THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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........................................................... XI Preface ............................................................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ............... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( .......................

....................................................................... 182 Conference proceedings and composite works .......................................................................................................................................... 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ....... 181 Bibliographies .............................. 182 General studies and surveys ...................... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ...... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY .......... 177 I................................................................................................... Sources/References ............... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK......................... 1 Abbreviations . 156 2.................................................................................... 156 1................................ .......... 181 Periodicals .......... Technical terms in the glossary .......................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

...................................................... 242 b) Pre-18th century texts .................... 2..................................................... 226 Calligraphy ..................... Exhibition catalogues.............. 242 c) Other studies.................................. TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ....... 8...................................................... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works............ ............................ 238 a) Drawing............................................................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration ... 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries .........) ................... 238 b) Other studies ...................... etc........................................ General studies ............... 4... 4........................ 241 Bookbinding ................................................................................................................. 256 Some specific cases .................................................................................................................................................... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper.................................................................... 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ........... 247 1.................. 6.................................................... 7.. 243 2..................................... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ....................... 3.......................... 239 Lacquer ...................... 2........ 256 1.............. 227 b) Exhibition catalogues .... 5................ VIII......... 240 Papercuts . 259 ... 3.. 251 Facsimile editions ..... 236 Painted illustration ................................... 247 Later QurÐans........................................................................................................ 255 IX......................................................................................................................... 242 a) Bibliography.............................................................. 247 Early QurÐans and fragments................................................................ QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS .......... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship ...............................................................................

. Catalogues of catalogues ....... CATALOGUING............... PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ......... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ............................... CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS............. 266 1.................................... 263 XII................... COLLECTIONS..................................... 2...... Descriptions of collections and catalogues ......................... 3.......... 266 266 267 267 268 ......... 4........... ETC................................................X CONTENTS PREFACE X................ 261 XI......... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts .. 5................... .....................

François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. Last but not least. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. . David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof.

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more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. papermaking and bookbinding. scholars. the preparation of inks. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. Along with this manuscript output. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. VII. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. Arab authors. both religious and scientific in nature. 2). and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7. DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.10/16th cent.VKE O G 1231).). To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.

RI .EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO.

the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. Furthermore.

Finally. RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307).984/1577). who in his work on education. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. lineation). as well as on the collation and correction of books. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. which deals with the preparation of inks. The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling.

could be very misleading. Nevertheless. book lovers and cataloguers. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). corrected. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). as well as extant specimens. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. writing surfaces and implements used. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. contemporary studies and catalogues. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. e. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. To translate. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. some of the most important research in this field published to date.g. which spans almost 14 centuries. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). . bound and decorated. especially those relating to book formats. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. for the first time. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. respectively. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). even in its present form. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. It brings together.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. Some terms. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. as it were. this chapter has been omitted. The glossary is a by-product. medieval and postmedieval texts. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive.

outer or inner margin). period and/or region in which they were employed. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. however. case (box). for example. Some. recto. lower margin. catchword. wajh (‘face’. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. however. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. book cover). inkwell and the like. envelope flap). The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. as yet. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. Ñaqib (‘heel’. We do not. incipit. serif. OLV Q (central Arab lands). on the other hand. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. for example. Here. great caution is in order. Therefore. fore-edge. upper margin.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). upper cover). Thus. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. raddah (Levant). miqlab (Levant. khadd (‘cheek’. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. North Africa). may have been used exclusively in those circles. This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). raÐs (‘head’. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). OLV Q (‘tongue’. for example. Here we find. Ñaqb. recto. fore-edge). udhn (‘ear’. Iraq). marjiÑ (Morocco). and V TLÃah (Yemen). have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. catchword). Áadr (‘chest’. medallion. Thus. been largely omitted here. catch- . flap). flap).

As far as transliteration is concerned. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. either contemporary or earlier. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Due to the limitations of the computer program used.XVI PREFACE word). the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. On the whole. . Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. Most words are traced to a source. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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). 104. 2: ibrishmah). DB.EU . 97-98. I. AG. 13. GA. 107. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. 8). 176-178) 2. 8). 182). also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. III. needle case (DM) 2. 103. 9. 18-19. ST. GA. miµbar 1. syn. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). 59. RN. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI.v.) (DD. II. 392). abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. 107. ebrû. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq.  EU  ZDUDT DO. index. of minfadh (q. I. 97. 60. SD.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 12. I.v. among other things. MB. muµabbar – sewn (KC. 154. TS. SA. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. ibar) – needle (UK. ibrah (pl. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. 215. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. I. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. I. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. AG. from Pers. IA.

 .

LEU VLP. LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP.

ilá NKLULK – et cetera. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). (DB. explicit (TP. 53).14). – closing matter of the text (composition). n. 62. I. taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. abbrev.

106-108) 2. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. I. AE. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. adam(ah). leather (UK. IW. udum) 1. – etiquette (EI. passim. 175-176). 63. MF. scribal etiquette 2. 52). DG P (pl. 71-72. I. tanned red leather (DB.

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. MU. XIV. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah.

. DG K SO DGDZ W. comp. DGG P – tanner (DM). jild.

implement. DGDZ W O W. I. 345).g. – V\Q ODK (EI. instrument. tool. e.

153-156. writing MB. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

JKXU E – the last hour of day. VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. 250).6 GLOSSARY hour of night. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.

alDZ NKLU . al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al.Oá (al-uwal) (1-10).NKLUDK DO-ukhar. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20). RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al.

al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. e. -30) (SA. VI. li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ.g. 248-249).

EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. II.g. 244-248).DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR .EQ . 106. 244-249). nos. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW .EQ . VI. e. al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month.DP O 3 VK 73  CI. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA.VI. 235). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. 178).

al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. -248). PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9.

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

taµU NK-L PDODN .  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). ar„ \DK – background (LC. ER. IV. (EI. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 6$ 9.1st 5509 B. FZ. 670). 22.C. JL. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn. taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. 262. X.D.

 .

II.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. XVK UDK. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah).

107. a¦l (pl. I. 115). 11. – awl. 43: VKDI . KM. 10: ishfah. 103. AG. IB. MB. ST. sifr 4. uÁ O. punch (TS. 15. 59. IK. 90. IA.

 .  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9...

39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. original (main) text. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. exemplar. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. II. 27) 3. VIII. MU. 26. MH. SD.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made).

. . but also 0= . XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. 136). 2024. MI.

 WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. major work (TM. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. SM. 23) 4. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 126. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

24. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. 25. headpiece (LC. tabula ansata (UI. textual surround (LC. i¨ U (pl. 24. . frame (within a border) (TF. I. 27) 6.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. 402) 2. DB.e. ià U W XÃur) 1. FT. 24). al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. rule-border. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. rules. 145). 928). i. UI. 29) 5. border (of a book cover) (LC. rectangular panel (LC. . 24. 80) 3. KR.

(…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. ER. 581-582). 6. DIVK Q (Pers. taµO I DK. 32). 46).8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. according to other sources al. writing circa 1375’ (DW.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. I.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages.

taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W. (pl.

 muµallaf (pl. muÐDOODI W.

ummah . I. . compilation.1 . comp. EI. X. 360). – composition. taÁQ I muµallif – author. 33. writer. work (of prose or poetry) (SD. umm. comp. muÁannif.

SO XPPDK W.

35. TM. 26. copy. 246) 3. transcript (from which another copy is made). exemplar. I. I. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. SD. shar¨ (IN. . archetype (LC.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. . 26). model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. original (main) text. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. 130) 4. 29). umm al-NLW E 1. used in mosques (KN. as opposed to a commentary.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

KF. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). Umm al-qurá. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. textus receptus (NT. archetype. 99. 294). LP P – exemplar. 37. . 39). Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. II. II. II. Umm al-EXOG Q. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD.

I. 99). I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. (CI. LL. taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. II. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. tadabbur. xiv. 2812). comp. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. abbrev. II.

 . . or /'    $'  (.

 FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã. XQE E DK.

SO DQ E E.

taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. KU. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. LQV see sinn. BA. 370. II. 370). – unpared. III. III. 31. LM. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. 31). unnibbed reed (FN.

52. n. I. JA. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). initia. (TP. AA.14. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. incipit. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK.

 .

taµZ O (pl. taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM).

explanation (e.g. – interpretation. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q.

baŒr (pl. acephalous. bu¨ U. **** PDEW U 1. 34). imperfect. incomplete (of text) (KC. passim) 2. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH.

103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . 33. cartouche (TS. – panel on a book cover. JL. . AG. 110.

bidl '% . WDENK U – fumigation (TS. 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). badal. . 355). tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 [LLL. .. RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &.

suppl. also WDEG O – subal-matn. MZ. 153-154. SD. . 49. 100-103). 412) 2. fasc. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. comp.3. alteration (CL. conjectural substitution. DT. I. 59-60. fasc. wifq (US. 296). EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. RU badal respectively (KG. II. EI. conjecture.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl.3-4. stitution.

QS. 390: for trimming). EI. EDUG \DK – papyrus. DD. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). I. 521-522. I. VIII. 407. II.84. publishing (KM. 417. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. WS. qirà V mibrad – file. rasp (HT. lin. sifr 13. 64-66). DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). IV. IA. papyrus sheet or roll (DB.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . 60. comp.

 LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. . barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . 545). I.

EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . IB.148). 81. n. 17-18. EDUVK P. – endband (headband) (ST. index. ST. 8.

 al-PXE UDN DK.

ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.

 DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. etc. nuskhah. ELUN U SO EDU N U.

III.9. (pair of) dividers (SA. – compass.  '0. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 .

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

. 18). 12. Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS.

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

trimming (of a reed ) (IR.v. KK.). 154: IK. III. PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. EDUU \DK. 455 6. 49). EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. ELU \DK – paring. SA. 232. 85. bary.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ).  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q.

88. 81). mibzaq – lancet-like knife. 90. DA: mibzagh. bas¨ – spreading out. flattening (of a letter). index. 64. I. MP. 8. SD. 591). as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ .. IK. DB. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. – pen knife (AA..   $6 . I.

having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. jazm (IK. mukhtaÁar. III. 34. KH. syn. rectilinear (of a script. 120) 2. 144) 4. 87) 3. horizontal stroke. PDEV ¨ 1. unabridged work. comp. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. original (comprehensive). al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. AS. line (KU.

well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. maÁ ¨if. 47. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. 13. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. basmalah SO EDV PLO. TW. 144). 322). 365. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

(qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. 145). erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. TS. AG. LF. ratisser des peaux’. bi¨ TDK (pl. baà Ðiq) 1.) (AS. EI. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. I. slip (of paper) 2. 12). lin. register (AD. paring. 161.111) 2.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). silk endband (headband) (HT. 23-24. dressing (of leather) (UK. ba¨n (pl. 78: ‘racler. buà Q. IA. 63. 78. lin. bashra¨ 1. PDEVK U – pared.v. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. 109. ST. index. 52. erased.97. 9. HT. bashr 1. 155). 58. catalogue. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. also known as al-JKXE U (q. MP. 58. piece. LF. and opening a composition (TP. 1084-1085).

al-NLW E. flesh side (of parchment). E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. inner cover. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr.

49. MA. doublure (LC. IV. lining (FT. passim. paste-down endpaper. 23. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. HD. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. 112).73-79) 3. MB. 159. pasteboard (UK. 102. IB. 22-23. 60. UK. doublure (TS. 408) 2. bi¨ QDK (pl. baà Ðin) 1. IA. endpaper. 47. – inner cover. endleaf (ST. 117. HT. lin. AG. 89.

 EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . 92). .

lining of the insides of book covers with paper. 9. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. MU. index. leather or silk (ST.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. XIV.

II. /( . used for a transposed word. abbrev. MB. BA. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. III. ba¶du – after. comp. 2. 87).v. removal of sha¨mah (q.) from the reed (IK. paring (of the calamus) (KD. bary. 61. 370).

135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah).20). separation (MM. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. n. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. 53. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. tab¶ „ – word division.

(pair of) dividers (UK. (MB. IA. 44. 103. 101. 105). etc. 59. MB. 58. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. 103. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 156. MP. 60. comp. 153. IB. – compass. measuring distances. 104. biUN U WDEN U. TU.

MB. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. 380. comp. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. 153. 391). 59). DD. 103. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. I. 42. IB. IA.

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

45: EXO JK). I.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . TP. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . 56.  EDO . 268.119. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin. E OLQ – worn.9 SO. comp. CT. JA. damaged (TS.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). IV. EI. E E SO DEZ E. 36). kha¨¨L E KDU.

– chapter. 0. abbrev. .

TP. murattib. 53.20). 376). 609. IV. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. bayt SO EX\ W. comp. n. mubawwib – compiler (DF.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. 95. 97. Ãurrah) (TS. 31. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. frame (as part of the border. 110). AG. . AG. 33). 110) 4. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 31-33. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. compartment (in such a box) 3. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. Bayt al-Maqdis. 32. 82). KR.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

82). . 30-31. 97. KR. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . AG. also TS. 95. 110). gold dust (AQ.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. tibr – gold.

 takht SO WXNK W.

IB. TD. WXU E – dust. index. 9). 24. sand. wooden pressing board (TS. KU. sifr 13. earth. HT. AG. index. 94. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. KM. 9.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. 6. 120). lin. I. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. 82.  . 156. 127-. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. 42.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. IV. 107) 3. 22.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

6$ II. tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 478-480).

 GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . 165). 28) 4. detailed title of a book. II. title (of a book) (LC. 28. indicating its contents (DB. chapter heading (IN. key word (LC. 122) 3. AH.

g.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. 27) 8.g. paragraph (LC. disc) or margins (e. 27) 7. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. headpiece or tailpiece (LC. 27) 6. medallion) .

186. 270). translation (EI. 29-31. biographer 2.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. X. biography (EI. 1021) 13. turs SO WXU V. 1021). translator. II. 28. 260. II. IT. 29. cryptography (AA. 30) 9. 224) 12. mutarjim 1. 224) 10. explanation. illuminator (TW.g. exegesis (DB. biographical note. also mutarjam (e. X. tirs. interpretation. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. ‘QaÁ GDW . DB.

index. taftar see daftar. 9. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. illuminated oval medallion. rosette (HD. IB. corner-piece (ST. 103. oval. turunj(ah) 1. 44) 3. KR. writing tamma (lit. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. LC. 69. 82). 116). 97. execution. comp. 15). rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. WDWP P – completion. IP. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 145. 28) 2. shamsah. 95. PA.

finish. 46). WDP PDK (pl. 177-178). X. WDP P – end. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. supplement . WDP Ðim) – amulet. . used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). [LLL at the end of the colophon. II. comp. comp. RU CM. ¨add. talisman (EI. &. tatimmah – supplementation. xiii). continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). . taÐP Q WDIT Ã. abbrev.

II.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. copying (MH. 100. no. FK. 101.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing.

thabat (pl. atKE W. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’.

 FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. 288: syn. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. 157) 2. 234. record of attested study (HB. muÑjam. GA. written testimony (SD. I. document.

 WDEOH RI contents. usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. authentication (formula). LWKE W 1. WKDE W – signature (SD. 18) 2. vocalization (AD. I. also WDWKE W – attestation. 157).

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

45. n. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. 289). muthabbit.25. 53. GA. CT.

101. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. CT. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. I. 45). writer of the audition note (MH. 330).

. WKDT O (lit. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. 147). – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. 107). ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. 11. III. AG. AS.

9 . TU. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. III. 349). T OLE. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 51). abbrev. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. . I. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. 1125in Turkey). JM.in Persia. (TN.

795-. DO-thumn. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal.VII. octagon (EI.

VI. no. 361). MZ. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). Taf. SA. 361). [LY )0 167. I. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. 12. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. abbrev. see also mashÐalah. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points). muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. 102). 232-234) . MI.13. .VI. 232-234. I. . FRPS NK WLP muthamman. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL..  RU &. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above.

decorative medallion or panel. either illuminated or stamped (KI.GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .

83: M PDK ZXV¨á . 88. JL. 87.  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK .

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

WDMG G – repair. 83. 99. nos. 87). MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. 100). 99). 43). mending. jabr – repairing. restoration (KR. interlace (TF. braid. PDMG O SO PDM G O. 141). rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. corner-piece (JL. restoring manuscripts. repair (SJ.41.

– leather strap. I. 24) 4. creating rule-borders (WB. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. column (of text) (SD. diagram.6/2) 6. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. 108). DT. 50. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). 42). 33. chart. 370. mujadwal – ruled (LC. 63) 3. KC. . 26). table of contents (CM. magic square. rules. II. 175) 5. thong (KC. 56. talismanic seal (EI. 148. 160) 2. no. TW. table (LC. 32).

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

   ... FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ .

I. II. WDMU G 1. jard al-matn see matn. abridgement (SD. 184. DG. I.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). 183). 107. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. MDU GDK – list. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. I. mijrad(ah) – file. KF. extract. 27). DD. 112. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . scraper (MB. inventory (SD. register. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS .

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

 HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. passim). jirm wasaÃ. majran SO PDM ULQ. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ.

passim: Œazz. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K .8 154). 62). IA. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. shaving (MB. jazz – trimming.

inset (UI. VII. 103). n. KF. 19. . I.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. rough copies 2. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. 132. MU.

the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs).GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. booklet. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. 79. single-quire codex. AI.

xii) 4. 90). DEEUHY RU (CI. II. 705). tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. tomaison) (SJ. VII. usually not more than a quire (IJ. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. independent. 128). small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. I. 711). mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. small piece of writing. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. 128) 6. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD.

7-9. 421). 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. 90). PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. 87: qalam jazm. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. LL. MB. I. MP. 143. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. 89. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. IK. jazm – reed pen. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 38). 99.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

13). 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. . for other signs representing jazmah see GL. LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). 23). Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. – background (UK.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

)1   .  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ ... ..

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

 G Z Q MDO (SA. III. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. . IV. 1123). WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev.

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

VIII. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. II. 47. 123 and IX. 416-417).GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. majlis SO PDM OLV. LC. 26).

VIII. majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. – session. 1020)..  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. . sitting.

459-460. KU. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). jalam SO DMO P. II. julfah – nib (of the calamus. the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA.

– (pair of) scissors (DS.Oá. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar. -XP Gá al. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. IR. no. / / (OS.NKLUDK DO. 89. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. 91-92. abbrev. II.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). -XP Gá al. IK.NKLU. CM. CI. 230).

89). abbrev. 34) 3. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. composition. compilation. 126.9 . rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. III. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . SA. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. / (OS. contraction (of letters) (KU.

major original compilation. the QurÐ Q 8. e. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ .  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work.  FN. 352).g. .

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. II.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. III. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ).

codex compositus (LC. NH. 233. box (NM. 12. 106. inkwell 6' . jumal. case. 13) 3. 32) 2. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ).  composite volume. mujamma¶ (UA. TM. tool box. AG. 683) 4. I. 393) 1. inkwell for coloured ink (TC.  '' . 217. DG. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. 25). SD. escritoire (TW. 52. writing case. 380).  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). case with compartments (TS. 37. 52.

145).) (AS. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. 10). IA. xiv. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. 10). 109. IA. 11.v. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. 107: for cutting gold leaf . MDZ E (pl. knife (TS. 110. II. better known as al-JKXE U (q. ajwibah) – responsum. MDQ Œ (pl. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. AG. index. index. ST. (CI. abbrev. 61.111). – book cover (ST. MI.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. VIII. IJ). – authorization. LB. III. 273-275. 1020-1021. licence. 27. 24. 126-130. EI. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. certificate of transmission. ER.

9 . LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (.GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. 181). .

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license). M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH.

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

SA. 381: jawn. KU. LQNZHOO (HI. II. DS. AT. NH. 179. 133. 468. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 154: wa-al-M EDK . 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs.

also known as waqabah. (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. see also the quotation under miqlamah).

a¨E U. **** Œibr (pl.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

8. MP. -100 and MB. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. Œibr al-raqq.53. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. MJ. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. IV. 18-21. 13. UK. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. IR. sifr 13. MP. 6: wa-al- . KM. n. 101-110 and MB.

127-131. LM. SA. AE. MR. IK. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . II. see LL. AT. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. 134-135. 349. I. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. MA. IV. IK.

III. 2016). ma¨ ELU. 354). FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. miŒbarah (pl. embellishment (DB. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ.

443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ . III.  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. II. 372..  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . SA.

443. SA. II. 468-.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133.

I. SA. embellished writing (composition) or copying. 15. WR. a¨E V. taŒE U 1. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. inking. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). Œubs (pl. compiler (SS. muŒabbir – author. transcription (TE. 119). inscribing in ink (SM. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. 89). II. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. 87. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. elegant. SK.

ta¨E V W. taŒE V (pl.

MM. 132) 3. . n. IA. endbanding with silk 2. 109. MB. also Œabkah – endband (headband).. waqf. bequest note (LC. 62. 28).15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. 18-20. AG. 154. comp. TS.. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). 157. 104 ff. decorative endband (UK. sewing. Œabk 1.. stitching (of a book) (TM. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% .

 VSLQH 74 .

 al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. 19. 109). AG. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 19. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. AG. 109.

 .

11. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. I.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. AD. 19. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. n. 109). bookbinder (IB. AG. 478). 28). 109). ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. 19. AG. 19. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. 246).

– the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. 69). 89). Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). 10). ajar al-¨XP ¨im). ŒLM E (pl. miŒjar. Œajar al-misann – whetstone. (OS. maŒjar (pl. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. amulet (DT. ¨ujub) – talisman. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). abbrev. ma¨ MLU. Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. hone (TS. 60).

36) 2. UK. 142: 12. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. 38. 99. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U .10. 107. 36). MB.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. index. MP. AG. ST.

 .$ .

 (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. 2733.H. FN. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U.

I . FRPS .

¨XG G. taŒG G – whetting. Œadd (pl. 711). II.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. honing (of a knife) (KD.

used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. – limit. end. ŒDG G DK. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih).

taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. MJ. 109. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. 138). 393. 105. 59. TS. IA. MP. 29. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. AG. 31. 10. (pl. ¨XG U. Œadr (pl. 188). MB. 59).

muŒarrir – 1. secretarial style of shikastah script. e. ÁaÑd. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. AG. 246) 7. TE. – descender (down-stroke. redaction (CM. 16. 73) 2. composition (GA. 1124. comp. 119) 2. revised version (edition). XVII. MU. 48. 109.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. IV. 38. 16) 5. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. 58. copying. TE. IV. 15. fair copying (TE. IP. 16) 6. 286). calligrapher. 15) 4. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. 64. muŒarrar (pl. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. IV. with black ink (TE. 50. ER. 15) 3. 701. III. 145. penman. editing (of a manuscript text).g. AF. 215-227). SK. 214) 8. terminal of a letter) (AA. compiler (SS. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. EI. ŒDU U – silk (ST. index. outline.. 50). mu¨DUUDU W. PA. taŒU U 1. 2408. editor. 52. author. 10. elegant writing. transcription (TE. 13. AQ. DB. ornamental surround. frame.

calligraph (DP. 53). Œard al-matn see matn. . – piece of calligraphy.

a¨U ] ¨XU ].GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl.

69). amulet (DT. e. – talisman. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB.g. IV. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world.

DS. II. word 2.. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. miŒra„ah. letter. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. sharp edge (of a knife. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. taŒU I 1. Œarf (pl. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. lin.g. 549). al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam.' . e. trimming (HT. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. II. LL. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. 230.80-86). LM. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. I. border. ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. Œarf (pl. 463. III. KK.  .9 . 596-560). 39-42) 2. ¨iraf) – edge. error. distortion. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. cutter). ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI.

. FRPS TLU Ðah.

al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. falsification (of a text). comp. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. 224). 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. 57. MQ. 59.32 GLOSSARY  08 . ¨DUDN W. MJ. Œarakah (pl. III.

II. Mecca and Medina. 65. 704. shakl. KD. taŒU N – vocalization. miŒU N – spatula. 112-113. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. UA. – vowel (GL. MB. 8). stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. vowelization (DM). comp. 393). MuŒarram (al-¨DU P.

). Œizb (pl. al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. (OS. abbrev. 89).v. a¨] E. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

. index. Œazm . ST. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 11). 28. ST. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 11.

54: EI. 468). chronosticon (TP. III. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. ŒLV E – calculation. computation. .

302). Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. see SA.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. VI. II. abbrev. ¨DZ VKLQ. EI. 269-270. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like .

109) 3. lin. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. 63. scholium. 118. IA. margin (of a page) 4. border (on a book cover) (MB. MB.112. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. collection of glosses. 119. FZ. often abbreviated as or . apostil. MD. IA. 217-219. marginalia. 63) 2.

al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 63. parenthesis. III. 73  00 139. DB. 89-90). 222. 65. 412. 30. IX. 1820). Œ VKLQ (pl. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE.54. ¨DZ VKLQ. JM. Œashw(ah) 1. 268-269. IV. 145. pl. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. EI. AS. AG. 60. 977). al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. 71) 2. 110. FT. FI. interpolation. gutter.

296. abbrev. 322.74. gloss (AM. trimming (of a reed) (BA. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. nos. . 332). Œa¦ramah – paring. CI. glossed. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . taŒshiyah – glossing. III. xi. 34). muŒashshin – glossator. 26. II. (MI. AD.

no. .89. taŒ¦ O – copying. transcription (FK. I. 546).

sifr 4. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. 60.31). I. TS. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. MB. 6. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. 107. burnisher.). 29. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. ÑDU T W. smoothing leather (ST. polisher (KM. IB. 34). n. AG. 118: mikhaÃà (!). comp.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. IA.v. 5.

34. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. headpiece (LC. Œa„ UDK (pl. 35. KH. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). I. RN. 302) 2. frame (SD. 24). surround. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã.

 FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. II. box (KC. 44) 2. NT. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. a¨fiÌah). 55. preservation. ŒLI „ (pl. miŒfa„ah – case. 51). Œif„ – learning by heart. small box (DG.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . memorization (TP.

 FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. critical edition (of a text) (MH. MR. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . text editing. 89.

editor. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. muŒaqqiq – corrector.

family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. 12. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶.U T and alZDUU T (FN. 13) 2. III.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

1123. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. 78. LM. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. IV. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. EI. comp. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF.in Persia. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. 1125. III.in Turkey). IR. TU.

ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. 62) 2. erasure. Œakk – rubbing out. ¨DODT W. mibrad (q. 137). of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab.) (UK. 59) 3. 104.v. IA.) (DD. effacement (TP. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. NH. syn. 392. miŒakk al-rijl 1.v. miŒakk(ah). syn. pumice (MB. IA. 31). Œalqah (pl. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). 58. ¨alaq. 141) 2. 112. I. MM. scroll (in design) (UI.

II. scholar’s circle (SL. 372) 2.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. 48. study circle. part of a clasp) (BA. 27). ma¨ O T. III. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. AI.

422. – tendril (FT. AB. . 139). 136.

204-209).36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. taŒP G DK. 416). Œilyah. taŒliyah – decoration. embellishment (KT. Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. 150-151).

red colour. 53. red ink (LC. EI. rubrics (CM. TB. 122-123). TP. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. rubrication. 24) 2. Œumrah 1. III. n. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. 38. 95).20.

maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. taŒQ VK (pl. TP. also miŒmal. maŒmil 1. WA. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. codex (MA. 29). 56-57. TP. 24). EL-al-Œumrah (LC. 86) 3. LC. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. 169. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' .  ‘pupitre’). ME. book cradle (TC. ŒDP ODK (pl. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. IV. ta¨ Q VK. TW. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. amulet (DT. IV. 15. ÑUthmanic canon. 55). 286. sifr 13. exemplar. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. 51). 566. 69). archetype (KM. 24. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support.

rope work. 11) 2.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. interlace (TF. compass. 58. 143) 3.) (MP. (pair of) dividers (IB. 44). index. 138. . ST.

II.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. 700).  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O.

8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). ma¨ ZLU. miŒwar (pl.

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

as opposed to the border (TF. maΠU DK. 138. 144).  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover).

99. I. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. 149-150). 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). MH. 58: as a means of cancellation. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. Œawqalah. II. 97. ¨awr (LL. 109. TP. 104-105). often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. 483). – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. TP. 665). 171. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. Œ µil.

RQH LVQ G from another. 73 . abbrev.

 .

31). also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. tool. colophon (TM. 214) 3. khatm 1. panel (in decoration) (UI. 24. 3.g. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. 35). **** NK QDK – compartment. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. tooling 2. MI.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. sealing. stamp. stamping. seal.

RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS). khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' .

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .9 . – 1. recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2.

 NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P .. .

169.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. 109. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). stamp or medallion (on a book cover). 29. 63). I. . 108) 3. AG. e. 34. CI. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. talismanic seal (DT. 130. 110. IA.g. OS) 2. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. DT. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. 144).9 1105.

FT. epilogue 2. tailpiece (HD. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. 8. colophon (UI. LNKWLW P 1. 108). 396) 4. explicit. 52. 5. conclusion. n. .14) 3.

GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl. khXG G.

165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ . – inner or outer margin (IM.

also LVWLNKU M (TW. backing (of the spine) (HN. takh„ ¶ – rounding. 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. 385). WDNKU M LNKU M 1.

kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK. RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah.

explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ . FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce.

 omission. 187-188. comp. ) 4. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   .0 . la¨aq (TP. TM. insertion. 58.

243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . omission. reference mark (signe de renvoi). WDNKU MDK 1. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK. I. transcription (TW. extract from a book. 718). KF.) .  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. 606) 6. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. 169) 7. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. ÑaÃfah. quotation (TM. insertion 2. I. or a caret.73: in the form of a curved line. pl. n.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF.. copying.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. 58.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

 mukharraj. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukhraj – insertion (MH.

II. excerpting. vox reclamans (MA. LVWLNKU M 1. catchword. 384. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. 126130). 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. 39). . IV. mustakhrij. 683). NM. selector (DF. copying (DM) 2. TW. mukharrij – compiler.

ST. II. index. 59). NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. punch (SA. OM). DS. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). 35. 99. 181). 12.40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. MP. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. 481. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl.

khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK. 70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94).

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

comp. palmette (KH. 36). Ã P. khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. Ãurrah.  DQVD roundel.

MB. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. HT. 109) 2. blank. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. undoing the sewing (ST. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. 12. 114. SA. 154. comp. MP. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. scrap (of paper) (DM). sewing (of quires) (UK. MB. gap. index.166). 157. MI. 481) 2. khirqah (pl. 59) 3. lin. II. khiraq) 1. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. 15. 347. lacuna (SJ. II. polishing cloth (MB. 17. IA. 27. 459). kharm 1. 104. 60.

 .

fragments (HB. KF. en vrac.NKLU. 233: feuillets décousus.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. incomplete (TC. TC. munkharim – imperfect. 26.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. II. PDNKU P. 26).

II. 527). khazz SO NKX] ]. kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. sifr 13. IV. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih).

107. TP. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. VII. 46). siglum. . comp. 107). NKL] QDK. 119). mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. 25-26). II. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. AG. suspension. maktabah. epitome (EI. AG. xiii-xiv. 27. AD. 159-160. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. comp. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. abridgement. abbreviation (contraction. EA. library. GL. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 23-24) 3. I. 55-56. – silk. 536-540. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. 14-15. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. kharm and ¨azm.

line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. penmanship (ML. mark. calligraphy. sign. script. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . stroke. 34-38) 2. khuà Ã) 1.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. handwriting. writing.

used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK.. I. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. 103). EI. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. IV. comp. khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . 358). also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . script (text) see also Ñajam. LM.8  51  $6 .g. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). 681). 144). al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. scriptio plena.. 114. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. 83. III. AS. 887: ER. comp. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. CI. scriptio defectiva. 41. al-DTO P DO-sittah. copied by (e. yad. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal).

 khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .8  $6 .

380). penman. 26). I.1. makhà à W. no. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. paleography (KJ. 80). mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. comp. makh¨ ¨ (pl. calligraphy (WR.

takh¨ ¨ 1. IA. ruling (of lines). 12). MB. index. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. straightedge (LL. 760). 98. I. . 118. reed pen. implement (made of wood. 110. mikha¨¨ 1. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. 61) 2. manuscript codex. 103. 760.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. LL. tracing. tracer (ME. 555. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). UA. writing. 110) 2. drawing (MB. I. 60. calamus (AA.

Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. honorific (e. sifr 13.g. khi¨ E (pl. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. akhÃibah) 1. address. note. letter. IV. speech 2.1).

14). IB. preface (LC. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving.g. 25. 105. NKDI I (lit. mukhtaÁar. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. comp. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). TP. RIWen unpointed) (GL.20). X. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. abridgement. 109). n. 18. 44: ornament). abbrev. 156. IA. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. extract. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. MB. 123). AG. trimming (TS. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. epitome. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. 59. 53.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. 145).

. 273. TP. MU. MH. 46. XII. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. 58).g. XVII. XI. 52. LNKWLO I – variant reading. varia lectio (e. 95.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 126. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W.

 SO WDNK P V.

PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 401). – pentastich amplification of a poem.). LNKWL\ U. X. pentameter (SD. 97). I. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. 405.v. 50. 95. al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. 123-125). NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. EI. AD.

khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. thick needle (ST. 43. 12. IB. index. 12. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). AG. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. index. MB. endbanding without silk (TS. 19. – anthology (EA. IR. 12). 94-95).e. I.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . index. i. 107-108). 109). mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large.

 .

of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. 250). VI. G E M SO GDE E M.

84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. – silk brocade (MU. XIV.

exordium. G E MDK 1. preface. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY.

tadabbur – consideration. WDGE M 1. headpiece. 115).v). /& ) 2. TW. composition (of a text) (DM). GLE JK DK. 65. 127. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. 259) 2. frontispiece (MD. adorning something with arabesques. creating headpieces (AD. reflection. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. 52. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. PA.

140-143. 60).. suppl. fasc. 114-115. IA. EI. 63. 172). I. MP.3-4. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. – tanning (MB.

236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q.  IR. 8.

dirj :6 . darj. al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr.

SO GXU M DGU M.

rotulus (IK. 141.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. I. IK. 138: al- . LL. 868: also daraj. I. 138. parchment or paper (AJ. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. 68. SA. roll.

46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .$  Q.

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

432). paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 13. 142) 3. I. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. 287). 60). punch (IA. AG. darmak – farina. dast(ah) SO GXV W. 107). inset (SD. dirafsh – awl.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

PT. 96. WS. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. 92. GXVW U SO GDV W U. 44). MB. IV. 39. 94. 81. SD. IA. burnisher (UK. 156. 105. I. AB. MA. 145. rizmah. 524) 2. 92. comp. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). kaff 3. wide polisher. IB. 59.

.  .  KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN.) .  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP .

also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 23) 3. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK.  DXWKRU’s original. I. holograph (LC.

 dasht – loose leaves. II. . unbound book. book consisting of loose leaves (KF. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). HB. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad.

‘prayer of request’ (EI.  . adÑiyah) 1. pious invocation. TP. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). 617-618) 2. etc. assimilated (KU. 54.GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. (see e. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. AA. II. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ .g. hence mudgham – contracted.. supplication.. 150-156). daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. formula of benediction.+ 35).

13). 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). book cover. 104) 3. pasteboard (ST. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. 13. 13). ST.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB.Oá (ST. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. index. index. index. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. al-daffah al.

SO GDI WLU.

volume (IK. KK. 77-81. see LS) 2. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). n. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. daqq 1. 22-25. Daftar kutub. fine writing (TM. 29. 192). 40 x 14 cm. pounding (MP. 108. 481). 321.. 63. taftar (SK. QRV  096) 3. bound or unbound codex . I. 60) 2. register (EI. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). rubbing. IA. . 4.. . pen wiper (SA. account book.18) 3. notebook (e. II. 14 leaves. II.g. 48. SL.

107). index. burnishing. 110. sifr 4. FJ. 85.163. glazing (ST. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. 13. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. I. lin. 118. 11. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. HT. I. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. 87). waraq damghah see waraq. OH. GDON WDGO N – polishing. NH. 48-50. 139). 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. 217. SD.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). KM. 23. midlak – polisher. KR. MB. 461). AG.

UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. Isfahan. mudhun – container for oil (IR. midhan.E GDK – Yazd. – fat. I. 230: LL. ' U DO-. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. Herat. grease. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. 927). ' U DO-¶. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. oil. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. Tabriz. 905-906).KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . .

GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1.  73 . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .

ta¨U I. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. even (as opposed to oblique. 30. medallion. 105. i. e. TS. MB. 59) 5. 56. 156. (5) 4.g. JA. WDGZ U 1.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. UD. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. disc (UK. I. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). roundel. straight.e. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value.

QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. 10. LM. 39-40) 2. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. hence PXVWDG U – round. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. 35). RN. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 61) 3.g. 22. rounding (of the spine) (IA. 9. curvilinear (e. LM.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

 UHJLVWHU account book. WDGZ Q 1. sifr 13. writing down (of ¨DG WK. II. IV. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. SA. 90) 2. EI. collecting (collection). EI. 323. office. 323). collection of poems written by one author (DM). chancellery (KM. II. I. I. 129.

  73 . . (.

28. TE. transcription (LC. UI. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. copying. 15. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G .

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

IV. IURP which it is derived (EI. GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. 1125-6).

BA.. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. III.  LQNZHOO . 370) 2. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. KU. escritoire. . 169-170. -85.

UK. AT. II. II. DG. GDZZ µ. 137-139). 53).) in ‘boxed books’ (BA.132-133.3-4. 65. X. III. ER. VII. MB. wiper and sand) (SA. tadhkirah 1. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. 54.50 GLOSSARY ruler. 77. 73). FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK.v. aide-mémoire (EI. dhabr. descender (of a letter) (AA. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. 440-443. EI. fasc. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. 372) 2. midhbar see mizbar. 713. suppl. 203-204. ND. memorandum. 53) 2.

53). X. +%  (. dhanab SO DGKQ E.

LL. 25. III. ¨arf (SA. 983: ‘water-gold. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. – tail (foot) of a letter. I. supplement (AD. 226. 151). 24. 89-91. UK. II.’). dhahab. paint (MU. 13). gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. 59). etc. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. LC. SA. 21). 130-132.V. MB. 477. WDGKQ E – appendix. UD. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. index. I.

27. writing with liquid gold. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. TE. KA. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. WDGKK E 1. 145). 222.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. AS. gilding. chrysography (LC. IX. 15.

 SO WDGK K E.

PA. chrysographer (AB. XV. 132. 27. MU. 490). LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. 15). mudhahhib – gilder. TE. 385). 141). JLOW REMHFW 6' . dhayl SO GKX\ O. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN.

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. lower margin. 23). ruÐ V. al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. 206).  VXSSOHPHQW appendix.

as opposed to the spine (MB. 61) 3.e. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. 172). 62) 4. 109). raµs al-¦afŒah.  KHDG RI D letter. (qalam) al-riµ V . i. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. 24. raµs al-NLW E). 26) 2. TM.g. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. upper margin (TS. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. frontispiece (LC. SA. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. page or book. IA. envelope flap (MB. 109. fore-edge of the codex. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. LC. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . raµs al-waraqah. 26). 108. IA. III. e. 107. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. 26). beginning of something. 136.g. 14. character. e.

84. AQ. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ.5 -242. 65). 126. TU. 30.. WDUZ V 1. RN. 13) 2.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. vox reclamans (NZ. U EL¨ah – catchword. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . 213.202/817-8) (FN. 37. MO. 100). JM. 215).. 83-84. HI. 100. FZ. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. AS. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. 35. 226. KH. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. 12. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). 33. 146. script akin to a large naskh. 236. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . 144.

5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. DO-rub¶.

89. 5DE ¶ al. / / (OS.NKLU (al-PXE UDN. abbrev. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . CM. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G).

rabaÑ W. – the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl.

 VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' . .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

 PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. nos. MS.  6' .  &$ . 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +.21. 51. 48.

AG. WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. 109).128). …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . 11. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. lin. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. stalk (?) (TS.

composition (MU. arrangement (of the text). I. no.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1.170) 2. AM. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. 50. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K .

compiler (DF. mubawwib. II. comp. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. 72).¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. murattib – author. ratm – close. 53.20). copying (KM. n. IV. 384. SS. sifr 13. compact writing.

abbrev. al-aÁabb. Rajab (al-murajjab. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm.  26 .

1 . VIII. raj¶ (pl.   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . didactic poem (EI. XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). 376). . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0.

IV. sifr 13. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). UXM ¶ – reference. 252). polychrome illumination (TE. 17. retouchage (of a letter). muÑallaqah. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. I. 17) 2. source (in a text) (IN. 109). WDUM ¶ 1. MJ. 28. I. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. comp. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. retouching. FRPS SD. 99. KM. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. writing in bold characters (TE. 513: ‘barrage. III. AG.

. epilogue (AD. 62).  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion.

al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. 13). 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. ST. RI. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . book support (MD.185). index.% 81. index. 137.13. n. 13). 31: MD. index.

54. 584. VA. 1223. 3185). UXNK P DK. 294. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. abbrev. 3099. 1055. 419. 1062. 2152. 1035. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. comp. nos. 1038.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. numrah) (TP.

TS. AG. 107. marble slab (MB. OM). similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). 14. IA. . . 10. XXIB). pl. TP. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. raddah – envelope flap (TM. 103. 59. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. 11. ST.

39. consisting of five quires. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . 145. AB. 92. AJ. ream (of paper). WS.) (PT. rizam) 1. dast (q. .v.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl.

tract. epistle 2. LUV O DK. dast 2. letter. VIII. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. monograph (EI. 532). treatise. 524: ‘cahier’). ULV ODK 1. FRmp. I.

 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK ... 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH. – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð. LM.

100. tarassul – art of letter writing. 451-. marking. 14) 2.VIII. designing. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. rasm al-muÁ¨af. EI. execution. making a mark (ST.g. PA. index. epistolography (DM). e. writing. 45) 3. MB. sketching (ME. 101. copying. rasm 1. 561. drawing. 100.

 SO UXV P.

I. I. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. 527). chapter (in a composition) (SD. designer. 528). U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. 560. I. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. line (traced with a pen) (SD. I. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. unpointed letter or word ( NO. painter (ME. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. comp. faÁl. 15) 6. SD. 527) 5. 527) 7. – stroke. bi-rasm see mustanad.

wood block (AB. marking (syn. 14). index. III. 14) 2. lin. index. UDVKVK VK – reed pen.129. . 370). 164) 3. calamus (BA. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. rasm) (ST. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. tooling (HT. – woodcut. 137).

mark (TS. comp. I. marshim. 18) 2. 532). rizmah. marsham SO PDU VKLP. ream (of paper) (SD.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1.

 VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. hot iron (SD. I. 532). illumination. 135). 125) 2. tar¦ ¶ 1. decoration (MS.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

126). 103. TE. covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. . 17) 3.3 145. decoration (with liquid gold). ta¨U U TY. gilding the inside of the surround (outline).

$) .

35) 2. SA. ra¦f. 140. KH. III. tar¦ I 1. joining letters together (AP. 79. writing. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. composition (NS.

AR. 35. SL. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. MI. 15. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD.    73 54. 125). II. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. KH. 89. abbrev. used for the companions of the Prophet. 34. tar„iyah.

DQW RI \ ELV. FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah.

statement (LC. 24). 14. 15. – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. 16. istir¶ µ \DK – note. 19. AS. . 144).

lin. 137). ND. n. 44. mirfa¶ 1. riqq SO UXT T. 111-112). 231. raqq. 70) 2. KK.11. support (for an inkwell) (AA. 230. book cradle (IN.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. book support.133. I.

105. piece (slip) of leather.. 17. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. UDTT JKD] O see jild. EI. 269). paper or other writing surface (MU. IW. VIII.1. no. 17. KM. 683. parchmenter (DG. EP) 2. vocalization by means of points. 353). AE. 74-75. making something multicoloured (LL. AK. arabesque decoration (KA.67). 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . parchment leaf (ND. KJ. -485. KR. IK. I. 105. 93. I. vox reclamans (NM. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. 53. AA. UDTT ¦ – catchword. copying (TE. 407-410. 1135) 3. raqshah – pointing.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . 1135) 4. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. KK. VIII. 230). n. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. mirqash – reed pen. 407). IV. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. 85). WS. sifr 13. 108-111. diacritical point (JA. 60-63. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). 119. 53. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. I. SK. embellished writing. I. al-raqq al-a¨mar. diacritical pointing (TE. calamus (IR. LL. elegant.

note. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. brief message.  OHWWer.

IV. 1126). DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. .

v. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. VII. JM. 78-82. passim. 602-603).) script (AS. LM. inset (MK. 1125.in Persia. EI. often sewn in). patchwork. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. IV.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. 86). MN. writing (KM. 139. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. sifr 13. 146. raqm 1.in Turkey). WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. 1123. IV.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. DP. calligraph (AC. 266) 4. AW. – piece of calligraphy. 54. 41. NI.

..  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ.

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. 17. AW. 45. copyist (AC. UDT P – inkwell (KM. 372. 154). KJ. IK. – abbreviation. 183. mirqam – reed pen. no. 160). fasc.3. 17. calamus (TE. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. TE. AM. 183). also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. 230. 82. 387-388. 147. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. 468-9: AN. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. 30). IV. sifr 13. 5. IV. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. no. III. siglum (CL. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. I. 1140). 244. III. SK. GA. LL. BA. arqam.76). 141. raqn – compact writing (KM. 106). IR. 2. GA. 383. sifr 13. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK.

 .

embellishing ( a text. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. IV.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. sifr 13. writing) (KM.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

389. ST. index. 393).73. ¨ibr. 14. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. AG. e. 83). Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. markaz SO PDU NL]. murakkab 1. 58. on the line) (MY.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). 45). MP. 24-27. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. 78) 3. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . 60ff). UA. (Turk. comp. 50. lin. ligatured.g. comp. boarding (TS. hybrid (of a script) (LM. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). III. SA. HT. ¨ibr 2. IV.g. 109. 681) 2. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. linking (joining) one letter with another. ligature (e. I. WDUN E 1.

– support (for reed pens) (UA. rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. UXN ¶ . 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ).

 DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. 36. VIII. 406). rukn SO DUN Q. EI.

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

5 . .

. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). index. 31. 69). II. 14. rakwah (pl.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. 30. 703). IB. 107) 3. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. corner piece itself (ST. AG.

0 . WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ . murammim – restorer. ramz SO UXP ].9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada).60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. restoration (DM).

chronogram. 468. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. code.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. 427) 4. cypher. 159) 3. 55. 428) 2. VIII. secret alphabet (EI. WB. III. chronosticon (EI. VIII. TW.

. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. V. 209.

 26 . abbrev. Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.

I. II. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar.  '' . al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). TD. 127136). 393). 86. WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. UA. . 478- $7  6' . I.

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

DM). syn. UXZ K. LL. 1186. mik¨ O '' . I. 393.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. UA. – little stick for the application of kohl. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl.

KF. ULZ \DK 1. version (versio). VIII. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. 53. 94). 53). 26. EI. variant reading. tradition (traditio). marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. varia lectio (MR. also known as sanad (q. transmission. recension (recensio) (LC. link in the chain of transmission (TP.) (TP. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. II. – transmitter. 545-547) 2. 417418 and 500-501) 3.v. 109-111). XII.

100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). 144. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . LM. MB. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). IV. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK.in Persia. JM.v. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. 1125. 73-77.in Turkey). 146. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q.EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. 545-547). 38. MP. 1123.) script (AS. VIII. 43: wa-T OD .

4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol.). ¨ibr. ]DEU WD]E U 1. copying. 18. inscription on stone (KM. sifr 13. I. q. also dhabr – writing. transcription (TE. CI. IV.v. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«.

work (SA. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. 80. 444. zubur) – composition. copyist (TE. ND. IK. 18. zab U (pl. KK. II. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. ND. 80. 92).

polychrome illumination (TE. calamus (TE. copying (KK. elegant. zakhrafah 1. IR. elegant. 53. TE. 444-465. copying (KK. SA. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. IK. 18) 2. embellished writing. embellished writing. TE. 230). ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. 18).18. 85. II.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. 87). decorator (WR.  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. 80). muzakhrif – illuminator.

135). . AG. comp. 34. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. 25. Ñurwah. KT. 110.

69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. 682. see DC. 360) 1. ‘hair lock’. zulayjah (]DO MDK. MN. 69. 1222). ]XO \MDK. ER.. ‘curl’). index. 35. AG./Turk.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . 19: in 12). ]LP P DK. 109). I. 689). zalf (MN. zulf (Pers. decoration in gold and colours (LL. V. IV. fastener (TS. ST. lit.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). 25.

list. catalogue (SD. NA. GA. 222: al-WDUP N . (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. 383-385. I. (pl.9. register (IK. 601). azimmah) 1. 95) 2. account book. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. pt. 181). ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. 127.

vermillion ink (SA. 478). 315. zinjafr – cinnabar. II. II. 101. 145. 320). KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. MB. comp. . ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. KF.

WD]K U – floral decoration. box (DG. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). hence muzahhar. no. zawj SO D]Z M. 44. KR. 38. floriated (KJ.1. 91).64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case.

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

I. 73. 90-100). WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. embellished writing.120b. 18) 2. 73). muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. f. copying (TE. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. EI. ER. 283. muzawwir – forger (EI. conjugate leaf (AG. 107). VII. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. GA. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. WD]Z U 1. X. falsification (UI. forgery. 6. 391). X. 107) 2. AD. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. 409). 825 and VIII. TK. X. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. 408-409. AG. 376).

 .  HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ ..

11) 3. 560. miniature painting (WA.  decoration. lin. . 12). decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. 105). multi-colour illumination (HT. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. writing. 560) 4. n. ]LZ TDK – art of illumination.4. miniature painter (ME. MS. WA.102. 4). ]DZZ T – illuminator.

9). interpolation. superfluous.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. 60. index. 9). square (an implement) (MB. ]L\ GDK 1. 184) 2. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. IA. 127) 2. corner. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. 52. MH. 62). 59. interpolation. MI. abbrev. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. 98) 3. angle 2. 73).GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. index. post-scriptum (AD. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. addition (CM. 111. 136). addition (TP. dittography (TM.

 FRPS TDUU Á. embellished writing (SK. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. elegant.

 HPEHOOLVKPHQW GHFRUDWLRQ '0.

suµ O (pl. abbrev. II. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. comp. . preamble to a fatwá. MI. jaw E (CI. asÐilah) 1. quodlibet. 128) 2. xiv.

20. VA. 53. n. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. 3214) 2. 696. used after the word All K 73 . the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. 461. 1853. nos.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1.

tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. piece (of poetry. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). lapsus calami (DM). parchment) (IB. 81. I. 11-12). index. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). IB. n. 13. etc. 637). siŒ µah – piece.185). sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen.) (SD. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST.

17). . 83). WDVG G – copying. plug (in the inkwell) (IK. VLG G (pl. asiddah) – stopper. transcription (TE.

LL.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece.52). prelector (TP. 39. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. misrad – awl. I. KM. 56. sifr 4. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). 1347). 115. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL.) 1. 122) 2. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. 1347). reading. I. recital. awling. punch (SK. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. punching (SK. hence V ULG – reader. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. comp. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. 40. 122. n. Áurrah. I.

KR. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. 27. munsa¨iŒ – flat. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . 82). 97. MD. AF. 127. . 95. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. horizontal stroke (UD... also known as lawzah (JL. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. 36).  frontispiece.

asà U VXà U. asÃur. sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan.

705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). II. . – line (KD. line of writing.

104- 7. 87). 104. 247) 4. 59). stencil (AF. ruling board (ST. IA. LC. 77). 73. 43). tas¨ U 1. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. 28. copying (TE. 17. WS.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. number of lines per page (LC. 18. 25) 3. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. ff. composition (AD.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. IA. creating a line (of writing) (SA. 104-105). 13. index. (grid of) guidelines. 104. lineation (LC. 155. TM. 28. 105. straightedge (UK. folder (UK. writing. 91. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". TS.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2.. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . I. 50. TA. 134) 4. number of lines per page (TK. 155. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. 174) 3. IA. 59). WR. 59). 17). 78. ruler. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). 155). IN. pasteboard (HT. 103. redaction. 113) 6. lin. III. 86. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. 28) 5. 12. ruling. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. 155. MB. lining. KA. V ¨ir.%  Q LC. designing (UK. ruling (of folios). 155). lineation. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. MB. 48) 5. SDVVLP 6$ . TS. MB. 15. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. WA. 155. IB.

DM: snuff box). .5  // . . 1364.

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

codex. MS. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. book.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3.

& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.  FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .

9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE . V ILU (pl.0 .

ST. index . bookbinding (e.g. WDVI U 1.

 SO WDV I U.

– book cover (MB. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 15. EI. 660. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). 11. AD. 31. HT. passim). MB. oblong format (of a book) (MD. end of a letter or book 2. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). 742) 2. lin. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). 109) 2. 110). VDI QDK 1. 158. spine (of a book) (UK. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. . IV. I. index. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. 78). note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. 150). AG. AG. lower margin.115. VIII. tail (of the page). TF. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. 97. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1.

95. also LVT ¨ – omission. haplography (TP. 97. saqa¨ (MU. XII. 95. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. 238) 1. MH. see above) (JL. 97). 58. 87) 2. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 88). diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. KR.70 GLOSSARY saq¨.

482. ÑLO M PLVT K. 133. AT. 80). 118. jazmah 2. 107. IR.133. 148. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. II. comp. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. VXN Q 1.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. 137). WS. lin. circle-like tool (HT. 230). IA. comp. 60). mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant.

465-466. 31-33). 90-91. 103-104. KD. VI. SA. pen knife (IK. II. 115- . silsilah SO VDO VLO. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. 711. AA. II. – knife.$  8. 248). LM.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. SK.

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

(qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . stemma codicum (AL. 27). silsilat al-nasab – stemma.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. I. 611). IX.

EI. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. JM. 107). 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. IV. 1124). KK. 5863.GLOSSARY 71 146. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. VDO P. AG. 15.

CI. no. PLVP U (pl. mas P U. 2211. VA. xiii. I. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. MI.1830. 54. 128).

 NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. 372. TM. – nail. III. peg (part of a clasp) (BA.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

53.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement.25. 485493).. II. (CW. certificate).. XVII. n. 27. EI. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. TP. MU. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. LC. 1019-1020). KF. 278.g. . 53. 69. auditor. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. MU.. VIII. TP. 267. X. abbrev.

audition note. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. certificate (JA. I. 45) 2. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ .

 musammi¶. musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK.

FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. 45). PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. authoritative commentator. certifier (CT. audition leader (master).

ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ. PDTU Ð. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ. comp.

IV. proper name (EI. 1. . title of a book (ism al-NLW E). 179-181) 2.

the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q. sinn SO DVQ Q.v. title (of a work) (LC. 53. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 28) 2. n.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. 28. tasmiyah 1.20) 3.) (MH. TP. 100). the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC.

154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. shaqq ) (UK. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit.

  . . waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // .  (.9  LQV – left side.. 6$ . ..

hone (UK. 60: misann akh ar. IA. MB. 153. misann ÃXOD\O ". misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. 103.

TS. 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ ..5  6$ . 107. . NH. 10.  $7 133. AG.

 misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨.v. q. sanad SO DVQ G.). 395). musannanah – chevron (FT. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).

53. 56). DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G.

. 9. ..   (. 6/ .

I. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . 365. RN. sifr 13. 47). 2. IV. TW. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. 5. 704-705). 692). FN. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. VII. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. FRPS muÁannaf. 8. EI. 14.

264-265. II. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. OS. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). CM. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. 88. 232). VI. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like.

 \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. comp. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A.).D. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. 252). VI. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA.

320. – Muslim era (DD. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. black ink (LC. AI. 27. I. 388). VDZ G 1. SK. 384.

rough copy (LC. 161.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. MU. 126. VI. 27. MU. MU. XIII. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . XV.9 .

237). calligrapher (AW. marring (of a text). 18) 2. musawwid – copyist. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . making it difficult to read (MH. 50A) 3. 97. vox reclamans (NZ. preparation of a draft (TE. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. WDVZ G 1. copying by an apprentice (TE. 45.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. FRPS PXED\\D ah. 18). 98) 4. AM. copying (TE. nos. 18.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

– woodworm. .

taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. II. KD. II. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. 50. 105. musawwas – worm-eaten.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. comp. SA. 17-18). (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. KK. trimming the textblock (TS. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. 28). damage caused by worms (LC. 702). 463.

in Persia. 1125.in Turkey. sayr SO VX\ U. IV. used in Ottoman Egypt. 178-180. 24-24). A variety of this script. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. RA. DR. 1124. 183). was known as qirmah (GA.

$ .  VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .

index.96). lin. sayf SO VX\ I.  endband (headband) strip (ST. 16. HT. 114. MB.

– trimming sword. 104. IA. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. MB. 103. cutter (UK. 154.

33. WDVKE N 1. **** VKDE NDK 1. 19. nos. lin.88-106. DH. 115. (pl. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. endband (headband) (HT. WDVK E N. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. 20) 2. 407. 73).

passim). . – interlace (TF.

406). Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT.GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ.

. comp.  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ ..' . shajjah SO VKLM M. jilfah..  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). .

87. white interior substance of the reed (IK. EI. DH. also mushajjar – foliated design. arabesque decoration (WR. shajarah – genealogical tree.73) 2. WDVKG G DK. 86. I. 9. shaŒdh – whetting. I. shaddah. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. 35-35). – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . no. II. shaŒm(ah) – pith. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. honing (of a knife) (KD. creating a genealogical tree. stemma (AL. mishŒadh – whetstone. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). 711). hone (DD. composing a text in a schematic. tree-like way. stemma (SL. I. 967) 3. LM. WDVKM U 1. UD. 27). VII.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). 14. 390).

shidq SO DVKG T. 14). – doubling (of a consonant). doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL.

27.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). case binding (TS. book cover. .

369). fakk 2. 109).76 GLOSSARY AG. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. comp. sharaj SO DVKU M.

– plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. III. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W. 372). sharŒ (pl.v.) (BA.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. CI. decorative band (UI. IA. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . comprising the text commented upon (matn). 174-175). fillet (in decoration) (FT. NH. MI. rule-border (LC. 397-320. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . I. ashriÃah) 1. &. cutter (IA. 158. stroke (DM).. al-VKDU I DK. xiv. abbrev. mishra¨(ah) – knife. MB. 60. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. [Lv). DD. VLU V and V U V (DM). IX. 401). also VKLU V. paste (MB. 5051). al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. IB. OM). also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). shars – pasting. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. EI. 27. long commentary. shuraÃ) – line. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). rules.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. II. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. abbrev. (LC. I. comment-text book. . 60. 139. 100. FZ. 217. EA. 392: for opening sealed documents. 106-107. MM. 27) 2.0 . MD. 109) 3. 385. 29) 4. shar¨(ah) (pl.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

v. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. VI. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. nuskhah and the like. TW. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG.). 47. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. ligatured Maghrebi script. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . 365.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. 322). used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. 250).

)'  .

390). duster. 113) 2. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. eraser (TS. sha„ \DK (pl. comp. burnisher.  arb. polisher (NH. mish¨ab – 1. 251). shaÌ \ . 28: IN. FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. shaqq. 756). I. AG. cancellation (LC. I. 11. whisk (?).

40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . à Ð \ Ð. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. serif-like stroke (LM. also tash„ \DK – line.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. AA. KH. III. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. 13) 2. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . 35. 88.

al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-mukarram.

– the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

 .

ashÑ U.78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. shi¶r (pl.

II. 82. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. 81.g. no. 12. CI. nos. CI. 116). versification. scribal verse (see e. – poetry. I.

47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). III. 224). 103. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. LM. outlining. 250). shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. 161). III. 109). outline (KF. parer. IA. AG. scraper (ST. illumination in gold. pt. VI. 16. lin. 127. 59) 3. IP. shaqq SO VKXT T. al-musha¶¶ar. 104.104. MB. MJ. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. 11. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. shafrah 1. 58). also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. 112. 59. UK.83.159). tash¶ U 1. NA. II. index. bookbinder’s sword. 9. 153. shaving (HT. lin. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. paring knife. trimmer (HT. WDVKI U – trimming. 45. AF. 145. 144. 161) 2. cutting edge (SK. 50) 3. AI. JM. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. 91-93. SA.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

slit (of the nib). SA. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. .  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. 59. IM. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. 97. II. 460-462). 171) 3. MH.

(kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. sewing endbands (headbands). Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. preliminary endbanding (IA. ER. IV. 62) 2. ER. punch (UA. IV. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. IV.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. 694).1. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. 393). 1124. . awl. 699-702). 43. WDVKN ] – 1.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. IV. 1124. no.

12) 2. 36). VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. 81). hence mushakkal – vocalized. KH.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. shaqq. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. 59. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. IM. III.g. vowel marks. SA. diagram. comp. III. 150). vowelized (for various practices see SA. GL. 160-167. 125. vowelization. III.

.+  8'   .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

rosette (LC. 116). 135). WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. AF. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. passim. 63). MB. IA. 118.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. 110. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. PA. 51). 27.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

– quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e.g. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

n. IX. 201 and X. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. 53. document (DM). 340-.20. EI. – copy of a letter.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

Mashhad (al-)´usayn. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. 90).

– . al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.HUEHOD . al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU.DUEDO Ð).

shuhrah.). II. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. 1612). month (LL. – new moon. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q.v.

. . EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &. .

 .

GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram. al-PXE UDN.

 26 . abbrev. – the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.

VK U ]DK (Pers. fihrist. 117. pt. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ.5. KH. i¦E ¶ (pl. 118).). aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. 250). VI. 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah.v. 19-20. comp. . fahrasah. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.) – endband (headband) (LA. PA. 8. RN. VI. 725).U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. mashyakhah (pl.

45). ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. emendation 2. I. MH. QS. correction. NH. 63. 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. AR. 29-32. mara  and saqam). ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. 120-129. 473. tint (UK. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. 136. MB. MP. writing word in the text (GA. VIII. tinting. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. abbrev. 114-118. NW. sic. 73  . LE. 285. attestation (of correctness in transcription). 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). abbrev.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. ¦LE JK – pigment. 267-268). thus (JA. 671-672. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. IA. 35. (KG. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). II. dye. CT.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

53. aÁ¨ E. preparation of a critical edition.25). signing (a document) 4. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. n. ¦ Œib (pl. editor. comp.

possession (OS). isti¦Œ E – ownership.  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). abbrev. . 0. owner (OS).

sheet of writing material. Áu¨uf. 9. small pamphlet. sifr 13. notebook (SL.. folio (folium)... . 22. IK. often leather.  parchment. BA. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. 22) 3. mu¦Œaf. 24). page (DM) 4.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. I. II. papyrus or paper (KD. mi¦Œaf (pl. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). III. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. -835) 2. ma¦Œaf. I. maÁ ¨if) 1. leaf (TC. IV.

16). AG. parchment textblock (TS. 17. II. AG. 107. 54-57).GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. MS. 668-669. KF. volumes) (EI. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. 16). AG. 17. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. 146.4). MS. JM. sometimes two. 107. n. 107) 3. 17. 25. VII. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . 316. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. 25. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script.

 ta¦Œ I 1. distortion.  .  . error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e.g.

04  6$ ..  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.

syn. ta¨U I TY. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing).

385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. -348) 3.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. bookbinding (LA. pt. (. .5.

IB. II. 13. ÁXG U. 11. ¦adr (pl. 9. 269-270). bookseller (QS. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. 118) 2. HD. ¦aŒŒ I 1. II.

preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. preamble. ¦DG UDK 1. also ta¦G U – incipit.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

IB. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. MJ. 59). 44. 156. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). 15) 5. AG. as opposed to inner side. IA. 105. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . 464. 16.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 107) 6. fore-edge (TS. 27) 4. MB. fore-edge flap (TS. wajh (SA. II. 218).

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. mandorla (FZ. JL. ¦a¶d (pl. MD. 99. 109. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). ÁuÑ G. comp. surrah. ¦urrah – center-medallion. 83. 110).

TU. 34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. 50.

107). KD. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. ta¦affuŒ – examination. ta¦I Œ – catchword. study (KF. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. II. 192). II. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. vox reclamans (TT. AG. verso of the first folio (LC. 58). 30. ¦DI Œah (pl. 371. siglum) (TP. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. 227. 27). FN. 11. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS.

al-Ìafar. al-PXE UDN. iafar (al-khayr. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). al-muÌaffar.

aÁI U. – the second ¦ifr (pl.

.171. (OS. TP. – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev. 89). 59).

GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl. maÁ ILQ.

– filter. 393: for ink). sieve (UA. burnishing (MB. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. ¦aql – polishing. passim. 134). KA. maÁ TLO. strainer.

IA. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. 149.. 156. 142. I. aÁO E. MB. 99. DD. 149. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). IB. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 44. 105. aÁlub. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. – polisher. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. ¦ulb (pl.  DS.

IA. LC. no. 111. 1712. 62) 3. 62). original text (LC. . i¦O Œ 1. 27). matn. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. MB. 27) 2. 119). main. bookbinding (IA.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ .  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. II. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. correction (FK. making pasteboards (MB. ta¦O E 1. text-column (LL. II. comp. 59). also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. 166.

 UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .&   7: .

suspension. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. siglum) (TP. 191. CI. 55-56. no. MM. i¦¨LO Œ. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. II.

 .

¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. . also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P.86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. . wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. -359).      73  Q 73  &. abbrev. [LLL (.

 al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.v.). 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. sketching (MO. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ¦LP P – plug. ÁDQ G T. ta¦P P – design. 83).

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. ta¦Q I (pl. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. taÁ Q I. Ñamal. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦un¶.

– composition. III. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. work (MU.

often the author of the original text PDWQ. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. 705). EI. work. compiler.v. mu¦annif – author. II. VII. as opposed to musnad (q. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. 39.) (SL. 662663.

(CI. xi). 625-626). I. art. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). abbrev. E\ $E +LO O. craft (EI. IX. duction by artisans.

 .

correctness. TP. 56) 3. ME. I. 268) 4. example (JA. taÁZ E t) – correction. mu¦awwir – painter. comp. DH. **** LI Ì. painted illustration (EI. microfilming. preservation (DM). exact copy. 143. MU. 57).  LE E. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. ¨ ¦awn. illustrator (PA. 889892 and X. copy.141: ‘portraitiste’). aÁwinah) – case. 361. ¦ UDK (pl. Áuwar) 1. taÁ¨ ¨. pt. 225. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. 136. EI. XVI. transcript (e. comp. 121. 559). ta¦Z U 1. 361-363) 2. apograph (TP.2. „abbah (pl. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. XV. ¦LZ Q (pl. box (NT. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. no. ta¦Z E (pl.212).GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. IX.g. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. miniature painting (MU. X.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

 DEEUHY 73  AR. 57. thus (TP. a  E U. 95-96).64. n. 57. also known as WDPU „. MH. MH. sic. 95-96). ta„E E. 30) 2. i„barah (pl. marking the word with a  abbah (TP.

quire . 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. a number of leaves or sheets put together. „LE UDK 1. IV. bundle of documents (IK. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd.. KM. a„barah. sifr 13.

specialist in  abÃ. binding (IB..   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). TK. AG. 19. 5) 3.120a-b). 112) 4.177). 13.16. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. 29. 11) 2.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. n. 12. AG. (pair of) dividers (TS. 16. II.) . 18. collation (of quires) (TS. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . f. textblock (TS.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . 107) 3. „ EL¨ 1. 18. 26. IB. 107. AG. 97) 2. ST. orthographer (MH. album (FT.) . 44.  DZ ELÃ) – compass. 388). index. (pl.  XU E. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. ta„E U 1. 17.

small tool (resembling a drum stick. – cancellation. a U V  XU V. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. 109) 2. AG. 59). 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. „irs (pl. II. erasure (MF. 62). KF. mallet (LF. 11. mi„rabah 1. stalk?) (TS.

a Ñ I. 12. interlace (TS. 32-33. also TS. 109-110). „i¶f (pl. AG. AG.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. 109) 2.

 ta„¶ I (pl. ta  Ñ I.

. 1792. – space between lines. II. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // .  /& . XVII. MU. interline (LL.

 .

406). e. AG.g. 11. 413) 2. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. 44. plait. AG. III. 12. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. ‘eye’ (of a letter). interlaced (FZ. Á G à Р. 44). „DI UDK (pl. 217). „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. 110). „awµ (pl. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. polygon. a Z Ð) – counter. ma„I U – plaited. 33. (SA.  DI Ðir) 1. 45). 107).GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. 30. interlace (TF. passim). braid (FT. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. 32.

76   $* .

96). mi¨ba¶ 1. ÃDZ ELÑ ). signet. ¨ EL¶. seal. stamp (IK.medallion) (HT.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). lin.  ODUJH stamp (for a center. . comp. ¨ ED¶ (pl.

90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl. aÃE T ÃLE T.

roll (AJ. WS. 144.  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. .

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). comp.

center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. 979) 5. (KU. 83. DB. 2019) 4. III. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK .5 . 154. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. tirs. sarwah) (JL.

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

abbrev. IA. margin (LC. 107. 102). edge. AG. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. 60). AD. leaves (of paper) (NH. AG. audition note (EI.7. 21. I. ¨LE T – large sheets. 1020. VIII. 113. TK. . marginal note. 109) 2. Taf.120a) 4. ¨urrah (pl. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. turn-in (TS. 73  Q $. f. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). marginalia. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). border (on a book cover) (TS. Ãurar) 1. 110) 3. 28. MZ. 372). gloss.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

SD. II. ML. SA. 29) 6. address (ÑXQZ Q. 313. 58. margin (TP. VI. 46.

58. 16). ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. ta¨U U – glossing. f. annotation (WA. palmette (LC. illuminated headpiece (LC. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. annotated (WA. 57. 682. 689).120a. HT. 28) 13. f. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER.67). 16). ansa. lin. KH. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. comp. Ãughrá 7. tailpiece (LC. 28) 8. X.85). 36) 12. mu¨arrar – glossed. 28. 28) 9. 28) 11. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. IV. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. 28) 10. n.120a). TP. .

draftsman (AB. celui qui fait le tracé initial. 101. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. composition’). person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. ¨DUU Œ 1. 133). 118. 141: ‘dessinateur. manuscript restorer. sketcher. outline (HD. MB. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. PA. 69. 159: ‘dessin. ¨irs (pl. ta¨U Œ – sketch. ÃXU ¨). PA. 118. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. 132. 103). ÃXU V DÃU V. HD. Ãar¨’) 2. 61.

75-76. 63-64.  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. II. 93. EI. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU . 1840). VIII. comp. 408. IK. IW. LL.

et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. LF. III. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 8. ta¨U V – obliteration.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . 140. BA. sifr 13. ¨araf (pl. 371). pour s’en servir encore une fois’).EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. IV. aÃU I. HJ µ.

31. 109). ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. 107. 15. . – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. AG. 57. AG. 107). AG. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. IA. 166. 11. hammer (TS. 38. 87). TH. 11. 30. mi¨raqah – mallet. 60).

ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. ¨XJKU µ (pl. à ¨ughrá. AG. 109).) 2. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. 28). IV.v. 406). ta¨¶ P – inlay. X. sifr 13. headpiece (LC. 28) 4. 595-598) 3. (MU. erasure (KM. FT. X. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. inlay work (AB. 134. 11. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI.

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 92. 145. UK. 483). ¨alŒ. ÃDO ¨ \. 83). II. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. AJ. leaf (of paper) (TS. ¨alaŒ – sheet. 147. 52). WS. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. SD. I. 27.

roll (WS. 52). . II. – sheet (of paper from the mould). 87: al-darj. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). SD.

¨alsah. ¨ilsim. LL. IV. II. ¨ilsim (etc.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . ta¨O V – obliteration.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih).) (pl. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. Ãirs. 373: ¨ulsah). comp. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. thus differing from Ãirs’). 82. 373: ¨als. syn.0 . ÃDO VLP. sifr 13. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. ¨ilsam. NH. 63. erasure (ND. NH.

ascender (of a letter). al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. 258). ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. 11. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). headpiece (TW. 56). tion of words (EI. WB. 500-502). X. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. beginning of the text.) (KH.v. ¨ OL¶ (pl. iÁE Ñ (q. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. incipit (WA. – talisman. naÌDUD ZDTDID.

/&  26 .

SA. 29: ‘common. III. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. 144. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . popular class of scripts’). FRPS WDTU Ì. III. RN. . MJ. al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. 59. naÌar. 224).

DG. coating. 278.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. pasting (MB. gilding (SD. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. erasure (JA. daubing. II. of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. obliteration. 136). II. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. gilt and the like (MB. KD. ‘eyes’. ¨ams 1. 110). I. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. passim) 2. 58.

144). -47. KH. 6$ . 36. IR. AS.. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. 242..

36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). a¨Q E (sg.

a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. ¨ TDK 1. 61). 111. xviii). / / / (CI. Áilah. AG. 120b) 2. . a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). rule-border (LC. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. sheet (piece. 62. TK. layer) of paper (TS. IA. unabridged work. rules. 32. 109. AG. 35. IA. cartouche (LC. f. 26). MB. comp. 26) 2. 110). 157. MB. abbrev. 135) 3. mu¨awwal – original. strand (UK. musta¨ O 1. 107. I. 17. rectangular panel (AB. ¨DZ O – long. 31. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS.

GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .%  $-  .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U..

 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. sifr 13. KM.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. IV. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK.

 (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. ÃDZ P U. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. 49-57). mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). 11. III. It was written with a reed pen. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. 12). ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

abbrev. person. f. . – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK.120a).  0.

206. misk) (e. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. musta¨ E DK. 212).g. MJ.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. 18).g. 3. CI. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e. II. CM.

182). ÌXU I. **** „arf (pl. AH. inset (EM. WKDU KX – requiescat. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. 98.

 UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ . ..

LL. ME. . II. 1910.  FDVH ER[ /& 29. 575).

al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS.).v. al-„afar. „ufr (pl. aÌI U. 495). II.

– outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. ta„O O (lit. no. 29). usually the thumbnail) (TM. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails.3. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). ‘shading’) – outlining. outline (KJ.

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

64. CI. back of a document. abbrev. II. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. 29). 57. 29. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. 285). „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). placed in the margin. verso. „DKU \DK 1. xv. n. baÃn. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. 29). (TP. – conjecture. GA. comp. „ahr – back. blank reverse of a letter (LC. I. SL. hair side (of parchment). front of the textblock (LC. 59) 2.

88. 109). . presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture. „ KLU (lit.  IO\-leaf (SD. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. obvious. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. I. abbrev. II. comp. AG.Oá). evident’. 11. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. ‘alleged. 8 and II.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . ‘external. first page(s) of the textblock (KF. ME.

 .

AJ. 80-82). WS.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. aÑM ]. ¶ajz. MP. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. 148-149. ¶ajuz (pl. 40. 147.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

52. 21-22.P P DO-0DKG .14).  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. TP. n. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. V.

diacritical point 3. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh).. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. . 26). DEEUHY MI. 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. 146. RA. III. vocalization (KM. IV..  (. sifr 13. treatise. . mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' .

i¶M P WD¶M P 1. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. . 90. 57). diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. ¶ajm. pointed letters (TP. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. SA.

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

taÑ U M. (pl.

¶arsh (pl. – curve. III. ÑXU VK.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). curvature (of the descender) (SA. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. 30).

al-sa¨r – base line (TW. 230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U.

trellis (FT.9. TP. ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. mu¶ UL„ – collator. SA.. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . 45). ¶ar„(ah). 218. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). 423) 2. 464. MH. KU.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. 136). 45). taÑ U T. II. ¶LU „(ah). reciter (CT. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. lattice-work (AB. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK..  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. 56. 25. JA. III. 202). SA. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . I. 29). LC. abbrev.

KU. 50. 11. 40. 37. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. KH. 22. III. SA. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. 36.

¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. 11). FRPS PXÑaqqaf. .U T see mu¨aqqaq. (al-kha¨¨) al-¶.

Ñuran) – thong.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. 110. AG. KT. 34. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. 25.. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ ..

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

I. ¶ashr (pl. aÑVK U. DEEUHY / (CI. xiii).

ÑDZ VKLU. ¶ VKLUDK (pl.

  6' .7  // . .  8. ¶ VKLU \DK – mark.. decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   ..

dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. ta¶VK U 1. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM).

stamp with vegetal design (TS. AG. 116: gha  UDK .7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . ¶ushar 1. ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 11. 108. 109). 109). 109) 2. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. AG.

IB. 134). also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. mi¶¦arah (pl. . IK. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 154. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. 42). 155. SD. 154). ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. 84). maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. 154-155. II.

lin. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. caret (MR. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB.130) 2. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . signe de renvoi). curved line (used as a reference mark.

35. 145. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. 36. introd. abbrev. / / / (AR. MI. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. 147. connection. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. AM.).  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. 37) 4.

al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. TM. 176. MR. 93. 00 132. TP. 54).

gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. 2091). 83. LL. margin (ST. index. ¨ibr) (MP. ST. ¶af¦ – galls. 16. 19). ¶LI ¦ – plug. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . 17. II. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK.

vox reclamans (TN. catchword. aÑT E. ta¶T EDK 1. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  .+  10  SJ. 344). ¶aqib (pl. comment (LC. ¶aqb. 27) 2. note.

knot-like tool (TS. AG. counter. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. KH. – end of the text (matn) on a page. 58. 11. 109). Ñuqad) 1. lower ¶uqdah (pl. III. 46. 47. 36) 2. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. .

126).GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. taÑU T ¶allahu. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. comp. ‘perhaps. 37). la¶allahu (lit.

 WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0. .

WS. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB. 90. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.Q DO-ÑLO M.

 FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. writing. script. copy. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . 124). transcript (AD. composition. transcription. 15) 2. ligature (KU. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. copying (TE.9 . 119) 3.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

 .) . .

107) (pl. taÑ O T WDÑO T W. abbrev.  (MI.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.

mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. II. 165) 6. 27. 15. MU. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. explication (TE. LC. – marginal gloss. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. X. scholium. IV. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. 694-696) 2. ER. name often given. in the Turkish/Arabic context. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. 26).v. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. 162).). comment. IV. 71. EI. 1124. IX.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

 . al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . 28.. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. AG. 26. also TS.. al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. 77). FRPS U MLÑ. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. 104). III.

 mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. III. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . 371.

aÑO P. ¶alam (pl.

– decorated border (LL. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. 27) 2. 352) 4. signature (SD. marking. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. marking quires before sewing (ST. XII. book mark (e. mark. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. motto. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. index. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. II. signing a document (AA. 22). II. I.g. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. ta¶O P 1. 381). 164). 164. II. 135. TS. 18) 2. ¶DO PDK – 1. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. SD. EI. 2140). ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. autograph (LC. to mark centers of quires when rebinding.

ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ. 100).¶  0. no.DUEDO Ð) (CM. al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .HUEHOD .39).

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

372). a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. abbrev. III. . ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA.

aÑP O. ¶amal (pl.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. II. 2153: ‘text of the book’). al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah.

256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ. VII.  FRPSRVition. compilation (MU.

 FRPS ÁanÑah 2. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. comp. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. VII. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. taÑZ U 2. writing.). 257-258). etc. laà I DO-Ñamal. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. SA. 47-48.v. colouring. painting. EI. main work of a painter (PA. used in opposition to Ãar¨. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. cryptogram.e. q. chronosticon (TI. (SJ. i. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. 229. 30) 3. ta¶miyah 1. TC. 123). IX.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

ÑDQ Z Q. 260-261). 16. ¶XQZ Q (pl. 110. SL. EI. (MW. VII. PK. I. 211.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

tarjamah 2. X. 29. 29. EI. 871-872) 3. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. X. section heading (LC. PA. EI. EI. . 2183). X. 29). 36. 66. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. 870). 870-871) 4. title (of a book) (LC. II. chapter. 116. comp.

hence mu¶awwaj – crooked.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. VWURNH. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah. 200-203). curved (of a line. I. i¶ZLM M – curvature.

I. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus).g. collation session (MF. X. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. e. . IN. 74). ta¶awwudh. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. repetitor (EI. 13. UD. 12. taÑ Z GK. 726). VII.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. 14). 7). isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. collation master. 230).

¶ P (pl. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. 123-124). ‘eyes’. 114. 69). aÑZ P. comp. of letters) (AP. amulet (DT. KU. 95. Ãams. – talisman.

sanah. VI. – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. comp. 252-253). comp. . Ñuqdah. ¶ayn (pl. LM. 43). 194. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ.

145. II. VI.18) 2. sizing (of paper) (AB. ghubrah – mixture of white. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). 32-34. HT. 199). North Africa. aghriyah) – paste. 88. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. 74).60-72. 19-23. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. MP. 90. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. index. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. 250). ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. 141. 97. NW. 12-13. IK. 47). IB. pasting (ST. EI. NW. lin.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. 97. adhesive (TS. 37. IV. VI. 42. NW. MB. 37. taghriyah 1. 73). 41. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. DW. 1124). MB. VI. 47. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. 58-63. red and black colours (SD. AG. MP. MP. IB. 233. 74. n. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. 145). OD. 250).GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. 45-47). also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. rasm al-JKXE U. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. JM. AS. 107. IB. 244). JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. 141.

 FRPS .IU T  .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

ME. case. II. 35. JKLVK µ (pl. book cover. 36. binding (TS. box (SD. passim). mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. 214. 554. JKD] O see jild. covering of the board. aghshiyah) 1. KC. 564) 2.

71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. III. pl.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. CD. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah.

 ODVW SDJH V.

taghshiyah – book covering.. I. binding (IN. I.) . RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. 473). 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK . LVWLJKI U DK. 257).

..  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' . 217) 2.  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ .

a word) (MI. 192). ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters).  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). mistake. bold character. . 150). OHWWHU 6. abbrev. WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). ghal¨ah – error. ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„.

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

binding (FZ. mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 213. JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. – book cover (MD. WDJKO I – book covering. 132). AB. 214. 108). 157).

128).Ñuqdah..  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal).). **** I I U – papyrus (EI. 261). comp. also iftit Œ.v. – WDLOSLHFH . 46. 47. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. 114. SA. III. VIII.) .

proem (MU. LQFLSLW 08 . preface. XV. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& .. LC.9. prologue.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. 23) 2.

LC. headpiece (KF.  KHDGLQJ (e. II. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar.g. 23) 4.

62. IA.18. 104. TS. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. AG. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. VI. IA. IDW ODK 1. press screw (MB. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. 245). 109) 2. . 59).

comp. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. 249). leaf (of paper) (SA. SD. II. 189. VI.

v. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. – one of a pair. LIU G – letter in its isolated. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). 28). conjugate leaf.). as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. one half of a piece of leather (TS. WDUN E TY.

6$ ... .

MY. IR.v. 390). shaqq (q. fur„ah (pl. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. III. 481. DD. II. AT. 133. I.) (KU. 230. 83). 154). 60.g. far„ al-qalam – syn. SA.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

// .. .

index. annotation (TM. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. 23) 2. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK . also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. most probably a variant of PLTU „. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. apograph. LC. mifra¨ – cutter (ST. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. note.18). witness (MR.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

scroll (FI. application as opposed to theory.v. q. 15. aÁl. JL.) (UD. 131). 93. (AD.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. 88. argument resulting from a legal point. SM. KR. abbrev. 269) 4. IDU JK SO IDU JK W. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. 87. 82).

 DOVR WDIU JK (MO. 41) – end. execution. completion. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.

26. lacuna (LC. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . 23). farkah (MN. GA. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2.+  /0 . 289) 3. 23. also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. blank.

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

1. explication. comment. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. 83). SA. from Greek into Arabic (EI. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. X. 351. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. 55. 23.5 . disc. III. mufassir – commentator. AK.g. three dots. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). paragraph mark (TP. commentary and/or translation. fa¦¦ (pl. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . e. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. MS. LC. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams.

 .

fuÁ O.110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl.

spacing (TP. word division (in a text). 138. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. 134. . 55. 145-146) 2. space between words or passages. taf¦ O 1. SA. MM. III.

271). comp.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. silver-based ink (UK. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. 130-133. or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. TP. n.. 92. 37. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ ..20). MB. MP. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 53.  FKDSWHU 6' II. 33).

SD. abbrev. 351). xiii. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). II. comp. fiqrah (pl. section of a text. fiqar) – passage. I. DM). RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. 23. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. 273. AK. paragraph (LC.

BA. III. – book cover (HN. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. 385.

 FRPS VKLGT .

IDQ T (pl. mufakkak – loose. 45). al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). fihrist (pl IDK ULV. box (KC. disbound (e. fihris. funuq) – case.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N.g.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

(CA. also I µidat al-a¦l. list. 50). EI. comp. 743-744) 4. marginal note. 49. bibliography. nota bene (notabilia). 149. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. 293) 2. mashyakhah 2. abbrev. LC. II. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. 36). catalogue (SD. abbrev. record of attested study. fahrasah 1. II. 286. 207.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. II. 23. AR. RU &0  RU 66. gloss. cataloguing.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. . Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem).VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. Qubbat al-. 15). 107). 76  AG. WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS.

qub¨al. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah.‘grave’) – pen box (EI.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. lit. qabr. straightedge (TS. 471). IV. 107. 302). SD. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. qabla – before. abbrev. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. II. . AG.

EI. comp. 490492). II.52. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. corrector. muÑ UD ah 2. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. VII. collation note (statement). MH.TP. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. PXT ELO – collator. n. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. 56.

24. qaÃÃ. 11. abbrev. 10. 54.xiii. FRPS ] Ðidah. aqudd) – strip (of leather). WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. comp. 18. . CI. II. 701. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. etc. II. AG.37. I. 109). xiv). qidd (pl. / / / / / (TP. AA. n. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. 107). CI.

17. also TS. 173). 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. AG. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. preface. 26. fore-edge flap (TS. muqaddimah – forward. 107). 120. abbrev.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. 495-496). TP. VII. 52. comp. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. MI. introduction (EI. 59. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words).

TLU µah 1. commentary (AD. recitation (LC. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 9 -129) 3. reciter. prelector. variant reading (varia lectio). manner of recitation. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. 139). gloss. 26) 2. collection of glosses. reading. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. – marginal note.

  73 . $/ .

 FRPS ¨arf. FRPS VDP Ñ. 53. II. n. KF. TP. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. 494-498).25.g.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

36. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. sleeve case (TS. TLU E (pl. 104. 466) 2. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. AG. aqribah) 1. SA. 35-36. . sheath (SK. AG. II. 36. 110). 110). 110). AG.

44. 417). 47). 21. 60). 107. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. QS.19. index. IK. 107. sifr 13. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 94). elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. 91-92. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. putting something into a press (ST. IV. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. IK. IB. IB. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. ST. 18. screw press (MB. IA. compact writing (KM. AG. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. 19. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. MP. 20). index. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. index. 63). qar¦a¶ah – fine. MP. II. 10. 19. 59). 103: PLTU   (!). AG. 63. 44). ST.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

108. II. 82-91). – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. I. AE. WS. 261. AE. 66-93. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. VIII. 173-174. EI. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). 66-76. 407) or paper (SA. 50. comp. IW. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. VIII. 17). V. EI. parchment (AE. UD. 98. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK.

. often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

XIV.GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. 335- WDTU   W .

  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL.  qarmadah. %/ $0 QRV     122. 143. compact writing (KM. qarma¨ah – fine. 186). 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. comp. 313). 182. sifr 13. muà ODÑah. IV. 136.

181. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. qurnah – corner (MB. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. 80). IV. 682. . al-qurnah al-yusrá). 103. see also UA. EI. HT. 59. 60. index. 41). IK. qirmah see VL\ T. EI. 153. 393: not defined). (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. trimming (ST. 42. IV. JM. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. MB. reed pen (IK. AA. 69). DS. 146. qa¦ab(ah) – reed.19. miqsam(ah) (lit. qa¦¦. IA. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. IB. 86.

116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. miqaÃÃ. 130. comp. qa„ P DK. 153). 154). qa¦amah. MP. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. 86). 32). qa„m – syn. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. tin-based ink (UK.

– white hide.) breadthwise (KD. 72-74. II. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. 102. IK. 153. LM. sifr 4. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. 109-110. 50. nibbing. KK. KU. 93). KM. the point itself.. AA. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . 2-463. leather (IW. cutting (of leather. etc. I.

having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. I. longer than the left’. 462. II. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. i. LL.e. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. LM. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM.

II. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. ivory. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. 154). 217). al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. straight point of the nib (SA. 1742. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. 217). . II. MJ. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 462). 2996. II. MJ.

GLOSSARY 117 etc. 468. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. 65. SK. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. qaÃÑ al-thumn. 105: maqaÃÃ. qa¨¶ (pl. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. 133). II. IV. MB. 45. ND. LS. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. AT. MK. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. IP.742. MM. SA. 62. 76. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. 54. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn.

piece of calligraphy. 110). . 475). calligraph (AC. decoupage (ER. piece of something (e. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’.  irs (AG. VI. qi¨¶ah 1. piece of poetry) 2. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting.g. principle of the interlace.

91). VI. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. AG. (pair of) scissors (IK. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. .  (5 9. papercut(s). 11.  +'   T ÃiÑ. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. muqaÃÃa¶ ). SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. filigree work (IP. format (of a book) (TL. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah.. PA. cutting instrument (DM) 2. 475). WS. mishraÃ. 107). taq¨ ¶ 1. collage. 21) 2. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. 90) 4. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. 9. 144. decoupage. comp.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

abbrev.  26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

– clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. 377). .

AG. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. 107. taqfiyah – backing (TS. 15. index. 15. 15. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. ST. 107). 20). AG. 107). 107). flat back (TS. comp. al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. 14. qalb. AG. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. 15-17. 641). AG.

  .  PRXOG 8.

LC. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 14. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U.19. MK. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS.3. 26. index. ST. no. 26.

214. 88. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. 43). 93) 4. folder (IB. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. JL. FI. 59. FZ. miqlab SO PDT OLE.

7XUN PLNOHE.

qalam SO DTO P TLO P. – envelope flap (MT. DW. 26). TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. 202-203). WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. 83. 68).

  76 ..  SLHFH RI ZRRG .

 calamus. II. 44-465. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". KU. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK.e. copper pen. reed pen. see TW. 13 (AA. also qalam al-qa¦ab. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. TC. IK. i. 45-87. 232. SA.

al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . UK. handwriting. 100). 471) 3. AT.. script. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. 71-75. IV. 133-134. MB. 144. -50. ductus. EI. hand. . 356. 59-64. 38-39. MB. MP.

see khaÃÃ. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. used in talismans and amulets (IT. muqawwar. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. 335). an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. 11-12). I.

85). DO-mu¨aqqaq. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. 144). Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. IK. 153. al-thuluth. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. 145). al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU.

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

.  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah.$  Q.  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  . . SA.  $. ..

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

85). II. 2565). qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. 49-51. 11. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. AG. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. KR. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. 43. II. 109). trimming (a reed). . I. 43. WDTO P – paring. 79). qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). chest (LL.

WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. 11. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. 144). muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. comp. III.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. AS. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. 37). as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . 144).

 qawl SO DTZ O.

II. treatise. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. 154. MU. passage. 190. 238). xiv. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. XII. short composition. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. MI. PDT ODK 1. tract 2. – quotation. TP. 155.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

 FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. 83. KF. 190. III. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. folio (folium) (MK. 327. 377. 86. I. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. KF. 283. 82. DF. I.

PXVWDT P – upright. . mDEV Ã. 22). rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e.g. RN. comp. erect. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

– HQGSDSHU 8.U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 .  DPP DO-Ñ.

qayd SO TX\ G. al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq.

  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. – note. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. composition (TE. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' .. statement. 17. committing something to writing.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. 113.  tying. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. III. binding. . IA. IK.. 62) 4.

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

glossator (AM. 153. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136).187). 43). 27). gloss (LC. N JKL¨. – marginal note. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. muqayyid 1. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. author 2. no. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. IB.

136). WS. 77) – paper (EI. . 77-85). etc. waraq. al-kalŒ . SO NDZ JK Ã. IV. al-N JKDG DO-. see waraq. comp. al-5 P .VO P . leaf (of paper) (AJ. 98-105. AE. 419-420. N JKLGDK – sheet. WS.

136. as in the beginning of w Z. kubbah (pl. in papermaking) (OM).122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. munkabb – inclined. 85-86). ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. kubab) – ball (of fibre. WS. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. 374).

8'  /0 .

43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. 416). makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. TH.) (US. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. q. II. mikbas. KL. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . SD. CM. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. WDNE V – pressing (QS. II. 49-53. mun¨anin.v. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. AG. Ranunculus asiaticus. kitbah (MH.) 2. 91. 40. 393). UA. katb. 169). 416. II.107. 440. comp. TS. NDE NDM 1.

transcription. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . NLW E NLW EDK – writing. copying. composition.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

CT. 45: ‘hence katabah. +. Turkish ketebehü. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. NI.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK.

fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. comp. 180). IV. amanuensis (EI.  VHFUetary. . mu¨arrir. scrivener 2. 554-760). scribe.

KD. chapter in a book (SL. NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. IV. 384).115). tail (of a book or document) 2. EI. I.) . document. 23. spine (of a codex) (HT. V. 53. 388: mukattab). wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. letter. lin. NH. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). codex (MA.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. maktabah – library (EI. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. book. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . IK. PDNW E SO PDNW E W. 197-200). archetype.. II. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. maktab – place designated for writing. 207-208). 86). VI. 705. piece of writing. copying (KK. booklet.

Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. 4. calligraph (DP. 705). IV. mukattib (e. II. KD. KM. 53). sifr 13. 51. master calligrapher (KK. – piece of calligraphy. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. muktib.g.

.  26 . .9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .0 .

391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). 414) 2.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. 230). 187). mukŒul – kohl container (UA. IR. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. pointing (of a wall) (FT. outline (of letters) (DH. mikŒ O see mirwad. no. kuŒl – antimony. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). NDWK U µ – tragacanth. takŒ O 1. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. kohl. outlining. 393. I.

comp. misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. 68).

OLQHV LQ .

142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK.

110: tak¨ O DO- irs. 12. 33. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. AG.

  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). 154. 0. 42). abbrev. NDGK – thus. sic. IB. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 .

 WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI.g. ditto- NXUU V DK. 162). TM. takarrur – graphic error. dittography (e. 184). 48. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). WLNU U.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

CI. AG. 700). SK. 14. 100. x.  . 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. quire (gathering).  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . 60). 468-471. 132). II. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. KU. 107) 2.92).0 . IK. 131. KD. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. AA. TS. 48. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. 60). . kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. comp. 84. passim. lin. II. reading stand (MD. NXUV – book cradle. SA. II. TS. II. ra¨l. SL. abbrev.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

- QR  . .

 FRPS WDUZ V NDU P.P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE. mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af. QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH .

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

miksar SO PDN VLU. kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. 363).

NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . knife (for making erasures) (IR. I. 274. 128). IR. 391). al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). 58). TP. DD. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. of bashr (LF. syn. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 79. 137. 389. NH.

kuÑ E.126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl.

109. AJ. flat back (MB. 84. kaff(ah). 92. FT. NXQQ VK DK. 145. AB. passim. 977. 95. 90). WDNI W – inlaying. JL. main de papier). WS. 109). rizmah. 97. 92. II. 39. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. comp. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. 61. DM). inlay (SA. 94). dast. 109). al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. IA. DE. usually 25 sheets (PT. 82). 406). tongs (MB. 442. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. KR. – spine (back of a codex) (MB.

SO NDQ Q VK.

. HB. – 1. commonplace book (LC. 25.

 kunyah (pl. V. mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. 395-396). al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb).

IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-. originally and properly speaking. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI .GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. I 1. I .

±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV. MV.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. OD). 8-9. AV.g. comp. 363. FN. 11-13. 27ff.

76  $*  86 .

WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. 145. 114. SA. paint (UK. JM. 478). laŒaq (pl. 85). MP. 119. azure ink. 139). ultramarine. II. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 27. al¨ T OL¨ T. 29.

insertion (TP. mulŒaq – omission. . ilŒ T.

. II. OL] T – paste. 42).128 GLOSSARY  . 703). LC. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. 279). 154.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. IB. comp.14). 185. I. adhesive (KD. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK. TM. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. 24. JA.

II.169. 481. II. IR. SA. 14. 133.24. WA. DD. malzamah SO PDO ]LP.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). SA. book cradle (TW. 15. n. 390) 3. 107. 481) 2. copyist’s book support. 230. AG. I.  76  11. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT.

 TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. abbrev. where each gathering is numbered separately). /&  /( .

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

119. index. $'  /( 137) 3. 90. OLV Q (pl.109. 132). MM. HT. JL. 13. 20. ST. 25. 25). alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. LC. lin. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ.

 .

167. II. or (MI. IR. malediction. passim). mulaffaq. 26). al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. 145. spool (DS.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. abbrev. I. 181. lin. OL] T la¶nah – curse. wrapper (DM). DM). alÁiqah) – paste.166). the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . 530). lafŒ – tooling. 230) 2. adhesive (SA. II. 131. stamping (HT. laqab SO DOT E. DD. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. SD. 480. milaff 1. comp. RA. 391.

V. honorific title (EI. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. inlay (FT. pincers. – nickname. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. DD. 109) 2. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). tweezers (MB. . 406). (pair of ) tongs. I. WDOT P – inlaying. 618-631).

lakk RU O N '* . 11. 49). stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. LM.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. lak.

109). law¨ W.). lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. q. AG. ODPP ¶ – glossy. burnished (e.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. varnish (AB. lamq – elegant writing.v. glazed. comp. lacquer.g. 16). 140). namq. copying (TE. 11.

lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. panel (in decoration). lin. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. 402). al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. head. 29. 31) 6. (Turk. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. 5) 5.or tailpiece) (LC.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. gloss (DM). 142-143. 11. 25. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. MS. II. .123. usually framed). 24. HT. OM) 4. wooden board (TS. pasteboard (ST. MB. 124) 3. illuminator (HD. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. 58-59) 2. headpiece (FT. 99. 125).

156.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. AG. oval figure 2. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. 109. IA. 31. MB.). see also nuqÃah) 3. also known as sarwah (q. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf.v. 11. 105. IB. mandorla 4. central medallion (on a book cover). PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. TS. raÐs al-lawzah. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. 38). 44. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). 59.

MJ. – spatula. 133. 478. IR. 45. IB. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. 230. II. 208). lawn SO DOZ Q. AT.

148. JA.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. V. AI. . 698-707. – colour. tint (EI. pigment.

86. see also the quotation under sha¨m). polychrome illumination (WA. IK. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. 27) 2. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. 11. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. WDO\ ¨ 1. tinting (of paper). shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. WDOZ Q 1. LC. III.

O TDK (pl. 26-29. 370). II. liyaq) 1. n. 702. UK. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. 160) 3. tint (AD. colour. 26-29. MB. 79-84. tuft of unspun silk. paper pulp (OM). 55. 393) tow (wad. MJ. MP. index. 13. 20. III. MP. 133). IK. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. II. 203) 2.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. 84. also PLO T (UA. . BA. coloured ink (SA. AT. 477-478. 111-119.

700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 . 370) – compartment for ink (KD. amliqah) 1. II. III.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. also PLO TDK (BA.

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

%$ . ...

38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. KH. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. 144.

muqawwar. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. comp. such as al-thuluth. muraÃÃab. **** matn SO PXW Q.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

1. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). EI. VI. V. II. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . text-column (MU. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. 843) 2.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

¨ VKL\DK. shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary.

222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. Œard al-matn (HN. TP. LC. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. II. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. IX. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. 24. (qalam) al-matn. EI. P WLQ – author of the original composition. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. 53). 1. . 214. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. 568). 25). MD. SD. 843) 4. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. 109. VI.

blind tooling.v. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. 55. MP. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. EI. ¨ibr. SA. MB. 21. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. apograph (CD. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. 238). 36-37). LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. 134-135. 79-90.52. JL. 371). obliteration (by means of a cloth.) . 13. PLG G (pl. 138-140.) . 67-71. process of softening leather (making it flexible. khirqah. erasure. 15-18. 121-122. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. MJ. 216). tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. index. 38. maŒw – ink removal. comp.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). VI. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. 58. IV. KH. IV. UK. 90). comp. tamŒ ¨ 1. maŒ UDK (q. comp. n. III. 471-477. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. AT.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). II. 38. MP. pl. amthilah) – copy. ink (in general) (SK. UK. TP. 86. or licking) (TP.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. transcript. AE. 89). 1031). amiddah) – soot ink. 127-131. 79: dalk) 2. .  madd. MJ. ¨aÃÃ. KR. BA. III.

SK. I  mudyah (madyah. mudan. pen knife (SA.5  . midan) – knife.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). midyah) (pl. 465-467. II. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. 103- 8$  . (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG .

WDPU „ see  abbah. FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

166. coarse haircloth. DD. I. IA. misŒ 1. . mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . 230. 60: misann almis¨) 2. wiping (MB. 391). SA. masŒ – rubbing. 114). 202). see shar¨. 133. 110. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. AT. sackcloth (DG. 481-482. II.

 FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð. .

16) 3. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( .I. 60. 55) 2. inelegant hand. SK. IR. 116-117. AA.. I. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. mashq 1.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . copying. mush¨ – comb (IA. 230).GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. scribbling (MM. transcription (TE. hasty. elongation (of letters) (JA.

134: ÑDQ . elegant. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. copying from a model (TE. calligraphic exercise. KK. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. calligraphic hand (CM. calligraphic model (AD. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. according to some opinions. IK. MY. 48. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. 151). fine elongation. 16. mashqah 1. 164) 6. 83) 5.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. fine elongated stroke (SK. for example. KT.’). 4.

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

 P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. 183). PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG.

'' . .

autograph (DM) 2. signature. signing. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1.

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

478). 107) 2. 60-61). VII. LC. TS. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. ex-dono. al-maghrah al-¶. II. AG. milk – ownership (OS. LC.). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . etc. 411). 11. Makkah (al-mukarramah. 390. 8). PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. al-musharrafah. 88. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. also malasah – burnisher. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. 25. 27). I  mimlasah 1. FRPS QDÌar 3. 107). EI. 11. AG. polisher (NH. plane-like instrument (TS. 31. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. ex-library. 88.

 SDVVLP :6 -13. work (known as al-DP O . I.  GLFWDWLRQ $. KF. 85-94) 2.

SL. famulus (AI. muhr – seal.VII. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. VII. GA. VII. 472-. passim. 48). 725-726. signet. II. passim. EI. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. stamp (EI. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). 725-726). mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk.

stamping (EI. . FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. 472-473). VII.

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

8-9. sheet. 50-52) 2. 105-106. IV. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. sheet. leaf (of paper) (SA. sifr 13. AE. WS. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. (IW. 472. II. 79-82. II. KM.

60. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. mawzah – burnisher. polisher (IA. 63).

– pen knife.$  maws. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] . trimmer (TW. UD. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK .

  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. 226. LC.  1+  '' . P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. V. 64). PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. 25). II.

coating. 442) 2. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. II. II. script) (UD. 45). gilt (SD). tilting (of a script). hence P µil – inclining. 403). FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. slanting (of the line. inlaying (SA. SA. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. . 12.

138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). sifr 13. copying (TE. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). remark (in the body of a composition). KM. JM. WDQE K – note. IV. 146. 16. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. nota bene. 40).

21. naŒt 1. trimming (of a reed) (IR. index. 36). IB. minjam – mallet (ST. UD. 43: P MDPDK). – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. paring. 232. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK.

etc. 482). ¨amdalah. 133-134.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. e. basmalah.g. copper-based ink (UK. I. MP. nuŒ V – copper. . (MG. 35).

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

95. 82). I. – anthology (EA. 384). munkhul – sieve (IR. muntakhib – compiler. 230. II. 94-95). narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. DM). 97. selector (DF. nasab SO DQV E. KR.

genealogy. tribe. – lineage. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. 53-56). ending in – (EI. pedigree (EI. nisbah (pl. 967-968). etc. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. VIII. VII. religious sect or school.

DO-PDQV E DK.

IV. 21). index. IV. sifr 13. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. transcription (TE. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. naskh 1. IV. 57) 2. ER. KK. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. naskh-ta¶O T). a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. 1127 (in Muslim India). (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. see khaÃÃ. KM. 1124 (in Persia). 1126 (in Turkey). 17. which according to the Mamluk tradition.5. 696-699). par excellence.

IV. 141. al-naskh al-mu¶W G. transcript.      $5  $. catalogue (AD. badal) 4. 26). IV. 128. LE. 1123. n. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. personal) nature (CI.  0. list. abbrev. CA. nuskhah (pl. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. comp. LM.171).140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. variant reading (varia lectio). 182.12) 2. 146. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. copy (EI. VIII. LM.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. pl.in Turkey. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. I. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . 36. 47. MZ. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. QDVNK 1. but erroneously. XVI. nusakh) 1. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. 123. version. 138. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 1127. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. II. xiv).in Muslim India). recension (MU. commonly. EI. al-makh¨ ¨ W. 89). al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. CM./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. I. CI. archetype (LC. CD.in Persia. 1125. xv. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. 149) 2. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ.

unicum. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. 26). archetype (LC. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. 26). Q VLNK SO QXVV NK.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

scribe (TE. 47). 348. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . muntasikh – copyist. passim). TW. 16. MA. 17. PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. WB.

. epistolography (EI. 1241-1244). e. letter-writing. LQVK µ – construction. no. layout (mise en page ) (FK.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. 9.g. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. . of letters. style or composition. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). III. documents or state papers. I.

94. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. I. 173. AI. nashr. 67). WDQVK U. 136). 278. IK. 134. I. TD. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

76   $*  .$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV.

230: minshaµah). MB. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. starch paste (made of sorghum. index. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. SA. 12. II. 390. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. 60. 480. IR. 50. 13. II. dhurah) (OM). PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). IB. I. starch paste (TS. 395). 21. 106. index. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). 133. I. minshafah – blotter (TD. AT. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. 136). . IA. 21). nashan – wheat starch. DD. ST. OM.

handle (SK. pallet-like tool (HT. 249.  . stroke. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn.. 240. the letter alif (IR. ni¦ E 1. 137).142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. 241.. straight line. . lin. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ .133.

49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. 156. 103. III. up-stroke (SA. 59) 3. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. IB. 47. 43. 59). IA. LM. 101.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. munta¦ib – ascender. MB. 11. UD.

ZM. III. 218.g. e. na„ar – study note. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). reading note. 43). 93. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. 217. 88. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. medallion. JL. FZ.

  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .) .

XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I. abbrev. FRPS PXà ODÑah. un„ur – ‘see’.

nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. curator.170).  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. 2812). comp. . no. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. shiÑr. versification. na„m. II.

sifr 13. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). 392). tanaqquŒ – correction. I. 230. 23). nafa¨ (sg. nafÃah) – pockets of air. MJ. no. IV.3. naqr – inscription. passim). II. AT. awling (MB. sifr 13. II. engraver (KM. epigraphy (KM. IR. 133. minfadh – punch. QDTT U – carver. 391: for sewing of quires). PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. nafdh – punching. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. awl (SA. 481. DD. IV. WDQT Œ. revision (KF. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. engraving (on stone).GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). 208. 5).

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

SA. 49. 471. sifr 13. IV. naqsh SO QXT VK. 84. IK. 5). 469. II. KM. – ink (KK.

tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. QLT VKDK 1. 29-32. epigraphy (FT. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. 400). IA. illumination (EI. comp. TS. 156. 105. engraving. painting. 931). MB. inscription. naqr 2. 63) 3. VII.

ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. IA. . 59).  0% 105.

engraver (KM. sifr 13. 159). 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. WDQT VK – writing. carver. 931-932). Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. 266). 5) 2. copying (FK.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. 141. illuminator (PA. VII. IV. III. designer. 155. miniature painter.

16-17) 2. haplography (TP. nuq¨ah (pl. 16-17. 58). KH. nuqaÃ. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. 38). III. SA. SA. TE. III. 160. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. naq¦. naq¨ 1. III. letter-pointing (TE. 151. haplographic error.

  T OD .EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.  GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.

HT. naql 1. 137. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. citing. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . translator. 33. transcription (MU. 16) 4. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. copying. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. figure. 12. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. IA. copyist. extract. numrah. TE. Q TLO (pl. abbrev. orthographer (LT.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. 16. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. quotation 3. AW. 68) 5. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). 368). translation. . 133. 218) 2. MB. nimrah – number. quoting. IA. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). XII. 105. naqalah) 1. calligrapher (TE. exact copy (apograph).

numbering. 45. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . 53. 16. 91). 53. KK. copying (TE.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. embellished writing. 62. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. AM. SK. namq WDQP T – elegant.

45. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC. NI.

compact writing (KM. AW. embellished writing. calligraph. II. namnamah 1. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. 38). IV. 237). 105) 2.1). 119. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). AA. 181. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). copying (SK. painted illustration (KF. WDQP O – compact writing. calligraphic composition (NI. 369. elegant. copying (KH. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. sifr 13. n.

al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. 43). IB. PXQ U – syn. index. 26. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah.v. having an open counter (ant. 22. 44).) (LM. of mufatta¨. – floral design. of maÃP V q. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . 69). IB.

86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. EI.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. III. KF. 498-450. II. 27).

700. II. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. 106. – inkwell (SK. IK. KD.

CI. SL. abbrev. / / / (for intahá) (MW. II. xi. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. 87. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. CI. 285). xiii. termination. II. I. GA. 110. LQWLK µ – end.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

.+   ID-NDWDED ODKX LQK ÐDQ I NKLU NLW E DO]DN K PLQKX.

36). hud hud SO KDG KLG. hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. **** DKG E (sg. hudb.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

. WDKGK E 1. 23). 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . ..  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). abridgement. epitome (EA.. I. correction. revision (DM) 2. LKG µ – dedication (FN.

72. 109.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. IA. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. I. 61). rounding (of the spine). abridger. compiler (SS. EI. 73) 2. backing (MB. 181. 483. 108) 2. muhall. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. MG. 69. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. X. WDKO O 1. epitomist. author.

VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9. .

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

 PDUJLQ ') ..   ..

 PDUJLQDO note. . gloss. /&  0. abbrev.

 K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ .  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn). 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK. annotation (TT. glossing. WDKP VK 1...

 .  PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $.

102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. annotated (TW. muhammash – glossed.

raÐV HJ 6$ . unpointed letters (TP. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. 244). MH. GL. 57. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP.. syn.. 90). K PDK – head (of a letter). al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah. 57. . 4. IR.  K PDW DO-alif).

making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. upper cover (TS.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. wajh(ah) 1. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS.. II. transcription in full.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah).. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. 31) 3. 31. wajh al-hirr (lit. 25. epitome (DM). 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . face. 25) 2. page (MU. ¶alá al-wajh – copying. 43-45). IV.

29. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK.Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 82). al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al. 6$ . MK. 109)... wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. -92).

IV. 218). MK. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. KK. 82). 464. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. KM. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. 29. waŒVK see sinn. 5. sifr 13. SA. II. waŒy – writing. MJ. 53). .

lobed medallion (DH. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. no. no. 95. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH.73).GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. waraq SO DZU T.73). al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. DA).

KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-. -195. 85-.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. WS.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

leaf. waraqah 1.  $5  . abbrev. folio (folium). parchment or leather) 2. piece (of paper.

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 11. 25). 109). 29). AG. khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. (TS.

85). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. I. DO-.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM.

al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. 31). European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. I. 77) 2. French paper (PT. 378). DO-5 P 1. 75.

. Tre Lune) (PT. 193. 30. OM). paper bearing an imitation watermark. 31). DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. VI. SA. waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark.

150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O. 32).

380). 35. 487. 104) 2. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . pasteboard (JL. – glazed paper (PT. MD. 87. 107. cardboard (FT. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. II. 394). SA. 84). JL. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. 32. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. 88. WS. WS. MS. 82).

index. JL. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. I. IK. FI. 65). II. I. – marbled paper (DM. II. 22. 558-561). professional copyist. copying. 16. 148) 2. MP. transcription (WS. 81. 87. MN. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. 380). al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. 93. 9. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. WDZU T 1. IV. WS. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. 22. 28. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. EI. 161). 14. 82. stationer. bookbinder (QS. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. maysam SO PD\ VLP. foliated arabesque design (ST. 495). KF. 94). WR. index. IB. LC. 88. scribe (SL. bookseller. 69. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir).

– tool. 135). mawsim SO PDZ VLP. stamp (AB.

For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e.g. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. 22. festival. – feast. MP. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . CI. index. 10). washŒ – decorating. II. 65).

stamping (of leather) (HT. 186) 2. lin. . writing. also WDZVK P – tooling. 93) 3.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1.125. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. drawing (AD.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

126). UK. wi¦l. wa¦l. 18. – pattern (created by tooling). washy. stamp (HT. lin. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. wu¦l (pl. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). awÁ O ZDÁO W.

vox reclamans (NM. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. VI. darj). 234. 812. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. 10. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . 90). HB. collema (kollema) (WS.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. 65) 2. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. 683. SA. piece. 144) 3. NZ. II. 88. 110). wa¦lah 1. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. also Z ¦ilah – catchword.

$' .

arrangement (of a text) (MU. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). aw  Ñ ) – composition. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. 3132). wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. PA. KF. VI. comp. I. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. 12. 187. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 62. wa„¶ (pl.

. 376). IV. Z „i¶ – compiler. author (DF.

152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G. prologue. proem (DM).

  . – collation session (TP.192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $. TM. 56.

awÑiyah) – 1. DA). wifq SO DZI T. 575) 2. case. 87: ZDT ¶ah. box (MS. 16. wi¶ µ (pl. 19. container (OM). ME. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK.

125) 4. AD. decree (EI. autograph. writing something down. royal edict. 10) 2. X. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. sifr 13. LC. 392. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). 189. . (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. 69. 28. al-WDZ T ¶. 189). 100. 96). 392-393) 3. 28. WDZT ¶ 1. IV. apostil (usually signed) (AD. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. 108). gloss. stamp (IK. I. KF. taking something down in writing (SL. X. KM. LC. signature (EI. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. motto.. I. 124. P IDT – seal.

tashÑ U W.GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines.

PDZT I 1. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH.v. waqfiyah. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. II. II. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. 61. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. 441). al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). KF. 146. LM. 38) 2. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2.in Turkey).. JM. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). KF. wakf 3.g. 146. LM. WDZT I (KF. II. (AS. 146). 146. 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. .29. bequest note (OS. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. WDTU Ì (q. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. 90.. unfinished stroke (e.9 1123. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . 90). 69).g.g. LM. 63). KH. AS. endowment.in Persia. 187). a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. 1125. 43-46. 428-442). number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. 100. LC. III. 73-77.) (BL. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. reading. waqf 1.

It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. K P – omission (IK. error (IK. sifr 13. wakt – letter pointing (KM. 28). 123). 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). overlining (TP. 95. 95. . AA. 55).  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. logograph. AA. IV. taÐammul 2.) (LC. wahm – mistake. 122). comp.

III. III. SA. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. III.154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146). 95-96. 96).

ray¨ Q QDVNK. maÁ ¨if. DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq.

6$ III. \ ELV – rectilinear. 144). ant. al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS.

  8'  $6  /0 ... 6$ .

yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ. FRPSPDEV Ã.

701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). 86. 42). \DU ¶(ah) – reed. . I \DG. KD. DM. UA. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. 393. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. II. reed pen (IK. – hand. in the hand of) (OT. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad.

no. CM.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK.g.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK.. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &. .

 .

Ivanov. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. 1981. AC = Adam Gacek. transl. 1967. Paris/ London.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. Akimushkin and Anatol. AD = E. 1979: 35-57. “Das arabische Papier”. Damascus. “The art of illumination”. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes.ABBREVIATIONS 1. ed. 1989. A.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. B. Vol. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Algiers. AF = Oleg F. Riyad. Wien. Gray. ed. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. Max Weisweiler. AJ = J. ed. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. von Karabacek. 2 (1989): 37-53. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. AG = Adam Gacek. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. Beirut. Fagnan. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. Arabische Paläographie. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . Al-.VKE O LQ KLV µ. ±aydar Ghaybah.1. AI = ÑAbd al-. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. 1414/1994. The arts of the book in Central Asia. 1923. AE = Adolf Grohmann.

AV = François Déroche. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. . AW = Nabil F. 2 (1987): 45-67. Ars Islamica. 15. 1982: 1.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. Descriptive catalogue. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. London/Oxford. nos. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. McGill University. AS = Adam Gacek. London/Oxford. 1992. no. 1.D. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. AP = Nabia Abbott. 382-398. “Arabic numerals”.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. New York. 8 (1941): 65-104. AQ = David James. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1992. 4 (1989): 144-149. ed. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. AN = Richard Lemay. Manuscripts of the Middle East. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. 1996. AL = . Montreal. 1996. London/Oxford.4 (1986): 131-137. decoration. Safwat.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. binding and paper”. AO = Adrian Brockett. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek.

London.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal.. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. CL = Jan Just Witkam.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . Dublin. 1984-85. Leiden. 4 (1991): 35-53. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. -CCA = Adam Gacek. CD = Arthur J. Montreal. MacKay. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. CM = Adam Gacek. Oriens. 1991. 1982 . CI = Adam Gacek. CT = Pierre A. Arberry. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. The Chester Beatty Library.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. 1958.

De Biberstein Kazimirski. -DDA = A.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society.S. M. 61. no. Denizeau. DB = R. N. Dictionnaire .4 (1971). Blachère. 1967. CW = A. Iskandar. Dictionnaire arabe-français. 1960. Paris.Z. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. Chouémi and C. London.

A dictionary of modern written Arabic.D. . A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. Beryus. ed.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne.. DM = Hans Wehr. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. DT = Tawfik Canaan. Kuwait. 5.1 (1937): 69-110. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. DP = Adam Gacek. Revue des études islamiques. Beirut. Ithaca. 0DPO N studies review.-L. 4th ed. Archeological studies. Paris. 1989.2 (1938): 141-151. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. DC = A. 1994. DQ = François Déroche. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. 2 (1998): 93-193. Wiesbaden. Frankfurt.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi.M. ±amd al-. ed.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Dictionnaire arabe-français. . 1994. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. 1993 . fasc.. Little. Paris. J. Cowan. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. 1984. 1967. de Premare. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. 59 (1991): 229-235. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. DR = Donald P. 4. 4 (1989): 44-55.1986. NY. DG = Werner Diem. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. fasc. ed.

1960 . -FFD . ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. 1995: 17-57. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library.EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. eds.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M.S. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. Yarshater. Baghdad. 1982 . Starkey. Calif.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. New York. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. Leiden. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Dimand. n. London. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. 1986. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. 5 .VO P \DK. 1993. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. 1997.d. à W´ Al-Mawrid. FM .EU K P . The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. London/ Oxford. E. 1998. Istanbul. Cairo. 1999. Al-)XQ Q DO-.. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”.S.. 1995: 93-101. EP = François Déroche. London.). Meisami and P. -EEA = J. London (later Costa Mesa. 1979. Part 1. New ed. ed. transl.

kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. GL = W. . 1967. ³. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. herausgegeben von W. 1982.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. A Grammar of the Arabic language. Istanbul. Cairo. 50-99. Wiesbaden. Cambridge. 1992. 1987. 1987. HN = Ñ \LGDK . Cairo. transl. 6 (1991): 41-58. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. HD = A. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929).ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. Kaziev (Gaziev). 1994. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. Rabat. Wright. 1966.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. ed. Manuscripts of the Middle East. HT = Adam Gacek. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. 3rd ed.U. Baku. Fischer.

OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ.1987? . Univ. 1389/1970. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. )DKP 6DÑd. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. IB = G. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab.August 18. J. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. Carswell and G. Bosch. 1981. . IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. London.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. Beirut. 1983. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. 1973. of Chicago.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q . ed.1981. A¨mad ‚aqr. à W´ Al-Mawrid.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. Damascus. Cairo/ Tunis. 1997: 57-63. Beirut. Cairo. ed. no.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.H. ed. Qum.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. The Oriental Institute. Petherbridge. 1995: 123-136. 8. May 18 . Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. Déroche and F. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. Paris.2 (1979): 221-284. Richard. Chicago. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145.. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. 1319 A. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. IM = Ñ. F.

Cairo.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. S. Qum. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 1982. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. 1962. 6 pl. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-.G E DOV PLÑ. Algiers. 1997. 1983. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. 20.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil.1961. .n. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . 1969. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G. ed.1 (1958): 81-106. Damascus.G E (Cairo). University of Michigan. Ph.. 0DMDOODW . s. 1985. Beirut. no. 38 (1989): 7-103. 1962. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed)..XOO \DW DO. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK.D. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I .. Riyad. Al-0DQ KLO. Baghdad. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð.l. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. [Tehran?].LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie).PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. ÑIzzat ±asan.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. 1363 [1984]. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. ed.

“Al-. 1. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. Leiden. 2. KM = Ñ$O LEQ .H.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. 1937: 125-161. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. RDVK G DOÑ. 2 (1946): 9-18.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”.240 (1984): 61-68. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”.H. 1. Fehervari and Y. no.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq.3 (1964): 1933.VO P . 1978. 1316-21 A. 1981. no.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. Al. Safadi. Á KL = G. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. no. Cairo. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U.LW E.2 (1973): 43-78. ed. 1 (1963): 26-48. ed. no.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . KS < VXI DO-. London. by Arthur Jeffery.DWW Q  ³.

LW E DONXWW E. . 1976. Wiesbaden.XZDLW 1977. Raif Georges Khoury. . ed. . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  .LW E DO-zuhd. . ed.

1929. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. 1790-1930. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. ed. Cambridge. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. Leiden. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 2 (1987): 68-87. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. 1984. Baghdad. Arabic-English lexicon. 1911-1931. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. LB = Jan Just Witkam. Brill. Samarrai. 1992. LL = Edward William Lane. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah.S.500). Revue africaine. Ben Cheneb. 48 (1989): 21-29. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. van Koningsveld and Q. LC = Adam Gacek. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. LE = M. 1978 (catalogue no. LD = P. Cairo. ed.J. MELA Notes. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . 302-303 (1920): 134-138. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. Rev.

1980. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. Damascus. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. ed. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . Cairo. ME = A. MC OL¨ \DK . ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK.G DO-Mawlá.d. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. 1992. 230 (1938): 551-575. Beirut. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. 1349 [1930]. 1995. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . Leiden. 1913. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. MK = Etan Kohlberg. 20 (1970): 88-137. 1972. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. 15. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. Damascus. Beirut. 1992. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . Journal asiatique.4 (1986): 185-248.U T . MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ.OP DO-Ñ. Lamare. Beirut. 1391/1971. ed. Beirut.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. ed. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. no. n.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. .

MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . 14. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. 1992.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. ed. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379.1 (1969): 3-47. N. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. MV = François Déroche. 32 (1987): 105-114. no. MT = Adam Gacek. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. . 1976-87. London/Oxford.2 (1989): 201-203. 15. 18. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. MP = Martin Levey. Cairo..S. MW . “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. 52. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. pt.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. 1936-38. no.4 (1962). no. MY = François Déroche. Revue des études islamiques.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. Al-Mawrid. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim.6 (1993): 641649.

NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). 45 (1977): 1-87. Cairo. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . London.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. 2 (1987): 8-17. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. ND = J. NS = S.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. Bonebakker.. NH . 1418/1998: 341-393. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. 1928. 1 ILPELU  HG .VO P  . NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos.A. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. NC = Adam Gacek. Sadan. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. Damascus. NO = Dimitri Gutas. Revue des études islamiques. 2 (1987): 126-130. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ. Manuscripts of the Middle East.2 (1992): 679-683. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. 1. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . 1367/1949. no. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. Cairo. 13.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. 1342/1923 .

M. 1985: 29-48.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. OS = Adam Gacek. 26 (1976): 199-212. Manuscripts of the Middle East. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). Derek Latham. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. New York. Rabat. PK = S. 1994 : 75-81. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. Paris/Teheran. Daly.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ .H. 5 (1960): 124-143. -PPA = Yves Porter. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. ed. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). 10 (1998): 41-63. 2 (1987): 88-95. 1992. PT = Terence Walz. OH = J. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. “O. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill.W. OM = Adam Gacek. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. . “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”.

4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. 1410/1990. -RRA = William L. RI = W. no.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. SD = R. Beirut. SJ . Bookbinder. Bull. Chicago.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. Dozy. ed.4 (1986): 259-270. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. Paris. 1 (1987): 21-38. Beirut.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. Paris. RN = Nabia Abbott. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. 1960. 1967. 195772. a new direction”. 2 (1956): 339-372. Cairo. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Costa Mesa. 1995. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Chicago. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. 1938. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). Hanaway and Brian Spooner. 3rd ed. SL = Nabia Abbott. 15. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. . 1973.

1995. .Q Q  London. François Déroche. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Rabat. Ricard. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. Paris/Istanbul.H. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. ed.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. 1994: 11-32.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). no. arabe 6844). 1997: 135-150.VO P .ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. P. Paris. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. ed.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. Rabat. Beirut. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ].H. Damascus. ed. 1989: 49-50. Damascus. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”.DWW Q  . TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN. 1303 A. TE = Adam Gacek. MELA notes. MS (Paris.1 (1997): 55-90. 1965. 1925. 41. Bibliothèque nationale. 1346-49 A.

1991. F.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. xx-xxxii. TS %DNU LEQ . “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”.d. Hyderabad. ed. Rabat. pl. Jedda. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. TP = Adam Gacek. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. . 1989: 51-60.VKE O  ³.EU K P DO-. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Damascus.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. 1982. ed. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. 1353/1934. 1949. Kuwait. Ñ$EG $OO K . Paris/Istanbul. Déroche. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. n.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. ±amd al-. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK.

Beirut. Beirut. 1981-83. Dublin. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. 1 (1986): 49-53. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. Chester Beatty Library. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 17 (1971): 43-172. 1992. DaÑwat al-|aqq.2 (1977): 45-56. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 23. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1983. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. 1980. no. Graz. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib.10 (1975): 80-92. no. 16.4 (1982): 10-24. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. Hildesheim/New York. 18. . DaÑwat al-|aqq. no.

Tehran. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).Oá / -XP Gá al. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW . 17. no.G E (Cairo). Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al.NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá.1 (1955): 43-48. 6 pl. 2.XOO \DW DO.

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

/ = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P.

 ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah). numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P.

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. Áa¨ ¨. Á ¨ib. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨.

 Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . ra L\D $OO K .

ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).  abbah (ta E E.

= Ãurrah. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. rajÑ. Ñ UL a. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann .

fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. / = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

tamma. aÁl. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . malzamah. ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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Vatican City. Bozzolo. Gruys and J. ed. Cockerell. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. 1993. . London/New York. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. 5th ed. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. M. ed. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. 2 vols. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. Leonard. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. 1988. Malachi. Dain. A. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz.1. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. 1990. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. 1983. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. Beit-Arié. Les manuscrits.P. Indeed. 1997. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. 1953 (repr. Toronto. Bernhard. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Paris. Transl. Maniaci and P. Bookbinding. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. however. 5 vols. 1979). 1993. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. It does not. 1984. Jerusalem. Cambridge. Alphonse. Paris. 1976. Sydney M. Paris. Bischoff. Boyle. 1976-1980. Paris. Munafò. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. Leiden. Carla.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Gumbert.

Paris. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. Introduction à la codicologie. Paris. M. Louvain-la-Neuve. 1989. Johnston. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. N. C. Encyclopedia of the book. 1990. . Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. Blanchard. Italo. New York. Le livre au Moyen Age. A. and Skeat. Del. études historiques et physico-chimiques. Glenisson. Roberts. Maniaci. 40 (1954): 169-204. Muzerelle. Paul O. Diringer. Proceedings of the British Academy. Reynolds. 1999. 1977. Paris. Denis. Paris.H. Albert. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. Gruijs. T. London. Turnhout. Gallo. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). Murdoch. peinture. 1985. Paris. “Paléographie. Les matériaux de la couleur. John E. New Castle. Paris. M. 1989. Codicologica. Lemaire. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. codicologie et archéologie du livre. Hoffmann. Roberts. The hand-produced book. ed. Paris. Writing & illuminating. 1983. Delamare. and Wilson. Kristeller. François and Guineau. Rome. 1996. 1953. David. enluminure. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. Glaister. London/New York.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex. C. “The codex”.G. 1996. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Jean. The birth of the codex. Paris. 11-13 septembre 1972. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. & lettering. Dukan. H.. 1986. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. P.C. Oxford. Geoffrey Ashall. Greek and Latin papyrology. Edward. Jacques. New York. 1 (1976): 84-90. 2nd ed. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. Paris. 1974. Bernard. London. M. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. 1998. 1983. 1988. 1985. 1988. 1984. 2nd ed. ed.D. L. 1974 : 19-25.

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4 (1981): 82-103. Le Muséon. 18. R. Leiden.] Ebied.Y. 87 (1974): 445-465. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. Taxation in Islam.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . M. [Vol. Ben Shemesh. Islamic quarterly.1-2 (1974): 3-7.L.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. and Young. nos. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”. 1967./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. A.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”.J.

“Al-. Koningsveld.] Lecomte. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. .S. P. Studies on Islam. . al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ . Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. 41. van. 35-36 (1414 A. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). -DOO E ±asan.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Iran. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. Amsterdam. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. Amsterdam. 1974:92-110. 26 (1994): 75-96.1 (1997): 55-90. 18-19 October 1973. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). Les .H. no. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles. Gérard.): 270-372. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. 326 (1997): 97-102. ed. 1998. 32 (1994): 115-123. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W.H. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq.

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“Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE .1. 1996 – . 550-750/1155-1349. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. Pierre A. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. 34 (1994): 57-75. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. Stefan./12. Jhdt. Leder. Oriens. MacKay. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. Suppl. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.”. Damas: Institut français.

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Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. 1995. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. Numerals. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. 1994. Chief consultant to the editor. 1995. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. Volume I. O. (ed. R. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. Nouns. S. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. 2: Ab-bildungen. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. (ed. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. Spiel. N. Hunwick. References and Index of Texts Cited. J. with the assistance of M. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c.). J. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. B. O’Fahey. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. A. With appendices by R. V.C. A. Orthography. Y. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. M.). Judaism in Late Antiquity. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System.F.). ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . 1995. 1994. Radtke and K. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . Abu Salim. A. Compiled by R. J. and Stolbova. Jagd. Vikør. 1996. 1994. Tanz und verwandten Themen. Arabic Literature of Africa. 1994. M. 2 Parts. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. (eds. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. Judaism in Late Antiquity. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. und Sardshweladse. Porten. Bd. K. Steiner. Mosak Moshavi and B. V. With Full DefiniKinberg. (eds. K.1: Text. 1994. (éd. Hamidu Bobboyi. and Jongeling. 1994. Hofheinz. 1994. und Herb. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. Manuel de recherche. J. M. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. Marín. W. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. 1995. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. S. Band 22 .). ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. Phonology. 1994.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . 1996. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. R.). ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. H. S. 1900. M. Roman Loimeier.Lagarde. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. V. 2nd ed. and Peters. Ibrahim. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. Materials for a Reconstruction.L.). (ed. V. L. Compiled by John O. O. S. E. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. I. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. 1996.T. S. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. 1980-1993. and O’FAHEY. Bd. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources.

Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian.W. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. Translated from the German by M. Terms and Topics. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. 1997. J. L. H.1. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. 1999. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. 1999. 2 Volumes. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. III. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. G. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. D. 1999. 1997. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. W. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. 1999. J. and Wyatt.2. R. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. Index of Names. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. H. H. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. 1998. B. and Porten. Religious Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber.1: B. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. 1999. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. 1999. 1997.F. J. Social Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. 1996. 1998. V. 2: 1988-1992. R. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. 1.H. Vol. J. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. 1999.E. A. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan.L.J. 1999. D. and Healey. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. 1999. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . 2000. M. 1997. Vol. F. N. J. J. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). J. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. and Neusner. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. 1999. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1: A. T. H. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. The Rise of the Fatimids. H. Vol. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon.Band 26 Halm. Mesopotamian Lexicography. M. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. van. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. The Mishnah. The Mishnah. III. Bonner. A Bibliography. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. The Kingdom of Kush. and Sou‘ek. G. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. 1999. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan.J.G. B. 1997. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. The Empire of the Mahdi. and Pingree. W.

.J. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl.J. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. Ch. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. 1 : Glossary 2001. Band 56 Avery-Peck. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism.4.. The Arabic manuscript tradition.. 2001. (2 Volumes) 2000. and Chilton. Vol. A. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral.. Comparing Judaisms. Theory of Israel.3.J. 2000. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism.. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. de. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. J. and Neusner. World View. A. Dialect. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. Neusner. 2001. and Society in Eastern Arabia. 2001. and Chilton. Culture. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. A. and Neusner. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . B. A. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. R. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. 2000.J. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. U. 2001.E. A. J. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. Neusner. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. B. 2001.2. A. J. J. 2001.1. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls.Band 50 Tal. C. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. R.

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