A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography



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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

Julian and Helenka .PREFACE V To Joanna.

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....... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ............................................................................................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ............................... XI Preface ...........................

............................ Sources/References .. GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ........... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY .................... 181 Periodicals .................... 177 I......................................................................................... 181 Bibliographies .................... ................................... 156 2.... 182 General studies and surveys .................................... 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts .......................................................... 156 1.................................................................................................................................................... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK............................ 182 Conference proceedings and composite works .................................. Technical terms in the glossary ... 1 Abbreviations ...............................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.




a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221



b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

................................................................ 6.................... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works........ 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ........................ 247 1...... 238 b) Other studies ........................................................................................ 242 c) Other studies................................ 256 Some specific cases ........................................................................................ 243 2........................................................................... 2........................................ 232 Ornament and painted decoration ............. 8........ 256 1........................................................ Exhibition catalogues............................. 236 Painted illustration ............................ VIII.......................... 259 ................................................................................... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship .................. 241 Bookbinding ....... 226 Calligraphy ............................................................. 5........................ TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ..................................................................... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues ......................................................................... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ................................... 7................................... 240 Papercuts ..................... General studies ........................................................................................ 3.............................. 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries ............................................. 251 Facsimile editions ........................ 2................. etc..................... 255 IX..... 247 Later QurÐans................................... 239 Lacquer ........... ..................................................... 4..................................... 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas .............) ....................................... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper........ 4............ 3......................... 238 a) Drawing.... 242 a) Bibliography... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ....................................... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments............

.............................. ... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts ........ Descriptions of collections and catalogues ................................................................... 4......................................... Catalogues of catalogues ................. ETC..................................................... 2....... 261 XI.... 5.............. PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ............ COLLECTIONS.. CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS......... CATALOGUING.............X CONTENTS PREFACE X.................. 266 1. 263 XII............. 3........ 266 266 267 267 268 ....................... Catalogues of edited manuscripts .

I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. Last but not least. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. . François Déroche for his comments and suggestions.

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calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. Arab authors. both religious and scientific in nature.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. scholars. the preparation of inks. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. 2). papermaking and bookbinding. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. VII. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. Along with this manuscript output.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

 DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl. the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7.).VKE O G 1231).10/16th cent. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.

EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO. RI .

 DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. Furthermore.

The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . who in his work on education. as well as on the collation and correction of books. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. Finally. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. which deals with the preparation of inks.984/1577). lineation). RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). al-Durr al-na{ G (TP).

which spans almost 14 centuries. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q).XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. book lovers and cataloguers. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. as well as extant specimens. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. contemporary studies and catalogues. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. this chapter has been omitted. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. writing surfaces and implements used. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. even in its present form. could be very misleading. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). corrected. especially those relating to book formats. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. It brings together. bound and decorated. To translate. Nevertheless. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. e. respectively. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). . without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E).g. some of the most important research in this field published to date. The glossary is a by-product. medieval and postmedieval texts. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. as it were. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. Some terms. for the first time. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings.

on the other hand. great caution is in order. for example.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. however. khadd (‘cheek’. catchword. We do not. raÐs (‘head’. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. Thus. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. book cover). Therefore. Ñaqb. incipit. upper cover). flap). flap). North Africa). udhn (‘ear’. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. case (box). recto. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. and V TLÃah (Yemen). catch- . Here. Here we find. Thus. however. outer or inner margin). wajh (‘face’. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. period and/or region in which they were employed. miqlab (Levant. for example. The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. Áadr (‘chest’. been largely omitted here. for example. OLV Q (‘tongue’. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. Ñaqib (‘heel’. fore-edge. OLV Q (central Arab lands). for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. recto. upper margin. catchword). In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. may have been used exclusively in those circles. Iraq). having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). lower margin. envelope flap). inkwell and the like. raddah (Levant). medallion. marjiÑ (Morocco). Some. fore-edge). as yet. serif.

an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. As far as transliteration is concerned. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. On the whole. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. either contemporary or earlier.XVI PREFACE word). Due to the limitations of the computer program used. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. Most words are traced to a source. . This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary.


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154. miµbar 1. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk.) (DD. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. 60. muµabbar – sewn (KC. syn. III. of minfadh (q. I. index. 215. 104. MB. TS. II. 9. 59. I. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. GA. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. I. ibar) – needle (UK. 8). 18-19.EU .  EU  ZDUDT DO.v. 2: ibrishmah).). al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. AG. AG. SD. 107. 176-178) 2. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). among other things. ST. 392). IA. GA. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. I. ibrah (pl. 103. 107. from Pers. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. 12. SA. I.v. 13. 97-98. 97. ebrû. needle case (DM) 2. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. 8). DB. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. RN. 182). 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used.



abbrev. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). explicit (TP. ilá NKLULK – et cetera. 62. n. I.14). taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. – closing matter of the text (composition). (DB. 53).

63. – etiquette (EI. 71-72. scribal etiquette 2. 106-108) 2. 52). primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. I. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. udum) 1. IW. MF. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. DG P (pl. 175-176). passim. I. adam(ah). tanned red leather (DB. leather (UK. AE.

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. MU. XIV.

DGG P – tanner (DM). jild. comp. DG K SO DGDZ W..

I. implement. 345). tool.g. instrument. e. – V\Q ODK (EI. DGDZ W O W.

153-156. writing MB. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).



urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. VI. JKXU E – the last hour of day. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. 250).6 GLOSSARY hour of night.

al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).NKLUDK DO-ukhar. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al. al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al.Oá (al-uwal) (1-10). alDZ NKLU .

VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. -30) (SA. 248-249). e.g.

g. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . 235). lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . e. 178). II. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . nos. al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. 244-248). 244-249).EQ .EQ . 106.DP O 3 VK 73  CI.VI.

PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9. al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. -248).

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 670).1st 5509 B.C. IV. 6$ 9. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. 262. FZ. JL. taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. ar„ \DK – background (LC. taµU NK-L PDODN . (EI. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn. X. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 22.D. ER.


GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. XVK UDK. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ. II.

uÁ O. a¦l (pl. KM. 103. – awl. 15. sifr 4. IK. MB. I. 59. 11. IB. 10: ishfah. AG. punch (TS. ST. IA. 43: VKDI . 107. 115). 90.


as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. exemplar. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. 27) 3. original (main) text. 26. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. SD. MU. VIII. II. MH.

 . MI. 2024.. 136). XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. but also 0= .

269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. SM. major work (TM. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. 23) 4. 126.


67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

 URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. I. . ià U W XÃur) 1. border (of a book cover) (LC. 24. 928). 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. rectangular panel (LC. UI. 29) 5. frame (within a border) (TF. 24. textual surround (LC. DB. 402) 2. . 27) 6. KR. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. 25. rule-border. tabula ansata (UI. i. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. 24). 145). headpiece (LC. 24. i¨ U (pl. 80) 3. rules.e. FT.

IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages. 32). (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. writing circa 1375’ (DW. I.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. 46). 6. 581-582). ER. according to other sources al. DIVK Q (Pers. taµO I DK.8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN.

taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W. (pl.

muÐDOODI W. muµallaf (pl.

umm. comp. compilation. I.1 . taÁQ I muµallif – author. . ummah . muÁannif. work (of prose or poetry) (SD. – composition. EI. 360). X. 33. comp. writer.


heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. SD. exemplar. 29). . 130) 4. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. 26. TM. 35. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. . as opposed to a commentary. 246) 3. used in mosques (KN. I. 26). I. shar¨ (IN. original (main) text. umm al-NLW E 1. archetype (LC. copy. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. transcript (from which another copy is made).


37. 39). LP P – exemplar. archetype. . II. textus receptus (NT. 294). Umm al-EXOG Q. 99. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. KF. II. Umm al-qurá. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. II.

I. tadabbur. taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). abbrev. LL. xiv. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. 2812). 99). one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. II. comp.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. II. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. (CI.

or /'    $'  (. . .



BA. 370. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. LM. 370). ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. III. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). 31). KU. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. LQV see sinn. II. – unpared. III. unnibbed reed (FN. 31.

initia. n. AA. I. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). JA. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. 52. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK.14. (TP. incipit.


taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taµZ O (pl.

– interpretation.g. explanation (e. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q.

incomplete (of text) (KC. 34). passim) 2. baŒr (pl. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. bu¨ U. acephalous. imperfect. **** PDEW U 1.

33. – panel on a book cover. 110. JL. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . . AG. cartouche (TS.

355). 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). bidl '% . WDENK U – fumigation (TS. tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. badal. .



. . [LLL. RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &.

100-103).3. SD. stitution.3-4. II. EI.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. conjectural substitution. conjecture. fasc. suppl. 59-60. DT. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. 49. . wifq (US. 412) 2. comp. also WDEG O – subal-matn. RU badal respectively (KG. I. fasc. 153-154. 296). alteration (CL. MZ. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0.

GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . EDUG \DK – papyrus. lin. rasp (HT. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). WS. 407. 521-522. qirà V mibrad – file. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. 64-66). VIII. sifr 13. I. publishing (KM.84. papyrus sheet or roll (DB. 390: for trimming). LEU ] – bringing out (a book). I. 417. IV. IA. comp. II. QS. DD. EI. 60.

barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . . I. LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. 545).

148). 8. 17-18. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . ST. n. – endband (headband) (ST. EDUVK P. index. 81. IB.


ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.


III.9.  '0. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 . (pair of) dividers (SA. – compass.


12. 18). . Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS.



PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. KK. EDUU \DK. trimming (of a reed ) (IR.  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. ELU \DK – paring. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. bary. 85. SA.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). 154: IK. 455 6. 232.). 49).v. III.

8. flattening (of a letter).. mibzaq – lancet-like knife. 90. 81). IK. – pen knife (AA. 88. SD. MP. DB.   $6 .. 64. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . bas¨ – spreading out. 591). mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. I. DA: mibzagh. index. I.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. unabridged work. 120) 2. 87) 3. KH. comp. jazm (IK. mukhtaÁar. 144) 4. 34. syn. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. III. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. original (comprehensive). PDEV ¨ 1. AS. rectilinear (of a script. horizontal stroke. line (KU. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely).

47. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. 365. 144). ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. 13. maÁ ¨if. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. 322). TW. basmalah SO EDV PLO. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear.



AG. piece. 58.) (AS. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. ST. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. IA. lin. 52. 155). cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. MP. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. 63. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). catalogue. 78: ‘racler. 1084-1085). 9. bashra¨ 1. 23-24. bi¨ TDK (pl. dressing (of leather) (UK. slip (of paper) 2.v. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. paring. ba¨n (pl. ratisser des peaux’. HT. baà Ðiq) 1. TS. 109. also known as al-JKXE U (q. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts.111) 2. and opening a composition (TP. LF. erased. 78. PDEVK U – pared. 145). lin. silk endband (headband) (HT. index. 161. 58. I. LF. register (AD.97. EI. buà Q. bashr 1. 12).GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page.

ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. inner cover. E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. al-NLW E. flesh side (of parchment).

baà Ðin) 1. 23. HD. 49. IA. UK. HT. 22-23. doublure (LC. lin. endleaf (ST. lining (FT. 102. bi¨ QDK (pl. doublure (TS. 159. MA. 89. MB. 117.73-79) 3. pasteboard (UK. endpaper. – inner cover. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. 60. paste-down endpaper. 408) 2. IB. passim. 47. 112). IV. AG. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E.

.  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . 92).

index. MU. 9. XIV. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. lining of the insides of book covers with paper.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. leather or silk (ST.

/( . removal of sha¨mah (q. III. II.) from the reed (IK. abbrev. 87). 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. bary. 370). used for a transposed word.v. 2. MB. comp. BA. paring (of the calamus) (KD. ba¶du – after. 61.

also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E.20). n. tab¶ „ – word division. 53. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. separation (MM.

(pair of) dividers (UK. biUN U WDEN U. IB. TU. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. 59. IA. 105). 44. 103. measuring distances. 58. comp. 101. 104. MB. 60. etc. 153. MP. 156. – compass. (MB. 103.

103. IB. 153. comp. DD. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. 380. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. 42. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. IA. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. 391). MB. 59). I.


 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

comp. JA. 45: EXO JK). TP. CT. 56.119.9 SO. 268.  EDO . I.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin. E OLQ – worn. damaged (TS.


1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. 36). kha¨¨L E KDU. IV. E E SO DEZ E. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). EI.

– chapter. . 0. abbrev.

376). murattib. IV. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. bayt SO EX\ W. 609.20). mubawwib – compiler (DF. 53. n. TP. comp.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. 31. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 95. 110) 4. 110). 97. 31-33. 32. 82). 33). AG. . 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. KR. compartment (in such a box) 3. frame (as part of the border. Bayt al-Maqdis. AG. Ãurrah) (TS.


 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.


– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).




6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

also TS. 110). 30-31. AG. tibr – gold. W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 95. 82). gold dust (AQ.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 97. . 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . KR.

 takht SO WXNK W.

index. 9). HT.  . sand. 24. IV. 22. 9. lin. 6. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. KU. I. wooden pressing board (TS. AG. 107) 3. 82. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. 94. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. earth. WXU E – dust. 120).7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. KM. 42. IB.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. 156. 127-. sifr 13. TD. index.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 6$ II. 478-480).

165). key word (LC. II. detailed title of a book. AH. 122) 3. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . indicating its contents (DB. title (of a book) (LC. chapter heading (IN. 28. 28) 4.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2.

27) 6. 27) 8. 27) 7. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. medallion) . headpiece or tailpiece (LC.g.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC.g. paragraph (LC. disc) or margins (e.

also mutarjam (e. explanation. translation (EI. exegesis (DB. X. biographical note. illuminator (TW. ‘QaÁ GDW . X. biography (EI. 270). DB. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. 186. 260. interpretation. 28. mutarjim 1. 29-31. II. II. turs SO WXU V. IT.g. 224) 12. cryptography (AA.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. biographer 2. 30) 9. translator. 1021) 13. 224) 10. 29.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. tirs. 1021).

index. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. 145. rosette (HD. IP. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. 9. 95. 116). 103. IB. LC. corner-piece (ST. 69. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 82). comp. oval. execution. taftar see daftar. PA. KR. 44) 3. WDWP P – completion. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. 97. shamsah. illuminated oval medallion. 28) 2. writing tamma (lit. 15). turunj(ah) 1.

often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. X. . RU CM. 46). xiii). taÐP Q WDIT Ã. 177-178). WDP P – end. tatimmah – supplementation. ¨add. [LLL at the end of the colophon. . WDP PDK (pl. &. WDP Ðim) – amulet. II. comp. supplement . used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). comp. talisman (EI. continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). finish. abbrev.

copying (MH. no. 101. FK.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. 100. II.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing.

thabat (pl. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’. atKE W.

document. 288: syn. written testimony (SD. record of attested study (HB.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. 157) 2. muÑjam. GA. I. 234.

 WDEOH RI contents. LWKE W 1. also WDWKE W – attestation. authentication (formula). WKDE W – signature (SD. vocalization (AD. usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. 157). 18) 2. I.



muthabbit.25. CT. GA. 45. n. 53. 289). RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE.

writer of the audition note (MH. 45). thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. I. 330). CT. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. 101.

‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. AG. . AS. 11. WKDT O (lit. 107). III. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. 147).

I. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. 349). . T OLE. JM. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. abbrev. (TN.9 . 46-53: MDO O Persia.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. 1125in Turkey). epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 51). TU. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. III. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots.

octagon (EI. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. 795-.VII. DO-thumn.

no. . 12. abbrev. VI. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). 361). epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. MZ. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points).VI. I. FRPS NK WLP muthamman.. 232-234. MI.  RU &. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. 102). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. see also mashÐalah. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below.13. 361). SA. [LY )0 167. Taf. I. 232-234) . .

either illuminated or stamped (KI.GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. decorative medallion or panel. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .

83: M PDK ZXV¨á . JL.  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 87. 88.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK .


141). restoring manuscripts. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. jabr – repairing. 99). nos.41. mending. 99. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. PDMG O SO PDM G O. 100). repair (SJ. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. corner-piece (JL. 83. 87). restoration (KR. WDMG G – repair. interlace (TF. 43). braid.

160) 2. 175) 5. 26). mujadwal – ruled (LC. no. rules. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. 148. 56. diagram.6/2) 6. magic square. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. talismanic seal (EI. TW. thong (KC. 63) 3. . 50. 32). jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. KC. – leather strap. 33. 370. table (LC. 108). table of contents (CM. creating rule-borders (WB. II. I. chart. 42). also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). column (of text) (SD. DT. 24) 4.


 LQVHW '0.

   .. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ .. FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah.

184. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. 107. I. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. jard al-matn see matn. inventory (SD. 27). collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. register.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). abridgement (SD. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . DD. II. DG. I. KF. MDU GDK – list. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . I. extract. mijrad(ah) – file. WDMU G 1. 183). 112. scraper (MB.

 jirm SO DMU P.


jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. passim). HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. jirm wasaÃ. majran SO PDM ULQ.

jazz – trimming. IA. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. shaving (MB. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . 62).8 154). passim: Œazz.

 ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. KF. 103). 19. 132. VII. . also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. rough copies 2. I. MU.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. n. inset (UI.

one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. booklet. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). AI. single-quire codex. 79.

 DEEUHY RU (CI. xii) 4. VII. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. II. I. tomaison) (SJ. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. 128) 6. small piece of writing. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. independent. 705). 128). usually not more than a quire (IJ. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. 90). small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. 711).

7-9. 143. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. I. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. MB. 38). 421). jazm – reed pen. 87: qalam jazm. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. 89. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. 99. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. MP. IK. LL. 90).

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

for other signs representing jazmah see GL. . LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS. 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. 13).


– background (UK. Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). 23). WDMV G – tinting in red (AD.


 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ . )1   .. ...

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.


. G Z Q MDO (SA. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. IV. III. 1123).




 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. 47. 416-417). 123 and IX. majlis SO PDM OLV. II. 26). VIII. LC. mujallid – bookbinder (QS.

1020). majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. sitting.. VIII. .  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. – session.

154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. julfah – nib (of the calamus. KU. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). jalam SO DMO P. II. 459-460. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah.

203: -DP G DO-Awwal.NKLUDK DO.NKLU. IR. -XP Gá al. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar. 91-92. II. – (pair of) scissors (DS. -XP Gá al. 230). CI. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. IK.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). no. CM. 89. / / (OS.Oá. abbrev.

composition. 89). SA. 126. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar.9 . / (OS. contraction (of letters) (KU. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. III. 34) 3. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. abbrev. compilation. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH.

  FN. e.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work.g. the QurÐ Q 8. . major original compilation. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . 352).


 II. 359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ).  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. III.

case.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). 37. codex compositus (LC. jumal. case with compartments (TS. 25). 52. 683) 4. box (NM. 32) 2. 106.  composite volume. NH. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). 393) 1. TM. tool box. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. writing case. 13) 3. SD. 12. inkwell 6' . 217. 52. escritoire (TW. I. 380). DG. mujamma¶ (UA. AG.  '' . 233.

knife (TS. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. ajwibah) – responsum. II. 10). ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB.111). MDZ E (pl.) (AS. better known as al-JKXE U (q. 11. (CI. MDQ Œ (pl. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. MI. 145). IA. IA. AG. abbrev. xiv. index. ST. index. 107: for cutting gold leaf . 109. 61. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. 10).v. 110. – book cover (ST.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

126-130. III. 1020-1021. IJ). – authorization. ER. LB. VIII. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . certificate of transmission. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. 24. 273-275. licence. 27. EI.

 .GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah.9 . (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (. 181). LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI.





DS. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. KU. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 179. II. AT. 468. 381: jawn. LQNZHOO (HI. NH. 154: wa-al-M EDK . SA. 133.

see also the quotation under miqlamah). DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. also known as waqabah. (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   .

a¨E U. **** Œibr (pl.


13. KM. MP. 8. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. sifr 13. IV. MJ. IR. 18-21. -100 and MB. n. MP. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks.53. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. UK. 6: wa-al- . 101-110 and MB. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. Œibr al-raqq.

SA. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. see LL. II. LM. 349. AT. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q .28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. IK. 127-131. I. IV. 134-135. AE. MR. IK. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. MA. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates .

2016). miŒbarah (pl. ma¨ ELU. embellishment (DB. III. 354). FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ.

 DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. II. 372.. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ . SA.  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . III.

443. II. SA.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. 468-.

ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. a¨E V. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. Œubs (pl. II. 89). taŒE U 1. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). elegant. embellished writing (composition) or copying. 15. inking. 119). inscribing in ink (SM. I. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. transcription (TE. 87. SA. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. compiler (SS. SK. muŒabbir – author. WR.

ta¨E V W. taŒE V (pl.

132) 3. bequest note (LC. 109. decorative endband (UK. 28).. 154. AG. Œabk 1. 104 ff. 18-20. . 62. waqf. TS. comp. sewing. endbanding with silk 2. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). MM. also Œabkah – endband (headband). 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% .. n..15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. 157. MB.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. IA. stitching (of a book) (TM.

 VSLQH 74 .

al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. AG. AG. 19. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. 109). 19. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 109.


I. 11. 478). AG. AG. 246). ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. 28). AD.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. 19. 109). bookbinder (IB. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. 19. 109). ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. n. 19. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS.

10). miŒjar. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). ma¨ MLU. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). ajar al-¨XP ¨im). abbrev. amulet (DT. 69). (OS. hone (TS. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. 60). ŒLM E (pl. Œajar al-misann – whetstone. maŒjar (pl. 89). Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. ¨ujub) – talisman.

MP. 107. 36) 2. 36). counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. 142: 12. AG.10. UK.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. 38. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . ST. MB. 99. index.

$ . .

FN.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A.H. 2733.

 FRPS . I .

711). Œadd (pl. ¨XG G. taŒG G – whetting. II. honing (of a knife) (KD.30 GLOSSARY Œadd.

154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). – limit. ŒDG G DK. end. used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU.

Œadr (pl. 59). MJ. 188). ¨XG U. MP. 29. 393. MB. 138). 59. AG. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. 105. (pl. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. 31. IA. 109. 10. TS.

with black ink (TE. DB. IV. muŒarrar (pl. 109. TE. SK. EI. calligrapher. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. comp. copying. penman. IP. IV. 145. AQ. editing (of a manuscript text). 50). 58. 15) 4. 52. IV. 38. AG. 16) 6. redaction (CM. author. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. 10. 16) 5. 1124. ŒDU U – silk (ST. editor. 286). AF. TE. 701. mu¨DUUDU W. 13. MU. revised version (edition). frame. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . 15. 215-227).. 15) 3. ER. composition (GA. compiler (SS. XVII. secretarial style of shikastah script. III. 50. – descender (down-stroke. 246) 7. index. taŒU U 1. elegant writing. PA. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. 48. fair copying (TE. 64.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. muŒarrir – 1. outline. 2408. transcription (TE. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. 16. 73) 2. ÁaÑd.g. e. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. 214) 8. ornamental surround. terminal of a letter) (AA. 119) 2.

calligraph (DP. . Œard al-matn see matn. 53). – piece of calligraphy.

GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl. a¨U ] ¨XU ].

maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. IV. 69). amulet (DT. – talisman.g. e. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB.

549).  . 230. ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. word 2.' . error. 463. I. 596-560). ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. II. Œarf (pl. ¨iraf) – edge. Œarf (pl. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. lin.g.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. letter. taŒU I 1. sharp edge (of a knife. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. e. cutter).80-86). border. KK. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná.9 . II. trimming (HT. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving.. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. DS. miŒra„ah. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. LM. III. 39-42) 2. distortion. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. LL. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% .

 FRPS TLU Ðah. .

MJ.32 GLOSSARY  08 . falsification (of a text). Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. 57. 224). 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. ¨DUDN W. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. Œarakah (pl. comp. III. 59. MQ.

shakl. MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. 112-113. MB. KD. miŒU N – spatula. UA. 704. 8). comp. II. vowelization (DM). 65. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. Mecca and Medina. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. taŒU N – vocalization. – vowel (GL. 393).

Œizb (pl. 89).v. a¨] E. abbrev. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. (OS.). al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

11.. index. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. Œazm . 28. ST. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. ST. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 11).

ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. III. . 468). computation. ŒLV E – calculation. 54: EI. chronosticon (TP.

269-270. ¨DZ VKLQ.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. EI. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . abbrev. II. 302). VI. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. see SA.

FZ. 119. scholium. marginalia. apostil. 63) 2. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. often abbreviated as or . margin (of a page) 4. MD. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. IA. 63.112. 109) 3. lin. IA. 118.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. collection of glosses. 217-219. border (on a book cover) (MB. MB.

268-269. 145. 65. Œashw(ah) 1. AS. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. III. 89-90). 73  00 139. IX. 71) 2. 110. 412. 1820). Œ VKLQ (pl. 30. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. gutter. FT. pl. JM. 977). 222. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. IV. DB.54. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. interpolation. 63. ¨DZ VKLQ. FI. AG. parenthesis. EI. 60.

332). 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // .74. II. gloss (AM. abbrev. CI. III. 26. xi. 322. AD. 296. . muŒashshá – provided with glosses. glossed. trimming (of a reed) (BA. (MI. Œa¦ramah – paring. nos. taŒshiyah – glossing. muŒashshin – glossator. 34).

transcription (FK. taŒ¦ O – copying.89. no. I. 546). .

polisher (KM. 5. burnisher. IA. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing.31). tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. 60. 118: mikhaÃà (!). 107.). often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. I.v. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. sifr 4. 29. 6. TS. IB. comp. MB. n. AG. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. ÑDU T W. 34). smoothing leather (ST.

frame (SD. KH. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. 34. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . headpiece (LC. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. 24). Œa„ UDK (pl. surround. 302) 2. 35. RN. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). I.

a¨fiÌah). 55. small box (DG. NT. miŒfa„ah – case. II. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. 51). Œif„ – learning by heart. 44) 2. memorization (TP.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . preservation. ŒLI „ (pl. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. box (KC.

critical edition (of a text) (MH. MR. 89. FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. text editing. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK .

(al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. muŒaqqiq – corrector. editor. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q.

U T and alZDUU T (FN. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . 13) 2. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. 12. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. III.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.


IV. 1125. TU. Turkey). 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. LM. Persia. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. IR. 78. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. III.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. EI. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq.

qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. syn.) (DD. miŒakk(ah). 58. syn. 137). screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB.) (UK. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q.v. 392. I. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). NH. 62) 2. mibrad (q. 31). IA. Œalqah (pl. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. ¨alaq. 104. IA. MM. 141) 2. 112. 59) 3. ¨DODT W. effacement (TP.v. scroll (in design) (UI. miŒakk al-rijl 1. pumice (MB. Œakk – rubbing out. erasure.

27). AI. scholar’s circle (SL. 372) 2. III. ma¨ O T. part of a clasp) (BA. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. study circle. 48. II.

139). 422. 136. – tendril (FT. AB. .

Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. embellishment (KT. taŒP G DK. al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah. 150-151). 416). 204-209).36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. Œilyah. taŒliyah – decoration.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC.

red colour. 122-123). Œumrah 1. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. EI. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. 53. 38. red ink (LC.20. n. rubrication. TP. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. III. 95). TB. 24) 2. rubrics (CM.

56-57. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. LC. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. ŒDP ODK (pl. book cradle (TC.  ‘pupitre’). ME. 55). amulet (DT. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. ÑUthmanic canon. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. archetype (KM. 86) 3. 169. IV. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. exemplar. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. sifr 13. WA. TP. ta¨ Q VK. maŒmil 1. 566. IV. 15. 69). codex (MA. 24). 29). 286. 24. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. taŒQ VK (pl. TP. 51). TW. also miŒmal.

143) 3. (pair of) dividers (IB. ST. compass.) (MP. 44). . interlace (TF. 11) 2. 138. 58. index. rope work.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc.

II. 700).  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD.

8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). miŒwar (pl. ma¨ ZLU.


$% .

maΠU DK. 138. as opposed to the border (TF.  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). 144).

104-105). 171. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 58: as a means of cancellation. TP. Œ µil. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. I. TP. II. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. 149-150). 97. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. 665). Œawqalah. MH. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. 99. ¨awr (LL. 109. 483).

RQH LVQ G from another. 73 . abbrev.


tooling 2. colophon (TM. 24. tool. stamp. 3. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. sealing. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . seal. 31). 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. MI. stamping. 35). also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. khatm 1.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. panel (in decoration) (UI.g. **** NK QDK – compartment. 214) 3.



9 . complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ . recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. – 1.


CI.9 1105. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. e. 34. 169. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). 29. 144). OS) 2. 108) 3. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. 63). DT. 110. IA.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. I. AG.g. 130. 109. . talismanic seal (DT. stamp or medallion (on a book cover).

FT. LNKWLW P 1. 5. 108). explicit.14) 3. n. conclusion. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. colophon (UI. 396) 4. 52. tailpiece (HD. epilogue 2. 8. .

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

– inner or outer margin (IM. 165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ .

backing (of the spine) (HN. 385). 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. takh„ ¶ – rounding. also LVWLNKU M (TW.

kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK. RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

insertion. ) 4. la¨aq (TP. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . comp. TM. 58. 187-188.0 .  omission.

extract from a book. KF. ÑaÃfah. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. quotation (TM. pl. 169) 7.73: in the form of a curved line.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. transcription (TW. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. or a caret. copying. 718). n.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . 606) 6. reference mark (signe de renvoi). insertion 2. omission.) .. I. 58.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. I. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK. WDNKU MDK 1.


95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukhraj – insertion (MH. mukharraj.

90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. vox reclamans (MA. 39). 683). TW. selector (DF. NM. 384. copying (DM) 2. IV. mustakhrij. catchword. excerpting. LVWLNKU M 1. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. mukharrij – compiler. . 126130). II.

al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. MP. 12. II. OM).40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. ST. 35. 181). index. punch (SA. DS. 59). NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. 481. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). 99.

khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK. 70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94).

 FDUWRXFKH ).  )7 .

khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. comp. Ãurrah. palmette (KH.  DQVD roundel. 36). Ã P.

109) 2. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS.166). 481) 2. IA. 347. 459). 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. 154. sewing (of quires) (UK. gap. lin. 104. HT. 27. SA. MI. khiraq) 1. MP. II. index. 17. 157. II. comp. 12. undoing the sewing (ST. lacuna (SJ. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. 15. blank. 114. 59) 3. polishing cloth (MB. 60. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. kharm 1. MB. scrap (of paper) (DM). khirqah (pl. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. MB.


munkharim – imperfect. 233: feuillets décousus. TC. II. incomplete (TC. KF. en vrac.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. PDNKU P. 26.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. 26).NKLU. fragments (HB.

imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. sifr 13. II. kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). 527). khazz SO NKX] ]. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. IV.

I. 46). AG. GL. xiii-xiv. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. comp. VII. 23-24) 3. 14-15. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. epitome (EI. 27. suspension. 119). al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. 536-540. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 107). TP. . EA. AD. abridgement. comp. siglum. maktabah. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. library. abbreviation (contraction. – silk. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. NKL] QDK. II. 107. kharm and ¨azm. 55-56. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. 159-160. AG. 25-26).

stroke.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. penmanship (ML. sign. script. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. calligraphy. writing. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . handwriting. mark. khuà Ã) 1. 34-38) 2.

8  51  $6 ..g. CI. I. scriptio defectiva. also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . 358). 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). 887: ER. 83. AS. 41. copied by (e. scriptio plena. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . 103). IV. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. LM. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal).. script (text) see also Ñajam. comp. 681). al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. 144). al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. al-DTO P DO-sittah. 114. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. EI. khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . III. yad. comp.

8  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .

no. paleography (KJ. 80). mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD.1. makh¨ ¨ (pl. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. 26). calligraphy (WR. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. makhà à W. 380). I. comp. penman.

118. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. LL. ruling (of lines). IA.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. 12). bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. I. implement (made of wood. tracing. index. UA. reed pen. 110. straightedge (LL. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). drawing (MB. . tracer (ME. 103. I. writing. 110) 2. takh¨ ¨ 1. calamus (AA. 555. 98. 760. 760). 60. 61) 2. mikha¨¨ 1. manuscript codex. MB.

speech 2. khi¨ E (pl. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. akhÃibah) 1. honorific (e. letter. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. IV. note. sifr 13.1). address.g.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM.

53. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. 44: ornament). TP. comp. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). 156. 105. abridgement. trimming (TS. IA. extract.g. takhallu¦ – pseudonym.20). preface (LC. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. 25. IB. mukhtaÁar. 14). NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. X. NKDI I (lit. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. epitome. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. 59. AG. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. 145).  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. RIWen unpointed) (GL. 18. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. 109). MB. 123). abbrev. n. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl.

58).g. 95. MH. XII. LNKWLO I – variant reading. TP. XI. MU. 46. varia lectio (e. . 52. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. XVII. 273.




RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. 126.


95. pentameter (SD. 50. 405.). X. I. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 97). NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. LNKWL\ U. EI. 401). 123-125). PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. – pentastich amplification of a poem. AD. al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.v.

al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding).e. 12. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. 109). 12. thick needle (ST. 19. index. IB. MB. I. 12). – anthology (EA. endbanding without silk (TS. i. IR. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. 107-108). 43.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . index. 94-95). NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. index. AG.


of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. G E M SO GDE E M. 250). VI.

XIV. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. – silk brocade (MU.

exordium. G E MDK 1. preface. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY.

TW. 52. adorning something with arabesques. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. composition (of a text) (DM). 127. /& ) 2. reflection. tadabbur – consideration. 259) 2. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. 65. GLE JK DK. frontispiece (MD. creating headpieces (AD.v). headpiece. PA. 115). WDGE M 1. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn.

60). GDEE JK – tanner (QS. 172). 63.3-4.. I. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. 114-115. suppl. EI. MP. 140-143. fasc. IA. – tanning (MB.

236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.  IR.

dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. darj.


rotulus (IK. 138. I. 141. IK. 138: al- . roll. parchment or paper (AJ. 68. 868: also daraj. SA. I. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. LL.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus.

$  Q.46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

60). dirafsh – awl. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 142) 3. AG. 432). punch (IA. darmak – farina. 287). WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. 13. I. dast(ah) SO GXV W. 107). inset (SD. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2.


I. WS. kaff 3. 94. 145. IA. 59. MA. MB. PT. 156. 524) 2. 81. 39. 92. 92. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). IB. SD. 44). AB. rizmah. burnisher (UK. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. comp. 96. GXVW U SO GDV W U. IV. 105. wide polisher.


also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK.  DXWKRU’s original. I. holograph (LC. 23) 3.

unbound book. dasht – loose leaves. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). II. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. book consisting of loose leaves (KF. . HB.

TP.. 54. pious invocation. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. hence mudgham – contracted. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). 150-156). 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . II. ‘prayer of request’ (EI. formula of benediction. supplication. AA. assimilated (KU.  . daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’.. 617-618) 2.GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl.g. (see e. adÑiyah) 1.+ 35). etc.

Oá (ST. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. 13). 104) 3.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. 13). book cover. ST. 13. index. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. index. al-daffah al. also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. index. pasteboard (ST.


account book. . 4. 29. 60) 2.18) 3. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). taftar (SK. 63. SL. 481). KK. QRV  096) 3. . bound or unbound codex . volume (IK.. II. fine writing (TM. register (EI. daqq 1. IA. I. pounding (MP. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ).. 22-25. 192). notebook (e. pen wiper (SA. 321. 40 x 14 cm. II. 14 leaves. 108. 77-81. Daftar kutub. rubbing. see LS) 2. n. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. 48.g.

index.163. I. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. AG. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. 107). 118. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. 461). duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. waraq damghah see waraq.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). glazing (ST. 13. 139). HT. 110. sifr 4. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. KM. 48-50. SD. I. FJ. NH. burnishing. 23. 87). 11. 85. OH. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. 217. lin. GDON WDGO N – polishing. MB. midlak – polisher. KR.

' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. ' U DO-. 927). ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. Tabriz. . 230: LL. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . 905-906). I. Herat.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. oil. Isfahan.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. mudhun – container for oil (IR. – fat. grease.E GDK – Yazd. ' U DO-¶. midhan.

93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1.  73 .

13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). i. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. UD. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. 56. TS.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. straight. e. 156. 105. MB. ta¨U I. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. even (as opposed to oblique. 30. (5) 4. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. JA. WDGZ U 1. 59) 5.g. roundel. I. medallion. disc (UK.e.

LM. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. RN. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. hence PXVWDG U – round. 39-40) 2. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. 61) 3.g. curvilinear (e. 10. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 22. rounding (of the spine) (IA. LM. 35). 9.


office. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. sifr 13. writing down (of ¨DG WK. II. 323. 90) 2. I. 323). collection of poems written by one author (DM). EI. IV. SA. I. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. collecting (collection). II. UHJLVWHU account book. chancellery (KM. WDGZ Q 1. EI. 129.

 . (.  73 .

TE. 28. transcription (LC. 15. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. UI. copying. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G .

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.


IV. 1125-6). IURP which it is derived (EI. GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ.

 -85.  LQNZHOO . 370) 2. III. KU. BA. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. . escritoire.. 169-170.

65.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. 53) 2. VII. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. 440-443. dhabr. ND. AT. MB. 713. GDZZ µ. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. 203-204. DG. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. aide-mémoire (EI. 53). 77. wiper and sand) (SA.v. X.50 GLOSSARY ruler. descender (of a letter) (AA. III. II. tadhkirah 1. 73).3-4. UK. memorandum. fasc. EI. suppl. 137-139). midhbar see mizbar. II.132-133. 372) 2. ER. 54.

dhanab SO DGKQ E. +%  (. X. 53).

21). I. 226. 477. dhahab. 59). – tail (foot) of a letter.’). (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . index. ¨arf (SA. 130-132. LC. LL. 25. etc. MB. 89-91. supplement (AD. paint (MU. 24. II. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. SA.V. UD. 151). P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. WDGKQ E – appendix. UK. 983: ‘water-gold. III. 13). I. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST.

WDGKK E 1.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. IX. 15. gilding. KA. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. 27. writing with liquid gold. 222. 145). TE. chrysography (LC. AS.


XV. dhayl SO GKX\ O. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. MU. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. JLOW REMHFW 6' . 490). 15). 132. 27. 385). LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. mudhahhib – gilder. chrysographer (AB. PA. 141). TE.


dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. 206). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. 23). ruÐ V. lower margin. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix.

page or book. 172). TM. (qalam) al-riµ V . as opposed to the spine (MB. 62) 4. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. character. 109. e. e. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . 26) 2. frontispiece (LC. SA.g. fore-edge of the codex. III. 61) 3. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. beginning of something. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs.e. 14. raµs al-waraqah. upper margin (TS. 24. envelope flap (MB. 26). 136. 107. IA.g. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. LC. raµs al-NLW E). 108. raµs al-¦afŒah.  KHDG RI D letter. 109). ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. 26). raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. i. IA.

126. (qa¨¶ or T OLE.. RN.. 100). WDUZ V 1. 35. 100. 144. FZ. TU. 236. 215). 146. 226. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . 213.5 -242. AQ. 13) 2.202/817-8) (FN. 12. KH. 37.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. script akin to a large naskh. 33. HI. JM. vox reclamans (NZ. U EL¨ah – catchword. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. MO. 84. 30. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. AS. 65). 83-84.

5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. DO-rub¶. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah.

89. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). / / (OS. CM. 5DE ¶ al.NKLU (al-PXE UDN. abbrev. – the third month in the Muslim calendar.

rabaÑ W. – the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl.


 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  &$ .  6' . 51.21. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +. MS. nos. 48.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ.

lin. stalk (?) (TS. AG. 11. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . 109). WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb.128).

no.170) 2. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . composition (MU.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. arrangement (of the text). 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. 50. I. AM.

sifr 13. compact writing.20). SS. compiler (DF. ratm – close. mubawwib. 53. n. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. II. IV. copying (KM.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. 72). comp. 384. murattib – author.

 26 . al-aÁabb. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev. Rajab (al-murajjab.

raj¶ (pl.   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. . XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. VIII. didactic poem (EI. 376). DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi).1 .

28. WDUM ¶ 1. 17. polychrome illumination (TE. comp. 109). 513: ‘barrage. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. writing in bold characters (TE. I. UXM ¶ – reference. III. FRPS SD. I. source (in a text) (IN. 252). 17) 2. IV. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). KM. AG. MJ. muÑallaqah. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. 99. retouchage (of a letter). sifr 13. retouching.

62).  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. . epilogue (AD.

al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. n. index. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q .13. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. ST. 13). 137.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶.185).% 81. 31: MD. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. index. RI. index. 13). book support (MD.

54. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. numrah) (TP. 419. 294. 1038. 584. abbrev. 2152. comp. 3185). 1035. 1062. 1055. VA. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. nos. 1223. 3099.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. UXNK P DK.

OM). XXIB). also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. marble slab (MB. IA. ST. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. pl. 14. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). 107. TP. AG. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. 10. . 11. 59. TS. raddah – envelope flap (TM. 103. .

rizam) 1. 145. ream (of paper). WS. 39. AJ.) (PT. dast (q. AB. . consisting of five quires.v. 92.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' .

treatise. dast 2. VIII. letter. 532). I. LUV O DK. epistle 2. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. tract. FRmp. ULV ODK 1. 524: ‘cahier’). monograph (EI.

. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . LM. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð..

index. 100. execution. 45) 3.g. EI. 100. rasm 1. sketching (ME. designing. drawing. 451-. 561. 101. copying. PA. rasm al-muÁ¨af. MB. epistolography (DM). writing. 14) 2. making a mark (ST. e. marking.VIII. tarassul – art of letter writing. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP.


rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. painter (ME. I. 528). unpointed letter or word ( NO. 527) 5. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. I. faÁl. chapter (in a composition) (SD. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. designer. 560. 15) 6. 527). – stroke. I. line (traced with a pen) (SD. I. SD. 527) 7. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. comp. bi-rasm see mustanad. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah.

lin. index. rasm) (ST. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. marking (syn. 370). 14). UDVKVK VK – reed pen. – woodcut. . 164) 3. 137). tooling (HT. wood block (AB. 14) 2. calamus (BA. index.129. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. III.

I. rizmah. marsham SO PDU VKLP.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. 18) 2. marshim. mark (TS. comp. 532). ream (of paper) (SD.

I. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. illumination. hot iron (SD. 125) 2. decoration (MS. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. tar¦ ¶ 1.  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. 532). 135).


covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. . 126). 103. ta¨U U TY. TE. 17) 3. decoration (with liquid gold). gilding the inside of the surround (outline).3 145.

$) .

184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. 140. joining letters together (AP. SA. tar¦ I 1. 35) 2. composition (NS. III. writing. 79. KH. ra¦f.

15. used for the companions of the Prophet. 89. AR.    73 54. 34. abbrev. 125). KH. II. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. 35. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. MI. SL. tar„iyah.

DQW RI \ ELV. FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah.

statement (LC. 16. 24). 19. – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. . 144). AS. 15. 14. istir¶ µ \DK – note.

book support. 231.133.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. 111-112). 137). 230.11. 44. book cradle (IN. lin. support (for an inkwell) (AA. I. raqq. riqq SO UXT T. 70) 2. KK. n. mirfa¶ 1. ND.

ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. 53. paper or other writing surface (MU. I. raqshah – pointing. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. I. copying (TE. 407). 53. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. IV. 353). vox reclamans (NM. 1135) 3. 269). no. WS. AK.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . 683. vocalization by means of points. KR. making something multicoloured (LL. 74-75. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. EP) 2. 17.67). VIII. I. AE. 17. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . calamus (IR. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. KM. 105. sifr 13. 407-410. UDTT JKD] O see jild. 108-111. 119. KJ. elegant. parchmenter (DG. 1135) 4. arabesque decoration (KA. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ).. LL. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. al-raqq al-a¨mar. piece (slip) of leather. KK. -485. VIII. mirqash – reed pen. n. IW. 105. I. 93. diacritical pointing (TE. UDTT ¦ – catchword. 85). parchment leaf (ND. SK. embellished writing. IK. diacritical point (JA. AA.1. EI. 230). 60-63.

 OHWWer. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. note. brief message.

IV. DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. 1126). . Persia. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. 146. MN. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. IV. IV. 86). often sewn in). muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. inset (MK.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. LM. 602-603).in Turkey). 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. writing (KM. 139. sifr 13.) script (AS.v. 78-82. passim. VII. 1125. patchwork. 1123. EI. raqm 1. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair.



41. DP. AW. calligraph (AC. 266) 4. 54. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. – piece of calligraphy. NI. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm.




also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. IV. 154). 1140). al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. raqn – compact writing (KM. SK. AW. 147. calamus (TE. IR. I. mirqam – reed pen. 17. III. arqam. 45. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. copyist (AC. 82. III. AM. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. 387-388. no. no. 141. 372. 106). UDT P – inkwell (KM. 230. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. 30). IV. 2. sifr 13. 244. TE. fasc. 183). WDUT P – punctuation (AH. – abbreviation. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. 183. IK. GA. BA. siglum (CL. LL.76). KJ. 160). 468-9: AN. GA.3. 17. sifr 13. 5. 383. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN.


writing) (KM. sifr 13. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. IV.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. embellishing ( a text.


composition of letters and words on the line (ER. linking (joining) one letter with another. 78) 3. 109. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . HT. ¨ibr. lin. III. 83). markaz SO PDU NL]. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. MP. 24-27. boarding (TS. 58. ligature (e. e. 389. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. comp. on the line) (MY. (Turk.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah).73. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. 60ff). I.g. 50. 14. IV. ST. index. ligatured. 45). mürekkeb) – ink (DD. 393). SA. 681) 2. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). AG. UA. murakkab 1. comp. ¨ibr 2. hybrid (of a script) (LM. WDUN E 1.g.

UXN ¶ . rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. – support (for reed pens) (UA. 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ).



5 . .

II. index. IB. 31. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). . 107) 3. 703). rakwah (pl. 14. corner piece itself (ST. 30. AG.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. 69).

WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ . murammim – restorer.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada).0 . restoration (DM).60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. ramz SO UXP ].

secret alphabet (EI. 428) 2. VIII. III. 159) 3. chronogram. VIII. TW.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. chronosticon (EI. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. WB. 468. cypher. 55. code. 427) 4.

.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. V. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. 209.

 Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

478- $7  6' . 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). II. 127136). I. 86. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA.  '' . UA. TD. WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. . 393). I.


– little stick for the application of kohl. UA. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. 393.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. 1186. syn. LL. mik¨ O '' . UXZ K. DM). I.

marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. II. also known as sanad (q. 417418 and 500-501) 3. tradition (traditio). 94). KF. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. 545-547) 2. 109-111). recension (recensio) (LC. ULZ \DK 1. EI. XII. link in the chain of transmission (TP. – transmitter.v. transmission. VIII. varia lectio (MR. variant reading. 26.) (TP. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. 53. 53). version (versio).

100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). MP. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . 144. IV. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. 146. MB.) script (AS. 1123. 1125. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI.EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. JM. 545-547). Turkey) Persia. VIII. 43: wa-T OD . 38. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). 73-77.

62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. transcription (TE. IV. 18. ]DEU WD]E U 1. also dhabr – writing. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. sifr 13.).v. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. I. q. CI. inscription on stone (KM. copying. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. ¨ibr.

] ELU ]DE U – scribe. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. work (SA. II. 18. IK. 92). 444. zab U (pl. ND. zubur) – composition. ND. 80. KK. 80. copyist (TE.

18) 2. embellished writing. 85. TE. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. polychrome illumination (TE. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. TE.18. calamus (TE. IK. II. embellished writing. elegant. zakhrafah 1. copying (KK. elegant. copying (KK. 53. SA. 444-465. 18). 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. IR. 230).


muzakhrif – illuminator. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. decorator (WR.  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. 87). 80).

KT. comp. Ñurwah. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. 135). AG. 34. . 25. 110.

25. 19: in 12). ‘hair lock’. fastener (TS. ]LP P DK. V. ST. lit. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). zulf (Pers. index. ER. 682.. MN. decoration in gold and colours (LL. 1222). zalf (MN. 35. 360) 1. I.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . see DC. zulayjah (]DO MDK. AG. 689). ]XO \MDK./Turk. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. ‘curl’). IV.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. 109). 69.

ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. (pl. 222: al-WDUP N . (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. register (IK.9. pt. GA. 383-385. 601). NA. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. 181). account book. 127. 95) 2. I. catalogue (SD. azimmah) 1. list.

KF. MB. zinjafr – cinnabar. 315. vermillion ink (SA. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. . II. 320). 101. 145. 478). comp. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. II.

44.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). WD]K U – floral decoration. zawj SO D]Z M. box (DG. floriated (KJ.1. 38. KR. no. hence muzahhar. 91).


107) 2. 409). 107). X. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. GA. EI. f. forgery. VII. copying (TE. 90-100). 73. WD]Z U 1. I. 283. falsification (UI. muzawwir – forger (EI. 18) 2. 376).120b. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. X. 408-409. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. 6. X. AD. embellished writing. 391). ER. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. TK. 825 and VIII. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. AG. 73). conjugate leaf (AG.


105). WA. 4). decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. 12). multi-colour illumination (HT. 11) 3.  decoration. miniature painting (WA. writing.102. ]LZ TDK – art of illumination. 560. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME.4. 560) 4. ]DZZ T – illuminator. . n. MS. miniature painter (ME. lin.

MH. 127) 2. IA. 9). 62). interpolation. ]L\ GDK 1. 60. corner. 59.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. index. 9). ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. post-scriptum (AD. 136). index. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . square (an implement) (MB. 111. 73). 52. addition (CM.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. addition (TP. interpolation. 184) 2. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. dittography (TM. 98) 3. abbrev. superfluous. MI. angle 2.

embellished writing (SK. elegant. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . FRPS TDUU Á.


quodlibet. xiv. . 128) 2. preamble to a fatwá. jaw E (CI. MI. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. asÐilah) 1. abbrev. suµ O (pl. II. comp.

n. VA. 696. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. nos. used after the word All K 73 . 1853.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. 53. 461.20. 3214) 2. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP.

185). n. lapsus calami (DM). IB. siŒ µah – piece. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST.) (SD. 13. 81. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). etc. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). parchment) (IB. 11-12). index. I. piece (of poetry. 637).

83). 17). asiddah) – stopper. . plug (in the inkwell) (IK. transcription (TE. WDVG G – copying. VLG G (pl.

122. 1347). 40. 122) 2. hence V ULG – reader. reading. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. KM.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. awling. I. prelector (TP. Áurrah.) 1. 1347).52). al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. recital. misrad – awl. I. 115. comp. 39. 56. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. punch (SK. LL. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). n. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. I. punching (SK. sifr 4.

11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . 127. . KR. 95. horizontal stroke (UD. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. 36). 82).  frontispiece... 97. also known as lawzah (JL. munsa¨iŒ – flat. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. AF. 27. MD. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design.

 al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U. asÃur. sa¨r (pl.

II. line of writing. – line (KD. . 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð).

59). 155. 48) 5. IA. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. stencil (AF. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. 25) 3. 50. MB. composition (AD. 77). straightedge (UK. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". 17. lin. IA. TA. 15. redaction. WR.%  Q LC. MB. number of lines per page (LC. 155). MB. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. 59). 13. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. IN. ruling board (ST. IB. 134) 4. designing (UK. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). IA. number of lines per page (TK. ff. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. 105. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. pasteboard (HT. creating a line (of writing) (SA. WA. 12. 59). used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. 104- 7. writing. 43). lineation (LC. lineation. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. (grid of) guidelines. 28) 5. LC. 155. 104. KA. index. V ¨ir. ruling. 104.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. 87). 86. SDVVLP 6$ . as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 155. TS. 155. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. folder (UK. 28. tas¨ U 1. 247) 4. TS. 174) 3. 18. 91. 17). mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. WS. ruler. III. 73. 28. copying (TE. 155). 78. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. lining.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. 103. 104-105). TM. ruling (of folios). 113) 6. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK.. I.

 1364. DM: snuff box). . .5  // .



96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. codex. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. MS.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. book. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK.


9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 . V ILU (pl.

 WDVI U 1.g. ST. index . bookbinding (e.


109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). lawzah (mandorla) (TS. 158. MB. VDI QDK 1. lower margin. end of a letter or book 2. 97. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. AG.115. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. 742) 2. AG. 150). index. HT. 31. lin. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. tail (of the page). VIII. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. 109) 2. 78). al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. 15. IV. oblong format (of a book) (MD. spine (of a book) (UK. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. 660. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). 110). TF. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. passim). EI. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. 11. AD. . I. – book cover (MB.

MH. XII. haplography (TP. KR. 95. saqa¨ (MU. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. also LVT ¨ – omission. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 95. 58. 87) 2.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. 238) 1. 97. see above) (JL. 88). 97).

jazmah 2. 118.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. WS.133. 60). AT. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. comp. IR. lin. circle-like tool (HT. 137). saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. 133. 148. 482. 107. 230). VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. VXN Q 1. comp. 80). IA. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. ÑLO M PLVT K. II.

711. KD. SK. II. 31-33). II. silsilah SO VDO VLO. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. VI.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 115- .$  8. 248). SA. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. LM. AA. 103-104. – knife. 465-466. 90-91. pen knife (IK.


76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

27). silsilat al-nasab – stemma. IX. I. stemma codicum (AL.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . 611).

VDO P. 107). 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. 15. 5863. 1124). WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. JM. EI. KK.GLOSSARY 71 146. IV. AG.

CI. PLVP U (pl. no. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. xiii. 128). MI. I. 2211. 54. VA. mas P U.1830.

– nail. III. 372.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. TM. peg (part of a clasp) (BA.



&7 .

 . KF.. 278. LC. abbrev.25. 53. VIII. 1019-1020). V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. certificate). 267. EI. (CW. X. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. 27. 485493). 69. auditor. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 ..  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. TP. 53. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. MU. MU. n. TP..g. II. XVII.

I. certificate (JA. 45) 2. audition note. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ .

 musammi¶. musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK.

certifier (CT. authoritative commentator. FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. audition leader (master). 45).


179-181) 2. 1. proper name (EI. . title of a book (ism al-NLW E). IV.

28. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. 53. title (of a work) (LC. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. 28) 2. TP.) (MH.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name.20) 3. n. tasmiyah 1. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨.v. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q. sinn SO DVQ Q. 100).

154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6. shaqq ) (UK. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q.

.. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // . . 6$ .  (. .9  LQV – left side.  .

MB. hone (UK. IA. 153. misann ÃXOD\O ". 60: misann akh ar. 103. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone.

NH. 107. . AG.  $7 133. 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . 10.5  6$ .. TS.

). 395). sanad SO DVQ G. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM). q. misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. musannanah – chevron (FT.v.

musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. 53. 56). DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP.

 . 6/ ...   (. 9.

47). 5. VII. 8. TW. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. 365. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. EI. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. I. IV. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. FN. 704-705). sifr 13. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. 692). 14. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . FRPS muÁannaf. RN. 2.

OS. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. CM. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. 88. 264-265. II. 232). in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. VI. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like.

and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. 252).). comp. VI. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end.D.

I. AI. – Muslim era (DD. SK. VDZ G 1. 384. black ink (LC. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. 320. 27. 388).

MU. 27. XV. XIII. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . rough copy (LC.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. 126. 161.9 . MU. VI. MU.

copying by an apprentice (TE. WDVZ G 1. making it difficult to read (MH. preparation of a draft (TE. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . copying (TE.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. 50A) 3. musawwid – copyist. calligrapher (AW. nos. 237). FRPS PXED\\D ah. 45. 18. marring (of a text). 98) 4. 97. 18). vox reclamans (NZ. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. AM. 18) 2.

 V V DK.


– woodworm. .

74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. KD. damage caused by worms (LC. 463. musawwas – worm-eaten. SA. 17-18). 702). (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. II. KK. comp. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. trimming the textblock (TS. 28). 50. 105. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. II.

used in Ottoman Egypt. A variety of this script. Persia. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. 24-24). sayr SO VX\ U. 183). 178-180. RA. was known as qirmah (GA. 1124. 1125. DR.


index.96). MB.  endband (headband) strip (ST. sayf SO VX\ I. HT. 114. lin. 16.

103. 104. cutter (UK. IA. 154. – trimming sword. MB. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U.

preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. lin. 33. WDVK E N. 115.88-106. WDVKE N 1. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. (pl. 19. nos. 407. **** VKDE NDK 1. endband (headband) (HT. DH. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. 73). 20) 2.

. – interlace (TF. passim).

PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. 406).GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV.

. jilfah. comp..  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ ..' .  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). shajjah SO VKLM M..

shaŒm(ah) – pith. WDVKG G DK. 86. 711). 14.73) 2. hone (DD. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . II. 390). DH. I. I. composing a text in a schematic. LM. shaŒdh – whetting. WDVKM U 1. shajarah – genealogical tree. stemma (AL. tree-like way. 35-35). white interior substance of the reed (IK. no. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). shaddah. VII. 9. 967) 3. EI. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. stemma (SL. honing (of a knife) (KD. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. I. 27). mishŒadh – whetstone. creating a genealogical tree. UD.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). arabesque decoration (WR. 87. also mushajjar – foliated design.

doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. shidq SO DVKG T. – doubling (of a consonant). 14).

case binding (TS. 27. . book cover.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment).

76 GLOSSARY AG. 369). comp. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. 109). fakk 2. sharaj SO DVKU M.

) (BA. – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. III. sharŒ (pl. 372). sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.v.


 UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. xiv. I. 392: for opening sealed documents. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. FZ. al-VKDU I DK. paste (MB. 60. . ashriÃah) 1. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. 174-175)..0 . IB. &. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. 100. fillet (in decoration) (FT. 109) 3. MI. abbrev. rule-border (LC. CI. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . EI. IX. 139. [Lv). II. comprising the text commented upon (matn). al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. comment-text book. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). 401). DD. MM. rules. 29) 4. VLU V and V U V (DM). EA. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. shar¨(ah) (pl. stroke (DM). shars – pasting. NH. 217. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. 158. mishra¨(ah) – knife. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. OM). MD. 27. 27) 2. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. 397-320. cutter (IA. IA. 5051). shuraÃ) – line. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . 385. decorative band (UI. (LC. 60. also VKLU V. abbrev. long commentary. I. MB. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). 106-107.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

322). VI.v. 250). as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. nuskhah and the like.). used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. TW. ligatured Maghrebi script. 365.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. 47. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE .

)'  .

shaqq. polisher (NH. 251). FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. mish¨ab – 1. cancellation (LC. 756). shaÌ \ . comp.  arb. 390). 113) 2. AG. burnisher. duster. sha„ \DK (pl. 28: IN. I. I. eraser (TS. whisk (?). 11.

 VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. AA. 13) 2. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. à Ð \ Ð. 88. also tash„ \DK – line. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . III. serif-like stroke (LM. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. KH. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. 35.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman.

al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. al-mukarram. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam.

– the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .


78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. shi¶r (pl. ashÑ U.

I. II. 82. 12. CI. 81.g. CI. versification. – poetry. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. no. scribal verse (see e. nos. 116).

91-93. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). 103. III. shaqq SO VKXT T. tash¶ U 1. lin. bookbinder’s sword. 144.159). WDVKI U – trimming. illumination in gold. 9. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. 59. 104. 112. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . 127. shaving (HT. scraper (ST. outline (KF. shafrah 1. IA.104. index. JM. trimmer (HT. NA. paring knife.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. 45. 58). VI. 250). 145. 153. III. II. IP. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. AF. LM. 161) 2. SA. 224). cutting edge (SK. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. 59) 3. pt. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. 109). AI. al-musha¶¶ar. UK. MJ. 16. 50) 3. lin. MB. parer. AG.83. 161). al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. 11. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. outlining.


117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

II. 171) 3. slit (of the nib). 59. SA. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. 460-462).  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. . IM. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. MH. 97.

- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). WDVKN ] – 1. 393). shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. punch (UA. 62) 2. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. 699-702). ER. IV. 694). IV. 1124.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. IV. IV. ER. 43. 1124. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. no.1. sewing endbands (headbands). awl. preliminary endbanding (IA. .

150). vowelized (for various practices see SA. comp.g. 125. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. vowelization. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. vowel marks. 59. diagram. KH. III. 81).  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. IM. III. GL. SA. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. hence mushakkal – vocalized. III. 36). 12) 2. shaqq. 160-167.

.+  8'   .


80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

IA. passim. 116). MB. PA. 135). 63). rosette (LC. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. 27. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. 118.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. AF. 110. 51). sham¶(ah) – wax (AG.


– quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.g.


document (DM).20. 53. 340-. IX. n. – copy of a letter. 201 and X. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. EI.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.


Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. Mashhad (al-)´usayn. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . 90). XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS.

– . al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad.DUEDO Ð). al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas. shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU.HUEHOD .

al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. 1612).v. II. shuhrah. month (LL. – new moon.). usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U.

 . . EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &..


GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram. al-PXE UDN.

 26 . abbrev. – the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.

34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah).v.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. 117. 8. 725). VI. PA. KH. . RN. comp. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ.5. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. 250). i¦E ¶ (pl. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 19-20. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. VI. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN.). pt. fahrasah. fihrist. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. VK U ]DK (Pers. 118).) – endband (headband) (LA. mashyakhah (pl.

MB. attestation (of correctness in transcription). ¦aŒ Œ – correct. AR. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. 29-32. abbrev. tinting. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. LE. MH. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). 671-672. dye. (KG. 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. 267-268).82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. CT. emendation 2. sic. VIII. 73  . NW. mara  and saqam). 473. correction. ¦LE JK – pigment. IA. 114-118. 45). ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. 63. 285. MP. I. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). 120-129. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. II. 35. NH. 136. writing word in the text (GA. abbrev. tint (UK. thus (JA. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. QS.


n. comp. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. signing (a document) 4. editor.25). preparation of a critical edition. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. aÁ¨ E. ¦ Œib (pl. 53.

0. possession (OS). isti¦Œ E – ownership. owner (OS).  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). abbrev. .

page (DM) 4.. I. III. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . Áa¨ Ðif) 1. often leather. IV. small pamphlet. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. 22. leaf (TC. sheet of writing material... maÁ ¨if) 1. notebook (SL. sifr 13. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. ma¦Œaf. 9. I. 24). 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. mu¦Œaf. papyrus or paper (KD. Áu¨uf. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). II. IK. 22) 3. BA. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. mi¦Œaf (pl. folio (folium).  parchment. -835) 2. .

107) 3. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS.GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. 146. AG. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. AG. VII. II. JM. sometimes two.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. volumes) (EI. 25. 17. 16).4). 17. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. parchment textblock (TS. 16). 107. 316. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. n. MS. AG. 17. KF. MS. 54-57). 25. 107. 668-669.

error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. ta¦Œ I 1. distortion.g.  .  .

. 04  6$ .  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.

syn. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). ta¨U I TY.

bookbinding (LA.5. (. pt. -348) 3. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. .U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I.

11. ¦aŒŒ I 1. IB. II. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. HD. 9. 118) 2. ÁXG U. bookseller (QS. ¦adr (pl. 269-270). II. 13.

also ta¦G U – incipit. preamble. preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. ¦DG UDK 1.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

15) 5. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . AG. 218). 464. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). 59). 107) 6. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. IA. 44. MB. 105.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 156. II. as opposed to inner side. fore-edge flap (TS. fore-edge (TS. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. IB. wajh (SA. MJ. 27) 4. 16.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

mandorla (FZ. 110). MD. 109. 83. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. ÁuÑ G. comp. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. ¦a¶d (pl. JL. surrah. 99. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). ¦urrah – center-medallion.

– ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. TU. 34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. 50.

27). ta¦affuŒ – examination. FN. 58). ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. 11. ta¦I Œ – catchword. II. 227. 192). 371. verso of the first folio (LC. KD. study (KF. II. AG. siglum) (TP. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. 107). ¦DI Œah (pl. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. vox reclamans (TT. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. 30.

al-Ìafar. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). iafar (al-khayr. al-PXE UDN. al-muÌaffar.

– the second ¦ifr (pl. aÁI U.

– cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM.171. 59). month of the Muslim calendar. . TP. 89). (OS. abbrev.

maÁ ILQ.GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl.

– filter. KA. maÁ TLO. strainer. 393: for ink). passim. ¦aql – polishing. 134). ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. burnishing (MB. sieve (UA.

I. 149. IA. DD.. 99.  DS. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). 44. 149. aÁlub. 105. aÁO E. – polisher. IB. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. 156. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . 142. MB. ¦ulb (pl. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK.

bookbinding (IA. . LC. 59). 166. original text (LC. 27) 2.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. IA. 111.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. ta¦O E 1. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. 62). making pasteboards (MB. 119). 1712. 62) 3. 27). no. II. text-column (LL. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. MB. II. comp. matn. correction (FK. i¦O Œ 1. main.


MM. siglum) (TP. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. no. 191. 55-56. i¦¨LO Œ. suspension. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. II. CI.


86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. [LLL (. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. abbrev. -359).      73  Q 73  &. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. . wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. .

ÁDQ G T. 83). al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. sketching (MO. ta¦P P – design. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. ¦LP P – plug.v.).

– wooden chest. box (for copies of the QurÐ Q.

0'  7% -94). ¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  .

ta¦Q I (pl. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦un¶. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. taÁ Q I. Ñamal. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl.

98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. III. – composition. work (MU.

) (SL. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. as opposed to musnad (q. mu¦annif – author. II. 39. 662663. often the author of the original text PDWQ. 705). EI.v. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. compiler. work. VII.

 DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). duction by artisans. art. craft (EI. abbrev. I. IX. xi). 625-626). (CI. E\ $E +LO O.


aÁwinah) – case. 361. ta¦Z E (pl. **** LI Ì. 361-363) 2.  LE E. no. miniature painting (MU. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. preservation (DM). al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. taÁZ E t) – correction. X. XV. XVI. ¨ ¦awn. 889892 and X. 143. EI. „abbah (pl. ta¦Z U 1. 559).141: ‘portraitiste’). mu¦awwir – painter. 225. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2.g. 121.212).GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. ¦ UDK (pl. TP. transcript (e. ¦LZ Q (pl. Áuwar) 1. copy. MU. correctness. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. example (JA. I. ME. 268) 4.2. taÁ¨ ¨. apograph (TP. microfilming. IX. box (NT. illustrator (PA. comp. exact copy. 136. 57). 56) 3. comp. DH. pt. painted illustration (EI.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

MH. marking the word with a  abbah (TP. i„barah (pl. 95-96). 57. a  E U. ta„E E. 95-96). thus (TP.64. DEEUHY 73  AR. sic. also known as WDPU „. n. 30) 2. MH. 57.

95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd.. KM. „LE UDK 1. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. quire . sifr 13. a number of leaves or sheets put together. a„barah. IV. bundle of documents (IK.

18. IB. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . ta„E U 1.  XU E.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl).  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . 44. 29. 26.177). 112) 4.120a-b).. 388). gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. orthographer (MH. binding (IB. AG. 107. (pair of) dividers (TS. „ EL¨ 1. 97) 2. index. 107) 3. 12. 19. f.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. ST. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. TK. 18. textblock (TS. 16. AG. AG. 5) 3.  DZ ELÃ) – compass. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. 11) 2. II.16.) . album (FT. 17. 13.) . (pl. specialist in  abÃ. n. collation (of quires) (TS.

a U V  XU V. 59). mallet (LF. stalk?) (TS. „irs (pl. 109) 2. 62). erasure (MF. II. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. small tool (resembling a drum stick. KF. – cancellation. 11. mi„rabah 1. AG. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP.

AG. „i¶f (pl. also TS. 12. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. 109) 2. AG. 32-33. a Ñ I.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. interlace (TS. 109-110).

ta  Ñ I. ta„¶ I (pl.

II. interline (LL. XVII. MU..  /& . – space between lines. 1792. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // .


mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. 45). 12. AG. a Z Ð) – counter. Á G à Р.406). e. 32. AG. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. 110). „DI UDK (pl. interlace (TF.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. 11. III. 44). „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. 413) 2. interlaced (FZ. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. ‘eye’ (of a letter). (SA. plait. 107). ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN.g. 44. passim). braid (FT. 30. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. 217).  DI Ðir) 1. 33. ma„I U – plaited. polygon. „awµ (pl.

76   $* .

mi¨ba¶ 1.medallion) (HT. ÃDZ ELÑ ). . comp.  ODUJH stamp (for a center.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). signet. seal. ¨ EL¶. 96). ¨ ED¶ (pl. stamp (IK. lin.

90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl. aÃE T ÃLE T.

144. WS.  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. roll (AJ. .


comp. qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq).

sarwah) (JL. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. DB. (KU. 154. 2019) 4. 979) 5. tirs. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK .5 . III. 83. center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE.

ÃDEDT W ÃLE T. ¨abaqah (pl.

TK. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. 372). record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). abbrev. audition note (EI. 73  Q $. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. ¨LE T – large sheets.120a) 4. marginal note. 107. AD. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). 102). IA. 1020. marginalia. gloss. 110) 3. 60). 113. edge. ¨urrah (pl.7. f. turn-in (TS. VIII. I. AG. border (on a book cover) (TS. margin (LC. Taf. AG. Ãurar) 1. . leaves (of paper) (NH. 21. 28. MZ. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. 109) 2.


II. VI. SD. 46. 29) 6. 58. address (ÑXQZ Q. SA. margin (TP. ML. 313.

HT. ta¨U U – glossing. Ãughrá 7. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. 28) 11. 28) 13. comp. illuminated headpiece (LC. 16). X. 689). 16). 36) 12. annotated (WA. 28) 8. 58.120a. 28) 10. f.67).85). 28) 9. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK.120a). n. 28. palmette (LC. mu¨arrar – glossed. 57. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. . ansa. KH. IV. tailpiece (LC. f. lin. annotation (WA. 682. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. TP. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU.

132.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. PA. manuscript restorer. MB. 103). ¨DUU Œ 1. HD. celui qui fait le tracé initial. 133). sketcher. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. 118. draftsman (AB. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. 118. 69. 159: ‘dessin. 101. ¨irs (pl. composition’). PA. ta¨U Œ – sketch. ÃXU ¨). 61. ÃXU V DÃU V. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. Ãar¨’) 2. 141: ‘dessinateur. outline (HD. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ.

IW. IK. 1840). 408. LL. EI. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU .  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. II. 93. VIII. 75-76. 63-64. comp.

III. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). sifr 13. IV. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. LF. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. ta¨U V – obliteration.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . BA. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. HJ µ. aÃU I. 371). 140. 8. ¨araf (pl.

107). 60). ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. 11. hammer (TS. AG. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. AG. 107. IA. TH. mi¨raqah – mallet. 166. 11. 30. 38. 109). 31. 15. . 87). AG. 57.

28) 4. sifr 13.) 2. X. FT. X. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. erasure (KM. headpiece (LC. 595-598) 3. 109). ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. 11. (MU. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. 28). IV. à ¨ughrá. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. AG. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. ¨XJKU µ (pl.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. inlay work (AB. 134. 406). ta¨¶ P – inlay.v.


483). SD. UK. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. AJ. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. 147. leaf (of paper) (TS. 92. ¨alaŒ – sheet. 27. WS. ÃDO ¨ \. 145. I. ¨alŒ. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. II. 83). al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 52).

SD. 52). II. – sheet (of paper from the mould). ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). . roll (WS. 87: al-darj.

comp. 63. ta¨O V – obliteration. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. syn. sifr 13. ¨alsah.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. 373: ¨ulsah). LL. ¨ilsam. IV.0 . NH. II.) (pl. 82.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . 373: ¨als. ¨ilsim. thus differing from Ãirs’). Ãirs. NH. ¨ilsim (etc. erasure (ND. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. ÃDO VLP.

WB. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). headpiece (TW. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. ¨ OL¶ (pl. incipit (WA. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. 56). 11. naÌDUD ZDTDID. 500-502). 258). ascender (of a letter).) (KH. X. beginning of the text. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. iÁE Ñ (q. – talisman. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. tion of words (EI. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa.v.

/&  26 .

 FRPS WDTU Ì. 224). al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. MJ. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. III. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . SA. popular class of scripts’). . III. 29: ‘common. naÌar. RN. al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. 144. 59.

¨ams 1. obliteration. gilding (SD. DG. KD. coating. passim) 2. gilt and the like (MB. 136). pasting (MB. of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. 110). ‘eyes’. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. 278. 58. II. daubing. II. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. erasure (JA.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. I.

AS.. IR. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. 144). KH. 6$ . 36. -47. 242..

 DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. a¨Q E (sg.

Áilah. . 17. / / / (CI. 32. layer) of paper (TS. 111. MB. 110). cartouche (LC. 157. 31. MB. 26) 2. ¨DZ O – long. 35. sheet (piece. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). 107. 62. rules. AG. IA. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. mu¨awwal – original. 109. xviii). 120b) 2. 135) 3. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. f. unabridged work. AG. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. rectangular panel (AB. IA. TK. 26). abbrev. I. musta¨ O 1. comp. ¨ TDK 1. 61). strand (UK. rule-border (LC.


8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. KM. sifr 13. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. IV.

mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). 11. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. ÃDZ P U. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. 12). III. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. 49-57). 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. It was written with a reed pen.


 . abbrev.120a). – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK.  0. f. person.

206. misk) (e. 212). MJ. musta¨ E DK.g. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk.


CI. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. 3. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e. 18). CM.g. II.

**** „arf (pl. WKDU KX – requiescat. AH. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. ÌXU I. 182). 98. inset (EM.


LL. 1910.  FDVH ER[ /& 29. . 575). ME. II.

v.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. „ufr (pl. II. al-„afar. aÌI U. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. 495).).

no. ‘shading’) – outlining.3. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). usually the thumbnail) (TM. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. outline (KJ. ta„O O (lit. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. 29).

 „ann (pl. ÌXQ Q.

285). hair side (of parchment).64. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. blank reverse of a letter (LC. – conjecture. xv. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. n. 29). baÃn. placed in the margin. back of a document. front of the textblock (LC. II. SL. comp. „ahr – back. GA. I. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). 59) 2. verso. 57. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. abbrev. 29. (TP. CI. 29). „DKU \DK 1.

109). gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. I.Oá). ME. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. II. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. comp. ‘alleged. . 11. abbrev. „ KLU (lit. obvious. 88. AG.  IO\-leaf (SD. evident’. first page(s) of the textblock (KF.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . ‘external. 8 and II. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture.


AJ. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. 148-149. ¶ajuz (pl. MP. ¶ajz.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. aÑM ]. 80-82). 40. WS. 147.


21-22. 52. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU.P P DO-0DKG .14). TP. V. n.

¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. RA. 146. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). . 26). sifr 13.  (. . diacritical point 3. IV. vocalization (KM. treatise.. III.. DEEUHY MI.

ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. SA. . 57). pointed letters (TP. 90. ¶ajm. i¶M P WD¶M P 1. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH.


taÑ U M. (pl.

¶arsh (pl. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. 30). curvature (of the descender) (SA. ÑXU VK. – curve. III.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj).

al-sa¨r – base line (TW. 230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U.

92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . reciter (CT. LC. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . 136). 45).9. trellis (FT. mu¶ UL„ – collator. ¶ar„(ah). Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). 45). SA. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. SA. JA.. 29). 56.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. TP. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. III. ¶LU „(ah). 218. I. lattice-work (AB. 423) 2. 202).  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. II.. 25. MH. abbrev. ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. 464. KU. taÑ U T. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl.

11. 37. 50. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. KU. III. 22. 40. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 36. KH. SA.

¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB.U T see mu¨aqqaq. (al-kha¨¨) al-¶. . 11). FRPS PXÑaqqaf.

34. 110. AG.. 25. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. Ñuran) – thong. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ .  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. KT.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl..

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

 DEEUHY / (CI. I. xiii). aÑVK U. ¶ashr (pl.


. decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   ..7  // .  6' . . ¶ VKLU \DK – mark.  8.

 al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. ta¶VK U 1.

109). ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. stamp with vegetal design (TS.7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). 11. AG. 108. 109). ¶ushar 1. AG. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 116: gha  UDK . tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. 109) 2.

¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. 134). mi¶¦arah (pl. 42). 154). also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 154. IK. SD. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. II. 154-155. 84). . IB. 155.

107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. signe de renvoi).130) 2. caret (MR. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. lin. curved line (used as a reference mark.

connection. abbrev. introd. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. 147.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH.). MI. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. 35. AM. 36. / / / (AR. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. 37) 4. 145.

TP. MR. 176. 54). TM. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. 00 132. 93.

index. ¨ibr) (MP. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ¶af¦ – galls. 16. ¶LI ¦ – plug. 17. LL. 2091). gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . II. 19). 83. margin (ST. ST.

vox reclamans (TN. aÑT E. 27) 2. ta¶T EDK 1. ¶aqb. catchword. note. ¶aqib (pl.+  10  SJ. 344). 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . comment (LC.

lower ¶uqdah (pl. III. 36) 2. KH. AG. – end of the text (matn) on a page. 46. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. 109). knot-like tool (TS. 11. . 58. counter. Ñuqad) 1. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. 47.

comp. 126).GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. taÑU T ¶allahu. ‘perhaps. 37). maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. la¶allahu (lit. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU.


90.Q DO-ÑLO M. WS. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB.

copying (TE. 15) 2. 124).9 . transcript (AD. ligature (KU. writing. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. copy. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. composition. transcription. script. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . 119) 3.


) . . .

taÑ O T WDÑO T W.  DOVR ta¶O TDK. abbrev. 107) (pl.  (MI.

v. IX. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. 162). 165) 6. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. II. comment. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. 71. IV. 694-696) 2. EI. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. name often given. LC. IV. 26). in the Turkish/Arabic context. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. MU. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. 1124. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. – marginal gloss. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ.). explication (TE. 15. scholium. X. 27. ER.


76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

104).. . FRPS U MLÑ. 77). al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. 26.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . III. 28. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. AG. also TS..

III. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . 371. mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA.

 ¶alam (pl. aÑO P.

164). ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. mark. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. 164. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. II. 135. ta¶O P 1. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. autograph (LC. II. signature (SD. 22). 352) 4. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. – decorated border (LL. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. ¶DO PDK – 1. EI. 381). II. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. marking quires before sewing (ST. SD. 2140). book mark (e. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. motto. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. index. TS. 18) 2. I.g. 27) 2. XII. marking. signing a document (AA. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3.

 100). no.39). ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.DUEDO Ð) (CM.¶  0.HUEHOD . al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .


. 372). ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. III. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. abbrev.

II. ¶amal (pl. aÑP O. 2153: ‘text of the book’).GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah.

VII. compilation (MU. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ.  FRPSRVition.

main work of a painter (PA. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. cryptogram. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU.e. writing. 47-48. (SJ. 229. etc. 257-258). VII. colouring. SA. IX. ta¶miyah 1. laà I DO-Ñamal.). also mu¶ammá – cryptography.v. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. comp. TC. used in opposition to Ãar¨. q. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. chronosticon (TI. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. 30) 3. i. 123). EI. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. taÑZ U 2. painting. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\.


EI. 110. VII. 211. 260-261). 16. (MW. ÑDQ Z Q. I. SL. ¶XQZ Q (pl. PK.


tarjamah 2. 29. X. section heading (LC. PA. 66. 870). . 870-871) 4. 871-872) 3. comp. 29). 29. title (of a book) (LC. X. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. 116. chapter. 36. EI. EI. EI. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. X. 2183). II.

104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah. curved (of a line. I. i¶ZLM M – curvature. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. 200-203). VWURNH.

mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). IN. 14). 13. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. e. UD. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. 7). taÑ Z GK. I. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. repetitor (EI. VII. ta¶Z GKDK (pl.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. ta¶awwudh.g. 726). . 12. collation session (MF. 74). 230). collation master. X.

ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. aÑZ P. of letters) (AP. Ãams. ¶ P (pl. ‘eyes’. – talisman. 69). comp. KU. 95. 123-124). amulet (DT. 114.

VI. comp. . sanah. 43). comp. LM. 194. 252-253). ¶ayn (pl. – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. Ñuqdah.

IB. 88. IB. MP. 46: taghriyat al-waraq).289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. AG. 250). 199). 45-47). MB.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. OD. 244). JM. 12-13. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. 145. NW. red and black colours (SD. sizing (of paper) (AB. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. 97. 42.60-72. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA.18) 2. 74. IK. 32-34. EI. 41. DW. pasting (ST. NW. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. 37. 97. MB. 141. II. 74). VI. IB. 19-23. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. HT. IV. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. 145). 1124). (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. 37. VI. 250). n. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. MP. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. ghubrah – mixture of white. 58-63. 47. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. NW. VI. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. MP. 233. index. taghriyah 1. adhesive (TS. 47). AS. rasm al-JKXE U. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. aghriyah) – paste. 107. North Africa. 90. lin. 141. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. 73).

IU T  . FRPS .


554. passim). box (SD. book cover. II. aghshiyah) 1. 564) 2. case. JKLVK µ (pl. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. ME. 214. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. 35. covering of the board. JKD] O see jild. 36. KC. binding (TS.

 ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. III. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. pl. CD.


. 473). I. LVWLJKI U DK.) . taghshiyah – book covering. 257). binding (IN. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK . I.

 WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' . 217) 2. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ ..  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ.. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness..

ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. bold character. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). ghal¨ah – error. 192).  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. abbrev. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). mistake. OHWWHU 6. 150). a word) (MI. .


213. mughallif – bookbinder (DG. JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. 157). binding (FZ. – book cover (MD. AB. 214. WDJKO I – book covering. 132). 108).

128).. **** I I U – papyrus (EI. 261). comp. also iftit Œ. 114. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ. SA. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q.v.Ñuqdah. III. VIII.  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal).). 47. 46. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. – WDLOSLHFH . mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU.) .

8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . XV. 23) 2.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah.9. LC. LQFLSLW 08 . preface.. proem (MU. prologue.

headpiece (KF. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT.  KHDGLQJ (e. 23) 4.g. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar. LC. II.

IA. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. TS.18. 59). muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. 62. . 245). also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. IA. IDW ODK 1. VI. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. 104. AG. 109) 2. press screw (MB.

comp. 189.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. SD. 249). Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. VI. II. leaf (of paper) (SA.

as opposed to linked (ligatured) form.v. WDUN E TY. conjugate leaf. 28). al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. LIU G – letter in its isolated. one half of a piece of leather (TS. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). – one of a pair.). al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.

. . 6$ ..

230. MY.g. 83). IR. 154). II. 133.v. DD. 390). al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. I. AT. 481. 60. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. SA. far„ al-qalam – syn.) (KU. III. shaqq (q. fur„ah (pl.


 .. // .

annotation (TM. witness (MR. 23) 2. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK . mifra¨ – cutter (ST. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. most probably a variant of PLTU „. LC. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh.18). note. apograph. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. index.


KR. abbrev. 82). application as opposed to theory. argument resulting from a legal point.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. scroll (FI. q. 131). JL. SM. 93. 88. (AD.) (UD. 269) 4. WDIU ¶ – interlacing.v. aÁl. 87. IDU JK SO IDU JK W. 15.

completion. execution. 41) – end. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO.

also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. blank. GA. lacuna (LC. 289) 3. farkah (MN. 26. 23. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2.+  /0 . 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . 23).


comment. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 1. explication.


23. three dots. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . MS. disc. X. commentary and/or translation.g. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle).5 . 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. from Greek into Arabic (EI. fa¦¦ (pl. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. mufassir – commentator. AK. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. 83). SA. 351. e. paragraph mark (TP. LC. 55. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. III.


fuÁ O.110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl.

145-146) 2. 138. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. 55. spacing (TP. space between words or passages. . III. 134. word division (in a text). SA. taf¦ O 1. MM.

or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. comp. TP. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. MP.20). n..  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. 37. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. 53. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 271). silver-based ink (UK. MB.. 92.  FKDSWHU 6' II. 33). 130-133.

RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. fiqar) – passage. xiii. I. II. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. paragraph (LC. 23. fiqrah (pl. SD. abbrev. 273. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). AK. comp. 351). DM). section of a text.

372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. III. – book cover (HN. 385. BA.


al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). box (KC. funuq) – case. 45). fihrist (pl IDK ULV. fihris. mufakkak – loose.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. disbound (e.g. IDQ T (pl.


mashyakhah 2. II. AR. comp. gloss. fahrasah 1.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. 36). abbrev. LC. cataloguing. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. 149. (CA. EI. nota bene (notabilia). RU &0  RU 66. list. 23. II. 50). **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. also I µidat al-a¦l. catalogue (SD. 286. record of attested study. II. 49. marginal note. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. 207. 293) 2. 743-744) 4. abbrev. bibliography.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. 107). al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. 15). Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). 76  AG. Qubbat al-.

.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. qabr. IV. qabla – before. II. lit.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. abbrev. straightedge (TS. SD. 302). 471). qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. qub¨al. AG. 107.

VII. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. corrector. PXT ELO – collator.TP. 56. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. 490492). muÑ UD ah 2. collation note (statement).52. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. comp. EI. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. MH. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . II. n. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR.

37. CI. n. AA. 18. AG. qaÃÃ. II. CI. qidd (pl. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. 10.xiii. 109). 24. aqudd) – strip (of leather).) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. abbrev. comp. xiv). . 54. FRPS ] Ðidah. II. 11. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. etc. 107). miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. 701. I. / / / / / (TP.

for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. TP. preface. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. 59. abbrev. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. 107). 173). RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. comp. introduction (EI. also TS. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. 17. MI. 52. 26. AG. 495-496). 120. VII. fore-edge flap (TS. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. muqaddimah – forward.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge.

T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. 9 -129) 3. 26) 2. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. prelector. commentary (AD. reciter. variant reading (varia lectio). reading. 139). gloss. manner of recitation. collection of glosses. TLU µah 1. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. recitation (LC. – marginal note.

  73 . $/ .

PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. KF. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. TP. II.g. FRPS ¨arf. 494-498).25. FRPS VDP Ñ. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. n. 53.


sleeve case (TS. AG. 110). TLU E (pl. 36. sheath (SK. 466) 2. 110). 110). . 36. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. SA. 104. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. AG. AG. aqribah) 1. 35-36. II.

PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. 19. 60). 18. ST. MP. 20). putting something into a press (ST. QS. 59). IK. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. 47). MP. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. 107. IB. 10.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. 107. IV. index. sifr 13. 94). index. II. IA. 21. 91-92. IK. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. 44). ST. AG. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 63. 103: PLTU   (!). 63).19. 417). AG. screw press (MB. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. 44. qar¦a¶ah – fine. compact writing (KM. IB. 19. index.


173-174. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. EI. EI. AE. IW. comp. VIII. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. parchment (AE. 17). 66-76. II. AE. WS. 98. I. 407) or paper (SA. 108. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. 66-93. V. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. 82-91). 261. UD. VIII. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). 50.

– approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript. often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. .

GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. 335- WDTU   W . XIV.

 qarmadah. 143. 136. compact writing (KM. %/ $0 QRV     122.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . 313). 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. sifr 13. qarma¨ah – fine. IV. 186). muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL. 182. muà ODÑah. comp.

59. IB. IK. 80). 41). IA. 146. EI. miqsam(ah) (lit. MB. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. AA. IV. qirmah see VL\ T. index. 86. 153. see also UA. EI. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. qa¦¦. IV. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS.19. DS. 393: not defined). 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. 42. HT. qurnah – corner (MB. 181. JM. 682. 60. 103. 69). al-qurnah al-yusrá). qa¦ab(ah) – reed. reed pen (IK. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. . trimming (ST.

qa¦amah. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. miqaÃÃ. 86). tin-based ink (UK. qa„ P DK. comp. MP. 130. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 32). 154). qa„m – syn.116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. 153).

72-74. the point itself. nibbing. 109-110. 2-463. I. KM. IK. LM. 102. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. etc. leather (IW. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . KU. 153. AA.) breadthwise (KD. II. 50. cutting (of leather. – white hide. sifr 4.. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 93). KK.

LM.e. longer than the left’. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. LL. 462. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. i. I. II.

II. MJ. 2996. ivory. 217). . MJ. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. II. 154). al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. 1742. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. straight point of the nib (SA. 217). II. 462). opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð.

MK. MM. 105: maqaÃÃ. IP. 76. 133). MB. SA. 468. II. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. 45. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf.742. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 62. 65. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. SK. IV. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. ND. AT. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 54. qaÃÑ al-thumn.GLOSSARY 117 etc. qa¨¶ (pl. LS.

 irs (AG. principle of the interlace. decoupage (ER. piece of poetry) 2. piece of calligraphy. piece of something (e.g. VI. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. . 110). al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. calligraph (AC. 475). qi¨¶ah 1.

mishraÃ. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. collage. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. papercut(s). 11. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. (pair of) scissors (IK.  (5 9. 21) 2. filigree work (IP.  +'   T ÃiÑ. comp. format (of a book) (TL. decoupage. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. 475). AG. 91). VI. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. cutting instrument (DM) 2. 144. 90) 4. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting.. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. 107). PA. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. 9. WS. . taq¨ ¶ 1. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. muqaÃÃa¶ ).

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

 26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

. 377). – clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH.

al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. 107).118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. flat back (TS. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. 15. 107. 107). AG. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. AG. 15. index. taqfiyah – backing (TS. qalb. 15-17. ST. AG. 641). 15. AG. comp. 14. 107). 20).

  .  PRXOG 8.

14. no. index. 26. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. 26.3.19. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. LC. MK. ST.

59. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. JL. FI. miqlab SO PDT OLE. 214. 88. 93) 4. folder (IB. FZ. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. 43).


202-203). TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. – envelope flap (MT. DW. 83. 68). qalam SO DTO P TLO P. WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. 26).

 SLHFH RI ZRRG ..  76 .

SA.  calamus. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. copper pen. i. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. 13 (AA. TC. IK. KU. reed pen. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". 45-87. 44-465. 232. II. also qalam al-qa¦ab.e. see TW.

471) 3. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. ductus. . 356. 38-39. MB. IV. -50. AT. handwriting. 71-75. MP. MB. EI. script. 133-134.. 144. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . 100). hand. 59-64. UK.

see khaÃÃ. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK.


335). al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. I. 11-12). muqawwar. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. used in talismans and amulets (IT.

al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. IK. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. 153. al-thuluth. DO-mu¨aqqaq. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. 85). 145). 144).


  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  .$  Q..  $. SA. . .  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah..


'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

. 79). 43. 85). 2565). II. trimming (a reed). qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. 43. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). chest (LL. KR. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. II. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. AG. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. 49-51. 11. WDTO P – paring. 109). I.

as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . 11. comp.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. 37). al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. 144). WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. III. 144). al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. AS.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

– quotation. tract 2. short composition. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. 154. 238). xiv. II. treatise. MU. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. 190. PDT ODK 1. TP. MI. 155. passage. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. XII.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

III. 377. I. 283. 82. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 190. 83. KF. 327. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. 86. KF. I. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. folio (folium) (MK. DF.

g. 22). mDEV Ã. RN. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. erect. . comp. PXVWDT P – upright.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.


qayd SO TX\ G. al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq.

73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' .. 17. committing something to writing. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1. composition (TE. – note. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. statement.


113. III. binding. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh.  tying. . IA. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. 62) 4. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA.. IK.


N JKL¨. IB. 43). muqayyid 1. no. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. 27). 153.187). N ]DQ – mallet (UK. glossator (AM. gloss (LC. – marginal note. author 2.

98-105. leaf (of paper) (AJ. al-N JKDG DO-. comp. waraq. 419-420. WS. N JKLGDK – sheet. etc. SO NDZ JK Ã. WS.VO P . AE. see waraq. al-kalŒ . . 77-85). al-5 P . IV. 136). 77) – paper (EI.

374). in papermaking) (OM). ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. kubbah (pl. WS. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. kubab) – ball (of fibre. 85-86). munkabb – inclined.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. 136. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. as in the beginning of w Z.

8'  /0 .

416. mikbas. 440. KL. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. katb.107. II. AG. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. 49-53. 393). mun¨anin. UA. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ.v. comp. 40. TH. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. II. kitbah (MH. q. SD. CM. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . Ranunculus asiaticus.) 2. II. 91. 169).) (US. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. 416). TS. NDE NDM 1. WDNE V – pressing (QS.

copying. NLW E NLW EDK – writing. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . transcription. composition.

FDOOLJUDSKHU. used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist.

183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. NI. CT. Turkish ketebehü. 45: ‘hence katabah. +. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah.

fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. 180).  VHFUetary. 554-760). amanuensis (EI. . comp. scrivener 2. scribe. IV. mu¨arrir.

a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). PDNW E SO PDNW E W. NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. letter. piece of writing. IK. V. book. KD. 197-200). maktabah – library (EI. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. maktab – place designated for writing. I. EI. 53. codex (MA.. IV. lin. 23. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. archetype. 388: mukattab).GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 384). spine (of a codex) (HT. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1.115). tail (of a book or document) 2. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . 705.) . al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. 207-208). document. VI. chapter in a book (SL. booklet. 86). copying (KK.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . NH. II.

mukattib (e. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ.g. II. 53). IV. KD. KM. muktib. 705). calligraph (DP. – piece of calligraphy. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. master calligrapher (KK. 4. sifr 13. 51.


230). takŒ O 1. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). kohl. 414) 2. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. outline (of letters) (DH. I. mikŒ O see mirwad. 187). NDWK U µ – tragacanth. 393. outlining.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. kuŒl – antimony. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. IR. pointing (of a wall) (FT. no. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG.

68). misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. comp. RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB.


142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK.

33.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 12. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs. AG. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.

  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). NDGK – thus. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. 42). IB. sic. 154. abbrev. 0.

dittography (e. ditto- NXUU V DK. TM. 48. WLNU U. 162).g. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. takarrur – graphic error. 184).



ra¨l. 48.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. 60). 60). quire (gathering).0 . NXUV – book cradle. reading stand (MD. TS. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. SK. SA. CI.92). x. KU. 107) 2. abbrev.  . 131. II. II. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. IK. comp. 468-471. . AA. AG.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . 84. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. 100. 700). 132). kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. II. TS. SL. passim. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. lin. II. 14. KD.


 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .



miksar SO PDN VLU. kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. 363).

NH. of bashr (LF. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. TP. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . 79. 128). 391). IR. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. 274. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. knife (for making erasures) (IR. 137. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). 58). 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). syn. DD. 389. I.

kuÑ E.126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl.

passim. inlay (SA. 84. II. 109). 95. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. NXQQ VK DK. 109). 90). DE. dast. 92. AJ. WS. 977. 92. 39. comp. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. kaff(ah). rizmah. FT. 442. 406). KR. flat back (MB. 145. 61. JL. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. DM). 94). 97. 109. 82). WDNI W – inlaying. tongs (MB. IA. AB. main de papier). usually 25 sheets (PT. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. – spine (back of a codex) (MB.


. – 1. 25. HB. commonplace book (LC.

 FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK .  kunyah (pl. V. 395-396).

an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . I . IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. originally and properly speaking. I 1.

g. comp.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. 11-13. 363. FN. 8-9. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV. AV. 27ff. MV. OD).

76  $*  86 .

 FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. 114. 119. laŒaq (pl. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. 27. SA. 139). ultramarine. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 478). al¨ T OL¨ T. paint (UK. II. 29. 145. MP. JM. azure ink. 85).

mulŒaq – omission. ilŒ T. insertion (TP. .

milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. JA. II. 24. LC. TM.128 GLOSSARY  .14). 185. OL] T – paste. 42). 279). 703). IB.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. I. adhesive (KD. comp.. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK. 154. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS.

IR.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. SA. DD. book cradle (TW. II. 107. AG. 133. WA. 481) 2.169. 230. 481. II.24. I. 15. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). n. 390) 3. SA. copyist’s book support. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT.  76  11. 14.

where each gathering is numbered separately). abbrev.  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. /&  /( .


large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC.109. MM. 13. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. 25). HT. OLV Q (pl. 20. 119. index. LC. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. lin. 25. 90. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. ST. $'  /( 137) 3. 132). JL.


mulaffaq. 145. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . malediction. or (MI. alÁiqah) – paste. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. RA. 391. 131. 26). passim). II. lin. DD. lafŒ – tooling. IR. stamping (HT. 181. II. abbrev.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. 530). SD. I. adhesive (SA. comp.166). DM). laqab SO DOT E. milaff 1. 230) 2. spool (DS. 167. 480. wrapper (DM). OL] T la¶nah – curse.

. V. pincers. 109) 2. – nickname. DD. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. WDOT P – inlaying. (pair of ) tongs. inlay (FT. 406). tweezers (MB. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. 618-631). honorific title (EI. I.

stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. 49). LM. 11.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. lak. lakk RU O N '* .

ODPP ¶ – glossy.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. comp. 16). lamq – elegant writing. 140).g. copying (TE. namq. varnish (AB. glazed. 109). 11. law¨ W.v. AG. q. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS.). al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. burnished (e. lacquer.

II. illuminator (HD. MS. OM) 4. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. 124) 3. 99. HT. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. 125). (Turk. usually framed). 24. wooden board (TS. panel (in decoration).123. MB. 29.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. 5) 5. gloss (DM). lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. lin. 402). pasteboard (ST. 58-59) 2. 142-143. 31) 6. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. headpiece (FT. head.or tailpiece) (LC. . 11. 25.

IB.v. 105. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. central medallion (on a book cover). 59. also known as sarwah (q. 38). 156.). oval figure 2. TS. AG. 109. 44. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). mandorla 4. MB. see also nuqÃah) 3. 11. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. IA. 31. raÐs al-lawzah.

IB. II. 208). lawn SO DOZ Q. 133. MJ. IR. AT. 478. – spatula. 230. 45. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA.

698-707. – colour. . pigment.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. 148. JA. tint (EI. V. AI.

IK. WDOZ Q 1. 11. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. tinting (of paper). III. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. LC. polychrome illumination (WA. WDO\ ¨ 1. 86. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. 27) 2. see also the quotation under sha¨m).

paper pulp (OM). coloured ink (SA. liyaq) 1. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. index. II.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. II. 26-29. colour. MJ. 20. . 393) tow (wad. n. 84. 370). 477-478. 702. 79-84. AT. BA. 13. III. 55. 203) 2. 111-119. MP. IK. 133). UK. also PLO T (UA. O TDK (pl. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. MB. tint (AD. MP. 160) 3. tuft of unspun silk. 26-29.

also PLO TDK (BA. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 . 370) – compartment for ink (KD. amliqah) 1. III. II.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl.


.. . %$ .

144. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. KH. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U.

such as al-thuluth. **** matn SO PXW Q. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. comp. muraÃÃab. muqawwar.


EI. V. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . text-column (MU. 843) 2. II. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). VI. 1. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH.


shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. ¨ VKL\DK.

843) 4. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). 1. P WLQ – author of the original composition. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. LC. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. (qalam) al-matn. II. IX. MD. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. SD. 109. . 24. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. 25). VI. 214. Œard al-matn (HN. TP. EI. 53). 568). al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA.

471-477. PLG G (pl. amthilah) – copy. BA. 238). 79-90. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. MJ. blind tooling.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). MP. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. AE. III. KH. MB. 15-18. comp. 55. 58. tamŒ ¨ 1. ¨ibr. ¨aÃÃ.v. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). II. . 1031). VI. III. IV. amiddah) – soot ink. ink (in general) (SK. 121-122. 216). IV. 138-140. 90). KR. MJ. maŒ UDK (q. SA. AT. 67-71.) .GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. 38. 79: dalk) 2. comp. 134-135. UK. 371). UK. process of softening leather (making it flexible.52. erasure. JL. comp. or licking) (TP. index. EI. 38. pl. 86. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. obliteration (by means of a cloth. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. maŒw – ink removal. TP. 21. 127-131. khirqah. 36-37). transcript. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. 13.) . n.  madd. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. apograph (CD. 89). MP. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU.

I  mudyah (madyah. midan) – knife. II.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). SK. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . 465-467. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina.5  . mudan. 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). 103- 8$  . midyah) (pl. pen knife (SA.

 FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M. WDPU „ see  abbah.

DD. 230. masŒ – rubbing. I. 202). sackcloth (DG. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . IA. . 110. 60: misann almis¨) 2. 114). SA. wiping (MB. 166. misŒ 1. coarse haircloth. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. see shar¨. II. AT. 133. 391). 481-482.


GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. mush¨ – comb (IA. I. scribbling (MM. hasty. 230). 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. IR.. inelegant hand. 60. copying. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . 16) 3.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . elongation (of letters) (JA. 116-117. transcription (TE. 55) 2. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. AA.I. mashq 1. SK.

elegant. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. 83) 5. for example. KT.’). calligraphic hand (CM. 48. calligraphic model (AD. 164) 6. 16. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq….EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. fine elongated stroke (SK. IK. 134: ÑDQ . MY. according to some opinions. 4. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. copying from a model (TE. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. 151). fine elongation. KK. mashqah 1. calligraphic exercise.


 P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. 183).

'' . .

signing. FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . autograph (DM) 2. signature.


Makkah (al-mukarramah. 411). 11. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG .U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. 60-61). 11. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. EI. etc. LC. LC. 88. 478).). plane-like instrument (TS. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. milk – ownership (OS. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. 107) 2. I  mimlasah 1. also malasah – burnisher. polisher (NH. VII. 25. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. 88. TS. ex-dono. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. AG. ex-library. al-maghrah al-¶. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. 31. 390. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. II. 107). 8). AG. 27). FRPS QDÌar 3. al-musharrafah.

I.  GLFWDWLRQ $. work (known as al-DP O . SDVVLP :6 -13. KF. 85-94) 2.

muhr – seal. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. 725-726. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. stamp (EI. SL. II. EI. VII. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. 48). passim. GA. passim. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. 725-726).VII. 472-. signet. VII. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). famulus (AI.

stamping (EI. . 472-473). VII. FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing.



AE. sheet. 105-106. leaf (of paper) (SA. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. 472. 79-82. KM. sifr 13. sheet. II. IV. (IW. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. 8-9. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. II. 50-52) 2. WS.

polisher (IA. mawzah – burnisher. 63). P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. 60.

16: al-maws al-6K U ] . trimmer (TW. UD.$  maws. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK . – pen knife.

 1+  '' . LC. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. 226. II. 25). V.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. 64).

403). tilting (of a script). hence P µil – inclining. SA. . inlaying (SA. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. 12. slanting (of the line. script) (UD. gilt (SD). 45). LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. coating. 442) 2. II. II. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1.

WDQE K – note. 16. JM. copying (TE. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). remark (in the body of a composition).138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. KM. 40). (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. IV. sifr 13. 146. nota bene. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh).

9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. UD. 43: P MDPDK). 21. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. 232. paring. index. IB. naŒt 1. 36). minjam – mallet (ST. trimming (of a reed) (IR.

etc. MP. 35). (MG. ¨amdalah. nuŒ V – copper. 133-134. . copper-based ink (UK. e.g.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. 482). I. basmalah.


384). 95. I. nasab SO DQV E. 230. 94-95). KR. DM). muntakhib – compiler. II. 82). – anthology (EA. 97. selector (DF. munkhul – sieve (IR. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL.

tribe. genealogy. etc. pedigree (EI. ending in – (EI. 53-56). VIII. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. – lineage. VII. religious sect or school. 967-968). nisbah (pl. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK.


(qalam) al-naskh – book hand. 1127 (in Muslim India). index.5. IV. IV. sifr 13. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. 696-699). ER. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. IV. 57) 2. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. which according to the Mamluk tradition. 1126 (in Turkey). naskh 1. 1124 (in Persia). PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. transcription (TE. par excellence. naskh-ta¶O T). KK. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. 21). KM. 17. see khaÃÃ.

copy (EI. 1123.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. QDVNK 1. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. list. IV. al-naskh al-mu¶W G./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. 146. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. badal) 4. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn.12) 2. Turkey. VIII. CD. MZ. CI. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see Muslim India). commonly. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. version. 1125.      $5  $. LE. CM. IV. variant reading (varia lectio). 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. 128. comp. 89). but erroneously. archetype (LC. LM. 141. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. 138. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. LM. CA. n. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. nuskhah (pl. 26).171). XVI. transcript. abbrev. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. xiv). pl. I. xv.  0. 47. recension (MU. EI. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . nusakh) 1. personal) nature (CI. I. 149) 2. al-makh¨ ¨ Persia. catalogue (AD. 123. 36. II. 182.

26). al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. archetype (LC. unicum. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. 26). al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph.


PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. MA. muntasikh – copyist. 17. passim). 16. TW. 47). 348. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . scribe (TE. WB.

e. no. of letters. III. documents or state papers. layout (mise en page ) (FK.g. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. epistolography (EI. 9. . style or composition.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). 1241-1244). I. LQVK µ – construction. letter-writing..

134. AI. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. TD. I. 67). 278. I. 136). 94. IK. 173. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. nashr. WDQVK U.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.


starch paste (TS. 480. minshafah – blotter (TD. dhurah) (OM). 13. II. 60. 136). 50. . 390. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). 230: minshaµah). tanshiyah – pasting (ST. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). 106. ST. DD. nashan – wheat starch. 21). index. starch paste (made of sorghum. MB. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. II. I. index. 133. IB. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. SA. AT. 12. I. IA. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. 21. OM. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. 395). IR.

ni¦ E 1. pallet-like tool (HT. lin. 241.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. straight line. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ ... stroke. 249. handle (SK. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. . 240.133. 137).  . the letter alif (IR. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2.

III. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. UD. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 156. 47. munta¦ib – ascender. up-stroke (SA. 103. MB. 59). 101. 11. IA.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. IB. LM. 59) 3. 43.

g. FZ. na„ar – study note. reading note. 218. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. medallion. 88. 217. ZM. 93. JL. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). III. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. 43). e.

  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK.) . $+  .


nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

shiÑr. . no.170). comp. na„m. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. 2812). versification.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. II. curator.

sifr 13. 230. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. epigraphy (KM. IV. 481. IV. 133. AT. awl (SA. nafdh – punching. awling (MB. sifr 13. passim). nafa¨ (sg. 5). I. minfadh – punch. engraver (KM. 208. IR. QDTT U – carver. nafÃah) – pockets of air. II. MJ. no. tanaqquŒ – correction. 392). 23). engraving (on stone).3. WDQT Œ. 391: for sewing of quires). al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). II. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). naqr – inscription. DD. revision (KF.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

469. 471. 84. KM. IK. II. 5). 49. IV. – ink (KK. sifr 13. SA. naqsh SO QXT VK.

VII. 63) 3. 400). 105. comp. painting. IA. QLT VKDK 1. 29-32. engraving. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. inscription. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. TS. 931). illumination (EI. 156. epigraphy (FT. naqr 2. MB.

. ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. IA. 59).  0% 105.

WDQT VK – writing. carver. designer. 931-932). III. 155. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. sifr 13. 5) 2. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. copying (FK. engraver (KM. IV. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. 159). 141. illuminator (PA.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. VII. miniature painter. 266).

nuqaÃ. TE. 16-17. 160. 151. III. SA. 38). 58). III. naq¨ 1. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. SA. letter-pointing (TE. 16-17) 2. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. naq¦. III. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. haplographic error. KH. haplography (TP. nuq¨ah (pl.


Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). calligrapher (TE. nimrah – number. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. translation. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. exact copy (apograph). copyist. 105. 368). 33. transcription (MU. 218) 2. AW.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. TE. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. quotation 3. IA. 16. 16) 4. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). 68) 5. HT. . XII. orthographer (LT. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. copying. naqalah) 1. MB. 12. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . citing. Q TLO (pl. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. IA. 137. numrah. abbrev. figure. translator. 133. extract. naql 1. quoting.

SK. embellished writing. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . AM. KK. 53. 91). 62. 45. 53. numbering. 16.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. namq WDQP T – elegant. copying (TE. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers.

NI. Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC. 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . 45. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM).

painted illustration (KF. calligraphic composition (NI. sifr 13. II. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). 38). 105) 2.1). compact writing (KM. elegant. AW. embellished writing. 237). 119. calligraph. IV. namnamah 1. AA. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. copying (KH. 369. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). n. copying (SK. WDQP O – compact writing. 181.

) (LM. 69). al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. having an open counter (ant.v. PXQ U – syn. 22. IB. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . 43). used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. 44). QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. IB. of mufatta¨. of maÃP V q. index. – floral design. 26.

Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. 498-450. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. II. KF. 27).146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. III. EI.

106. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. – inkwell (SK. IK. KD. 700. II.

/ / / (for intahá) (MW. LQWLK µ – end. GA. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. CI. I. 285). termination. CI. II. abbrev. 87. xi. II. SL. 110. xiii.



 **** DKG E (sg. hudb. hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. 36). hud hud SO KDG KLG.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

. revision (DM) 2. correction. I. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . epitome (EA.. 23). .  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). abridgement.. WDKGK E 1. LKG µ – dedication (FN.

backing (MB. 61). compiler (SS. I. WDKO O 1. MG. 108) 2. 483. 109. IA. epitomist. rounding (of the spine). abridger. X. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. muhall. EI. 181. 72. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. 69.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. author. 73) 2.

VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9. .


   ...  PDUJLQ ') .

/&  0. . gloss.  PDUJLQDO note. abbrev.

annotation (TT. 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK.. glossing. WDKP VK 1. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ .  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn)..


annotated (TW. muhammash – glossed. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK.

al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. . al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah. raÐV HJ 6$ .. 57. IR. unpointed letters (TP. 4. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP.. 244).  K PDW DO-alif). 57. MH. K PDK – head (of a letter). GL. 90). syn.

¶alá al-wajh – copying. 31. II.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. wajh al-hirr (lit. upper cover (TS. page (MU.. wajh(ah) 1. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . 25) 2.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). 31) 3. 43-45). transcription in full. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . epitome (DM). upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS.. IV. 25. face.

6$ . 82). MK. 109). 29. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. -92). wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG.Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC... al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al.

53). 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. MK. waŒy – writing. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. KM. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. KK. 82). 29. 218). II. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. 5. MJ. SA. waŒVK see sinn. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. IV. 464. sifr 13. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. .

73). no. 95. DA). piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. lobed medallion (DH. no. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH.73). waraq SO DZU T.

85-.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-. -195. WS.


abbrev. piece (of paper. parchment or leather) 2. leaf. waraqah 1. folio (folium).  $5  .


wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 109). 11. 25). khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. (TS. AG. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 29).

85). DO-. I. al-waraq (al-N JKDG.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM.

European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 31). 378). I. French paper (PT. 77) 2. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. 75. DO-5 P 1.

31). OM). paper bearing an imitation watermark. VI. DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. SA. . 193. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. Tre Lune) (PT. waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). 30.

32).150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O.

MD. MS. II. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . 107. cardboard (FT. 487. 84). WS. JL. SA. 88. 32. pasteboard (JL. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. 35. 87. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. – glazed paper (PT. 82). 394). 380). WS. 104) 2. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN.

maysam SO PD\ VLP. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. bookseller. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. KF. MN. II. EI. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. 22. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. 87. IB. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. bookbinder (QS. 380). 16. II. IK. index. I. copying. stationer. 65). 161). WR. I. MP. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. 69. 81. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. 88. 9. 93. transcription (WS. JL. 14. foliated arabesque design (ST. 558-561). – marbled paper (DM. 22. 82. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. 28. 495). WS. 94). professional copyist. scribe (SL. index. FI. WDZU T 1. IV. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). LC. 148) 2.

135). stamp (AB. mawsim SO PDZ VLP. – tool.

22. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . 65). decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. MP. festival. index. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. CI. 10). II. – feast.g. washŒ – decorating.

GLOSSARY 151 washm 1. stamping (of leather) (HT. 186) 2. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. 93) 3. drawing (AD. also WDZVK P – tooling. writing. .125. lin.


wi¦l. – pattern (created by tooling). 18. lin. UK. wa¦l.126). wu¦l (pl. stamp (HT. awÁ O ZDÁO W. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). washy. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE.

683. 65) 2. 10.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. NZ. 88. HB. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. 110). II. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. 144) 3. 90). collema (kollema) (WS. 234. SA. VI. wa¦lah 1. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. piece. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . vox reclamans (NM. 812. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. darj).

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comp. VI. 3132). 62. wa„¶ (pl. 12. arrangement (of a text) (MU. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. aw  Ñ ) – composition. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). 187. PA. KF. I.

IV. . author (DF. Z „i¶ – compiler. 376).

proem (DM). prologue. P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G.152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface.

  .192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $. TM. – collation session (TP. 56.

container (OM). ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. 16. DA). ME. case. wi¶ µ (pl. 575) 2. awÑiyah) – 1. 19. box (MS. 87: ZDT ¶ah. wifq SO DZI T.

decree (EI. KM. autograph. 10) 2. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). 392-393) 3. 100. I. 108). KF. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. 124. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. . 189). 69. 28. WDZT ¶ 1. LC. AD. writing something down. al-WDZ T ¶. I. taking something down in writing (SL. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. apostil (usually signed) (AD. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. 28. 125) 4. X. 392. motto. gloss. royal edict. LC. IV. P IDT – seal. sifr 13. 189. X. stamp (IK.. signature (EI. 96).

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

PDZT I 1. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . reading. LC. LM. waqfiyah. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS.. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. Persia.) (BL. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. WDZT I SO WDZT I W.g. WDTU Ì (q. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. II. bequest note (OS. 146).. . LM. 90). waqf 1. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). 1125. 73-77. 146.g. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. III. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). LM. unfinished stroke (e. II.9 1123. 100. 428-442). 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. 146. 146. endowment. 63). 38) 2. 90. KH. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. AS. II.g. wakf 3. WDZT I (KF. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. JM. KF.29. (AS. 61. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. Turkey). 441). also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. 69).v. 187). 473) – endowment certificate or statement.

logograph. overlining (TP.) (LC. taÐammul 2. error (IK. AA. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. AA. 28). It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. K P – omission (IK. 123). wahm – mistake. . 95. 122). 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). 95. IV. comp. wakt – letter pointing (KM.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. sifr 13. 55).


maÁ ¨if. DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. ray¨ Q QDVNK.

al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 6$ III. of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). 144). \ ELV – rectilinear. ant. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah.

6$ ..  8'  $6  /0 ..


– hand. in the hand of) (OT. 86. II. 393. \DU ¶(ah) – reed. UA. KD. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. DM. . 42). FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. reed pen (IK. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). I \DG.

39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e. CM.g. no.





1923. AI = ÑAbd al-. Arabische Paläographie. Beirut. Vol. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. 2 (1989): 37-53. ±aydar Ghaybah. Ivanov. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Paris/ London. AE = Adolf Grohmann. Akimushkin and Anatol. AD = E.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Damascus. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . ed. B. Wien. Fagnan. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes.1. AJ = J. AC = Adam Gacek. ed. Al-. A. Max Weisweiler. Algiers.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. AF = Oleg F. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. 1981. “The art of illumination”.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. 1414/1994. 1989. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. von Karabacek. “Das arabische Papier”. ed. 1979: 35-57. AG = Adam Gacek. transl. Gray. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. 1967.VKE O LQ KLV µ. Riyad.ABBREVIATIONS 1. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. The arts of the book in Central Asia.

by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. 1982: 1. AO = Adrian Brockett. Ars Islamica. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 15. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. AL = . AV = François Déroche. 382-398. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. AS = Adam Gacek. London/Oxford. AQ = David James. London/Oxford. AW = Nabil F. “Arabic numerals”. . “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. 1996. 2 (1987): 45-67. Montreal. 1996. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. Safwat. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. nos. 8 (1941): 65-104. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid.D. AP = Nabia Abbott. 1992. 4 (1989): 144-149.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. 1992. McGill University. New York. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Descriptive catalogue.4 (1986): 131-137. 1.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. London/Oxford. AN = Richard Lemay. decoration. ed. no. binding and paper”.

Montreal.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. -CCA = Adam Gacek. CT = Pierre A. Arberry. MacKay. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. 1991. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. 1958. Oriens. CD = Arthur J. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. CM = Adam Gacek. CI = Adam Gacek.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. CL = Jan Just Witkam. The Chester Beatty Library. London. 4 (1991): 35-53. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands..OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . Dublin. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. Leiden. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 1982 . 1984-85.

4 (1971). Blachère. Denizeau. Paris. DB = R.S. M. 1967. De Biberstein Kazimirski. Dictionnaire . -DDA = A.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. N. no. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Chouémi and C. Iskandar. London. CW = A. 1960. 61. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library.Z.

LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. DM = Hans Wehr. Paris. 1994. 1989. Beryus. DQ = François Déroche. Revue des études islamiques. 0DPO N studies review. 1994. 59 (1991): 229-235. Little. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. Kuwait.1 (1937): 69-110. Ithaca. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. DP = Adam Gacek. fasc. 4th ed. 4 (1989): 44-55. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. Wiesbaden. . DR = Donald P. de Premare. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. Archeological studies. 1984. 2 (1998): 93-193. Dictionnaire arabe-français. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Paris. . J.1986.2 (1938): 141-151. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar.M. 5. ed. fasc. ed. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. Frankfurt..ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne.-L. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. ±amd al-. DT = Tawfik Canaan. NY. Cowan. ed. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. DC = A. DG = Werner Diem. 1993 . Beirut. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. 1967.D. 4..

ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. Calif. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. 1998.. eds.S.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. à W´ Al-Mawrid. New York. 1995: 17-57. Dimand. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Al-)XQ Q DO-. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.EU K P .VO P \DK.). London. London. London/ Oxford. -EEA = J. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. Starkey. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. Baghdad.. London (later Costa Mesa. Istanbul. Meisami and P. FM . New ed. Part 1. 1960 . EP = François Déroche. Yarshater. 1993. ed.S. n.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. 5 . Cairo. 1995: 93-101.d. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. -FFD . Leiden. E. 1982 .EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. 1999.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. transl. 1979. 1986. 1997.

Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. FT = Oktay Aslanapa.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. 1982. 1992.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. Wright.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . HT = Adam Gacek. HD = A. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. ³. 1994. . Rabat.U. 50-99. GL = W. transl. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. 6 (1991): 41-58. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. A Grammar of the Arabic language. Wiesbaden. Istanbul. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. 1967. 1987. Cambridge. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). 3rd ed. 1987. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. Manuscripts of the Middle East. herausgegeben von W. Baku. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. Fischer. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. Kaziev (Gaziev). Cairo. 1966. Cairo. ed.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. HN = Ñ \LGDK .

1319 A. 1973. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. May 18 .1987? . IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-.. à W´ Al-Mawrid. F. Petherbridge. A¨mad ‚aqr. 1981.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. 1995: 123-136. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. Beirut. London.August 18. Richard. Paris. .Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Cairo/ Tunis. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. ed. Déroche and F. Cairo. J. ed. 1997: 57-63. Beirut. IM = Ñ. Chicago. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. no. IB = G. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. Carswell and G. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q .H. Qum.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. The Oriental Institute. )DKP 6DÑd. 1983. Bosch. ed.1981. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . 1389/1970. of Chicago. 8. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. Univ.2 (1979): 221-284. Damascus.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK.

38 (1989): 7-103. ed. 0DMDOODW . 1962.l. s. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”.. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. Damascus. 1962. University of Michigan. 1985. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-.1961. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-. Cairo. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G.XOO \DW DO. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. Baghdad. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I . 1969.D. 1997. Algiers. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . ÑIzzat ±asan.. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). 1363 [1984].n.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. Qum.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. S. 6 pl. 1982. Al-0DQ KLO. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  .EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. Riyad. no. Beirut. [Tehran?]. 20.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. Ph. 1983.G E DOV PLÑ.. ed. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  .PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð.1 (1958): 81-106. .G E (Cairo).

ed. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue. Á KL = G. no. RDVK G DOÑ.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. 2. 2 (1946): 9-18.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . 1316-21 A. by Arthur Jeffery.240 (1984): 61-68. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. 1937: 125-161. 1981. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). Fehervari and Y.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan.DWW Q  ³. “Al-. 1978.LW E.H.H. Al. 1 (1963): 26-48. London.3 (1964): 1933. Leiden. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. ed. 1. KS < VXI DO-. no. no. Cairo.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. 1. no. Safadi.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ.2 (1973): 43-78.VO P .

 . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá.XZDLW 1977. ed. . ed. Raif Georges Khoury. Wiesbaden.LW E DONXWW E.LW E DO-zuhd. .EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . 1976. .

1790-1930. Brill. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. 1911-1931. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. ed. van Koningsveld and Q. 1984. LC = Adam Gacek.500). “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”.S. LL = Edward William Lane. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. Rev. 2 (1987): 68-87. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. Revue africaine. 1978 (catalogue no. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. Ben Cheneb. Samarrai.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. Cambridge. Cairo. Manuscripts of the Middle East.J. 1992. ed. 1929. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. MELA Notes. Leiden. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. LB = Jan Just Witkam.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. Arabic-English lexicon. 48 (1989): 21-29. LD = P. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. LE = M. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. Baghdad. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”.

1972. 1349 [1930]. Beirut.d. 230 (1938): 551-575. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. MC OL¨ \DK . | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. 1913. . MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . Cairo. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK.4 (1986): 185-248. ME = A. 1992. Beirut. n. Beirut.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK.G DO-Mawlá.U T . MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. MK = Etan Kohlberg. 1992. 1391/1971. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . 15. 1995. 1980. Beirut. no. Leiden.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE .OP DO-Ñ. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . 20 (1970): 88-137. Damascus. Lamare. Damascus. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. ed. ed. ed. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. Journal asiatique.

Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. N. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. pt. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. . 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ .1 (1969): 3-47. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. MV = François Déroche. no. 1936-38.S. Cairo. MY = François Déroche. 15. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. MW . 1976-87.. 52. 32 (1987): 105-114. London/Oxford. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. Al-Mawrid.6 (1993): 641649.2 (1989): 201-203. no.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . 14. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. ed.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. Revue des études islamiques. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. MP = Martin Levey. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. 1992.4 (1962). no. MT = Adam Gacek. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. 18. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.

NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. Revue des études islamiques. NH . “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. Damascus. ND = J.A. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. NO = Dimitri Gutas. 1342/1923 . Manuscripts of the Middle East.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. 1418/1998: 341-393.VO P  .3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. Cairo. NC = Adam Gacek.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ. 1 ILPELU  HG . 2 (1987): 126-130. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!).VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. 13. Bonebakker. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos. London. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. Cairo. Sadan. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- .. 1928. 45 (1977): 1-87.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. 1367/1949.2 (1992): 679-683. 1. NS = S. 2 (1987): 8-17. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI .LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. no.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab.

26 (1976): 199-212.H. -PPA = Yves Porter. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. Paris/Teheran.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. OM = Adam Gacek. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. Manuscripts of the Middle East. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. Derek Latham. “O. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. Daly. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. Rabat. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. 2 (1987): 88-95. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). 1985: 29-48. 1994 : 75-81. . PK = S. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. ed. OH = J. 5 (1960): 124-143. PT = Terence Walz.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ .W. 1992. New York. OS = Adam Gacek. M. 10 (1998): 41-63. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie).

170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 1973. 1960. Dozy. RI = W. Bull. Bookbinder. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. ed. Chicago. -RRA = William L. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. 15. no. 2 (1956): 339-372. Costa Mesa.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. 1410/1990. Paris. 1 (1987): 21-38. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. SL = Nabia Abbott.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . Cairo. . 195772. a new direction”. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. Beirut. 1995. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. Paris. SJ . SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 1967.4 (1986): 259-270. Chicago. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. Beirut. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. 1938.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. 3rd ed. SD = R. RN = Nabia Abbott.

Beirut. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ.1 (1997): 55-90. MELA notes. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. ed. Paris/Istanbul. Rabat. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. .K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Rabat. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). Ricard. 1965.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG .H. Damascus. MS (Paris. no.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. 1346-49 A. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. Bibliothèque nationale. 1303 A.H. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab.VO P . 1989: 49-50. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. 1925. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. 1995. Damascus. Paris. TE = Adam Gacek. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. 1997: 135-150. 41. ed. P.DWW Q  . Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient.Q Q  London. arabe 6844). François Déroche. 1994: 11-32. ed. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN.

Kuwait. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. 1949. TP = Adam Gacek. Déroche. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh.d. Hyderabad.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. 1982. n.EU K P DO-. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. Rabat. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. 1989: 51-60. 1353/1934. Jedda.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. ±amd al-. xx-xxxii.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. ed. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. ed. F. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. . TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.VKE O  ³. Ñ$EG $OO K . Paris/Istanbul. pl. 1991. TS %DNU LEQ . Damascus.

Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften.10 (1975): 80-92. Chester Beatty Library.4 (1982): 10-24. Dublin. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. . no. Beirut. Beirut. Hildesheim/New York. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. no. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1980. no. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. 23. 1981-83. 18. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. 1992. 1 (1986): 49-53. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. Graz. 1983. DaÑwat al-|aqq. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Manuscripts of the Middle East.2 (1977): 45-56. 17 (1971): 43-172. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. 16.

no.G E (Cairo). Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. Tehran.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. 2.XOO \DW DO. 6 pl.1 (1955): 43-48.NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW .Oá / -XP Gá al. 17. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal.

 ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah). numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P.


 VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. Áa¨ ¨. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. Á ¨ib.

 Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ra L\D $OO K . ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  .

 abbah (ta E E.ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).

faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . = Ãurrah. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. Ñ UL a. rajÑ.

fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. / = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . aÁl. malzamah. tamma.

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many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. Paris. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz.P. Paris. Beit-Arié. Bozzolo. 1993. Maniaci and P. 5 vols. Indeed. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. Boyle. A. Gumbert. 1976-1980. Les manuscrits. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. ed. 1990. 1997. Vatican City. 1988. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. Carla. Bookbinding. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Paris. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. 1983. 1953 (repr. 2 vols. Leonard. M. . Cambridge. 1984. 1993. 1976. 1979). and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Dain. London/New York. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Bernhard. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. Alphonse. Sydney M.1. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. Bischoff. Jerusalem. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. Toronto. Paris. however.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Leiden. Malachi. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. ed. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. 5th ed. Transl. Gruys and J. Cockerell. It does not. Munafò. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale.

John E. Paris. 1986. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Paris. David. 1983.. Turnhout. 1 (1976): 84-90. H. C. 1989. Delamare. Johnston. Encyclopedia of the book. Paris. Dukan. 40 (1954): 169-204. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. Gallo. Lemaire.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex. 1990. Blanchard. 1988.D. ed. Introduction à la codicologie. Denis. A. 1996. Oxford. Reynolds. Diringer. M. N. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. Del. The birth of the codex. Greek and Latin papyrology. 1953. Roberts. 1989. 1985. 1977. Rome. Paris. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. Muzerelle. Jean. Paris. M.C. Maniaci. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). études historiques et physico-chimiques. 2nd ed. Paris. M. 1985. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. Kristeller. Italo. “The codex”. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. Proceedings of the British Academy. L. Glaister. and Skeat. 1974. London/New York. Writing & illuminating. Glenisson. 1996. Le livre au Moyen Age. 1974 : 19-25. New York. 2nd ed. The hand-produced book. London. Albert. T.H. peinture. Codicologica. codicologie et archéologie du livre. . Paris. 1988. enluminure. Murdoch. Jacques. 1998. 1983. and Wilson. 1984. Paris. ed. Geoffrey Ashall. Gruijs. Paul O. London. New Castle. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. P. Bernard. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. Louvain-la-Neuve. “Paléographie. C. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. New York.G. Paris. & lettering. Hoffmann. François and Guineau. Les matériaux de la couleur. 11-13 septembre 1972. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. 1999. Roberts. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. Edward.

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G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”.M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h. 9  . 48 (1973-74): 55-74. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad. Rivista degli studi orientali. ilá ../10 m.

M.J. and Young.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . Le Muséon. A. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.Y. R.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al.L. 1967. 18. 4 (1981): 82-103. Ben Shemesh. Taxation in Islam. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”. 87 (1974): 445-465. Leiden. [Vol. Islamic quarterly.1-2 (1974): 3-7. nos. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G.] Ebied.

1 (1997): 55-90. 18-19 October 1973.S. Koningsveld.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles. van. Studies on Islam. no. . A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings).H. 41. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. Les . “Al-.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 32 (1994): 115-123. ed.H. 326 (1997): 97-102.] Lecomte. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. 35-36 (1414 A. P. Iran. Amsterdam. -DOO E ±asan. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. Amsterdam. . 26 (1994): 75-96. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. 1998. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ .): 270-372. Gérard. 1974:92-110. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad.

——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”. Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K.

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Pierre A. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. 550-750/1155-1349. Stefan.1. 1996 – . 34 (1994): 57-75. Jhdt./12. Damas: Institut français. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. MacKay. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . Suppl. Oriens. Leder. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566.”. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”.

1. Hamdard Islamicus.2 (1406 A.4 (1971. 8. no. 61.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. 7 (1989): 238-252. no.1 (1955): 232-251. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . “Al-. Hespéris. ——— “Al-.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. 2. 8: 1019-1020.s. 3. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá.H): 172-182.1 (1407 A. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad.H): 107-114.. ed. 1. 4 (1924): 345-355. Sayyid.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ . 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”. new ed. EI. no.H): 115-117. no.. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101.1 (1985): 7-20. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. al-Munajjid.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”. no.1 (1408 A. no. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”. “Al-. n. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ .

 5DPD  Q ³$KDPP \DW Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q DO-ÌDKU \DK.

.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. 1997: 179-196.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ.Q Q  London. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.

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and art (1427-1565) under the Timurids and Safavids”. collecting. øOJL. Univ. 1996. Art turc (= Turkish art): 10e Congrès international d’art turc. Ph.. 32 (1981): 40-43. øOJL. ——— “‘Our works point to us’: album making.2310): a Timurid calligraphy album at the Ottoman court”. new ed.LW ENK QDK-i Marka] -\L $VW Q-i Quds-i RaÍDY (= Selected calligraphy from the Central Library of Astane Qods Razavi). 1999: 587-597. EI. David J. 0XVWDID ø]]HW .VWDQEXO .D]DVNHU 0XVWDID ø]]HW (IHQGL’QLQ VOV YH QHVLK PHúN murakkai . of Pennsylvania. B. 'HUPDQ 0 8÷XU “The murakka.W. 0DKG ¶] GDK 0XÁÃafá and Razz T  ±usayn. Roxburgh. . [Mashhad]. diss. an album of calligraphic collage”. ——— ³7KH 7XUNLVK FDOOLJUDSKLF DUW WKH NÕWÑa”. ed.XEEHDOWÕ 1HúUL\kWÕ  Robinson.. 7: 602-603. “Catalogue of scripts by seven masters (H. 0XQWDNKDE D] muraqqaÑ W-L . Déroche et al. “Mura¯¯aÑ ”. Geneva.D. 30 (1980): 3235. F. 1368 [1990].

[Includes an appendix: ‘A select bibliography of classical and post-classical texts on penmanship’. J. VII. al-%DKQDVV  Ñ$I I  MuÑjam muÁÃala¨ W DO-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkhaÃà à Q. 1996: 1. ed. Thackston. Wheeler M. UN V ³$O-KhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE I WK U DO-G ULV Q TDG PDQ ZD¨DG WKDQ´ Al-Mawrid.BIBLIOGRAPHY 227 ùHYNL (IHQGL 0HKPHG ùHYNL (IHQGL’QLQ VOV YH QHVLK PHúN PXUDNNDL. 2 (1987): 126-130. “Album. Petersburg muraqqaÑ: album of Indian and Persian miniatures from the 16th through the 18th century and specimens of Persian calligraphy by ÑImâd al-Hasanî. 1996. Calligraphy (see also VIII. The dictionary of art. 15 (1986): 377-412. “±arakat al-taÐO I I DO-NLW EDK ZD-alNXWW E ZD-maÁ GLU QDTG DO-tarassul wa-al-NLW EDK ¨attá al-qarn alU ELÑ al-KLMU . Mu¨ammad Khayr. KubEHDOWÕ 1HúUL\kWÕ  The St. Islamic world”. Lugano/Milan. 2. QurÐanic manuscripts) a) Bibliographies and dictionaries $NJO 0HGLQH DQG <L÷LWEDú $\HúH . 3. MaktaEDW /XEQ Q  Gacek. Istanbul. Istanbul.Õ]ÕOWHSH 8÷XU 'HUPDQ ELEOL\RJUDI\DVÕ. Beirut. Türk KütübhanecileU 'HUQH÷L  Ñ$ZZ G . Turner. “Al-NuwayU ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 583-584. New York. Adam.] 6KD\NK 0 Vá.

Summer exhibition. Oliver. Bluett. New York. Grube. London. Metropolitan Museum of Art.K OLG $¨PDG DQG 6D\\LG $P Q 6XOD\P Q ³0DU MLÑ al-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-KhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE PLQ NKLO O DO-makhà à W. 259-267. Hoare. Calligraphy and the decorative arts of Islam. London. no. 1406 [1986] : 241-254. The calligrapher’s craft. 1976. Riyad. al-< VXI .1987. Istanbul.] b) Exhibition catalogues 'HUPDQ 0 8÷XU Letters in gold: Ottoman calligraphy from the Sakip Sabanci collection. 1-27 June 1987. . 1998.´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK ELDimashq. Ernst J. 72. [See also the English version : Arabic calligraphy in manuscripts. Ahuan Gallery of Islamic Art.3 (1997): 481-526.

VWDQEXO 2VPDQOÕ <D\ÕQHYL  >)DFVLPLOH HGLWLRQ RI an album calligraphed by ±akN N ] dah in 1266/1850 and containing a number of texts in Arabic and Turkish. Mu¨ammd ibn Ñ$O  ³5LV ODK I DO-khaÃà wa-al-qalam”. David. Fehérvári. Mizânü’l-KDWW 0 ] Q DOkhaÃÃ) . “The commentaries of Ibn al-BaÁ Á and Ibn al-Wa¨ G on Ibn al-%DZZ E¶V µ2GH RQ WKH DUW RI FDOOLJUDSK\¶ 5 ÐL\\DK I l-khaÃÃ)”.4 (1986): 157-270. Singapore.I T¶ GH 0XUWD  DO-=DE G ´ 'RFWRUDO WKHVLV EPHE (Paris). Biblical and Near Eastern studies in honour of Dermot Ryan. ed.. 2 (1987): 126-130. Ibn Muqlah. Sandycove. The harmony of letters: Islamic calligraphy from the Tareq Rajab Museum. WLE ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad.OP  .XZDit. 1977. Musée d’art et d’histoire. 1988. James.228 BIBLIOGRAPHY Islamic calligraphy: sacred and secular writings (= Calligraphie islamique). Manuscripts of the Middle East. Safwat. Mohamed U.F. khaÃà Ãan wa-DG EDQ ZD-LQV QDQ E\ +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG ' U DO-ShuÐ Q DO-7KDT I \DK DO-Ñ PPDK  126. Lam¨at al-mukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃà al-Áalif HG +D\ 0X¨DPPDG 'DZVDU  . [exposition]. Musée de la calligraphie arabe. c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship Abouricha. Calligraphie arabe: oeuvres du Musée de Damas. 1992. Géza and Zakariya.G UDW DO-TaÐO I ZDal-Tarjamah wa-al-Nashr.1989: 164-191. Gacek. Nabil F. 15. [Contains five texts: Wa   ¨at al-uÁ O I DO-khaÃà by ÑAbd al-4 GLU DO-‚D\G Z  NaÌm laÐ O DO-simà by A¨mad al- . K. no. Noureddine. Healey. Adam. 2000. Geneva.J. Hilmi Efendi. 25 mai –19 juin 1977. including „u¨IDW O DO-DOE E by Ibn al-‚ ÐLJK  LM ] W DQG Handasat alkhaÃà by Shaykh ±DPG $OO K@ Ibn Muqlah. 4 (1989): 144-149. Mustafa Hakkâk-zâde. 1 M  +LO O ³1XÁ Á I DO-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-Mawrid. al-. 1997. MuÐassasat al-Kuwayt lil-Taqaddum al-Ñ. ——— “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Cathcart and J. “Recherches autour l’opuscule la ‘±ikmat alLVKU T LO NXWW E DO. Back to the sources. Paris. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”.

62.I T.U T   al-AÑÌDP  :DO G Jamharat al-khaÃà à Q DO. Ñ .1 (1994): 70-73. ²ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DO.113-138) a compilation by the editor entitled: 7DWLPPDK I naqd al-DWK U DO-maÑU IDK Ñan al-khaÃà wa-al-NLW EDK. 63. 15. al-$WKDU  0X¨ammad Bahjah. 65. ed.QGH[ RI SHQPHQ LQ 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q’s ‘MuÁawwar alkhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ’”. Rudolph.OP DO-Ñ. al-=DE G  0X¨ammad Murta á.1 (1988): 50-65. %DJKGDG :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK ZD-al-IÑO P ' U DO-ShuÐ Q DO7KDT I \DK DO-Ñ PPDK 1989. Beirut. ÑAbd al-Laà I DO-5 Z DQG ÑAbd al.%DJKG G \ Q PXQGKX taÐV V %DJKG G ¨attá nih \DW DO-qarn al-U ELÑ Ñashar al-KLMU . ed.] d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas Á $EE V DP\ Ð Mu¨DPPDG ³1LV Ð khaÃà à W´ Al-Mawrid.O K 1DEK Q Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK ELDimashq. 2 vols. Abbott. no. Sharikat al-MaÃE Ñ W 97. %DJKG G DO-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. 15. no. Nabia. $OELQ 0: ³. 56 (1939): 71-83. 15. Ekkehard. 13 (1978): 27-35. “The contribution of Ibn Mu¯lah to the North-Arabic script”. al-SaÑG DO-MawÁLO  6 OL¨ ³8UM ]DK I Ñilm rasm al-khaÃÔ.4 (1986): 345-376. Heft 2 (1988): 301-316.4 (1986): 141-148. ed. Der Islam. no. “Der Wettsreit der Schriftarten – eine arabische Handschrift aus der Forschungsbibliothek Gotha”. American journal of Semitic languages and literatures. no. al-6 ZLU  ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] ³.LW E DO-qalam li-$E 0X¨ammad al-6DUU M al-%DJKG G ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub.BIBLIOGRAPHY 229 5LI Ñ DO-Qasà O  0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK by Mu¨ammad al-=LIW Z  Bi  Ñat al-mujawwid by Mu¨ammad al-6LQM U DQG Shar¨ almanÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm al-NLW EDK by Ibn BaÁ Á and Ibn al-Wa¨ G@ ³5LV ODK I ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW Eah”.4 (1987): 760-795. Zuhayr = KLG DQG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. [Contains a facsimile of *K \DW DOPDU P I WDNK Ãub al-DTO P by Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $¨mad al0DTGLV @ SaÑG ) U T 5LV ODK I DO-khaÃà wa-bary al-qalam li-Ibn al-‚ Ðigh. Mu¨ammad „al¨DK %LO O -HGGD ' U DO-0DGDQ   [Contains (pp. Ta¨T T W ZD-taÑO T W Ñalá kit E µDOKhaÃà à al-BaghG G Ñ$O LEQ +LO O DO-PDVKK U EL-Ibn alBaww E’. MELA notes. no.

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R. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. O. E. Jagd. A. With Full DefiniKinberg. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. M. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. und Sardshweladse. und Herb.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. Mosak Moshavi and B. W. Vikør. 1980-1993. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel.). S.L. 1994. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. 1900. With appendices by R. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. Compiled by R. I. La civilisation phénicienne et punique.T. S. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. (eds. A. 1995. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. References and Index of Texts Cited. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. 1996. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. Roman Loimeier. J. B. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 .). Abu Salim. 1994. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. Materials for a Reconstruction. 1996. Compiled by John O. J. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . (ed.1: Text. R.). and O’FAHEY.C. and Jongeling. 1995. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. 1995. K. V.). A. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. Chief consultant to the editor. Ibrahim. 2: Ab-bildungen.). A Bibliography of Islamic Law. 1994.F. (ed. Y. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. J. Orthography. 1994. S. (eds. (ed. Hofheinz. Arabic Literature of Africa. Judaism in Late Antiquity. M. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. Judaism in Late Antiquity. J. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. Porten. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. with the assistance of M. Steiner. Numerals. S. Hunwick. V. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . and Stolbova. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. Phonology. 1994.Lagarde. K. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI.). ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . ISBN 90 04 9820 8. 1994. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. 1994. Hamidu Bobboyi. M. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. Nouns. Volume I. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. (éd. M. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. 1996. O. V. Marín. V. Radtke and K. 2 Parts. and Peters. Band 22 . Spiel. Tanz und verwandten Themen. 2nd ed. Bd. H. 1995.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. O’Fahey. 1994. L. Manuel de recherche. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. N. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. Bd. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. S.

1. 1997. J. M. 1997. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. W. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. Index of Names. D. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. R. J. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. The Mishnah. L. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. H.F. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. R. 2 Volumes.Band 26 Halm. 1999. The Kingdom of Kush. 1997. 1999. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998.J. Bonner. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. Mesopotamian Lexicography. 1997. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. H. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. H. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. W. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. and Sou‘ek.J.H. H. J. D. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. 1: A. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . and Pingree. Vol.W. 1999. A. J. J. The Rise of the Fatimids. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. Translated from the German by M. Religious Perspectives 1999. Vol. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. J. F. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. G. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. J.E. B. V. The Empire of the Mahdi. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. Vol. 1999. 2: 1988-1992.L. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. 1999. van. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. G. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. A Bibliography. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. III. 1999.2. III. Social Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers.1: B.1. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. 2000. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. The Mishnah. 1999. B. 1997. and Porten. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. 1996. and Healey. T. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. M. N. 1998. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. 1998. and Neusner. 1999. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. H. and Wyatt.G. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1999. Terms and Topics. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998.

A. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. R. Judaism in Late Antiquity III.J. de. and Chilton. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. A. 2000. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. and Society in Eastern Arabia.E. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . J. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. and Neusner.. Neusner.J. Theory of Israel. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books.Band 50 Tal. A.1. Dialect. World View. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. Band 56 Avery-Peck.J. A. The Arabic manuscript tradition. J. U. C..J.. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. Neusner. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. 2001. J. 1 : Glossary 2001. 2001. (2 Volumes) 2000. 2001.3. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. Ch. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. 2001. and Chilton. 2001. A..4. Comparing Judaisms. J. B. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography.. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. A. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. B. Vol. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. 2000. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic.2. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. 2001. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. Culture. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. R. and Neusner.

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