A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography



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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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.............. XI Preface ........................................................................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ........... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ............................................................

.................. 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY ............... 156 1...................................................................................................................................................... 177 I................. 181 Periodicals .......................................... 181 Bibliographies .................................................................... 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ............................................................................ 156 2........................................................ 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK..................................................... Sources/References ..................... 1 Abbreviations ................ GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ..................... Technical terms in the glossary .......... 182 General studies and surveys ....... . 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ............

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.




a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221



b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

.......................... 247 Later QurÐans......................... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship .......... 259 .................................... 3............ 226 Calligraphy ............................ 256 1............................................ 236 Painted illustration ......... 242 c) Other studies........ VIII.... 247 1............................ 7.... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS .... 3...................................... ....................... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper............................................................................................................. 239 Lacquer ............... General studies .................... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues ......................... 242 b) Pre-18th century texts .. 238 b) Other studies ........ 241 Bookbinding . 247 Early QurÐans and fragments........................... Exhibition catalogues....................................................... 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries ........................................................ 240 Papercuts .................... 243 2..................................... 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ........... TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING .............. 4........................................................) ........................................................ 256 Some specific cases ...................... 2........ 238 a) Drawing.......................................................................................................................................... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ..................................................................................................... 4.............................. 2... 255 IX............... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works......................................................... 5.................. 8...................................................................................................................................... 251 Facsimile editions ............................................................................................................... etc.............. 6............. 242 a) Bibliography....................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration ......................................................

CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS........ 2......................... ETC..................................... 261 XI............................ COLLECTIONS......................X CONTENTS PREFACE X................ 263 XII. 3............. 266 266 267 267 268 ....... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ................................... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts ................ Descriptions of collections and catalogues ..................... 266 1.................................... CATALOGUING..................... 5..... ............. Catalogues of catalogues ....................... 4........... PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ......

David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. . Last but not least.

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2). Arab authors. both religious and scientific in nature. scholars.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. the preparation of inks. Along with this manuscript output. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. VII. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. papermaking and bookbinding. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

).VKE O G 1231). DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.10/16th cent. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-. the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7.

RI .EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO.

 DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. Furthermore. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7.

who in his work on education. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. Finally.984/1577). The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . lineation). also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). which deals with the preparation of inks. as well as on the collation and correction of books. al-Durr al-na{ G (TP).

XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. this chapter has been omitted. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). e. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). Some terms. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. bound and decorated. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). medieval and postmedieval texts. . which spans almost 14 centuries. even in its present form. as well as extant specimens. The glossary is a by-product. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. book lovers and cataloguers. corrected. as it were. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. Nevertheless. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. for the first time. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. writing surfaces and implements used. especially those relating to book formats. contemporary studies and catalogues. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. some of the most important research in this field published to date. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. respectively. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts.g. To translate. It brings together.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. could be very misleading. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ).

miqlab (Levant. for example. as yet. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). recto. khadd (‘cheek’. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. fore-edge). the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. catchword). The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). may have been used exclusively in those circles. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. been largely omitted here. wajh (‘face’. catch- . however. envelope flap). Therefore. flap). for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. however. outer or inner margin).PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. North Africa). Here we find. for example. catchword. Iraq). medallion. book cover). We do not. great caution is in order. udhn (‘ear’. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. flap). raÐs (‘head’. upper cover). and V TLÃah (Yemen). The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. Here. marjiÑ (Morocco). Thus. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. lower margin. serif. recto. case (box). OLV Q (central Arab lands). upper margin. Ñaqib (‘heel’. on the other hand. Ñaqb. inkwell and the like. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. raddah (Levant). OLV Q (‘tongue’. for example. Some. fore-edge. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. incipit. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. Thus. This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). Áadr (‘chest’. period and/or region in which they were employed.

As far as transliteration is concerned. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. On the whole.XVI PREFACE word). the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. . Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. Most words are traced to a source. either contemporary or earlier. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script.


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III. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. index.EU . ibar) – needle (UK. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. 60.) (DD.v. 103. 97-98. 97. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. I. 13. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah.  EU  ZDUDT DO. IA. syn. 154. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. 392).). 12. 8).v. I. from Pers. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. MB. among other things. SD. 59. DB. ibrah (pl. ST. 9. 107. of minfadh (q. I. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). SA. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. I. muµabbar – sewn (KC. needle case (DM) 2. RN. 182). 8). GA. AG. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. TS. ebrû. miµbar 1. AG. GA. 104. I. 176-178) 2. II. 215. 107. 2: ibrishmah). 18-19. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk.



I. 53). 62. n.14). abbrev. ilá NKLULK – et cetera. – closing matter of the text (composition). explicit (TP. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. (DB.

scribal etiquette 2. 63. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. 175-176). DG P (pl. adam(ah). tanned red leather (DB. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. leather (UK. udum) 1. passim. IW. MF. 106-108) 2. I. 52). – etiquette (EI. AE. 71-72. I. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á.

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. XIV. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. MU.

DGG P – tanner (DM). jild.. comp. DG K SO DGDZ W.

e.g. DGDZ W O W. implement. 345). I. – V\Q ODK (EI. tool. instrument.

153-156. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W. writing MB.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).



urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. 250). VI. JKXU E – the last hour of day.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.

NKLUDK DO-ukhar.Oá (al-uwal) (1-10). RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al. alDZ NKLU . al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20). al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al.

VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month.g. li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. 248-249). -30) (SA. e.

VI. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. 106. 235). EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . 244-249). 244-248). e. nos. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM.DP O 3 VK 73  CI. VI. II. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK .DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . 178).EQ .EQ . al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month.g.

 -248). al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9.

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

ar„ \DK – background (LC. 22. FZ. IV. taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. (EI. ER.C.D. 262. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 6$ 9.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 670). X. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . taµU NK-L PDODN . JL. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn.1st 5509 B.


XVK UDK.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). II. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ.

IK. a¦l (pl. punch (TS. 43: VKDI . – awl. 10: ishfah. 107. 90. 59. AG. I. IA. 103. sifr 4. ST. KM. 11. MB. 15. uÁ O. 115). IB.


 FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. MU. 27) 3. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. MH. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. 26. exemplar. II. original (main) text. VIII. SD.

2024. . MI.. 136). XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. but also 0= .

174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. 126. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. major work (TM. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 23) 4. SM.


67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. rectangular panel (LC. KR. 24. 24). I. textual surround (LC. UI. tabula ansata (UI. 29) 5. border (of a book cover) (LC. frame (within a border) (TF. rules. . 24. 80) 3.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. FT. 402) 2. 25. 27) 6. 24. i¨ U (pl. ià U W XÃur) 1. 928). 145). . al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. headpiece (LC. rule-border. i. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. DB.e.

) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. 32). writing circa 1375’ (DW.8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages. according to other sources al. taµO I DK. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. 6. DIVK Q (Pers. 46).IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. 581-582). ER. I.

(pl. taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W.

muÐDOODI W. muµallaf (pl.

taÁQ I muµallif – author. muÁannif. . 33. writer. EI. comp. 360). compilation. ummah . umm. X. I. – composition.1 . comp. work (of prose or poetry) (SD.


26. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. 246) 3.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. archetype (LC. exemplar. shar¨ (IN. 35. . 26). 130) 4. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. original (main) text. used in mosques (KN. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. as opposed to a commentary. transcript (from which another copy is made). umm al-NLW E 1. I. copy. . I. 29). SD. TM.


archetype. 294). KF. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. . al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. LP P – exemplar. II. II. 39). Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. Umm al-EXOG Q. II. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). 99. textus receptus (NT. 37. Umm al-qurá.

tadabbur. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. xiv. 2812). II. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. I. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. comp. 99).GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. II. (CI. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. abbrev. LL. taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q).

 . or /'    $'  (. .



(qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. 31). – unpared. 370. III. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. II. 370). KU. LQV see sinn. BA. LM. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). 31. unnibbed reed (FN. III.

n. JA. 52. initia. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). (TP. AA.14. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. I. incipit.


taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taµZ O (pl.

explanation (e. – interpretation. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q.g.

truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. 34). baŒr (pl. passim) 2. bu¨ U. imperfect. **** PDEW U 1. incomplete (of text) (KC. acephalous.

AG. 33. cartouche (TS. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . JL. – panel on a book cover. . 110.

40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). badal. bidl '% . 355). . tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. WDENK U – fumigation (TS.



 [LLL. . RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &..

153-154. SD. wifq (US. .3. II. 59-60.3-4. 412) 2. RU badal respectively (KG. EI. 100-103). I. 296). 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. also WDEG O – subal-matn. fasc. conjectural substitution. 49. conjecture. DT. MZ.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. comp. alteration (CL. suppl. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. fasc. stitution.

WS. VIII. I. I. papyrus sheet or roll (DB. EI. publishing (KM. 64-66). 407. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. 390: for trimming). EDUG \DK – papyrus. IV. IA. qirà V mibrad – file. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). sifr 13. comp. lin.84. 60. 417. QS. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). DD. rasp (HT. 521-522. II.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG .

 . I. 545). EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah.

EDUVK P. 17-18. n. ST. 8. index.148). IB. 81. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . – endband (headband) (ST.


– epithet of the months of ‚afar. ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY.


III. – compass.9.  '0. (pair of) dividers (SA. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 .


18). 12. . Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS.



III. 232. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU.). PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. 455 6.v. 85. 154: IK.  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. trimming (of a reed ) (IR. EDUU \DK. 49).  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). KK. bary. SA. ELU \DK – paring.

591). – pen knife (AA. 90. DB. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . 64. I. MP. SD. IK.. 88. index. 81). mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. flattening (of a letter). I. DA: mibzagh. bas¨ – spreading out..   $6 . mibzaq – lancet-like knife. 8.

144) 4. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). III. comp. rectilinear (of a script. jazm (IK. horizontal stroke. mukhtaÁar. 120) 2. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. 34. line (KU. AS. syn. original (comprehensive). 87) 3. PDEV ¨ 1. KH. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. unabridged work.

basmalah SO EDV PLO. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. 144). well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. 365. 47. 322). 13. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. TW. maÁ ¨if.



) (AS. 109. 23-24. bashr 1. catalogue. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. silk endband (headband) (HT. dressing (of leather) (UK. ba¨n (pl. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3.v. MP. register (AD. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). PDEVK U – pared. slip (of paper) 2.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. also known as al-JKXE U (q. 58. lin. bashra¨ 1. ST. piece. paring. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. LF. 63. and opening a composition (TP. 155). LF. HT. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. baà Ðiq) 1. IA. 9.97.111) 2. erased. 1084-1085). buà Q. lin. TS. 161. index. bi¨ TDK (pl. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. AG. ratisser des peaux’. 145). 78. 52. 78: ‘racler. I. 58. 12). EI.

 E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. al-NLW E. inner cover. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. flesh side (of parchment).

112). doublure (LC. UK. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E.73-79) 3. IV. passim. lining (FT. 102. doublure (TS. 49. endpaper. MB. 60. 22-23. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. 89. IB. paste-down endpaper. pasteboard (UK. 47. baà Ðin) 1. 408) 2. bi¨ QDK (pl. – inner cover. AG. 117. lin. IA. HT. HD. 23. MA. endleaf (ST. 159.

.  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . 92).

14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. index. lining of the insides of book covers with paper. 9. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. XIV. leather or silk (ST. MU.

MB. III. /( . removal of sha¨mah (q. 87).) from the reed (IK. bary. ba¶du – after. II. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. 61. paring (of the calamus) (KD. 2. abbrev. used for a transposed word. comp. 370). BA.v.

20). also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. tab¶ „ – word division. 53. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). separation (MM. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. n.

104. 58. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. IA. comp. 101. IB. MB. 103. MP. 103. measuring distances. (pair of) dividers (UK. 59. TU. 105). 60. (MB. etc. biUN U WDEN U. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 44. 156. – compass. 153.

59). 42. comp. MB. DD. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. IB. I. IA. 103. 380. 391). mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. 153. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah.


 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

 EDO . muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin. 56. JA. damaged (TS.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . 45: EXO JK). I.119. E OLQ – worn. comp.9 SO. 268. CT. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . TP.


E E SO DEZ E. 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. EI. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). 36). IV. kha¨¨L E KDU.

abbrev. – chapter. . 0.

mubawwib – compiler (DF. TP. n. murattib.20). IV. bayt SO EX\ W. comp. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. 53. 609. 376).

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

31-33. KR. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. 110) 4. 31. 97. 33). bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. Bayt al-Maqdis. . WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. AG. frame (as part of the border. 32. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. 82). compartment (in such a box) 3. 110). 95. Ãurrah) (TS. AG.


 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.


– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).




6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

KR. 110). W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 97. gold dust (AQ. 95. tibr – gold. AG. also TS. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 30-31. 82). .GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah.

 takht SO WXNK W.

sand.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. 24. 22.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. wooden pressing board (TS. lin. AG. 127-. 107) 3. WXU E – dust. 9. 6. IB. earth. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST.  . 120). WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. KU. index. index. HT. sifr 13. IV. TD. 156. 82. 42. KM. I. 9). 94.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

6$ II. 478-480). tarjamah SO WDU MLP.

chapter heading (IN. AH. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . indicating its contents (DB. detailed title of a book. key word (LC. 28) 4.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 28. II. 165). title (of a book) (LC. 122) 3.

headpiece or tailpiece (LC. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. disc) or margins (e. 27) 6.g.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. 27) 8. medallion) . paragraph (LC. 27) 7.g.

224) 12. biography (EI. 30) 9. 270). 260. 1021) 13. DB. mutarjim 1. interpretation. explanation. cryptography (AA. 28. 29-31. also mutarjam (e. translator. ‘QaÁ GDW . X. 224) 10. II. 1021). illuminator (TW.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. biographer 2. X. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. 29. II. IT.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher.g. tirs. exegesis (DB. biographical note. turs SO WXU V. 186. translation (EI.

103. 28) 2. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. illuminated oval medallion. writing tamma (lit. PA. execution. taftar see daftar. oval. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 97. IB. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. KR. turunj(ah) 1. WDWP P – completion. 44) 3. index. IP. shamsah. LC. 95. rosette (HD. 69. 145. 9. 116). 15). – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. 82). comp. corner-piece (ST. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU.

supplement . WDP Ðim) – amulet. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. abbrev. RU CM. [LLL at the end of the colophon. 46). xiii). II. used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). taÐP Q WDIT Ã. finish. continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). . ¨add. comp. comp. talisman (EI. tatimmah – supplementation. WDP PDK (pl. 177-178). &. WDP P – end. X. .

101. FK.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. 100. copying (MH. II. no.

thabat (pl. atKE W. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’.

 FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. written testimony (SD. document. 288: syn. I. GA. 157) 2. 234. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. muÑjam. record of attested study (HB.

WKDE W – signature (SD. vocalization (AD. 18) 2. LWKE W 1. authentication (formula). also WDWKE W – attestation.  WDEOH RI contents. 157). usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. I.



GA. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. n. CT.25. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. 45. 289). muthabbit. 53.

330). 101. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. I. 45). mithqab SO PDWK TLE. writer of the audition note (MH. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. CT.

. AS. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. III. 147). AG. ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. 11. 107). WKDT O (lit. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS.

(TN. . abbrev. 1125in Turkey). 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. I. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. III. 349).in Persia. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. 51).9 . JM.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. TU. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. T OLE. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr.

VII. octagon (EI. DO-thumn. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. 795-.

. 102). . [LY )0 167. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 232-234) . I. 232-234. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. MI. no. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points).. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. 361).13. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. 12.VI.  RU &. VI. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. see also mashÐalah. I. SA. Taf. abbrev. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. 361). MZ.

GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& . either illuminated or stamped (KI. decorative medallion or panel.

JL. 88.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK .  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 87. 83: M PDK ZXV¨á .


WDMG G – repair. 87). 141). 83. 99). jabr – repairing.41. 43). restoring manuscripts. 100). rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. mending. restoration (KR. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. PDMG O SO PDM G O. nos. 99. corner-piece (JL. braid. interlace (TF. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. repair (SJ.

no. – leather strap. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). TW. 24) 4. thong (KC. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. 160) 2. mujadwal – ruled (LC. 175) 5. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. I. 108). column (of text) (SD. table (LC. 370. II. DT. 148. magic square. 63) 3. 56. 32). 33. diagram.6/2) 6. talismanic seal (EI. 42). chart. creating rule-borders (WB. KC. 26). 50. table of contents (CM. rules. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. .


 LQVHW '0.

   ... FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ .

WDMU G 1. inventory (SD. extract. 184. I. I. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. 112. MDU GDK – list. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . 183). II. DG.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). DD. I. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. 27). register. 107. abridgement (SD. mijrad(ah) – file. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. jard al-matn see matn. KF. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . scraper (MB.

 jirm SO DMU P.


jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. jirm wasaÃ. majran SO PDM ULQ. HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. passim).

8 154). 62). shaving (MB. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. IA. jazz – trimming. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . passim: Œazz.

VII. I. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. n.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. rough copies 2. 19. 132.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. 103). MU. KF. . inset (UI.

one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. booklet. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). 79. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. AI. single-quire codex.

small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. 705). II. xii) 4. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. usually not more than a quire (IJ. 90). independent. DEEUHY RU (CI. I. small piece of writing. 711). chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. tomaison) (SJ. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. 128) 6. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. VII. 128). mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ.

94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. 421). having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. MB. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. 7-9. 38). IK. MP. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. 99. jazm – reed pen. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. LL. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. I. 89. 87: qalam jazm. 143. 90).

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

for other signs representing jazmah see GL. 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. 13). . LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS.


WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. 23). – background (UK. Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad).


 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

 .. )1   ..  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ ..

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.


1123). WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. III. IV. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. G Z Q MDO (SA. .




 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

II. 47. 123 and IX. 416-417). VIII. mujallid – bookbinder (QS.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. LC. 26). majlis SO PDM OLV.

1020).  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. sitting. VIII. – session.. . majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI.

459-460. julfah – nib (of the calamus. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). II. KU. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. jalam SO DMO P. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary).

91-92. -XP Gá al. no.Oá. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. – (pair of) scissors (DS.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). abbrev. 230).NKLUDK DO. / / (OS. IK. -XP Gá al.NKLU. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. CI. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar. 89. II. CM. IR.

III. contraction (of letters) (KU. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. composition. compilation.9 . 126. / (OS. SA. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. 34) 3. abbrev. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . 89). rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH.

 SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. 352).g.  FN. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . . e. major original compilation. the QurÐ Q 8.


359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. III.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. II. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ).

tool box. 25).  composite volume. 106.  '' . jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. 52. escritoire (TW. box (NM. 233. 380). 32) 2. NH. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). I. writing case. AG. jumal. codex compositus (LC. case with compartments (TS. 12. SD. TM. case. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. mujamma¶ (UA. 393) 1. inkwell 6' . 683) 4. DG. 37. 52. 13) 3.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). 217.

M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. IA.111). 145). 109. index.) (AS. knife (TS. index. 10). MDZ E (pl. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. MI. 11. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. 61. ajwibah) – responsum. 107: for cutting gold leaf . better known as al-JKXE U (q. 10). – book cover (ST. abbrev. IA. (CI. AG. II.v. 110. ST. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. xiv. MDQ Œ (pl.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

EI. 273-275. certificate of transmission. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . – authorization. 24. IJ). 27. III. 1020-1021. VIII. 126-130. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. LB. ER. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. licence.

 .9 .GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. 181).





133. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. AT. NH. 179. 468. 154: wa-al-M EDK . 381: jawn. II. SA. LQNZHOO (HI. DS. KU.

also known as waqabah. DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . see also the quotation under miqlamah).

 **** Œibr (pl. a¨E U.


 -100 and MB. MP. IR. 18-21. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. 13.53. sifr 13. 6: wa-al- . n. Œibr al-raqq. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. IV. KM. 101-110 and MB. MP. MJ. UK. 8. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks.

I.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. 134-135. 349. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. MA. 127-131. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. SA. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . see LL. IK. IK. LM. AE. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . MR. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. IV. AT. II.

III. 2016). Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. ma¨ ELU. FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. embellishment (DB. 354). miŒbarah (pl.

  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: .. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ .  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. II. III. 372. SA.

468-. SA.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. II. 443.

 FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. compiler (SS. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. a¨E V. SK. 89). taŒE U 1. 87. inking. transcription (TE. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). I. II. 15. inscribing in ink (SM. Œubs (pl. 119). 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. elegant. muŒabbir – author. WR. SA. embellished writing (composition) or copying.

ta¨E V W. taŒE V (pl.

MB. bequest note (LC. 157.. 18-20. Œabk 1. TS. waqf. AG. n. 62. 154. also Œabkah – endband (headband).. . 104 ff. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . MM.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. sewing. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). 132) 3.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. comp. stitching (of a book) (TM. endbanding with silk 2. 109.. IA. decorative endband (UK. 28).

 VSLQH 74 .

109). AG. 109. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. 19. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. AG. 19.


bookbinder (IB. 109). al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. 478). n. I. 19. 28). ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 19. 11. 19. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. AG. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. 246). AD. AG. 109). Œabakah – bookbinding (IB.

(OS. 69). 89). 60). Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. maŒjar (pl. abbrev. miŒjar. ma¨ MLU. ŒLM E (pl. ¨ujub) – talisman. 10). Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). hone (TS. amulet (DT. Œajar al-misann – whetstone. ajar al-¨XP ¨im). Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM).

¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. 38. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U .10. 99. ST. 107. MP. 36) 2.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. MB. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. index. AG. 142: 12. UK. 36).

 .$ .

FN.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A. 2733. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U.H.

 FRPS . I .

honing (of a knife) (KD. taŒG G – whetting. ¨XG G.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. 711). II. Œadd (pl.

154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). – limit. used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. ŒDG G DK. end.

10. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. ¨XG U. 109. TS. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. (pl. 59). MB. 138). MJ. 59. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. IA. AG. Œadr (pl. 393. 188). MP. 31. 105. 29.

author. 701. 246) 7. index. editing (of a manuscript text). 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . ornamental surround. revised version (edition). SK. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. 1124. 58. ER. PA. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. 2408. MU. 73) 2. mu¨DUUDU W. muŒarrir – 1. 13. redaction (CM. 48. IV. comp. 52. 119) 2.. EI. 15. DB. ŒDU U – silk (ST. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. secretarial style of shikastah script. muŒarrar (pl. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. IV. AF. 215-227). 16) 5. XVII. 38. 10. taŒU U 1. IP. editor. TE. IV. 145. ÁaÑd. 286). TE.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. penman. 16. terminal of a letter) (AA. 50. AQ. 109. 16) 6. 214) 8.g. e. with black ink (TE. 15) 4. AG. 50). al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. 15) 3. – descender (down-stroke. copying. compiler (SS. transcription (TE. composition (GA. elegant writing. 64. outline. frame. fair copying (TE. III. calligrapher.

53). calligraph (DP. Œard al-matn see matn. – piece of calligraphy. .

GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl. a¨U ] ¨XU ].

69). 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. amulet (DT.g. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. IV. e. maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. – talisman.

¨XU I D¨ruf) 1.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. border. LL. I. ¨iraf) – edge. 596-560). distortion.g. Œarf (pl.  . miŒra„ah. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. trimming (HT. sharp edge (of a knife. 39-42) 2. LM. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). e. word 2..9 . DS. III. error. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. lin. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA.' . II. 230. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. taŒU I 1. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. II. 463. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. cutter).80-86). letter. KK. Œarf (pl. 549).


¨DUDN W.32 GLOSSARY  08 . 59. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. MQ. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). MJ. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. falsification (of a text). al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. III. 57. comp. Œarakah (pl. 224).

393). 112-113. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. – vowel (GL. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. comp. shakl. 704. MB. miŒU N – spatula. taŒU N – vocalization. II. KD. UA. Mecca and Medina. vowelization (DM). 65. 8).

a¨] E. abbrev. al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. 89). Œizb (pl. (OS.v.).

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. 11. index. Œazm . 28.. ST. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 11). taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. ST.

. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. computation. III. 54: EI. chronosticon (TP. 468). ŒLV E – calculation.

with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . EI. VI. ¨DZ VKLQ. 269-270. II. abbrev. 302). Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. see SA.

112. 119. border (on a book cover) (MB. 109) 3. 63) 2. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. marginalia. IA. MB. collection of glosses. MD. lin. apostil. margin (of a page) 4. 217-219. 118.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. 63. often abbreviated as or . IA. FZ. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. scholium.

IV. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. AS. 65. Œ VKLQ (pl. FI. Œashw(ah) 1. 222. 30. 71) 2. AG. JM. III. 977). 1820). parenthesis. 268-269. 412. 63. DB. IX. 73  00 139. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. 110. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. 145. 60.54. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. interpolation. 89-90). FT. ¨DZ VKLQ. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. EI. gutter. pl.

III. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. xi. muŒashshin – glossator.74. AD. abbrev. (MI. nos. CI. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . 332). 322. . glossed. II. trimming (of a reed) (BA. gloss (AM. 26. 34). Œa¦ramah – paring. 296. taŒshiyah – glossing.

transcription (FK. I. . no. 546).89. taŒ¦ O – copying.

63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. comp. 107. n.). tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. MB. I. 34). polisher (KM.v. sifr 4. IB. ÑDU T W. 6. TS. smoothing leather (ST.31). AG. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. burnisher. 60. 118: mikhaÃà (!). often confused with mikha¨¨ (q.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. 5. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. 29. IA.

KH. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. 34. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . RN. 302) 2. frame (SD. headpiece (LC. surround. 35. Œa„ UDK (pl. I. 24).

small box (DG. NT. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. Œif„ – learning by heart. 55. preservation. 51). II. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. memorization (TP. a¨fiÌah). 44) 2. box (KC. ŒLI „ (pl. miŒfa„ah – case.

MR. text editing. critical edition (of a text) (MH. 89. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text.

ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. muŒaqqiq – corrector. editor.

13) 2.U T and alZDUU T (FN. III. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . 12. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.


EI. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. 1125. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. 1123. TU. IR. Persia. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. comp. LM. Turkey). 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. 78.

141) 2. 137). screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. IA. MM. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab.v. NH. 62) 2. 59) 3. pumice (MB. 58. scroll (in design) (UI. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. erasure. 31). 392. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). Œalqah (pl. 112.) (DD. ¨alaq. Œakk – rubbing out. I. IA. miŒakk(ah). mibrad (q. miŒakk al-rijl 1. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. ¨DODT W. effacement (TP.v. 104. syn. syn.) (UK.

27). scholar’s circle (SL. 372) 2. part of a clasp) (BA. 48. AI. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. study circle.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. III. II. ma¨ O T.

136. . 422. 139). – tendril (FT. AB.

204-209). Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. embellishment (KT. taŒP G DK.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. Œilyah.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah. 416). taŒliyah – decoration. 150-151).

122-123). III. 38. Œumrah 1. red colour.20. 95). TB. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. 53. red ink (LC. EI. n. rubrication. 24) 2. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. TP. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. rubrics (CM.

¨DP Ðil) – talisman. 69). ŒDP ODK (pl. LC. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. taŒQ VK (pl.  ‘pupitre’). codex (MA. amulet (DT. ÑUthmanic canon. exemplar. 15. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . ta¨ Q VK. 56-57. WA. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 29). IV. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. TP. sifr 13. 169. also miŒmal. 51). archetype (KM. book cradle (TC. maŒmil 1. 24. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. IV. 24). TP. 86) 3. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. 286. ME. 566. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. 55). TW.

143) 3. . interlace (TF.) (MP. 58. compass. 138. 11) 2. index.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. rope work. ST. 44). (pair of) dividers (IB.

II.  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. 700).

ma¨ ZLU. miŒwar (pl. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah).


$% .

as opposed to the border (TF.  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). maΠU DK. 138. 144).

Œ µil. 483). taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. TP. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. MH. 149-150). 99. 104-105). ¨awr (LL. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). 171. 109. II. I. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. 58: as a means of cancellation. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. 665). Œawqalah. 97. TP.

RQH LVQ G from another. abbrev. 73 .


stamping.g. 35). also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. seal. 3. 214) 3. stamp. tooling 2.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. 24. **** NK QDK – compartment. MI. tool. khatm 1. colophon (TM. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . sealing. 31). panel (in decoration) (UI. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ.



complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .9 . recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. – 1.


al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. e. DT.g. IA. 63). NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. 130. AG. I.9 1105. talismanic seal (DT. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. OS) 2. 34. CI. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. 109. . 169. 29. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). 144). 110. 108) 3. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion.

FT. 5. 8. conclusion. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. epilogue 2. 108). 396) 4. 52. . colophon (UI. n. LNKWLW P 1. tailpiece (HD.14) 3. explicit.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ . – inner or outer margin (IM.

backing (of the spine) (HN. 385). also LVWLNKU M (TW. takh„ ¶ – rounding. 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. WDNKU M LNKU M 1.

kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. RI WKH material from the original work (TW.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

187-188. la¨aq (TP. ) 4. TM. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . comp.  omission. 58.0 . insertion.

169) 7.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. n. I. 606) 6.73: in the form of a curved line. 718).. KF. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. or a caret. transcription (TW. quotation (TM.) . 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . copying. ÑaÃfah. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. I. omission. 58. reference mark (signe de renvoi). also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. WDNKU MDK 1. pl. extract from a book. insertion 2.


mukhraj – insertion (MH. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukharraj.

126130). mukharrij – compiler. mustakhrij. . IV. 384. 683). copying (DM) 2. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. 39). selector (DF. vox reclamans (MA. TW. LVWLNKU M 1. excerpting. NM. catchword. 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. II.

481. 35. index. II. 99. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. 181). MP. 59).40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. ST. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. DS. 12. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). punch (SA. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. OM).

khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK. 70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94).

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

comp. Ãurrah. Ã P. 36).  DQVD roundel. palmette (KH. khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah.

polishing cloth (MB. IA.166). 17. II. 15. MB. SA. 114. 459). lin. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. 347. index. sewing (of quires) (UK. 59) 3. 109) 2. lacuna (SJ. khirqah (pl. 104. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. 154. 27. khiraq) 1. II. scrap (of paper) (DM). 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. MI. gap. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. MB. kharm 1. MP. comp. 12. 481) 2. undoing the sewing (ST. HT. 60. 157. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. blank.


incomplete (TC. KF.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. fragments (HB. 233: feuillets décousus.NKLU. 26). TC. 26. en vrac. II.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. PDNKU P. munkharim – imperfect.

527). kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. II. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). sifr 13. IV. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. khazz SO NKX] ]. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete.

abridgement. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. AG. AG. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. comp. 14-15. GL. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. VII. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. 46). epitome (EI. . 119). – silk. II. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. xiii-xiv. NKL] QDK. suspension. kharm and ¨azm. AD. TP. I. library. comp. 107. 25-26). 159-160. 107). abbreviation (contraction. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. 55-56. maktabah. EA. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. 27. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. 23-24) 3. siglum. 536-540. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR.

script. penmanship (ML. mark. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. 34-38) 2. khuà Ã) 1. sign. writing. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . calligraphy.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. stroke. handwriting.

scriptio defectiva. LM. copied by (e. 358). also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P .8  51  $6 . al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. AS. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. comp. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. yad.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . EI. al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). I. CI. 144). script (text) see also Ñajam. 83. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. 887: ER. III. comp. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . scriptio plena.g.. IV. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). 29) – proportionate writing or scripts.. 681). al-DTO P DO-sittah. 103). 41. 114.

 khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .8  $6 .

mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. 26). makhà à W.1. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. makh¨ ¨ (pl. 80). paleography (KJ. I. penman. 380). no. calligraphy (WR. comp. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher.

760. drawing (MB. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. 61) 2. LL.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). UA. straightedge (LL. takh¨ ¨ 1. tracer (ME. calamus (AA. ruling (of lines). 103. 98. reed pen. 60. 12). implement (made of wood. 110. 110) 2. 555. MB. 760). IA. I. writing. index. I. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. mikha¨¨ 1. . manuscript codex. tracing. 118.

khi¨ E (pl. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q.1).GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. speech 2. sifr 13.g. letter. note. address. honorific (e. akhÃibah) 1. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. IV.

145). NKLO I SO NKLO I W. IB.g. extract. X. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). 109). NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. n. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. 44: ornament). abridgement. abbrev. 105. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. trimming (TS. 18. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. 156. comp. 53. preface (LC. mukhtaÁar. 123).  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. epitome. TP. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. MB. 59. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI.20). AG. IA. 14). 25. NKDI I (lit. RIWen unpointed) (GL.

95. 46. XII. MU. TP. MH. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. varia lectio (e. XI. XVII. 273. LNKWLO I – variant reading. 58).g. . 52.




RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

126. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD.


– pentastich amplification of a poem. LNKWL\ U. X.v. AD. 123-125). 50. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. EI. al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. 95. 97).). I. 401). 405. pentameter (SD.

khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding).e.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . 107-108). endbanding without silk (TS. thick needle (ST. IB. 94-95). index. AG. 43. index. 109). 19. – anthology (EA. 12). 12. I. IR. i. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. MB. index. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. 12.


250). of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. VI. G E M SO GDE E M.

XIV. – silk brocade (MU. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M.

 G E MDK 1. preface. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY. exordium.

¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. frontispiece (MD. adorning something with arabesques. tadabbur – consideration. creating headpieces (AD. WDGE M 1. TW. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. reflection. headpiece. 65. /& ) 2. 52. 259) 2. PA.v). composition (of a text) (DM). 115). GLE JK DK. 127.

GDEE JK – tanner (QS. suppl. – tanning (MB. I. EI. 114-115. MP. IA. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G.. 140-143. fasc. 172). 60). 63.3-4.

8. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q.  IR.

darj. al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. dirj :6 .


roll. 868: also daraj. 141. 138. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. parchment or paper (AJ. rotulus (IK. I. LL. SA. 68. IK. 138: al- . I.

46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .$  Q.

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

107). I. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. inset (SD. 60). 13. dirafsh – awl. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. dast(ah) SO GXV W. punch (IA. 142) 3. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. darmak – farina. 287). AG. 432).


145. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. 105. comp. PT. 92. 44). 94. rizmah. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). burnisher (UK. MA. AB. wide polisher. IB. I. IV. 96. SD. IA. WS. GXVW U SO GDV W U. 59. 524) 2. 39. 156. 81. 92. kaff 3. MB.


holograph (LC.  DXWKRU’s original. I. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 23) 3.

357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. II. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). book consisting of loose leaves (KF. unbound book. dasht – loose leaves. HB. .

II.  .. pious invocation.g. adÑiyah) 1. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . supplication.. AA. assimilated (KU. (see e. 54. daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. hence mudgham – contracted.GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl.+ 35). LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). formula of benediction. 617-618) 2. 150-156). TP. ‘prayer of request’ (EI. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. etc.

book cover. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim).Oá (ST. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. pasteboard (ST. 13). also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. index. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. 104) 3. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. al-daffah al. 13). index. 13. ST. index.


fine writing (TM.g. 22-25. 29. account book. . II. taftar (SK. IA. KK. rubbing. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). daqq 1. I. 40 x 14 cm. 4. see LS) 2. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas).18) 3. n. notebook (e. 77-81. 481). 60) 2. 108. Daftar kutub. 48. bound or unbound codex . SL. pen wiper (SA. 14 leaves. . 192). volume (IK. pounding (MP. register (EI. QRV  096) 3.. 321.. II. 63. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact.

burnishing. OH. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. index. AG. midlak – polisher. 85. 118. 139). KM. HT. 13. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. sifr 4. waraq damghah see waraq. 217. KR. I. I. SD. FJ. 48-50. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. 107). 87).163. NH. 11. 461). MB. glazing (ST. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. GDON WDGO N – polishing. lin. 23. 110. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ.

' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad.E GDK – Yazd. Herat. 905-906). ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . 230: LL.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. – fat. grease. midhan. I.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. ' U DO-. 927). ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. Isfahan. Tabriz. mudhun – container for oil (IR. . ' U DO-¶. oil.

  73 .GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.

JA. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. UD. 56. WDGZ U 1. even (as opposed to oblique. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. ta¨U I.e. MB.g. 156.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. straight. e. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. 105. (5) 4. i. TS. roundel. 30. medallion. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. 59) 5. disc (UK. I. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass).

also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. rounding (of the spine) (IA. LM.g. 22. curvilinear (e. hence PXVWDG U – round. RN. 35). 10. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. 9. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. 39-40) 2. 61) 3. LM.


323. chancellery (KM. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. EI. WDGZ Q 1. sifr 13. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. collection of poems written by one author (DM). UHJLVWHU account book. SA. 323). collecting (collection). II. writing down (of ¨DG WK. II. I. EI. IV. I. 129. 90) 2. office.

  73 . (. .

 FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. copying. 15. TE. transcription (LC. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . UI. 28.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.


IV. 1125-6). GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. IURP which it is derived (EI.

 LQNZHOO . 169-170. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. -85.. 370) 2. BA. . III. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. KU. escritoire.

II.v. 440-443. descender (of a letter) (AA.50 GLOSSARY ruler. 54. wiper and sand) (SA.132-133. memorandum. 372) 2. UK. VII. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. 137-139).) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. midhbar see mizbar. III. tadhkirah 1. 73). 53) 2. 77. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. EI. X. 203-204. 713. dhabr. II. 53). aide-mémoire (EI. AT.3-4. MB. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. GDZZ µ. ER. suppl. ND. fasc. 65. DG.

+%  (. dhanab SO DGKQ E. 53). X.

LC. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . 21). gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. 983: ‘water-gold. 226. 477. – tail (foot) of a letter. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. SA. I. II. etc. 13). al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. 59). UK. WDGKQ E – appendix. LL. 130-132. 25. ¨arf (SA. I. III. 89-91. 151). dhahab. paint (MU. 24.V. supplement (AD. MB.’). UD. index.

gilding. 222. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. 145). KA. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. chrysography (LC. TE. IX. 27. AS. WDGKK E 1. writing with liquid gold. 15.


LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. 490). dhayl SO GKX\ O. chrysographer (AB. JLOW REMHFW 6' . 132. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. mudhahhib – gilder. MU. XV. 141). 15). 385). 27. TE. PA.


23). dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. ruÐ V. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. 206). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. lower margin.

SA. envelope flap (MB.e. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. 109). IA. 14. 26) 2. LC. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. e. 172). 109. III. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. 26). 136. TM. raµs al-NLW E). fore-edge of the codex. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . i. (qalam) al-riµ V .  KHDG RI D letter. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1.g. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. e. 24. beginning of something. 108. 26). raµs al-¦afŒah. 61) 3.g. frontispiece (LC. page or book. character. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. IA. as opposed to the spine (MB. 107. 62) 4. raµs al-waraqah. upper margin (TS.

236. FZ. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ.5 -242. 144. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). 30. KH. 213. 226. 83-84. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. AS. TU. script akin to a large naskh. 13) 2. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 84. 126. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . 146..202/817-8) (FN. AQ. 65). 33. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. MO. RN. 12. 100.. U EL¨ah – catchword. 215). 35. WDUZ V 1. HI. 100). JM. vox reclamans (NZ. 37.

DO-rub¶. 5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah.

39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). abbrev. 89. 5DE ¶ al. / / (OS.NKLU (al-PXE UDN. CM. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q .

rabaÑ W. – the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl.


 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  &$ .21. 51. 48.  6' . nos.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +. MS.

109). mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. stalk (?) (TS. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á .128). 11. lin. AG.

composition (MU.170) 2. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. AM. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . no. arrangement (of the text). 50. I.

n.20). murattib – author. comp. compact writing. compiler (DF. 384. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. copying (KM. 72). ratm – close.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. mubawwib. II. sifr 13. SS. 53. IV.

abbrev. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm. Rajab (al-murajjab.  26 . al-aÁabb. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar.

   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. VIII. often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0.1 . . didactic poem (EI. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). 376). raj¶ (pl.

252). 99. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. III. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. AG. KM. retouchage (of a letter). UXM ¶ – reference. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). 109). muÑallaqah. 17) 2. IV. 17. polychrome illumination (TE. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. comp. sifr 13. WDUM ¶ 1. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. retouching. I. I. MJ. FRPS SD. 513: ‘barrage. source (in a text) (IN. 28. writing in bold characters (TE.

 DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. 62). epilogue (AD. .

% 81. 13).185). index.13. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. RI. n.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. 13). 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. 137. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. 31: MD. ST. book support (MD. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . index. index.

1062.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. nos. comp. 419. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. 1038. 1055. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. 1223. 584. 3185). numrah) (TP. 3099. 2152. UXNK P DK. 294. abbrev. 54. VA. 1035.

also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. raddah – envelope flap (TM. TS. 107. OM). ST. 59. IA. . AG. 14. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). pl. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. XXIB). . TP. 103. marble slab (MB. 10. 11.

rizam) 1. . WS. dast (q. 145.v. 92. ream (of paper). consisting of five quires.) (PT. 39. AJ. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . AB.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl.

also ruzmah – booklet (SD. I. treatise. tract. letter. FRmp. 532). epistle 2. 524: ‘cahier’). ULV ODK 1. VIII. LUV O DK. monograph (EI. dast 2.

35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð.. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná.. LM. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH.

making a mark (ST. marking. index. rasm al-muÁ¨af. 101. writing. e.g. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. EI. 14) 2. MB. rasm 1. copying. designing. execution. drawing. tarassul – art of letter writing. PA. epistolography (DM). 100. 561. 100. 451-. sketching (ME. 45) 3.VIII.


527) 5. 527) 7. I. 15) 6. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. bi-rasm see mustanad. – stroke. comp. line (traced with a pen) (SD. chapter (in a composition) (SD. 527). painter (ME. designer. faÁl. I. 528). rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. unpointed letter or word ( NO. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. SD. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. I. 560. I.

calamus (BA. 370). lin. marking (syn. 14) 2. index. UDVKP WDUVK P 1.129. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. rasm) (ST. 164) 3. wood block (AB. 137). III. – woodcut. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. tooling (HT. index. 14). .

56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. marsham SO PDU VKLP. ream (of paper) (SD. comp. 532). rizmah. 18) 2. mark (TS. marshim. I.

135).  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. 532). I. hot iron (SD. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. 125) 2. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. illumination. tar¦ ¶ 1. decoration (MS.


17) 3. gilding the inside of the surround (outline). decoration (with liquid gold). ta¨U U TY. covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. 126). 103. TE.3 145. .

$) .

140. SA. writing. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. ra¦f. tar¦ I 1. composition (NS. 79. 35) 2. KH. III. joining letters together (AP.

abbrev. II. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. AR. 89. 15. 34. 125). 35. SL. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. tar„iyah.    73 54. MI. KH. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. used for the companions of the Prophet.

DQW RI \ ELV. FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah.

istir¶ µ \DK – note. – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. 16. statement (LC. AS. 144). 15. . 24). 19. 14.

70) 2. 137). 44.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. 230. lin. riqq SO UXT T.133.11. n. mirfa¶ 1. 231. raqq. 111-112). ND. KK. book cradle (IN. I. book support. support (for an inkwell) (AA.

119. diacritical point (JA. LL. 353). 53. al-raqq al-a¨mar. AA. 407). IW. sifr 13. IK.. 230). parchmenter (DG. AK. 60-63. arabesque decoration (KA. 53. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. IV.67). 74-75. elegant. AE. 108-111. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. making something multicoloured (LL. VIII. 1135) 4. 93. mirqash – reed pen. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . KK. WS. KM. vox reclamans (NM. I. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. 407-410. parchment leaf (ND. EI. paper or other writing surface (MU. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). I. 1135) 3. embellished writing. EP) 2. 17. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. KR. I. -485. KJ.1. n. no. copying (TE. raqshah – pointing.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . calamus (IR. 85). UDTT JKD] O see jild. vocalization by means of points. 105. I. 683. piece (slip) of leather. UDTT ¦ – catchword. diacritical pointing (TE. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. 17. 269). SK. VIII. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. 105.

note. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. brief message.  OHWWer. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk.

. IV. DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. 1126).

139. LM. EI. raqm 1. 1125.) script (AS. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. writing (KM. IV. Turkey). sifr 13. often sewn in). 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. Persia. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. 1123. 146. 602-603).58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. JM. 78-82. inset (MK. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. IV. VII. 86). MN. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings.



– piece of calligraphy. 54. DP. NI. 266) 4. calligraph (AC. AW. 41. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV.




30). WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. no. KJ. – abbreviation.3. copyist (AC. SK. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. BA. I. IK. 5. sifr 13. raqn – compact writing (KM. UDT P – inkwell (KM. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. TE. GA. fasc. calamus (TE. 183. AM. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. 2. 383. III. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. siglum (CL. 147. GA.76). U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. mirqam – reed pen. IV. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. 82. IV. AW. 17. 45. 387-388. 230. 17. 372. 106). 468-9: AN. 154). arqam. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. 244. 160). sifr 13. 183). rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. no. IR. 141. LL. III. 1140).


writing) (KM. IV. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. embellishing ( a text. sifr 13.


58. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . ¨ibr. lin. MP. hybrid (of a script) (LM. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name.g. index. comp. boarding (TS. 24-27. 78) 3. 83). ¨ibr 2. linking (joining) one letter with another. SA. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. I. 14.73. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. ligature (e. on the line) (MY. UA. AG. markaz SO PDU NL]. 389. 60ff). HT. e. ST. 109. murakkab 1. 681) 2. WDUN E 1. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together.g. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. 50. 393).5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). IV. III. comp. ligatured. 45). (Turk.

rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. UXN ¶ . – support (for reed pens) (UA. 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ).



5 . .

30. 14. . mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). corner piece itself (ST. index. rakwah (pl. II. 69). 703). ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. IB. 107) 3. AG. 31.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS.

ramz SO UXP ]. murammim – restorer. WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. restoration (DM).9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada).0 .

secret alphabet (EI. code. III. TW. 159) 3.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. 428) 2. 468. chronogram. 427) 4. WB. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. VIII. cypher. VIII. chronosticon (EI. 55.

. V. 209.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC.

 Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW.  '' . . WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. TD. I. 478- $7  6' . 86.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. I. UA. 127136). II. 393). PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box.


UXZ K. I. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. syn.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. – little stick for the application of kohl. 1186. UA. LL. DM). mik¨ O '' . 393.

marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W.) (TP. recension (recensio) (LC. VIII. 53). ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. XII. variant reading. 545-547) 2. version (versio). II. link in the chain of transmission (TP. KF. 26. varia lectio (MR. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. ULZ \DK 1. – transmitter. tradition (traditio). 417418 and 500-501) 3. also known as sanad (q. 94).v. 109-111). EI. 53. transmission.

MP. 1123. LM. IV.) script (AS. 1125. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). Persia. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  .EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. 73-77. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script ( Turkey). JM. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. VIII. 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). 545-547). rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. 43: wa-T OD . 38. 146. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. MB.

CI.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. I.). ]DEU WD]E U 1. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. q. copying. IV. inscription on stone (KM. transcription (TE. ¨ibr. also dhabr – writing. sifr 13. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. 18.v.

80. 18. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. work (SA. zab U (pl. KK. 80. copyist (TE. II. ND. IK. zubur) – composition. 92). 444. ND.

TE. polychrome illumination (TE. zakhrafah 1. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. TE. 18). elegant. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. IK. elegant. copying (KK.18. 53. II. 444-465. embellished writing. 18) 2. SA. calamus (TE. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. 230). 85. copying (KK. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. IR. embellished writing.


80). muzakhrif – illuminator. 87).  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. decorator (WR. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK.

25. 135). – knob (of a clasp) (TS. . 110. KT. 34. comp. Ñurwah. AG.

ST. 1222). 360) 1. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). zulf (Pers.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). MN. V./Turk. 19: in 12). 25. I. lit. fastener (TS. zulayjah (]DO MDK. ER. 682. 35.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. index. see DC. ‘curl’). ]XO \MDK. AG. IV.. decoration in gold and colours (LL. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . ‘hair lock’. 109). ]LP P DK. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. 69. 689). zalf (MN.

pt. list. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. 95) 2. 601). (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. GA. account book.9. (pl. 222: al-WDUP N . ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. 383-385. catalogue (SD. 181). NA. I. register (IK. 127. azimmah) 1.

145. zinjafr – cinnabar. vermillion ink (SA. MB. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. 320). II. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. II. KF. 101. . 315. comp. 478).

box (DG. zawj SO D]Z M.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. no. 38. 44. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). 91). floriated (KJ.1. KR. hence muzahhar. WD]K U – floral decoration.


EI. X. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. 107). copying (TE. X. 408-409. GA. 73). conjugate leaf (AG. X. falsification (UI. forgery. WD]Z U 1. 6. 18) 2. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. 73. ER. muzawwir – forger (EI. AD. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. 825 and VIII. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. 376). GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. embellished writing. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. TK. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. 391). 283.120b. 107) 2. 409). VII. f. AG. I. 90-100).


miniature painting (WA. 105). 4).102. lin.  decoration. writing. ]LZ TDK – art of illumination. 560. WA.4. 12). decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. miniature painter (ME. 11) 3. n. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. multi-colour illumination (HT. ]DZZ T – illuminator. 560) 4. . MS.

184) 2. ]L\ GDK 1. 59. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. 62).  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. interpolation. interpolation. 9). 127) 2. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ .GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. dittography (TM. 52. 60. 98) 3. superfluous. square (an implement) (MB. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. 136). addition (CM. 73). ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. index. 111. corner. abbrev. index. MI. 9). addition (TP. MH. post-scriptum (AD. angle 2. IA.

elegant. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. embellished writing (SK. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . FRPS TDUU Á.


quodlibet. jaw E (CI. MI. asÐilah) 1. 128) 2. comp. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. . suµ O (pl. abbrev. xiv. preamble to a fatwá. II.

461. n. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. 1853. nos.20. VA. 696. 3214) 2. 53. used after the word All K 73 .

81. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. I. etc. IB. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence).) (SD. index. lapsus calami (DM). 637). 13. 11-12). parchment) (IB. siŒ µah – piece. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. n. piece (of poetry.185). VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen.

17). asiddah) – stopper. 83). plug (in the inkwell) (IK. VLG G (pl. WDVG G – copying. transcription (TE. .

al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. punch (SK. I. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. KM. 122) 2.52). prelector (TP. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. I. n. I. 122. comp. misrad – awl. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). Áurrah. awling. 115. 1347). hence V ULG – reader. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E.) 1. punching (SK. recital. reading. sifr 4. 40. 1347). V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. 39. 56.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. LL.

 frontispiece. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. 36). 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . horizontal stroke (UD. KR. 95. 82). 97. 27. AF. also known as lawzah (JL. munsa¨iŒ – flat. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. 127. .. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others.. MD.

asÃur. sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U.

– line (KD. II. . line of writing. 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð).

copying (TE. 18. I. 77). index. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. geometrical design (polygonal interlace).120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. IB. 140: wa- mis¶a¨.%  Q LC. 155. TS. IA. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. IA. 28) 5. 155). 43). 50.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. 12. 113) 6. TM. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. lineation (LC. TS. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. LC. ruling board (ST. 28. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. 59). mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. 15. 155). WR. 91. SDVVLP 6$ . al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. MB. 87). tas¨ U 1. MB. III. 59). 104- 7. 155. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. 174) 3. lin. 13. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 17). straightedge (UK. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. WS. pasteboard (HT. 48) 5. IN. creating a line (of writing) (SA. 105. number of lines per page (TK. ruling (of folios). 25) 3. composition (AD. 59). ruling.. redaction. designing (UK. 155. 104. 247) 4. MB. stencil (AF. 104. 134) 4. lining. 155. writing. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". 17. 73. IA. V ¨ir. folder (UK. 78. 86. 103.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. 28. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. ff. TA. number of lines per page (LC. ruler. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. WA. lineation. KA. 104-105). (grid of) guidelines.

.5  // . . DM: snuff box). 1364.



MS. book. codex.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild.


9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. V ILU (pl. safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 .

bookbinding (e. WDVI U 1.g. index . ST.


tail (of the page). AG. 150). 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). AD. end of a letter or book 2. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. . 11. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. EI. – book cover (MB. 660. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). oblong format (of a book) (MD. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. spine (of a book) (UK. VIII. 109) 2. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. VDI QDK 1. 742) 2. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. passim). TF. HT. AG. 158. index. MB. lower margin. 15. I. 110). small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 31. 78). 97.115. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. lin. IV. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM).

also LVT ¨ – omission. 58.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. 88). KR. saqa¨ (MU. 95. see above) (JL. haplography (TP. 97). 95. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. 97. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 238) 1. XII. 87) 2. MH. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL.

VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. VXN Q 1. AT. IR. 482. 230). ÑLO M PLVT K. jazmah 2. 137). 80). WS. 133. lin. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. 60).133.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. II. 107. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. 148. comp. IA. circle-like tool (HT. 118. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. comp.

711.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 248). 465-466. silsilah SO VDO VLO. II. 115- . 103-104. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. SK.$  8. KD. SA. 31-33). VI. pen knife (IK. LM. 90-91. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. – knife. AA. II.


76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

611). I. stemma codicum (AL. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . silsilat al-nasab – stemma.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. 27). IX.

107). 1124). VDO P. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. 15. KK. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. JM. 5863. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. IV. EI.GLOSSARY 71 146. AG.

2211.1830. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. MI. CI. 54. mas P U. xiii. I. VA. no. 128). PLVP U (pl.

TM. peg (part of a clasp) (BA. 372.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. III. – nail.



&7 .

VIII. 278. certificate).  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. LC. 267. 27. TP. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . abbrev..g. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session.. X. EI. 1019-1020). KF. 69..25. . samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. auditor. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. II. MU. (CW. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. XVII. TP. 53. 53. 485493). MU. n.

268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . audition note. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. 45) 2. certificate (JA. I.

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

audition leader (master). authoritative commentator. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. 45). certifier (CT.


proper name (EI. title of a book (ism al-NLW E). 1. IV. 179-181) 2. .

sinn SO DVQ Q. 28.) (MH. TP.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. n. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah.20) 3. 100). 28) 2. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q. 53. tasmiyah 1. title (of a work) (LC.v.

  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit. shaqq ) (UK.

 6$ . waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // .9  LQV – left side.  (.  . .. ..

MB. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. hone (UK. 153. misann ÃXOD\O ". IA. 60: misann akh ar. 103.

TS. 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . 10. ..  $7 133. 107. AG.5  6$ . NH.

sanad SO DVQ G. misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).v. musannanah – chevron (FT. q. 395).).

53. 56). musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP.

. .   (.. 6/ . 9.

al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. IV. EI. VII. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. 14. sifr 13. FRPS muÁannaf. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. FN. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . RN. TW. 704-705). 8. I. 5. 692). 2. 47). 365.

232). 264-265. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar).GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. 88. OS. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. VI. CM. II.

VI. comp.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. 252).). and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA.D.

black ink (LC. I. 384. 320. VDZ G 1. AI. 27. 388). SK. – Muslim era (DD. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q.

VI. MU. XV. 161. MU. 27.9 . XIII. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . MU. 126.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. rough copy (LC.

copying by an apprentice (TE. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. making it difficult to read (MH. WDVZ G 1. AM. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. 18). preparation of a draft (TE. 50A) 3. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . 18. 98) 4. marring (of a text). calligrapher (AW. FRPS PXED\\D ah. vox reclamans (NZ. 18) 2. copying (TE. 97. 45. musawwid – copyist.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. nos. 237).

 V V DK.


. – woodworm.

ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. 463. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. musawwas – worm-eaten. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. damage caused by worms (LC. KD. comp. 105. II. trimming the textblock (TS. 50. 702). 17-18). II. KK. (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. 28). SA.

sayr SO VX\ U. was known as qirmah (GA. used in Ottoman Egypt. Turkey. RA. DR. 24-24). 1124. A variety of this Persia. 183). IV. 178-180. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI.


96). index. 114. MB. sayf SO VX\ I.  endband (headband) strip (ST. lin. HT. 16.

IA. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. – trimming sword. 104. MB. 103. 154. cutter (UK.

 **** VKDE NDK 1. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. 73). WDVKE N 1. DH. 19. WDVK E N. 33. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. endband (headband) (HT. 407. 20) 2. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2.88-106. nos. (pl. lin. 115.

passim). . – interlace (TF.

PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. 406). Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV.GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ.

. shajjah SO VKLM M.  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ .  VKDE WXK ¨adduh).' . . jilfah... comp.

shaddah. stemma (AL. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). shajarah – genealogical tree. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ .  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). 27).73) 2. WDVKG G DK. DH. hone (DD. UD. EI. also mushajjar – foliated design. mishŒadh – whetstone. no. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. 967) 3. arabesque decoration (WR. VII. honing (of a knife) (KD. creating a genealogical tree. II. white interior substance of the reed (IK. I. shaŒm(ah) – pith. 87. LM. WDVKM U 1. 86. 35-35). shaŒdh – whetting. 14. composing a text in a schematic. stemma (SL. 9. 390). tree-like way. 711). I. I.

doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. shidq SO DVKG T. – doubling (of a consonant). 14).

book cover. . 27.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). case binding (TS.

fakk 2. sharaj SO DVKU M.76 GLOSSARY AG. 109). comp. 369). fore-edge flap (?) (NH.

sharŒ (pl.v.) (BA. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W. III. – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. 372).


IA. 106-107. abbrev. rules. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. MB. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. EA. OM). shar¨(ah) (pl. II. shuraÃ) – line.0 . abbrev. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. IB. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. 385. MI. decorative band (UI. mishra¨(ah) – knife. paste (MB. al-VKDU I DK. . fillet (in decoration) (FT. 29) 4. 100. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. 217. also VKLU V. cutter (IA. 158.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. 139. IX. 60. 397-320. [Lv). (LC. FZ. comprising the text commented upon (matn). CI. I. 60. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. 27.. rule-border (LC. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. 5051). al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. 392: for opening sealed documents. DD. MM. I. VLU V and V U V (DM). 27) 2. long commentary. EI. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . &. xiv. NH. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . 174-175). 109) 3. ashriÃah) 1. 401). also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). comment-text book. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). MD. stroke (DM). shars – pasting.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . 322).v. 47. 250). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. nuskhah and the like. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. TW. ligatured Maghrebi script.).GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. VI. 365. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af.

)'  .

eraser (TS. polisher (NH. whisk (?). 251). FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. shaÌ \ . I. burnisher. 113) 2. sha„ \DK (pl. cancellation (LC. 390). I. 28: IN. shaqq. 11. AG. mish¨ab – 1. 756). duster.  arb. comp. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD.

8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . also tash„ \DK – line. 88. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. 13) 2. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. AA. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. 35. KH. III. serif-like stroke (LM. à Ð \ Ð.

 FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. al-mukarram.

 26 . – the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.


78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. ashÑ U. shi¶r (pl.

116). II. – poetry. 12. 82. CI. CI. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. I. nos. versification. scribal verse (see e. 81.g. no.

222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . outline (KF. 50) 3. SA. al-musha¶¶ar. 161). index. 104. scraper (ST. trimmer (HT. LM. 161) 2. AF. AI. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. bookbinder’s sword. NA. parer.159). 58). illumination in gold. shafrah 1. 91-93. 16. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. cutting edge (SK. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. 224). 144. MB. 112. IA. 11. 59.83. VI. shaqq SO VKXT T. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. II. III. 59) 3. 250). 45. JM. 153. lin. IP. lin. UK. shaving (HT. MJ. pt. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). 109). AG.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. 145. WDVKI U – trimming. 9. 103. 127. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. tash¶ U 1. outlining. paring knife. III. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA.104.


8' -12: SK. 117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK.

II. . 171) 3. MH. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. 59. slit (of the nib). SA. 97. IM.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. 460-462). 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh.

preliminary endbanding (IA.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). 393). WDVKN ] – 1. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. 43. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. ER. 694). mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. no. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. 1124. IV. sewing endbands (headbands). 1124. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century.1. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. awl. IV. punch (UA. 62) 2. IV. 699-702).GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. ER. . IV.

diagram. 59. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. 125. vowelization. hence mushakkal – vocalized. 160-167. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. shaqq. GL. comp. vowelized (for various practices see SA. III. 12) 2. IM. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU.g. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. 150). 36). 81). SA. KH. III. III.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. vowel marks.

.+  8'   .


80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

PA.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. MB. 63). 51). sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. 27. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. rosette (LC. AF. 118. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. 135). 110. IA. 116). passim. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA.


g. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.


document (DM). EI. n. 53. 340-. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. – copy of a letter.20. IX. 201 and X.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.


Mashhad (al-)´usayn. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . 90). Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf.

al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad.HUEHOD .DUEDO Ð). – . shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU. al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.

– new moon. II. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known.). al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. 1612). usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U.v. month (LL. shuhrah.

EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &. .. .


al-PXE UDN.GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram.

– the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). .) – endband (headband) (LA. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. RN. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. KH. PA. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. VI. 250). 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. 117. fahrasah. mashyakhah (pl. 8. comp. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 118).5. VI.). 725). 19-20.v. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. pt. VK U ]DK (Pers. i¦E ¶ (pl. fihrist.

¦aŒ Œ – correct. 29-32. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. NW. AR. writing word in the text (GA. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). emendation 2. 136. abbrev. correction. QS. MH. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). 473. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. sic. IA. 120-129. dye. 285. II. abbrev. 114-118. MB. attestation (of correctness in transcription). 73  . VIII. tint (UK. tinting.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. 671-672. 45). 267-268). MP. LE. 63. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. thus (JA. 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. CT. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. ¦LE JK – pigment. mara  and saqam). ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. NH. I. (KG. 35.


comp. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. signing (a document) 4. n. aÁ¨ E. preparation of a critical edition. 53. editor. ¦ Œib (pl.25).

 DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). owner (OS). 0. . isti¦Œ E – ownership. possession (OS). abbrev.

8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl.. leaf (TC. 24). papyrus or parchment roll (SL.  parchment. -835) 2. 22) 3. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. small pamphlet. BA. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. mi¦Œaf (pl. I. 22.. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. Áu¨uf. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . I. folio (folium). codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). papyrus or paper (KD. mu¦Œaf. notebook (SL. maÁ ¨if) 1. often leather. IK. IV.. sifr 13. II. page (DM) 4. III. 9. sheet of writing material. . ma¦Œaf.

17. 25. 668-669.GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. KF. 25.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. AG. sometimes two. 107) 3. volumes) (EI. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. 316. VII. MS. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . MS. n. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. parchment textblock (TS. AG.4). 107. 17. 16). 17. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. 107. AG. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. 54-57). II. 16). JM. 146. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS.

 ta¦Œ I 1.g. error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. distortion.  .  .

  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK. 04  6$ ..

syn. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). ta¨U I TY.

 . (.5.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. pt. -348) 3. bookbinding (LA.

II. 118) 2. 9. 269-270). also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. bookseller (QS. IB. 11. HD. ÁXG U. ¦aŒŒ I 1. ¦adr (pl. II. 13.

also ta¦G U – incipit. preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. ¦DG UDK 1. preamble.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

59). fore-edge (TS. IA. 107) 6. AG. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. fore-edge flap (TS. 27) 4. 464. IB. wajh (SA. 44. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . 218). 15) 5. MB. 105. 156. 16. as opposed to inner side. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). MJ. II.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

mandorla (FZ. ¦urrah – center-medallion. 109. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. 110). 99. surrah. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). JL. MD. ÁuÑ G. 83. ¦a¶d (pl. comp.

34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. 50. TU. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA.

vox reclamans (TT. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. 11. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. ta¦I Œ – catchword. 107). verso of the first folio (LC. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. 58). 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. FN. 27). AG. 371. 227. study (KF. II. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. 30. ¦DI Œah (pl. siglum) (TP. II. KD. ta¦affuŒ – examination. 192).

iafar (al-khayr. al-PXE UDN. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). al-muÌaffar. al-Ìafar.

– the second ¦ifr (pl. aÁI U.

89). 59). month of the Muslim calendar.171. (OS. abbrev. . – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. TP.

maÁ ILQ.GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl.

burnishing (MB. 134). 393: for ink). – filter. ¦aql – polishing. strainer. passim. KA. maÁ TLO. sieve (UA. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl.

I. – polisher.. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). 142. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. 44. IA. MB. 99. 156. aÁO E. aÁlub. 149.  DS. ¦ulb (pl. 105. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. IB. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . 149. DD.

text-column (LL. ta¦O E 1. 62) 3. 166.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. making pasteboards (MB. LC. . 59). 119). matn. bookbinding (IA.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . original text (LC. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. MB. IA. 27). 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. 27) 2. 111. 1712. II. main. II. correction (FK. comp. 62). i¦O Œ 1. no. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB.


siglum) (TP. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. 55-56. no. MM. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. suspension. CI. i¦¨LO Œ. II. 191.


 [LLL (. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK.86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. -359). abbrev.      73  Q 73  &. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. . .

227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl.v.). ÁDQ G T. ta¦P P – design. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 83). al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. sketching (MO. ¦LP P – plug.

– wooden chest. box (for copies of the QurÐ Q.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

ta¦Q I (pl. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. taÁ Q I. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦un¶. Ñamal. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ).

work (MU. III. – composition. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I.

as opposed to musnad (q. often the author of the original text PDWQ. 662663. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. 705). mu¦annif – author. II.) (SL.v. VII. 39. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. compiler. EI. work.

E\ $E +LO O. IX. (CI. abbrev. 625-626). craft (EI. I. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). duction by artisans. art. xi).


correctness. preservation (DM). apograph (TP.141: ‘portraitiste’). XV. box (NT. TP. ta¦Z E (pl. „abbah (pl. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. mu¦awwir – painter.2. ¦ UDK (pl. copy. illustrator (PA. microfilming. ME. 136. ¦L\ QDK – conservation.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. comp. 889892 and X. ta¦Z U 1. 121. X. 56) 3. Áuwar) 1. taÁ¨ ¨. 225. 57). IX. 559). no. 143. XVI. DH.  LE E. transcript (e. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. EI. 268) 4. MU.212). I. miniature painting (MU. 361. aÁwinah) – case. pt.g. ¨ ¦awn. painted illustration (EI. taÁZ E t) – correction. 361-363) 2. exact copy. **** LI Ì. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. comp. ¦LZ Q (pl. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. example (JA.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

64. ta„E E. n. 95-96). MH. a  E U. marking the word with a  abbah (TP. 57. 57. 95-96). DEEUHY 73  AR. MH. thus (TP. 30) 2. sic. also known as WDPU „. i„barah (pl.

bundle of documents (IK. sifr 13. quire . 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. a number of leaves or sheets put together. KM. „LE UDK 1.. a„barah. IV. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd.

II.120a-b). 107) 3.177). AG.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). 112) 4. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. specialist in  abÃ. 107. 97) 2.. index. ta„E U 1.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . AG. 18. ST. AG. 11) 2. (pl. 16. „ EL¨ 1.) . 29.16. 26. (pair of) dividers (TS. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. IB. album (FT.  DZ ELÃ) – compass. orthographer (MH. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . textblock (TS. 5) 3. collation (of quires) (TS. binding (IB. 388). 17. 18. TK. 44. 19. n.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. f. 12. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB.) .  XU E. 13.

59). small tool (resembling a drum stick. II. „irs (pl. AG. KF. a U V  XU V. 109) 2. – cancellation. mallet (LF. mi„rabah 1. erasure (MF. stalk?) (TS. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. 62). 11.

a Ñ I. 109) 2. also TS. AG.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. 109-110). 12. „i¶f (pl. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. 32-33. interlace (TS. AG.

ta  Ñ I. ta„¶ I (pl.

54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . – space between lines.. XVII. II. 1792. interline (LL.  /& . MU.


al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk.406). 11. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN.g. „DI UDK (pl. 33. interlaced (FZ. a Z Ð) – counter. plait. 44). III. (SA. passim). mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. 413) 2. 107). AG. braid (FT. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. ma„I U – plaited. 12. 30. 44. 32. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. polygon. 45). 217).GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF.  DI Ðir) 1. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. interlace (TF. AG. Á G à Р. e. „awµ (pl. ‘eye’ (of a letter). 110).

76   $* .

ÃDZ ELÑ ). seal. signet.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ).medallion) (HT. 96).  ODUJH stamp (for a center. mi¨ba¶ 1. ¨ EL¶. ¨ ED¶ (pl. comp. stamp (IK. . lin.

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

WS. 144. roll (AJ. .  PRXOG VKHHW of paper.


6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). comp. qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

DB. sarwah) (JL. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . 2019) 4. (KU. center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. 83. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. tirs.5 . 154. III. 979) 5.

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

AD. MZ. border (on a book cover) (TS. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. 21. 107. IA. edge. TK. 1020.120a) 4. Taf. Ãurar) 1. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). VIII. AG. 110) 3. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). AG. . leaves (of paper) (NH. 28. I. turn-in (TS. abbrev. 102). 109) 2. f. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. ¨urrah (pl.7. gloss. ¨LE T – large sheets. 113. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. margin (LC. 73  Q $. marginalia. marginal note. 60). audition note (EI. 372).


SD. VI. 58. margin (TP. 313. 29) 6. address (ÑXQZ Q. ML. SA. 46. II.

85). Ãughrá 7. TP. 16). KH. f. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. . 682. 36) 12. ta¨U U – glossing. tailpiece (LC. 28) 8. 689). HT.120a). annotation (WA. X. f. 28) 13. 16). ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC.120a. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. 28) 9. mu¨arrar – glossed. IV. n. illuminated headpiece (LC. lin.67). 57. palmette (LC. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. ansa. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. 58. 28. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. 28) 10. annotated (WA. comp. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. 28) 11.

133). MB. 61. 141: ‘dessinateur. ¨irs (pl. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. sketcher. manuscript restorer. PA. 159: ‘dessin. celui qui fait le tracé initial. 103). 118. ta¨U Œ – sketch. PA. 132. ÃXU ¨). Ãar¨’) 2. outline (HD. ÃXU V DÃU V. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. 101. HD. composition’).GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. draftsman (AB. 69. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. ¨DUU Œ 1. 118.

VIII. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU . 93. 408. IK. 75-76. LL. II.  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. EI. IW. 1840). 63-64. comp.

BA. ¨araf (pl. HJ µ. III.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. LF. IV. 8.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 140. sifr 13. aÃU I. 371). pour s’en servir encore une fois’). ta¨U V – obliteration.

AG. 107). 109). 57. 38. AG. hammer (TS. . 166. 60). 30. 31. IA. 87). AG. TH. 107. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. mi¨raqah – mallet. 15. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. 11. 11. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS.

FT. headpiece (LC. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W.) 2. 595-598) 3. IV. 109). ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. 28) 4. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). ¨XJKU µ (pl. X. 28). 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q.v. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. erasure (KM.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. 134. 406). sifr 13. inlay work (AB. X. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. 11. ta¨¶ P – inlay. AG. (MU. à ¨ughrá.


¨alaŒ – sheet. 52). 83). UK. II. 147. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. leaf (of paper) (TS. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. I. SD. 483). ¨alŒ. ÃDO ¨ \. 145. AJ. 27. 92. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. WS.

. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). 52). roll (WS. SD. – sheet (of paper from the mould). II. 87: al-darj.

0 . erasure (ND. 63. ¨ilsim. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. ¨ilsim (etc.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). ¨ilsam. syn.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . ÃDO VLP. 82. 373: ¨als. NH. 373: ¨ulsah). II. ta¨O V – obliteration. comp.) (pl. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. NH. LL. ¨alsah. Ãirs. IV. thus differing from Ãirs’). sifr 13. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba.

al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. ascender (of a letter). X. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. tion of words (EI. naÌDUD ZDTDID. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. headpiece (TW. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). 500-502).v. iÁE Ñ (q. incipit (WA. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. WB. 11. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. 56). ¨ OL¶ (pl. 258). beginning of the text.) (KH. – talisman.

/&  26 .

III. . RN. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. SA. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . 29: ‘common. FRPS WDTU Ì. 144. 59. naÌar. al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. 224). popular class of scripts’). III. MJ.

daubing. 58. pasting (MB. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. 136). erasure (JA. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. coating. passim) 2. 110). KD. 278. ¨ams 1. gilding (SD.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. DG. II. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. I. of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. obliteration. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. gilt and the like (MB. ‘eyes’. II.

144). 36.. 242. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶.. 6$ . IR. AS. -47. KH.

 DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. a¨Q E (sg. Ãunub) – ascenders (TU.

xviii). 61). layer) of paper (TS. mu¨awwal – original. cartouche (LC. 157. MB. musta¨ O 1. 26) 2. AG. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). TK. 35. 107. abbrev. rule-border (LC. AG. 109. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. 32. sheet (piece. I. rules. / / / (CI. IA. 17. IA. 111. rectangular panel (AB. ¨ TDK 1. 26). a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. strand (UK. 31. 135) 3. 62. ¨DZ O – long. Áilah. unabridged work. 120b) 2. . MB. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 110). comp. f.


8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. IV. sifr 13.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. KM.

 (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. 11. It was written with a reed pen. ÃDZ P U. III. mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). 12). al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. 49-57). In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA.


abbrev. f. – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK.  0. person. .120a).

musta¨ E DK. 212). ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk.g. MJ. 206. misk) (e.


g. 18). CM. CI. II. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. 3. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e.

182). inset (EM. ÌXU I. **** „arf (pl. 98. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. AH. WKDU KX – requiescat.


 FDVH ER[ /& 29. 575). ME. 1910. . II. LL.

al-„afar.). „ufr (pl. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.v. aÌI U. II.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. 495).

29).3. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. outline (KJ. usually the thumbnail) (TM. ‘shading’) – outlining. ta„O O (lit. no. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ].

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

GA. 59) 2. CI. back of a document. xv. abbrev. SL. 29. I. comp. 285).64. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. baÃn. front of the textblock (LC. (TP. n. blank reverse of a letter (LC. – conjecture. placed in the margin. verso. 29). „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). 29). „DKU \DK 1. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. hair side (of parchment). often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. „ahr – back. 57. II.

*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . obvious.  IO\-leaf (SD. ‘alleged. „ KLU (lit. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. ‘external. comp. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. 109). presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture.Oá). first page(s) of the textblock (KF. evident’. 8 and II. ME. . I. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. II. AG. 88. abbrev. 11.


AJ. ¶ajuz (pl. MP. WS. 148-149. 80-82).GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. 147. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. aÑM ]. ¶ajz. 40.


14). V. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. 52.P P DO-0DKG . n. 21-22. TP.

146. IV... 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. 26). . treatise. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' .  (. . DEEUHY MI. vocalization (KM. RA. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). diacritical point 3. III. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. sifr 13.

diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. SA. 57). 90. ¶ajm. . pointed letters (TP. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. i¶M P WD¶M P 1.


(pl. taÑ U M.

ÑXU VK. – curve. curvature (of the descender) (SA. 30). III.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). ¶arsh (pl. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI.

al-sa¨r – base line (TW. 230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U.

trellis (FT. abbrev. MH. 45). III. 29). 218. SA. 202). mu¶ UL„ – collator. JA. 56. ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. I. II. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. 136). Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). taÑ U T. 45). SA. lattice-work (AB. reciter (CT. 423) 2.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. ¶LU „(ah).9. 25. 464. LC. ¶ar„(ah). 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. KU. TP..  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a.. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl.

III. SA. 37. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 22. 50. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. 11. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. 40. KH. KU. 36.

¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. FRPS PXÑaqqaf. 11). (al-kha¨¨) al-¶.U T see mu¨aqqaq. .

Ñuran) – thong.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. 110. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ . KT.. 25. 34. AG..

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

¶ashr (pl. DEEUHY / (CI. I. aÑVK U. xiii).


  6' .  8.. decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .7  // . .. ¶ VKLU \DK – mark.

 al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). ta¶VK U 1. dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W.

AG. 109). AG. 108. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 11. 109) 2. stamp with vegetal design (TS. 116: gha  UDK .7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). ¶ushar 1. 109). ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS.

II. also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 134). IB. mi¶¦arah (pl. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. SD. 155. IK. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. 154. 84). 154). 154-155. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 42). .

95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 .130) 2. signe de renvoi). caret (MR. curved line (used as a reference mark. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB. lin.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1.

147. introd. AM. MI. abbrev. connection. 145. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. 35.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. 36. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. / / / (AR.). also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. 37) 4.

00 132. MR. 176. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. 54). TP. 93. TM.

¶LI ¦ – plug. index. ¨ibr) (MP. 2091). 17. 19). LL. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . ST. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. margin (ST. 16. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. II. ¶af¦ – galls. 83.

¶aqb. ¶aqib (pl. comment (LC. catchword.+  10  SJ. vox reclamans (TN. 27) 2. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . 344). note. ta¶T EDK 1. aÑT E.

109). Ñuqad) 1. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. knot-like tool (TS. 47. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. III. – end of the text (matn) on a page. counter. . lower ¶uqdah (pl. 46. 36) 2. KH. 11. AG. 58.

GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. taÑU T ¶allahu. ‘perhaps. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. 37). la¶allahu (lit. 126). comp. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU.


90.Q DO-ÑLO M. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB. WS. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.

composition. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. copy. ligature (KU. script. transcription. 15) 2.9 . FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. writing. 124). 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . copying (TE. 119) 3. transcript (AD.


.) . .

107) (pl. abbrev.  (MI. taÑ O T WDÑO T W.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.

in the Turkish/Arabic context. comment. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. 165) 6. 694-696) 2. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. LC. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. explication (TE. ER. scholium. MU. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. II. – marginal gloss. 1124. IV. 71. X. 27. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. EI. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. 162). 26). IX.v. IV. 15.). name often given. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q.


76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK.. FRPS U MLÑ.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. 77). al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. 28. 104). 26. AG. . also TS. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . III..

371. mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . III.

 ¶alam (pl. aÑO P.

autograph (LC. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. 22). SD. 164. motto. marking. ta¶O P 1. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. II. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. II. 381). 352) 4. 2140). signing a document (AA. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. EI. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. II. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. marking quires before sewing (ST. 164). signature (SD. XII. I. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. ¶DO PDK – 1. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. TS. book mark (e. mark. 18) 2. 135. 27) 2.g. index. – decorated border (LL.

 100).HUEHOD .¶  0.39). al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .DUEDO Ð) (CM. no. ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.


III. abbrev. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. 372). .

al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. aÑP O. 2153: ‘text of the book’). ¶amal (pl. II.

VII.  FRPSRVition. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ. compilation (MU.

etc. comp. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. cryptogram. TC. IX.e. taÑZ U 2. writing. 47-48. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. ta¶miyah 1. 30) 3. 229.). VII. 123). laà I DO-Ñamal. SA. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. colouring. q.v. i. (SJ. EI. used in opposition to Ãar¨. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. painting. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. chronosticon (TI. 257-258). main work of a painter (PA.


(MW. 260-261). 110. ÑDQ Z Q. EI. I. SL. 211. VII. 16. ¶XQZ Q (pl. PK.


comp. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. X. tarjamah 2. EI. 871-872) 3. 29. X. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. 2183). 29. 116. X. chapter. 29). 36. II. section heading (LC. EI. PA. 870-871) 4. . the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. 66. EI. 870). title (of a book) (LC.

I. i¶ZLM M – curvature. VWURNH. 200-203). curved (of a line.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah.

collation session (MF.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. 12. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. I.g. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. UD. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. 13. IN. e. VII. 726). mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). ta¶awwudh. 14). X. 74). collation master. 7). repetitor (EI. 230). taÑ Z GK. .

95. Ãams. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. 69). aÑZ P. of letters) (AP. amulet (DT. – talisman. 114. ¶ P (pl. KU. ‘eyes’. comp. 123-124).

comp. 43). 252-253). ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. Ñuqdah. . ¶ayn (pl. LM. comp. 194. VI. sanah.

adhesive (TS. VI. 199). AS. HT. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. North Africa. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). IB. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. MP. VI. n. rasm al-JKXE U. taghriyah 1. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. 47. MP. IB. 32-34. IB. 42. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. 90. lin. NW. 88. 250). JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. 107. NW. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. 141. index. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. 45-47). 250). 73). 1124). DW. 145. 74). IV. 19-23. 37. pasting (ST. MB. 233. IK. II. NW. VI. 41. 145). MB. aghriyah) – paste. ghubrah – mixture of white. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. red and black colours (SD. 74. 47). OD. 141. MP.18) 2.60-72. 97. sizing (of paper) (AB. 37. JM. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. 97. AG. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. 58-63. EI. 244). 12-13.

IU T  . FRPS .


binding (TS. JKD] O see jild. passim). aghshiyah) 1. 564) 2. JKLVK µ (pl. 554. KC. 36. 35. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. covering of the board. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. box (SD. book cover. case. ME. 214. II.

CD. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. III. pl. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM.


257). taghshiyah – book covering. I. binding (IN. I. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK ..) . LVWLJKI U DK. 473). RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF.

.  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' .  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ . prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness. 217) 2...

  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). ghal¨ah – error. ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. 150). OHWWHU 6. 192). ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). a word) (MI. mistake. . bold character. WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. abbrev. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters).


AB. 132). mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 108). binding (FZ. 157). JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. – book cover (MD. WDJKO I – book covering. 214. 213.

VIII.v.. 114.Ñuqdah. comp.). fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. – WDLOSLHFH . III.) . 47. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ. **** I I U – papyrus (EI. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. SA. also iftit Œ. 46.  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). 261). 128). mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU.

preface.9. XV. proem (MU. prologue. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . LC.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. LQFLSLW 08 . 23) 2..

23) 4. headpiece (KF.  KHDGLQJ (e. LC.g. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. II. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar.

 PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. 245). 59). muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. IA. press screw (MB. . 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. 104. 62. VI. TS.18. AG. 109) 2. IA. IDW ODK 1.

à P U fard(ah) SO DIU G.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. II. SD. VI. 249). comp. leaf (of paper) (SA. 189.

conjugate leaf. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. 28).v. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). LIU G – letter in its isolated. as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. – one of a pair.). WDUN E TY. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. one half of a piece of leather (TS.

6$ .. ..

I. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.v.g. 60. SA. 154). 133. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. III. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. 481. shaqq (q. 390).) (KU. 83). MY. far„ al-qalam – syn. DD. II. AT. 230. IR. fur„ah (pl.


// . ..

far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. witness (MR. apograph. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK . PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. most probably a variant of PLTU „. LC. annotation (TM. 23) 2. note. mifra¨ – cutter (ST. index.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«.18).


WDIU ¶ – interlacing. scroll (FI. abbrev. JL. application as opposed to theory. 87. 82). IDU JK SO IDU JK W.) (UD. 269) 4. (AD. argument resulting from a legal point. aÁl. 88.v. q.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. 93. 15. SM. KR. 131).

one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO. execution. completion. 41) – end.

also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. farkah (MN. blank. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. lacuna (LC. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . GA. 23. 26. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM.+  /0 . 289) 3. 23).


explication. comment. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 1.


SA. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 83). e.5 . disc. 55. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. 351. fa¦¦ (pl. X.g. mufassir – commentator. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. 23. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. AK. LC. MS. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). III. paragraph mark (TP. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. three dots. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . from Greek into Arabic (EI. commentary and/or translation.


fuÁ O.110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl.

SA. taf¦ O 1. 134. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). word division (in a text). III. QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. . 138. 145-146) 2. MM. 55. spacing (TP. space between words or passages.

baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver.. 37. 92..20). TP. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA.  FKDSWHU 6' II. or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. 33). fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . comp. 130-133. 53. n. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 271). MB. silver-based ink (UK.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. MP.

DM). taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. AK. abbrev. 273. paragraph (LC. SD. comp. section of a text. 351). RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. xiii. fiqar) – passage. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). fiqrah (pl. I. 23. II.

BA. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. III. – book cover (HN. 385.


fihrist (pl IDK ULV. 45).GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. fihris. funuq) – case.g. mufakkak – loose. disbound (e. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). box (KC. IDQ T (pl.


mashyakhah 2. AR. catalogue (SD. LC. 293) 2. fahrasah 1. marginal note. abbrev. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. also I µidat al-a¦l. (CA. 49. 207. 149. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. II. RU &0  RU 66. abbrev. 36). record of attested study. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. 743-744) 4. list. II. gloss. 286. 23.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. cataloguing. bibliography. EI. II. nota bene (notabilia). comp. 50).

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

15). al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. 107). . WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). 76  AG.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. Qubbat al-.

qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. qabr. lit.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. straightedge (TS. qabla – before. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. 302). . 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. 107. IV. AG. SD. 471). abbrev. II. qub¨al.‘grave’) – pen box (EI.

collation note (statement). 56. comp. n. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. MH. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. PXT ELO – collator.TP. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. muÑ UD ah 2. VII. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. 490492). EI. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . II. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. corrector.52.

WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. AG. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. 701.xiii. II. comp. n. AA. 24. 107). FRPS ] Ðidah. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. 18. etc. CI.37. .) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. qidd (pl. 11. qaÃÃ. aqudd) – strip (of leather). CI. I. 109). II. abbrev. 10. xiv). / / / / / (TP. 54.

fore-edge flap (TS. 107). 120. preface. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 17. MI. TP.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. muqaddimah – forward. 26. AG. 495-496). 173). introduction (EI. VII. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. also TS. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. 59. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. abbrev. comp. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. 52.

TLU µah 1. prelector. – marginal note. collection of glosses. 26) 2. variant reading (varia lectio). manner of recitation. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 9 -129) 3. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. 139). gloss. recitation (LC. reading. commentary (AD. reciter.

  73 . $/ .

n. 53. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. II. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W.g.25. TP. FRPS ¨arf. 494-498). KF. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. FRPS VDP Ñ.


110). AG. AG. 35-36. TLU E (pl. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. sleeve case (TS. SA. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. 104. aqribah) 1. 36. AG. II. 110). 466) 2. . 36. 110). sheath (SK.

107. MP. 107. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. 417). 19. ST. IK. IK. MP. sifr 13. 18.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. QS. IV. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 91-92. compact writing (KM. II. putting something into a press (ST.19. index. AG. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. screw press (MB. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. index. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. AG. IB. 44. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. 63. 60). 103: PLTU   (!). 20). PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. IA. 63). 19. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. IB. ST. index. 21. qar¦a¶ah – fine. 47). 94). 44). 59). 10.


173-174. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. 66-76. I. 261. II. 66-93. VIII. EI. WS. IW. 82-91). AE. 98. 50. V. parchment (AE. 407) or paper (SA. AE. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. comp. VIII. EI. 17). 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). UD. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. 108.

often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. . – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. XIV. 335- WDTU   W .

compact writing (KM. IV.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . 186). muà ODÑah. %/ $0 QRV     122. sifr 13. comp. 143. 182. muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL.  qarmadah. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. 136. 313). qarma¨ah – fine.

DS. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. IV. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). EI. . 69). qirmah see VL\ T. IV. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. EI. 146. 393: not defined). 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. JM. see also UA. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. 41). 86. 103. miqsam(ah) (lit. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. reed pen (IK. qa¦¦. 181. HT. 59. 42. MB. AA. 682. 60. trimming (ST. al-qurnah al-yusrá). 153. qurnah – corner (MB.19. IK. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. IA. IB. index. 80).

154).116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. qa„ P DK. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. comp. qa¦amah. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. MP. 86). tin-based ink (UK. miqaÃÃ. qa„m – syn. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 32). 130. 153).

KM. nibbing. KU.. – white hide. sifr 4. 102. 72-74.) breadthwise (KD. etc. KK. LM. II. cutting (of leather. I. the point itself. IK. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. 93). 109-110. 153. AA. 50. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . leather (IW. 2-463. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ.

LL.e. LM. i. 462. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. II. longer than the left’. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. I.

154). opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. MJ. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. II. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. 2996. straight point of the nib (SA. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. MJ. II. 217). . ivory. II. 1742. 462). 217). al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even.

niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. LS. 105: maqaÃÃ. 54. IP. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 76. 62. SA. MB. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. 468. 45. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. II. IV.GLOSSARY 117 etc. 133). MM. SK. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. MK. qaÃÑ al-thumn. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. qa¨¶ (pl. 65. AT.742. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. ND.

475). VI. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1.  irs (AG. piece of something (e. decoupage (ER. . FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. piece of calligraphy. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. piece of poetry) 2. calligraph (AC.g. principle of the interlace. 110). qi¨¶ah 1.

WS. 21) 2. (pair of) scissors (IK. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined.  +'   T ÃiÑ. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. decoupage. taq¨ ¶ 1. VI. cutting instrument (DM) 2. AG.. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. PA. 91). muqaÃÃa¶ ). papercut(s). 475). splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS.  (5 9. 11. format (of a book) (TL. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. 9. mishraÃ. comp. . 90) 4. 107). mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. 144. filigree work (IP. collage.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

 26 . abbrev. – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

. 377). – clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH.

al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. AG. flat back (TS.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. comp. 15-17. AG. 641). 15. AG. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. ST. 15. 14. qalb. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. index. 107. 107). 15. 107). taqfiyah – backing (TS. 107). AG. 20). al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight.

 PRXOG 8.  .

83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U.19.3. no. 26. 26. LC.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. index. MK. ST. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 14.

stamp (for book cover design) (IA. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. JL. 93) 4. 88. 214. FI. 43). 59. FZ. folder (IB. miqlab SO PDT OLE.


26). WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. DW. 83. – envelope flap (MT. 68). TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. 202-203).

  76 .  SLHFH RI ZRRG ..

II. IK. 232. 44-465. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". TC. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. also qalam al-qa¦ab. i.e. KU. copper pen. see TW. SA. 45-87. 13 (AA.  calamus. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. reed pen.

71-75. UK. . ductus. 133-134. -50. 59-64. script. MB. handwriting. hand. 38-39. IV. 144. AT. MP. 471) 3. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. 100). al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . EI.. 356. MB.

see khaÃÃ. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK.


muqawwar. used in talismans and amulets (IT. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. 11-12). al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. I. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. 335). al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin.

85). al-thuluth. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. IK. 145). al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 144). DO-mu¨aqqaq. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. 153. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. and used extensively in the main Arab lands.


..  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah. .  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  .$  Q. SA. .  $.


'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

 WDTO P – paring. 109). . AG. 2565). trimming (a reed). 49-51. 11. chest (LL. I. II. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. 85). 43. 43. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. II. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). KR. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. 79).

AS. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. 11. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. 37). comp. 144). 144). tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. III.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

MU. 190. passage. PDT ODK 1. MI. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. II. xiv. TP. 155. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. short composition. treatise. XII. tract 2. 238). 154. – quotation. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

DF. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 82. 86. 83. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. KF. 327. III. 377. folio (folium) (MK. I. 283. I. 190. KF. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf.

22). al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. comp. mDEV Ã. RN.g. erect. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. PXVWDT P – upright. .

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.


qayd SO TX\ G. al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq.

composition (TE. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1. committing something to writing.. – note. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. statement. 17. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' .


binding. IK.  tying. IA.. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. III. 62) 4. 113. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. . sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // .


author 2. IB. N JKL¨. 153. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. 43). no. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. – marginal note. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. glossator (AM. muqayyid 1.187). gloss (LC. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). 27).

etc. WS. al-kalŒ .VO P . N JKLGDK – sheet. 419-420. comp. 77-85). al-N JKDG DO-. IV. leaf (of paper) (AJ. al-5 P . . see waraq. WS. waraq. SO NDZ JK Ã. 136). AE. 98-105. 77) – paper (EI.

122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. WS. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. 85-86). kubbah (pl. ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. as in the beginning of w Z. 136. 374). N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. munkabb – inclined. in papermaking) (OM). kubab) – ball (of fibre.

8'  /0 .

) 2. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. II. Ranunculus asiaticus. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. 169). WDNE V – pressing (QS. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. TS. mikbas. kitbah (MH. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ.) (US. katb. KL. 49-53. CM. q. SD. 440. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . 416). UA. 416.107. 393). 40. comp.v. II. NDE NDM 1. mun¨anin. II. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. AG. 91. TH.

transcription. NLW E NLW EDK – writing. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . copying. composition.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. 45: ‘hence katabah. +. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. NI. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. CT. Turkish ketebehü. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah.

554-760). comp. . scribe. amanuensis (EI. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. scrivener 2. 180). IV. mu¨arrir.  VHFUetary.

codex (MA. archetype. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). tail (of a book or document) 2. 86).. copying (KK. NH.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 53. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. 23. maktab – place designated for writing.) . booklet. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. 197-200). 384). IV. PDNW E SO PDNW E W. lin. VI. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. IK.115). 705. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . book. chapter in a book (SL. document. 388: mukattab). maktabah – library (EI. spine (of a codex) (HT. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. V. KD.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. piece of writing. EI. letter. I. II. 207-208).

g. master calligrapher (KK. mukattib (e. IV. – piece of calligraphy. II. KD. sifr 13. 705). muktib. 51. 4. KM. calligraph (DP. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. 53). LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ.


takŒ O 1. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). mikŒ O see mirwad.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. 414) 2. kuŒl – antimony. kohl. outline (of letters) (DH. I. outlining. pointing (of a wall) (FT. 393. 187). NDWK U µ – tragacanth. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. IR. no. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). 230).

comp. 68). RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ.


142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK.

110: tak¨ O DO- irs. 33. AG. 12.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.

154. abbrev.  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). IB. sic. 42). 0. NDGK – thus. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 .

184). 162).g. WLNU U. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. TM. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). takarrur – graphic error. ditto- NXUU V DK. dittography (e. 48.



TS. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. NXUV – book cradle. 84. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. lin. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. KD. CI. 60). SA. ra¨l. 48. SL.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ .  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. 132). KU.92). SK. abbrev. AA. 14.0 . quire (gathering). 131. AG. 100. II. 468-471. kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. 700). reading stand (MD. TS. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. comp. 107) 2. II. II. x.  . 60). II. . passim. IK.


 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

- QR  . .



 kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. miksar SO PDN VLU. 363).

of bashr (LF. TP. DD. 391). NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . 128). – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. NH. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 58). syn. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. knife (for making erasures) (IR. IR. 79. 389. 137. 274. I.

126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl. kuÑ E.

II. inlay (SA. rizmah. passim. 109). tongs (MB. AB. 442. 145. DM). 84. WDNI W – inlaying. 109. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. FT. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. IA. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. flat back (MB. AJ. usually 25 sheets (PT. – spine (back of a codex) (MB. 977. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. 90). 109). 61. DE. dast. KR. 92. kaff(ah). 39. 94). 406). comp. NXQQ VK DK. JL. 95. WS. 82). 92. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. main de papier). 97.


commonplace book (LC. 25. HB. – 1. .

 kunyah (pl. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. 395-396). V. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb).

I 1. originally and properly speaking. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI .GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. I . IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-.

MV. 363. 27ff. 11-13.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV. comp. OD). FN. AV. 8-9.g.

76  $*  86 .

MP. 119. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. JM. laŒaq (pl. paint (UK. 139). SA. 145. II. 27. 478). al¨ T OL¨ T. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. 114. azure ink. 29. ultramarine. 85).

mulŒaq – omission. . insertion (TP. ilŒ T.

I. 154. 42). LC. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK.14).128 GLOSSARY  .  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. comp. 279). adhesive (KD. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. JA.. 24. 185. TM. II. 703). OL] T – paste. IB.

II.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. 481) 2. IR.  76  11. WA. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). AG. book cradle (TW. I.24. 133. SA. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. II. DD. copyist’s book support.169. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. 481. 14. 15. SA. 107. 230. 390) 3. n.

abbrev. where each gathering is numbered separately). /&  /( .  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books.


PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. 25. HT. 13. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. 20. 119. lin. ST. LC. 132). alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. index. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. $'  /( 137) 3. JL. MM.109. 90. OLV Q (pl. 25).


GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. lin. stamping (HT. II. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. 181. mulaffaq. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. abbrev. I. II. malediction. wrapper (DM). the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . 230) 2. 145. laqab SO DOT E. or (MI. DM). comp. SD. IR. passim). 167. alÁiqah) – paste. lafŒ – tooling.166). adhesive (SA. DD. 391. 26). RA. 131. spool (DS. 480. milaff 1. OL] T la¶nah – curse. 530).

618-631). honorific title (EI. 109) 2. – nickname. DD. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. V. pincers. WDOT P – inlaying. (pair of ) tongs. . I. inlay (FT. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). 406). tweezers (MB.

11. stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. lakk RU O N '* .130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. lak. 49). LM.

lacquer. comp.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. copying (TE.v.). lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. q. varnish (AB.g. ODPP ¶ – glossy. 109). namq. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. AG. 11. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. glazed. burnished (e. lamq – elegant writing. 140). 16). law¨ W.

illuminator (HD. usually framed). MS.or tailpiece) (LC. 31) 6. . al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. 25. panel (in decoration). illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. HT. 24.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. 29. (Turk. headpiece (FT. 124) 3. OM) 4. II. 142-143. gloss (DM). 99. wooden board (TS. 125). 402).123. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. MB. 11. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. pasteboard (ST. 58-59) 2. head. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. lin. 5) 5.

MB. TS. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf.). 31. also known as sarwah (q. central medallion (on a book cover). oval figure 2. IB. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. raÐs al-lawzah. AG. 156. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. 11. 109. 105.v. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). IA. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. 59. see also nuqÃah) 3. mandorla 4. 38). 44.

45. – spatula. AT. 230. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. IB. 133. lawn SO DOZ Q. II. MJ. 478. IR. 208).

698-707. V. JA.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. – colour. . 148. pigment. tint (EI. AI.

IK. 27) 2. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. polychrome illumination (WA. tinting (of paper). see also the quotation under sha¨m). 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. 86. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. III. WDO\ ¨ 1. WDOZ Q 1. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. LC. 11.

colour. tuft of unspun silk. 84. 20. 702. index. 79-84. tint (AD. liyaq) 1. 370). 26-29. IK. 13. 477-478. MJ. MB. 160) 3. 111-119. 133). . wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. 203) 2. 393) tow (wad. also PLO T (UA. II. 55. 26-29. UK. MP. II. III. AT. MP. n. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. coloured ink (SA. O TDK (pl. paper pulp (OM). BA.

III. II. also PLO TDK (BA. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 .132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. 370) – compartment for ink (KD. amliqah) 1.


. %$ .. .

144. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. KH. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS.

muraÃÃab. such as al-thuluth. muqawwar. comp. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. **** matn SO PXW Q. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ.


VI. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. II. EI. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . 1. 843) 2. V. text-column (MU.


¨ VKL\DK. shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary.

251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. 109. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. 1. TP. 843) 4. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). 568). al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. 53). P WLQ – author of the original composition. VI. 214. 24. EI. (qalam) al-matn. Œard al-matn (HN. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. . LC. SD. IX. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. 25). MD. II.

89). 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. AE. EI. amthilah) – copy. 216). khirqah.  madd. MB. n. 67-71. MP. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. 238). 15-18. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. SA. 79-90. maŒw – ink removal. 86. ink (in general) (SK. ¨aÃÃ. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. tamŒ ¨ 1. TP. comp.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). 371). blind tooling. UK. III.) . supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. 121-122. 138-140. ¨ibr.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. 471-477. 38. .) . VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. 38. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. 55. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. IV. MJ. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM.v. index. VI. 127-131. JL. 1031). maŒ UDK (q. transcript. AT. BA. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. II.52. 21.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). apograph (CD. 13. PLG G (pl. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. amiddah) – soot ink. comp. IV. process of softening leather (making it flexible. MP. erasure. comp. or licking) (TP. 58. III. UK. 79: dalk) 2. KR. 36-37). 90). pl. 134-135. MJ. KH. obliteration (by means of a cloth.

0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). midan) – knife. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. 103- 8$  .5  . midyah) (pl. I  mudyah (madyah. 465-467. mudan. II. SK. pen knife (SA.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG .

WDPU „ see  abbah. FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

481-482. misŒ 1. see shar¨. 133. 230. . coarse haircloth. 114). I. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . 110. 202). sackcloth (DG. SA. 391). 60: misann almis¨) 2. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. IA. 166. II. AT. masŒ – rubbing. wiping (MB. DD.


. 16) 3. scribbling (MM. mush¨ – comb (IA. hasty.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. AA. transcription (TE. 230). 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. 116-117.I. IR. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( .  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . 60. mashq 1. SK. inelegant hand. 55) 2. elongation (of letters) (JA. I. copying.

copying from a model (TE. mashqah 1. IK. KK. calligraphic model (AD. MY. fine elongated stroke (SK. 4. 83) 5. according to some opinions. 134: ÑDQ . 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq….’). 48. for example. calligraphic hand (CM. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. 164) 6. KT. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. fine elongation. 151). 16. elegant. calligraphic exercise.


 P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. 183). PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG.

'' . .

signature. FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . autograph (DM) 2. signing.


107) 2. 390. 25.). execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. 88. VII. al-musharrafah. 31. 107). EI. II. plane-like instrument (TS. 411). 88. Makkah (al-mukarramah.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. AG. polisher (NH. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. I  mimlasah 1. 60-61). 8). LC. al-maghrah al-¶. TS. FRPS QDÌar 3. ex-dono. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. milk – ownership (OS. ex-library. also malasah – burnisher. AG. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. 11. LC. 478). etc. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. 11. 27).

 SDVVLP :6 -13. work (known as al-DP O .  GLFWDWLRQ $. KF. I. 85-94) 2.

VII. stamp (EI. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. famulus (AI. passim. signet. 48). 725-726). SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. 472-.VII. EI. 725-726. muhr – seal. passim. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. II. SL. GA. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. VII.

VII. stamping (EI. FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. 472-473). .



KM. 105-106. sheet. II. AE. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. IV. sifr 13. 472. WS. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. (IW. 8-9. sheet. 50-52) 2. 79-82. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. leaf (of paper) (SA. II.

polisher (IA. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. mawzah – burnisher. 60. 63).

– pen knife. UD. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] . 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK .$  maws. trimmer (TW.

 1+  '' . 226. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. LC. II. V. 25). 64). P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU.

II. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. gilt (SD). 45). coating. 403). FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. 12. tilting (of a script). SA. inlaying (SA. hence P µil – inclining. script) (UD. 442) 2. II. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. slanting (of the line. .

KM. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). JM. IV. 16. WDQE K – note. 40). remark (in the body of a composition).138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. copying (TE. nota bene. sifr 13. 146. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS.

– OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. 232. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. 36). paring. 21. IB. trimming (of a reed) (IR. minjam – mallet (ST. index. 43: P MDPDK). UD. naŒt 1.

133-134. . nuŒ V – copper. ¨amdalah. e.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. 482). MP. basmalah.g. 35). I. etc. copper-based ink (UK. (MG.


I. KR. 230. 82). 94-95). – anthology (EA. 95. 97. munkhul – sieve (IR. DM). narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 384). nasab SO DQV E. II. selector (DF. muntakhib – compiler.

etc. ending in – (EI. – lineage. nisbah (pl. VII. VIII. genealogy. 967-968). religious sect or school. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. 53-56). pedigree (EI. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. tribe.


(kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. KM. 17. 1124 (in Persia). IV. KK. which according to the Mamluk tradition. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG .5. index. 1126 (in Turkey). 1127 (in Muslim India). 21). sifr 13. see khaÃÃ. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. 696-699). ER. IV. par excellence. IV. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. naskh-ta¶O T). naskh 1. transcription (TE. 57) 2. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying.

CM. 138. XVI. 1125. CD. 141. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. copy (EI. variant reading (varia lectio). 149) 2. nusakh) Persia. II./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. 182. pl. LM. I. abbrev.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. 123. QDVNK 1. al-naskh al-mu¶W G. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. Turkey. IV. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. LM. commonly. LE. 36. but erroneously. personal) nature (CI. 128.12) 2. xiv). Muslim India). naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. comp. catalogue (AD. nuskhah (pl. IV. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. CA. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq.      $5  $. archetype (LC. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. version. n. MZ. I. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . 89). 47. list. VIII. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. 26).171). al-makh¨ ¨ W. 1123. badal) 4.  0. 146. recension (MU. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. CI. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. transcript. EI.

DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. unicum. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. archetype (LC. al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. 26). Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. 26).


TW. passim). muntasikh – copyist. PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. 16. 348. WB. 17. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . MA. scribe (TE. 47).

 . 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). epistolography (EI. e.g. I. style or composition.. 9. 1241-1244). documents or state papers. LQVK µ – construction. layout (mise en page ) (FK. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. of letters.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. III. no. letter-writing.

AI. WDQVK U. 136). 67). WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. I. TD. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. I. 134. nashr. 278. IK. 94. 173.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.


starch paste (TS. 12. 390. 21). index. 133. II. SA. dhurah) (OM). AT. 13. IR. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. nashan – wheat starch. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. index. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. 136). 60. . compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. 230: minshaµah). 21. starch paste (made of sorghum. MB. IA. ST. 480. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). II. DD. IB. 50. I. minshafah – blotter (TD. 106. OM. I. 395).

the letter alif (IR. 249. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. 137).142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1..  . 241. straight line. 240.133. ni¦ E 1. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ . handle (SK. lin. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. stroke. pallet-like tool (HT.. .

 folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. 103. IB. munta¦ib – ascender. 47. up-stroke (SA. 43. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 101. IA. 11. III. MB. LM. 59). 59) 3. UD. 156.

medallion. 218. 93. e. FZ. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. 43). JL. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. na„ar – study note. reading note. 217. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI.g. 88. III. ZM.

$+  .) .  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK.


nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

comp. versification.170). tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. no. curator. . II.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. na„m. 2812). shiÑr.

minfadh – punch. nafa¨ (sg. sifr 13. IR. II. tanaqquŒ – correction.3. 392). 230. I. 5). 391: for sewing of quires). AT. naqr – inscription. awl (SA. WDQT Œ. nafÃah) – pockets of air. QDTT U – carver.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. awling (MB. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). sifr 13. MJ. no. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. IV. engraving (on stone). 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. 133. passim). engraver (KM. IV. nafdh – punching. epigraphy (KM. revision (KF. 481. 208. DD. II. 23).

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

SA. 5). IV. IK. – ink (KK. sifr 13. KM. 471. 84. II. naqsh SO QXT VK. 469. 49.

931). comp. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. epigraphy (FT. QLT VKDK 1. TS. naqr 2. 29-32. 63) 3. 400). MB. VII. inscription. engraving. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. painting. 105. 156. illumination (EI. IA.

.  0% 105. ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. 59). IA.

miniature painter. IV.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. designer. 141. illuminator (PA. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. carver. copying (FK. engraver (KM. 155. 931-932). VII. 159). Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. III. 5) 2. 266). sifr 13. WDQT VK – writing. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI.

nuqaÃ. III. letter-pointing (TE. III. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. SA. 151. TE. 38). vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. III. nuq¨ah (pl. haplography (TP. 16-17) 2. 58). 160. haplographic error. 16-17. KH. SA. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. naq¦. naq¨ 1.


 VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . citing. naqalah) 1. 218) 2. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. 133. . abbrev. transcription (MU. 16) 4. 137. AW. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. exact copy (apograph). ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. MB. copying. nimrah – number. 16. 33. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). copyist. orthographer (LT. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. Q TLO (pl. IA. figure. quotation 3. quoting. 68) 5. calligrapher (TE. IA. extract. naql 1. HT. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). 12. translator. numrah. 105. 368). QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). TE. translation. XII.

written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. copying (TE.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. AM. SK. numbering. embellished writing. 16. namq WDQP T – elegant. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . 53. KK. 91). 45. 62. 53.

45. 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . NI. Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM).

namnamah 1.1). n. 369. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. II. calligraph. AW. 38). WDQP O – compact writing. 119. painted illustration (KF. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). copying (KH. copying (SK. sifr 13. elegant. AA. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. 181. 237). compact writing (KM. IV. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). calligraphic composition (NI. embellished writing. 105) 2.

of maÃP V q.v. 26. 69). QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. PXQ U – syn. IB. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. index. of mufatta¨. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . 44). having an open counter (ant. 43). arabesques (on book covers) (LC. IB. 22.) (LM. – floral design. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina.

27).146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. EI. II. KF. 498-450. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. III.

II. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. – inkwell (SK. 106. IK. KD. 700.

CI. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. CI. 87. I. termination. / / / (for intahá) (MW. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. SL. xi. xiii. 110. 285). GA. II. LQWLK µ – end. abbrev. II.



36). hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. hud hud SO KDG KLG. hudb. **** DKG E (sg.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . 23).. correction. WDKGK E 1.. LKG µ – dedication (FN. abridgement. . I. revision (DM) 2.  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). epitome (EA.

IA. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. I. 109. author. backing (MB. 483. 61). 69. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. compiler (SS. WDKO O 1. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. abridger. epitomist. X. EI. 73) 2. rounding (of the spine). 181. MG. 108) 2. muhall. 72.

 . VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9.


   ...  PDUJLQ ') .

/&  0.  PDUJLQDO note. abbrev. gloss. .

  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn). 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK. WDKP VK 1. annotation (TT. glossing.. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ ..


102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. muhammash – glossed. annotated (TW.

IR. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. unpointed letters (TP.. raÐV HJ 6$ .  K PDW DO-alif). 4. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah. . 57. syn.. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. 90). GL. MH. 57. 244). K PDK – head (of a letter).

making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. wajh al-hirr (lit. 43-45).   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah).. face. 25. transcription in full. 25) 2. upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . recto (of a document or leaf) 4. upper cover (TS. wajh(ah) 1. page (MU. IV. 31.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement.. 31) 3. epitome (DM). ¶alá al-wajh – copying. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . II.

al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK.Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. 82).. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al. 29. 109). 6$ . -92). MK..

KM. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. 29. 53). IV. waŒVK see sinn. . KK. SA. sifr 13. 5. waŒy – writing. MJ. MK. 464. II. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. 82). wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. 218).

no. no.73). waraq SO DZU T. 95.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK.73). lobed medallion (DH. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH. DA). WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette.

WS. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. 85-. -195.


 $5  . parchment or leather) 2. abbrev. folio (folium). piece (of paper. leaf. waraqah 1.


wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 11. 109). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. AG. khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. 29). (TS. 25).

al-waraq (al-N JKDG.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. I. DO-. 85).

European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. I. 75. 378). French paper (PT. 77) 2. DO-5 P 1. 31). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN.

DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. SA. 193. waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). paper bearing an imitation watermark. 30. 31). Tre Lune) (PT. . OM). VI. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark.

150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O. 32).

al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. 32. 88. 104) 2. 87. WS. MD. WS. pasteboard (JL. SA. MS. JL. 487. 84). 380). 35. cardboard (FT. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. – glazed paper (PT. 82). al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . 394). al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. 107. II.

81. IB. 93. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. IK. professional copyist. 9. 380). index. stationer. JL. 22. FI. 28. maysam SO PD\ VLP. copying. – marbled paper (DM. II. II. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. EI. 22. 94). al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. index. bookseller. I. 148) 2. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. 88. 495). LC. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. bookbinder (QS. 69. MP. IV. 558-561). foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. transcription (WS. 87. foliated arabesque design (ST. 82. 65). scribe (SL. I. 16. WR. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. 14. KF. MN. WS. WDZU T 1. 161).

stamp (AB. 135). mawsim SO PDZ VLP. – tool.

10). ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. washŒ – decorating. MP.g. 65). 22. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. II. – feast. festival. index. CI.

lin. 186) 2. . stamping (of leather) (HT. writing. 93) 3. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. also WDZVK P – tooling.125. drawing (AD.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1.


lin. washy.126). – pattern (created by tooling). wu¦l (pl. stamp (HT. awÁ O ZDÁO W. wa¦l. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). wi¦l. 18. UK.

also Z ¦ilah – catchword. collema (kollema) (WS. HB. 234. 144) 3. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. VI. 65) 2. vox reclamans (NM. 10. NZ. 683. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. SA. 90). darj). piece. II. 88. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . 812. 110). wa¦lah 1.

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VI. arrangement (of a text) (MU. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. KF. 3132). replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. 12. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. wa„¶ (pl. 187. 62. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. I. aw  Ñ ) – composition. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. comp. PA.

 Z „i¶ – compiler. . author (DF. IV. 376).

proem (DM). P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G. prologue.152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface.

TM.192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $.  . 56. – collation session (TP.

ME. 16. wi¶ µ (pl. 19. awÑiyah) – 1. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. 575) 2. wifq SO DZI T. DA). 87: ZDT ¶ah. box (MS. case. container (OM).

sifr 13. X.. I. taking something down in writing (SL. 100. 392. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. royal edict. I. 124. 28. LC. IV. stamp (IK. 189. KF. 28. 189). X. gloss. WDZT ¶ 1. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. decree (EI. KM. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. 392-393) 3. al-WDZ T ¶. 69. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . apostil (usually signed) (AD. 125) 4. P IDT – seal. writing something down. motto. signature (EI. . 10) 2. AD. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. autograph. 108). 96). 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). LC.

tashÑ U W.GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines.

al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). KH. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script ( Turkey). KF. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. 63).9 1123. LM. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. 90. 146). JM. 1125. 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (.. 43-46.g. (AS. 38) Persia. 187). 100. KF. 146. unfinished stroke (e. II. AS. waqfiyah.g. 428-442). al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e.29.v. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. WDZT I (KF. 90). II. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. waqf 1. LM. . 73-77. 69). III. WDTU Ì (q. LM. 441). perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. PDZT I 1. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. bequest note (OS. 61. II.g. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . 146. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. 146. wakf 3.. reading. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. endowment. LC.) (BL.

sifr 13. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. error (IK. AA. AA. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. comp. 28). . taÐammul 2. K P – omission (IK.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. 95. wahm – mistake. 123). IV. 95. 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu).) (LC. 122). 55). wakt – letter pointing (KM. logograph. overlining (TP.


DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. ray¨ Q QDVNK. maÁ ¨if.

al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 6$ III. of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. ant. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. \ ELV – rectilinear. 144).

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KD. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. 42). UA. 393. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. 86. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). reed pen (IK. II. I \DG. – hand. \DU ¶(ah) – reed. in the hand of) (OT. . DM.

GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. no. CM.g.





AG = Adam Gacek. ed. ed. Riyad. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. Al-. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. Wien. ±aydar Ghaybah. AJ = J. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. Gray. Paris/ London. Arabische Paläographie. B. AC = Adam Gacek. AI = ÑAbd al-.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East.1. 1414/1994. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University.VKE O LQ KLV µ. AD = E. “The art of illumination”. 1979: 35-57.ABBREVIATIONS 1. Max Weisweiler. transl. 2 (1989): 37-53. AF = Oleg F. 1981. Akimushkin and Anatol.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. AE = Adolf Grohmann. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. 1989. ed. Ivanov. 1923. Fagnan. Vol. Algiers. “Das arabische Papier”. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. 1967. Damascus. Beirut. A. The arts of the book in Central Asia. von Karabacek.

London/Oxford.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. AL = . AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. 4 (1989): 144-149. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. AS = Adam Gacek. New York. 1992. 2 (1987): 45-67. 1996. 382-398. 8 (1941): 65-104. McGill University. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Descriptive catalogue. 1996. 1992.4 (1986): 131-137. London/Oxford. 1. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. AN = Richard Lemay. no. ed. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. Manuscripts of the Middle East. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. binding and paper”. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. London/Oxford. . AP = Nabia Abbott. nos. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. AQ = David James. AV = François Déroche. 15. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. “Arabic numerals”. 1982: 1. AO = Adrian Brockett. Ars Islamica.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. Montreal.D. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . decoration.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. Safwat. AW = Nabil F.

Arberry. Montreal. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. Dublin. The Chester Beatty Library. CL = Jan Just Witkam. 1982 . 1958. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. CM = Adam Gacek. Oriens.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. 1991. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. CI = Adam Gacek. Leiden. -CCA = Adam Gacek.. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. CD = Arthur J. London. MacKay. 4 (1991): 35-53. 1984-85. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 27-28 (1981): 177-196.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . CT = Pierre A.

Chouémi and C. Dictionnaire arabe-français. no. London. M. -DDA = A. DB = R. De Biberstein Kazimirski. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library.S. Blachère.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. N. 61. Dictionnaire .Z. 1967. 1960. CW = A.4 (1971). Paris. Iskandar. Denizeau.

DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. 1994. NY. DG = Werner Diem. . 1993 . Kuwait. 1984. A dictionary of modern written Arabic.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. 1994. ed. Beirut. ed.. 4th ed. ±amd al-.-L. Paris.1 (1937): 69-110. 5. Beryus. 1967.M. J. de Premare.1986. DP = Adam Gacek. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. fasc. . ed. DQ = François Déroche. DT = Tawfik Canaan. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. 59 (1991): 229-235. Dictionnaire arabe-français. fasc. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. Little. Paris.2 (1938): 141-151. Cowan. DC = A. 4. 4 (1989): 44-55. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”.. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. Wiesbaden. Ithaca. 1989. 2 (1998): 93-193.D.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. DR = Donald P. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. Revue des études islamiques. DM = Hans Wehr. Frankfurt. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. Archeological studies. 0DPO N studies review.

Part 1. Al-)XQ Q DO-.). 1999. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. Dimand.EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. New York. 1960 .EU K P .d. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá.. 1993. London. FM . London (later Costa Mesa. transl. 1995: 17-57. Cairo. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. ed.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. Baghdad..160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. Starkey. 1997. Istanbul. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. New ed.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M.S. Calif. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.VO P \DK. 1995: 93-101. Meisami and P. 5 . Yarshater. n. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. EP = François Déroche. -FFD . Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. eds. -EEA = J. 1986. London. à W´ Al-Mawrid. E. Leiden. 1979. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”. London/ Oxford.S. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1998. 1982 . Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley.

A Grammar of the Arabic language.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. Cambridge. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. transl. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. HD = A. 1982.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. 1966. Baku. Rabat. 6 (1991): 41-58. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. herausgegeben von W. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. 1994. .ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. 1987. HN = Ñ \LGDK .EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. HT = Adam Gacek. Wiesbaden. Kaziev (Gaziev). Cairo. 1987. Manuscripts of the Middle East.U. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). ed. 1992. Wright. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. ³. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. 3rd ed. Cairo. Istanbul. 50-99. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. 1967. Fischer. GL = W. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi.

5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. 1319 A.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. IB = G. IM = Ñ. Damascus. )DKP 6DÑd. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. Cairo/ Tunis. May 18 . Richard.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1983. Chicago. Beirut. London. F. of Chicago. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. 1997: 57-63.. Carswell and G. ed.1987? .1981. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. ed. no. Qum. . Cairo. Bosch. 1973. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-.August 18. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  .H. 8.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. à W´ Al-Mawrid. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. Déroche and F. Univ.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q .OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-.2 (1979): 221-284. A¨mad ‚aqr. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. ed.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. 1389/1970. The Oriental Institute. Petherbridge. J. 1981. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. 1995: 123-136. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Paris. Beirut.

1983.G E (Cairo).EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. .ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid.n. [Tehran?]. Algiers.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . S. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. Damascus.. 1985. 1962.G E DOV PLÑ. 0DMDOODW . 1997. ÑIzzat ±asan. 6 pl.1 (1958): 81-106. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. Qum.. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). 1363 [1984]. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. 1969. Baghdad.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I . ed.. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . no. 38 (1989): 7-103. Al-0DQ KLO. Beirut. Cairo.D. Ph.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. Riyad. 1982. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-. ed. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð. University of Michigan.1961. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU .XOO \DW DO.l. 1962. s. 20.

Safadi. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³. Cairo.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”. KS < VXI DO-. Leiden.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”. 1981. 1. 1316-21 A. Fehervari and Y.H. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. no. Á KL = G. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue. 1937: 125-161.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. “Al-. Al. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q. RDVK G DOÑ.3 (1964): 1933. 2.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . 1978. no. ed. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). 2 (1946): 9-18. ed. London.VO P .164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan.DWW Q  ³. 1 (1963): 26-48. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. by Arthur Jeffery.240 (1984): 61-68. 1.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. KM = Ñ$O LEQ .H.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.2 (1973): 43-78.LW E. no.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. no.

. .XZDLW 1977.LW E DONXWW E. Raif Georges Khoury.LW E DO-zuhd. ed. Wiesbaden. . 1976. .EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá. ed.

Baghdad. 1790-1930. Leiden. 1911-1931. 48 (1989): 21-29. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. van Koningsveld and Q. LC = Adam Gacek. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. Cambridge. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 2 (1987): 68-87. LB = Jan Just Witkam. Rev.500). 1978 (catalogue no. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. Arabic-English lexicon. MELA Notes. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah.J. 1929. Samarrai. LD = P. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. ed. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. ed. 1992.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. LE = M. Brill. LL = Edward William Lane. Ben Cheneb. Cairo. 302-303 (1920): 134-138.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. Revue africaine. Manuscripts of the Middle East. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. 1984.S. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts.

A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. 230 (1938): 551-575. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. 1992. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . 15. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. Leiden. Beirut.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ.U T . MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. Beirut.G DO-Mawlá. Damascus.4 (1986): 185-248. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. . 1349 [1930]. MK = Etan Kohlberg. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. ed. 1980. no. Lamare. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . ed.d. Journal asiatique. Damascus. 1995. Beirut. 20 (1970): 88-137. 1992.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1391/1971. MC OL¨ \DK .166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. ed.OP DO-Ñ. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. 1972. n. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . ME = A. 1913. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. Beirut. Cairo.

1 (1969): 3-47. MY = François Déroche. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. ed. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. MT = Adam Gacek. 14.4 (1962). Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. N. no. no. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. MW . pt. MP = Martin Levey. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. no. 52. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. 1936-38. 1976-87. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 15. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart.S.2 (1989): 201-203. 1992. . Al-Mawrid. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. Cairo. Revue des études islamiques. London/Oxford.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte.6 (1993): 641649. 18.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . 32 (1987): 105-114. MV = François Déroche.. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub.

NS = S. 1 ILPELU  HG . 1.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos.A. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. Revue des études islamiques. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- .2 (1992): 679-683. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Sadan. Cairo.. 1418/1998: 341-393. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. NC = Adam Gacek. 45 (1977): 1-87. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. 13. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). 1367/1949.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. ND = J. NO = Dimitri Gutas. Bonebakker. 2 (1987): 8-17.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . Cairo. NH . 1342/1923 . Damascus. 1928. 2 (1987): 126-130. no. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. London.VO P  .LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens.EU K P 6KDEE ¨.

1994 : 75-81. OM = Adam Gacek. Derek Latham. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. “O. Rabat. 26 (1976): 199-212. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. OS = Adam Gacek. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. Paris/Teheran. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. 2 (1987): 88-95. -PPA = Yves Porter. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie).  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . M. 1985: 29-48. OH = J. 10 (1998): 41-63. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. PK = S. . “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. Daly. Manuscripts of the Middle East. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. 5 (1960): 124-143. 1992. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. New York. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill.W. ed.H. PT = Terence Walz.

15. 1973. Paris. ed. 1995. Bull.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 195772. Cairo.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. Costa Mesa. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. a new direction”. RI = W.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. SJ . . SL = Nabia Abbott. SD = R.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . 1 (1987): 21-38. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. Dozy. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. Chicago. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. Chicago. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. Beirut. 1967.4 (1986): 259-270. no. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. Beirut. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). Paris. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. 1960. 3rd ed. -RRA = William L. 1938. 2 (1956): 339-372. 1410/1990. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. RN = Nabia Abbott. Bookbinder. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif.

Damascus. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q.Q Q  London. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. Paris. Ricard.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 1997: 135-150. Rabat. 1925. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. Damascus. Paris/Istanbul. MS (Paris. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. Rabat. 1995.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. ed. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. P. MELA notes.VO P . 1346-49 A.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. Beirut. Bibliothèque nationale. no.1 (1997): 55-90. ed. 1303 A. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. 1989: 49-50.H. ed. 1994: 11-32. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. arabe 6844). 1965. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. TE = Adam Gacek.H. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. 41. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN. François Déroche. . TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-.DWW Q  .

TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. 1353/1934.EU K P DO-. ed. .LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. n. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. Jedda. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. Paris/Istanbul.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. Ñ$EG $OO K .VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah.d. TP = Adam Gacek. 1949. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. F. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. Damascus.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. 1991.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. Déroche. ±amd al-. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. 1989: 51-60. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. xx-xxxii. 1982. ed. pl. Kuwait.VKE O  ³. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . TS %DNU LEQ . Hyderabad. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. Rabat.

Beirut. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam.10 (1975): 80-92. Graz. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. 16. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. 1 (1986): 49-53. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. . 17 (1971): 43-172. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1981-83. 1992. 18. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. no. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”.2 (1977): 45-56. Beirut. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1980. 1983. Dublin. Chester Beatty Library. Manuscripts of the Middle East.4 (1982): 10-24. no. Hildesheim/New York. 23. no.

G E (Cairo). Tehran.XOO \DW DO. 6 pl. no.1 (1955): 43-48. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá.NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O. 2.Oá / -XP Gá al. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. 17. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW .

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal.

 ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah). numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P.


ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. Á ¨ib. Áa¨ ¨.

‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . ra L\D $OO K . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah).

ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).  abbah (ta E E.

= Ãurrah. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. Ñ UL a. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . rajÑ. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ.

fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. / = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. malzamah. tamma. aÁl.

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Jerusalem.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Paris. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. 1997. however. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. Munafò. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. 1984. 5th ed. Bernhard. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Boyle. A. London/New York. Les manuscrits. Bischoff. Beit-Arié. Bozzolo. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction.P. Leonard. ed. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. Paris. . Maniaci and P. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. Alphonse. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. 2 vols. Paris. 1976. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Leiden. Indeed. Transl. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Gumbert. Carla. M. 1990. ed. 1993. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Paris. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. 1988. Cockerell. Bookbinding. 1993. Toronto. It does not. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. 1983. 1979). 1976-1980. Vatican City.1. 5 vols. Sydney M. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. Dain. Malachi. Cambridge. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. Gruys and J. 1953 (repr.

P. The hand-produced book.C. enluminure. 1983. Proceedings of the British Academy. Denis. and Skeat. Oxford. études historiques et physico-chimiques. Gruijs.. C. “The codex”. Introduction à la codicologie. Edward. 1974 : 19-25. 1996. and Wilson. Paris. Encyclopedia of the book. Jacques. 40 (1954): 169-204. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. Delamare. 1989. Reynolds. New Castle.D. Roberts. C. 2nd ed. 1977. 1985. Paul O. 1999. London. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. Paris. Greek and Latin papyrology. . 1989. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. 1 (1976): 84-90. Geoffrey Ashall. 1998. Albert. H. A. Writing & illuminating. M. ed. Glaister. 1988. Paris. T. Italo. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. ed. 1983. London. Johnston.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex. Paris. Kristeller. Turnhout. M. 1974.H. Paris. Paris. The birth of the codex. New York. 2nd ed. Gallo. David. 1985.G. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. John E. Bernard. François and Guineau. Paris. 1986. Maniaci. 1953. M. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. L. Blanchard. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. 1984. Les matériaux de la couleur. Dukan. peinture. 1990. London/New York. “Paléographie. Diringer. codicologie et archéologie du livre. Le livre au Moyen Age. 1988. New York. Muzerelle. Paris. & lettering. Hoffmann. Del. Paris. Codicologica. N. Jean. Rome. Lemaire. Murdoch. 1996. 11-13 septembre 1972. Louvain-la-Neuve. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. Glenisson. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. Roberts.

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./10 m. G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”. ilá . Rivista degli studi orientali.M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h. 48 (1973-74): 55-74. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad. 9  .

Islamic quarterly. 18. Leiden.J. M. A./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. Taxation in Islam.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h.] Ebied.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . Le Muséon.1-2 (1974): 3-7. R. nos. and Young. Ben Shemesh. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”.Y. 1967. 87 (1974): 445-465.L. 4 (1981): 82-103. [Vol.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.

H. Gérard. 1974:92-110. ed. Amsterdam. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. Koningsveld. no. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ .M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles.S. 32 (1994): 115-123. . al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. Les . 18-19 October 1973.): 270-372. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. 41. 1998. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. Iran.H. van. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W.1 (1997): 55-90. Amsterdam. 326 (1997): 97-102.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). P. “Al-. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. -DOO E ±asan. 26 (1994): 75-96.] Lecomte. Studies on Islam. 35-36 (1414 A. . “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus).

IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”. Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K. ——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W.

Pierre A.1. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. Stefan./12. Leder. MacKay. Suppl. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”.”. 1996 – . Damas: Institut français. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Oriens. 34 (1994): 57-75. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . Jhdt. 550-750/1155-1349.

M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ . EI. 7 (1989): 238-252.. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”. 8. 1. ed. no.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 2. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. 61. Sayyid. 4 (1924): 345-355. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”.1 (1407 A.1 (1985): 7-20.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ . ——— “Al-.s. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK.1 (1408 A. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101. no.2 (1406 A.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.H): 107-114. “Al-. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”.H): 172-182. 8: 1019-1020.4 (1971. Hespéris.1 (1955): 232-251.H): 115-117. new ed. no. no. 1. Hamdard Islamicus. no. no.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-.. al-Munajjid. n. “Al-. 3. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.

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ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. H.). The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1996. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . O’Fahey. S. W. (eds. Nouns. Jagd. Arabic Literature of Africa. Volume I. With Full DefiniKinberg. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . M. 1994. A. V.F.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . 1995.1: Text. I. 2: Ab-bildungen. S. und Herb. Band 22 .). Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. 1995. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. Porten. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. N. (ed. M. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. (ed. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . Radtke and K. 1995. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich.). ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. References and Index of Texts Cited. Materials for a Reconstruction. A. J. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. 1994. Bd. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. (ed.). 1994.L. 1980-1993. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. O. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. Hamidu Bobboyi. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. 1994. V. V. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. B. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. 1996. Spiel. 1900. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. With appendices by R. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. A. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. S. Orthography. L. O. 1994. Bd. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. Tanz und verwandten Themen. and Jongeling. Vikør. Mosak Moshavi and B. Roman Loimeier. M. Hofheinz. E. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. and O’FAHEY. Phonology. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. 1994. J. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. Numerals. Compiled by R. and Stolbova. Y. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. with the assistance of M. M. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. Steiner. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. J. Compiled by John O.C.). Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten.T.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. J. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. R. (eds. und Sardshweladse.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. 1994. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion.Lagarde. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 2 Parts. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. 1994. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. and Peters. K. Chief consultant to the editor. 2nd ed. Ibrahim. Hunwick. R. Marín. 1995. (éd. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. Manuel de recherche. Abu Salim. K. V. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . S. S.). 1996.

The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. Mesopotamian Lexicography. 1999.1: B. III. H. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. 1999. 1999. 1999. V. and Healey. and Wyatt. J. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . R. Vol. D. 1999. 1999. F. J.J. 1999. L. Terms and Topics. Bonner. 1999. Translated from the German by M. 1998.W. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. J. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner.Band 26 Halm. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. G. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. J. and Porten. The Mishnah. J. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. N. G. The Rise of the Fatimids. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová.J. Vol. The Empire of the Mahdi. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. A Bibliography. 1997. 1997. 1997. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. J. 2 Volumes.G. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. 1999. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia.F.1. The Mishnah. The Kingdom of Kush. A. H.H. Social Perspectives 1999. H. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. R. 1996. Index of Names. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. and Pingree. B. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. Vol. 1999.2. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. 2000. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. W. H.L. J. W.E. 1. van. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. 1999. B. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. 1998. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. and Neusner. 2: 1988-1992. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. 1: A. M. and Sou‘ek. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. 1997. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). M. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. H. 1999. III. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. 1997. Religious Perspectives 1999. D. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. T.

4. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. 2001. (2 Volumes) 2000. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. 2001. The Arabic manuscript tradition.. A. 2000.. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral.3.J. B. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. A. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. Ch. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov.. and Neusner. de. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. 2001. J. 2001.J. and Neusner. A. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. World View. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. A. and Chilton.. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. 2001.J.J. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. A.. R. J. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck.E. R. Vol.2. Dialect. Neusner. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. A.Band 50 Tal. Band 56 Avery-Peck. 2001. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . U. J. J. and Society in Eastern Arabia. 1 : Glossary 2001.1. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. Culture. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. 2000. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. B. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. C. Theory of Israel. Comparing Judaisms. Neusner. and Chilton.

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