientales.KDWDP W ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. Studi orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida. Georges. Johann. 14 (1952): 579-588. “Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bu© U ’s Traditionssammlung”. ——— “The transmission of Muslim’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 477-492. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.DWW Q  < VXI ³. Vajda.216 BIBLIOGRAPHY V. 5REVRQ - ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI $E ' Z G’s ‘Sunan’”. 2. ——— “La transmission de la mašya©a (Ansal al-PDT Áid wa-aÑdab alPDZ ULG.PLÑ’”. (1949): 46-60. Transmission of individual works Fück. E. 202 (1923): 209-233. 244 (1956): 433-437. “La recension maghribine du ‚a¨ ¨ d’al-Bo© U ´ Journal asiaique.

. 9  .M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-. ilá . Rivista degli studi orientali. G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”. 48 (1973-74): 55-74./10 m.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad.

1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. [Vol. and Young./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. 1967.1-2 (1974): 3-7.] Ebied. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. 87 (1974): 445-465. A. R.Y. nos.J. Le Muséon.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE .BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. 4 (1981): 82-103. M. Ben Shemesh. Leiden. Taxation in Islam. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”. 18.L. Islamic quarterly. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.

.H. 1974:92-110. van. Studies on Islam. Amsterdam. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. Iran. Gérard. 35-36 (1414 A.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. Les . no. 18-19 October 1973.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-.H. 326 (1997): 97-102. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. 41. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. ed. “Al-. Amsterdam. P. 32 (1994): 115-123.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. 1998.): 270-372.S. Koningsveld.1 (1997): 55-90. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles. . MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. 26 (1994): 75-96. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. -DOO E ±asan. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ .] Lecomte.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus).

Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K. ——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”.

”. Stefan. 550-750/1155-1349. Leder. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. Pierre A. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . 1996 – . Jhdt. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Oriens. MacKay. Suppl. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6.1./12. 34 (1994): 57-75. Damas: Institut français. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566.

Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”. Sayyid. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101. 7 (1989): 238-252. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . 4 (1924): 345-355. EI. no.1 (1955): 232-251.H): 172-182. 61.H): 107-114. no. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”. 8: 1019-1020.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ .M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”. Hamdard Islamicus. no.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ.. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³. 3.4 (1971. 1. al-Munajjid. new ed. ——— “Al-. 1.s. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”.1 (1985): 7-20. “Al-.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.1 (1408 A. “Al-. n.1 (1407 A. no.H): 115-117.2 (1406 A. no.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ .. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. Hespéris. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. 2. no.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. ed. 8.

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I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar.Q Q  London. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. .VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. 1997: 179-196.

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S.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. Vikør. 1996. (ed. Steiner. J. Judaism in Late Antiquity.). Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. (ed.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. 1995. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . Hunwick. J. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. V. Marín. Tanz und verwandten Themen. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. Nouns. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. and Peters. R. Y. S. Mosak Moshavi and B.). Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. 1994. J. (eds. N. Roman Loimeier. V. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. 1995. V. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. A.). ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. Spiel. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. With appendices by R. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. L. S. S. Orthography. J. Phonology. Numerals. and Jongeling. Arabic Literature of Africa. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. Porten. M. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. 1996. Abu Salim. 1980-1993. O’Fahey. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. References and Index of Texts Cited. O. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. Radtke and K.1: Text. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. with the assistance of M. K. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel.C. Materials for a Reconstruction. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . 1994. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. 1994. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. Chief consultant to the editor. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. With Full DefiniKinberg. Hofheinz. Volume I. Compiled by John O. 2nd ed. (éd. 1994. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . 1994. Jagd. 1994. and O’FAHEY. Band 22 . A. B. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. 1995. K. A. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources.). Ibrahim. 2: Ab-bildungen. O.T. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. W. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. 1994. 2 Parts. und Herb. Bd. (ed. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . R. and Stolbova.Lagarde. E. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II.F. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. Manuel de recherche. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary.). V. (eds. 1996. Bd. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. und Sardshweladse. H. M. 1994.). ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . Hamidu Bobboyi. M. 1995.L. S. Compiled by R. I. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. 1900. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. M. The Legacy of Muslim Spain.

Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. van. H. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. 1999. 1999. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. 2: 1988-1992. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. and Neusner. M.F. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. The Empire of the Mahdi. The Rise of the Fatimids. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. W. Translated from the German by M. Vol. J. Vol. F. III. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. 1999. 2 Volumes. H. A.2. Index of Names. 1999. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam.E.1: B. B. R.H. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. Terms and Topics. and Healey. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. 1997. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. H. A Bibliography. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. and Sou‘ek. L. J. 1999. N. The Mishnah. and Pingree. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. 1: A. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. 1999. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. M. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. 1997. 1997. 1998. 1997.W. 1999. Social Perspectives 1999. 1999. R. 1999. V. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel.J. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. The Kingdom of Kush. III. D. Bonner. J. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner.J. Judaism in Late Antiquity. H. Vol. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. 1996. Judaism in Late Antiquity. B. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. 1. 1999. H. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 .Band 26 Halm. 1998. 2000.1. J. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). The Mishnah. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. G. T. D. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. Religious Perspectives 1999. Mesopotamian Lexicography. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene.G. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. and Porten. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. J. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization.L. W. J. G. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. J. 1997. 1999. and Wyatt. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language.

4. A. and Chilton. and Neusner. A. R. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Arabic manuscript tradition. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. Vol.J. Theory of Israel. Comparing Judaisms.. and Chilton. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. Neusner. 2000. J.. A. Dialect. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. B. B.Band 50 Tal.1. Neusner. Culture. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism.2. 2001.J. R. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. J. 2001. U.J. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. 2001. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. 2001. and Society in Eastern Arabia... J. A. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. de. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. (2 Volumes) 2000. J. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. C. A. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 .3. Band 56 Avery-Peck. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. Judaism in Late Antiquity III.. Ch. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. A.E. 2001. Judaism in Late Antiquity V.J. 2001. 2000. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. and Neusner. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. 1 : Glossary 2001. World View.

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