A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography



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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

Julian and Helenka .PREFACE V To Joanna.

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........................................................... XI Preface ................................................................. XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ................................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements .

............ 156 2..... 181 Bibliographies ......... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY ................ 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK.............................................. 156 1...................................................................................................................... 181 Periodicals ........................................................................... 177 I...................... ............. Sources/References ..................................................................................................... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ................................................................ 1 Abbreviations ........... 182 General studies and surveys ............................................... 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ...... 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ....................... Technical terms in the glossary ...............

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.




a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221



b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

.................................... 226 Calligraphy ........ 238 c) Descriptions of individual works.......... 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries .......... 247 Later QurÐans................................................................................................ 4......................... 256 1........................................ 2......................................................................... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ............................ VIII................................................................................... 2.............................................. TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING .. 3.................................................. 239 Lacquer .................... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship ................................... Exhibition catalogues...................................................................................................................... 238 b) Other studies ............ 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ...................... General studies ......................... 5...................... 3.. 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper................................................................) ....................................................................................................... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments.. 242 a) Bibliography..................................... 242 b) Pre-18th century texts .... 8..... 256 Some specific cases .................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration ...... 251 Facsimile editions ..... etc........................... 6........................ 255 IX.......................... 240 Papercuts .......... 238 a) Drawing.................................... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues .. 4......................................... 259 ................... 242 c) Other studies....... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ..... ...................................... 7............................................................................. 247 1........... 243 2........... 236 Painted illustration ............................................................................................. 241 Bookbinding ....................................................................................................................

................... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ............................. ................ 4................ CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS.... 3..... 266 1...................................... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts .......................................................... COLLECTIONS........... PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION .. CATALOGUING.................................. Descriptions of collections and catalogues .. 266 266 267 267 268 ................... ETC... 263 XII..................... 5... 2...... 261 XI..................X CONTENTS PREFACE X................................... Catalogues of catalogues .....

.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. Last but not least.

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papermaking and bookbinding. scholars. Arab authors. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. the preparation of inks.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. both religious and scientific in nature. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. Along with this manuscript output. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. 2). VII. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

). the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7. DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.10/16th cent. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.VKE O G 1231).

RI .EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO.

 DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. Furthermore. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7.

The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . lineation). al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). who in his work on education. which deals with the preparation of inks. as well as on the collation and correction of books. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling.984/1577). included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. Finally.

writing surfaces and implements used. for the first time. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. . The glossary is a by-product. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. especially those relating to book formats. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). this chapter has been omitted.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. as well as extant specimens. book lovers and cataloguers. which spans almost 14 centuries. respectively. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). even in its present form. medieval and postmedieval texts. could be very misleading. To translate. as it were. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. corrected. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. Nevertheless. Some terms. some of the most important research in this field published to date. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. bound and decorated. It brings together.g. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. e. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. contemporary studies and catalogues. Since an edition of this work has recently been published.

PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. North Africa). raddah (Levant). flap). medallion. khadd (‘cheek’. Ñaqib (‘heel’. for example. upper margin. on the other hand. case (box). book cover). Thus. for example. marjiÑ (Morocco). envelope flap). It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). however. fore-edge. as yet. miqlab (Levant. serif. upper cover). OLV Q (‘tongue’. The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. raÐs (‘head’. Here. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. for example. catchword. flap). Thus. Iraq). having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). period and/or region in which they were employed. We do not. and V TLÃah (Yemen). Therefore. incipit. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. outer or inner margin). lower margin. great caution is in order. however. Ñaqb. Some. Here we find. recto. been largely omitted here. wajh (‘face’. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). catch- . Áadr (‘chest’. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. inkwell and the like. fore-edge). shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. OLV Q (central Arab lands). catchword). recto. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. udhn (‘ear’. may have been used exclusively in those circles.

This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. As far as transliteration is concerned. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary.XVI PREFACE word). Most words are traced to a source. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. . Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script. either contemporary or earlier. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. On the whole. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries.


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needle case (DM) 2. GA. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. ebrû. 392). I. RN. 18-19. I. MB. SD. from Pers. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq.). al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. 12. SA. II. 215.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. index. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. 60. I. of minfadh (q. 97-98. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. muµabbar – sewn (KC. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. GA. I. 104. ibar) – needle (UK. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. IA. III. 103. 13. DB. TS. 154. 59.) (DD. 8). the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. among other things. AG. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. 107.v. 107. I. AG. ST. syn.  EU  ZDUDT DO. ibrah (pl. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 182). 176-178) 2.EU . miµbar 1.v. 8). 97. 2: ibrishmah). 9.



(DB. 53). – closing matter of the text (composition). abbrev. n. 62. taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. explicit (TP. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). I.14). ilá NKLULK – et cetera.

udum) 1. I. passim. I. IW. AE. – etiquette (EI. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. 106-108) 2. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. MF. tanned red leather (DB. DG P (pl. 63. scribal etiquette 2. 175-176). adam(ah). leather (UK. 71-72. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. 52).

MU. XIV. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M.

comp.. jild. DGG P – tanner (DM). DG K SO DGDZ W.

implement. instrument.g. 345). DGDZ W O W. e. I. tool. – V\Q ODK (EI.

writing MB. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 153-156. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).



urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 250). VI.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. JKXU E – the last hour of day.

alDZ NKLU . al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).NKLUDK DO-ukhar. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al.Oá (al-uwal) (1-10).

248-249). li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. -30) (SA.g. e. VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month.

DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . 235).VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. 178). 244-248).DP O 3 VK 73  CI. VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . nos.g. 244-249).EQ . al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. e. II.EQ . 106.

al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9. -248).

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 6$ 9. FZ. taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). ER. ar„ \DK – background (LC. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. 670). 262. X.C. taµU NK-L PDODN .1st 5509 B. (EI. IV. JL. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O .D. 22.


taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ. XVK UDK. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). II.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD.

– awl. KM. punch (TS. IB. uÁ O. sifr 4. a¦l (pl. MB. I. IA. 43: VKDI . AG. 107. 115). 90. 11. 103. 10: ishfah. IK. 59. ST. 15.


original (main) text. SD. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. MH. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. 26. II.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. MU. exemplar. 27) 3. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. VIII.

 XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. 2024.. MI. but also 0= . . 136).

126. 23) 4. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. major work (TM. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. SM. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC.


67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

tabula ansata (UI. i¨ U (pl. 24. textual surround (LC. rules. 27) 6. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. ià U W XÃur) 1. FT. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. i. 29) 5. 928).  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. UI. I. . frame (within a border) (TF. 24. 145). headpiece (LC. 24. border (of a book cover) (LC. rule-border. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. 80) 3. KR. 24). . rectangular panel (LC.e. DB. 402) 2. 25.

46). according to other sources al. I.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. DIVK Q (Pers. taµO I DK. 32).8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-. writing circa 1375’ (DW. ER. 6. 581-582).

(pl. taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W.

 muµallaf (pl. muÐDOODI W.

I. comp. umm. 33.1 . 360). – composition. comp. muÁannif. EI. compilation. work (of prose or poetry) (SD. . writer. X. ummah . taÁQ I muµallif – author.


 . 130) 4. copy. . TM. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. transcript (from which another copy is made). fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. SD. 246) 3. archetype (LC. I. 35. 29). 26. 26). exemplar. used in mosques (KN. umm al-NLW E 1. as opposed to a commentary. I. shar¨ (IN. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. original (main) text.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2.


Umm al-EXOG Q. 39). Umm al-qurá. . II. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. 294). LP P – exemplar. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). archetype. 99. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. KF. 37. II. II. textus receptus (NT.

fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. 99). taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). II. II. comp. (CI. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. 2812). I. xiv.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. abbrev. tadabbur. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. LL.

or /'    $'  (. . .



31). III. – unpared. unnibbed reed (FN. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. 31. LQV see sinn. 370. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. II. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. BA. 370). taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. LM. III. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). KU.

52. JA. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition).14. (TP. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. I. incipit. AA. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. n. initia.


taµZ O (pl. taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM).

g. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q. – interpretation. explanation (e.

 **** PDEW U 1. passim) 2. bu¨ U. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. acephalous. incomplete (of text) (KC. baŒr (pl. 34). imperfect.

– panel on a book cover. . 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . cartouche (TS. AG. JL. 110. 33.

 tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. badal. . bidl '% . 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). 355). WDENK U – fumigation (TS.



 [LLL.. . RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &.

DT. 412) 2. conjectural substitution. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. 100-103). suppl. 49.3-4. alteration (CL. 296). MZ. SD. conjecture. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. 59-60. EI. I.3. stitution. fasc.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. wifq (US. . II. also WDEG O – subal-matn. fasc. comp. RU badal respectively (KG. 153-154.

publishing (KM.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . IA. II. DD. IV. 417. EDUG \DK – papyrus. VIII. 521-522. comp. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). 390: for trimming). I. 407. EI. I. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. qirà V mibrad – file. rasp (HT. papyrus sheet or roll (DB. QS.84. sifr 13. lin. 60. WS. 64-66).

EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . 545). barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. . LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. I.

8. IB. index. ST. n.148). EDUVK P. 17-18. 81. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . – endband (headband) (ST.


ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.


(pair of) dividers (SA. – compass.9. III. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 .  '0.


 Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS. 12. 18). .



v. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. ELU \DK – paring. 455 6.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). PLEU K SO PDE ULQ.  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. 85. trimming (of a reed ) (IR. SA. III. EDUU \DK. 49). 232. 154: IK. bary.). KK.

bas¨ – spreading out. – pen knife (AA. 64. DB. 591). I.   $6 .. 90. MP. SD. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. 8. 81). index. 88. I. DA: mibzagh. mibzaq – lancet-like knife.. flattening (of a letter). as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . IK.

87) 3. 144) 4. jazm (IK. KH. horizontal stroke. syn. comp. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. 34. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. mukhtaÁar. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. PDEV ¨ 1. AS. III. original (comprehensive). 120) 2. line (KU. unabridged work. rectilinear (of a script. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq.

ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. TW. 322). 13. maÁ ¨if. 365. 144). basmalah SO EDV PLO. 47. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq.



PDEVK U – pared. baà Ðiq) 1. 1084-1085). erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. dressing (of leather) (UK.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. LF. buà Q. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. LF. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. HT. 161. MP. 155). 78. 23-24. 52. ratisser des peaux’. 78: ‘racler. index. catalogue. piece. 63. AG. EI. and opening a composition (TP. 9. silk endband (headband) (HT. TS. bashra¨ 1.v. bashr 1. paring. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. lin.) (AS. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. ST. lin. 109. 12). 58. IA. I.111) 2. ba¨n (pl. also known as al-JKXE U (q.97. bi¨ TDK (pl. 58. slip (of paper) 2. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. erased. register (AD. 145).

al-NLW E. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. flesh side (of parchment). E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. inner cover.

MB. HD. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. lin.73-79) 3. endpaper. IB. 408) 2. IV. doublure (LC. paste-down endpaper. MA. doublure (TS. AG. 49. 102. pasteboard (UK. IA. 117. 159. lining (FT. 112). HT. baà Ðin) 1. 23. – inner cover. 60. bi¨ QDK (pl. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. passim. endleaf (ST. 47. UK. 22-23. 89.

.  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . 92).

lining of the insides of book covers with paper. index. leather or silk (ST.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. MU. 9. XIV. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M.

bary. used for a transposed word. abbrev. /( . removal of sha¨mah (q. 370). 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. 87).v. MB. comp. III. 61. BA. 2. paring (of the calamus) (KD. II. ba¶du – after.) from the reed (IK.

tab¶ „ – word division. separation (MM. 53. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. n. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E.20). E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U.

105). 58. (MB. comp. 156. 153. 104. 103. (pair of) dividers (UK. 101. IA. 103. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. biUN U WDEN U. etc. IB. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. – compass. TU. 44. 59. 60. measuring distances. MB. MP.

mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. DD. 391). comp. 380. I. IA. 42. IB. 153. 59). EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. 103. MB. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah.


 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

CT. 56.  EDO . comp. 45: EXO JK). E OLQ – worn. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . I.9 SO. 268. JA. damaged (TS. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . TP.119.


E E SO DEZ E. EI. kha¨¨L E KDU. 36). 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). IV.

 . 0. – chapter. abbrev.

TP. 376). 609. 53. IV. n. mubawwib – compiler (DF.20). murattib. bayt SO EX\ W. comp. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

Ãurrah) (TS. 110). 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. 82). Bayt al-Maqdis. 95. frame (as part of the border. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 33). AG. 32. . 31-33. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. KR. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 110) 4. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. 31. AG. compartment (in such a box) 3. 97.


 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.


– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).




6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

30-31. . 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 95. tibr – gold. W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. also TS. 97. AG. 110). gold dust (AQ.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 82). KR.

 takht SO WXNK W.

9). earth. 120). also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. 42. IB. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. index. 107) 3. WXU E – dust. 6. index. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. 82. 156. HT. AG. sand. lin. IV. KU. 22. KM.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2.  . 94. sifr 13. 24. wooden pressing board (TS. TD. I. 9. 127-.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 478-480). 6$ II.

detailed title of a book. chapter heading (IN. 28) 4. title (of a book) (LC. II. 28. AH. indicating its contents (DB. 165). 122) 3.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . key word (LC.

g. 27) 6. headpiece or tailpiece (LC.g. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. medallion) . disc) or margins (e. paragraph (LC. 27) 7. 27) 8.

also mutarjam (e. cryptography (AA. 224) 12. 30) 9. 29. ‘QaÁ GDW .EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. exegesis (DB. 1021).18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. illuminator (TW. II. X. 260. DB. X. 28. mutarjim 1. biography (EI.g. tirs. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. 270). IT. II. biographer 2. 1021) 13. turs SO WXU V. translator. translation (EI. 29-31. explanation. 186. biographical note. interpretation. 224) 10.

IB. KR. index. 97. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. shamsah. comp. IP. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. 95. 145. taftar see daftar. 9. execution. 103. corner-piece (ST. oval. illuminated oval medallion. turunj(ah) 1. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 116). 69. 82). citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. LC. writing tamma (lit. rosette (HD. 44) 3. WDWP P – completion. 15). 28) 2. PA.

. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. [LLL at the end of the colophon. 46). II. RU CM. tatimmah – supplementation. WDP PDK (pl. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). comp. WDP P – end. abbrev. finish. comp. supplement . talisman (EI. ¨add. xiii). continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). . &. WDP Ðim) – amulet. 177-178). X.

copying (MH.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. II. no. 101. 100.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. FK.

thabat (pl. atKE W. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’.

GA. 157) 2.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. record of attested study (HB. written testimony (SD. 234. document. muÑjam. 288: syn. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. I.

I.  WDEOH RI contents. authentication (formula). vocalization (AD. LWKE W 1. also WDWKE W – attestation. 18) 2. WKDE W – signature (SD. 157). usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨.



n. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. 53.25. muthabbit. GA. CT. 45. 289).

 SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. 45). CT. writer of the audition note (MH. 101. 330). thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. I.

AG. III. ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. 107). – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. WKDT O (lit. 11. . 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. AS. 147).

9 . 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. 51). al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. . 349). Persia. abbrev. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. III. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. T OLE. I. 1125in Turkey). JM. (TN. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points.

795-. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. DO-thumn.VII. octagon (EI.

. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL.  RU &. see also mashÐalah. abbrev.13. 361).VI. 232-234) . MI. 102). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. Taf. . no.. VI. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points). tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). [LY )0 167. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. MZ. I. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 361). 12. 232-234. SA. I.

decorative medallion or panel.GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. either illuminated or stamped (KI. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .

88. JL.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK .  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . 87.


43). WDMG G – repair. 141). MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. restoring manuscripts. 99). 100). jabr – repairing. interlace (TF. 87). repair (SJ. braid. restoration (KR. 83. PDMG O SO PDM G O. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. corner-piece (JL. 99. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion.41. mending. nos.

II. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. thong (KC. rules. chart. – leather strap. 33. 26). jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. 24) 4. 108). DT. TW. table of contents (CM. 56. column (of text) (SD. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC.6/2) 6. table (LC. 175) 5. 148. 50. 370. talismanic seal (EI. diagram. no. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). magic square. creating rule-borders (WB. 63) 3. mujadwal – ruled (LC. 42). KC. 160) 2. I. 32). .


 LQVHW '0.

.   . FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ ..

DD. I. 184. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . abridgement (SD. KF. scraper (MB.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). extract. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . DG. MDU GDK – list. I. 27). 107. 183). WDMU G 1. 112. II. jard al-matn see matn. inventory (SD. I. mijrad(ah) – file. register.

 jirm SO DMU P.


passim). majran SO PDM ULQ. HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. jirm wasaÃ.

shaving (MB.8 154). jazz – trimming. IA. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . passim: Œazz. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. 62).

also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. inset (UI. 103). n. MU. . VII. 132.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. KF. rough copies 2. I.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. 19.

single-quire codex. booklet. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. 79. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. AI.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs).

xii) 4. 711). DEEUHY RU (CI. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. usually not more than a quire (IJ. 90). VII. 128) 6. 705). small piece of writing. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. independent. 128). mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. tomaison) (SJ. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. II. small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. I. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5.

having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. 143. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. MB. 421). al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 7-9. MP. jazm – reed pen. 99. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. 87: qalam jazm. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. 90). I. 38). IK. LL. 89.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

for other signs representing jazmah see GL. LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS. 13). . 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm.


23). – background (UK. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG.


 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

..  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ .. )1   . .

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.


1123). . G Z Q MDO (SA. IV. WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. III.




 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

II. majlis SO PDM OLV. 47. 123 and IX. 26). VIII. mujallid – bookbinder (QS.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. 416-417). LC.

. VIII. sitting.  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. – session. . 1020). majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &.

the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. julfah – nib (of the calamus. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). 459-460. II. jalam SO DMO P. KU. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah.

-XP Gá al. – (pair of) scissors (DS. abbrev. IR. -XP Gá al. II. no. / / (OS.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). 89. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar. IK. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. CM. CI.NKLU.NKLUDK DO.Oá. 230). 91-92. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih.

M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') .9 . 89). SA. III. contraction (of letters) (KU. 126. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. composition. abbrev. compilation. 34) 3. / (OS. rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH.

. major original compilation. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . the QurÐ Q 8. e.g. 352).  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work.  FN.


359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ). II. III.

SD. 25). jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. box (NM. 393) 1. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). 52. case with compartments (TS. 683) 4. escritoire (TW. 233. codex compositus (LC. 380). NH. writing case. TM. 106. tool box. 52. 37. DG. mujamma¶ (UA.  '' .  composite volume. I. case. 12. 13) 3. inkwell for coloured ink (TC.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). inkwell 6' . 217. AG. jumal. 32) 2.

– book cover (ST. 11. 61. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. index. II. MDQ Œ (pl. 10). knife (TS. xiv. IA. 109. ST. 10).111).) (AS. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. index. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. IA. 110.v. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. 107: for cutting gold leaf . 145). better known as al-JKXE U (q. (CI. AG. abbrev. ajwibah) – responsum. MI. MDZ E (pl.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

ER. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . 126-130. IJ). licence. 27. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. EI. – authorization. III. LB. 1020-1021. VIII. 273-275. certificate of transmission. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. 24.

181). . (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ.GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI.9 .





NH. 381: jawn. 468. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. LQNZHOO (HI. SA. 133. KU. 179. DS. II. 154: wa-al-M EDK . 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. AT.

also known as waqabah. (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. see also the quotation under miqlamah).

a¨E U. **** Œibr (pl.


IR. UK. IV. 101-110 and MB.53. 18-21. -100 and MB. 13. Œibr al-raqq. sifr 13. n. KM. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. MP. 6: wa-al- . 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. MJ. 8. MP. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks.

AT. 349. AE. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . MA. see LL. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates .28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. IK. IV. IK. LM. 134-135. I. II. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. SA. 127-131. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. MR. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn.

ma¨ ELU. FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. 354). embellishment (DB. miŒbarah (pl. 2016). III.

  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . III. 372.  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. II. SA.. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ .

443. SA. II. 468-.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133.

73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). I. 89). 15. inking. SK. 87. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. 119). embellished writing (composition) or copying. SA. Œubs (pl. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. WR. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. taŒE U 1. elegant. transcription (TE. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. compiler (SS. II. a¨E V. inscribing in ink (SM. muŒabbir – author.

ta¨E V W. taŒE V (pl.

waqf. 109. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding).. Œabk 1. 154.. comp. decorative endband (UK. . stitching (of a book) (TM.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. 157. 62. sewing. MB. TS. bequest note (LC.. 132) 3. also Œabkah – endband (headband). AG.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. MM. endbanding with silk 2. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . n. 18-20. 104 ff. IA. 28).

 VSLQH 74 .

19. 109. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. AG. 109). al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 19. AG.


ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. 19. 28). 109).GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. AG. 19. n. 19. AG. 11. 109). AD. 478). I. bookbinder (IB. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. 246). ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer.

Œajar al-misann – whetstone. miŒjar. (OS. ajar al-¨XP ¨im). 89). amulet (DT. ¨ujub) – talisman. hone (TS. maŒjar (pl. ma¨ MLU. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). 60). abbrev. ŒLM E (pl. 69). – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). 10). Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS.

99. 36). ST. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. UK. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . 38. 142: 12. 36) 2. MP. index. 107. MB. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB.10. AG.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU.

 .$ .

FN.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U.H. 2733.

I . FRPS .

taŒG G – whetting. Œadd (pl. ¨XG G. II.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. 711). honing (of a knife) (KD.

end. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. ŒDG G DK. – limit.

188). 59. 59). AG. ¨XG U. 105. MP. 29. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. 31. MJ. TS. 393. (pl. 109. IA. 10. Œadr (pl. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. MB. 138). taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF.

AQ.. TE. frame. 64. fair copying (TE. 58. 15) 4. revised version (edition). 10. 52. copying. with black ink (TE. 50. 246) 7. 109. composition (GA. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. taŒU U 1. 15. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. IV. 15) 3. IP. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. muŒarrir – 1. terminal of a letter) (AA. mu¨DUUDU W. author. 48. outline. AF. ÁaÑd. index. PA. 16) 6. IV. 145. – descender (down-stroke. AG. redaction (CM. 215-227). SK. 16) 5. e. penman. ornamental surround. transcription (TE. IV. ER. comp. 38. compiler (SS. editing (of a manuscript text). muŒarrar (pl. 119) 2. TE. editor. elegant writing. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . 13. 50). MU. calligrapher. III. ŒDU U – silk (ST. 286). XVII. 73) 2. EI.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. 214) 8. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. DB. secretarial style of shikastah script. 701. 16. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. 1124. 2408.g.

53). . calligraph (DP. – piece of calligraphy. Œard al-matn see matn.

a¨U ] ¨XU ].GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl.

MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. 69). maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. e. – talisman.g. amulet (DT. IV.

muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA.80-86). word 2. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . miŒra„ah. Œarf (pl. 596-560). al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. lin. 39-42) 2. DS. 463. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. KK. trimming (HT. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). II. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word.9 . I. ¨iraf) – edge. 230. LL. Œarf (pl.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. border. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. LM. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. sharp edge (of a knife.  . ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. 549). taŒU I 1. II.g. letter. e.' . error. distortion. III.. cutter).


falsification (of a text). Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. MQ. comp. III.32 GLOSSARY  08 . MJ. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). ¨DUDN W. 57. 224). Œarakah (pl. 59. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ.

shakl. 65. MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. miŒU N – spatula. Mecca and Medina. vowelization (DM). KD. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. 704. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. taŒU N – vocalization. MB. – vowel (GL. 8). II. 393). 112-113. UA. comp.

abbrev.). 89). al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar.v. a¨] E. al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. Œizb (pl. (OS.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

index. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS.. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. Œazm . ST. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. 28. 11. 11). ST.

468). computation. chronosticon (TP. III. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. . ŒLV E – calculation. 54: EI.

302). with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like .GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. 269-270. see SA. II. EI. ¨DZ VKLQ. abbrev. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. VI.

217-219. IA. MD.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. 63) 2.112. border (on a book cover) (MB. MB. lin. 109) 3. often abbreviated as or . 118. 119. FZ. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. collection of glosses. IA. marginalia. 63. margin (of a page) 4. scholium. apostil. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK.

145. IV. 60. parenthesis. gutter. 63. 73  00 139.54. 65. ¨DZ VKLQ. 1820). FI. pl. 110. 268-269. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. FT. 30. 412. Œ VKLQ (pl. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. interpolation. 222. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. JM. AG. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 71) 2. IX. 977). EI. Œashw(ah) 1. III. AS. 89-90). DB.

332). xi. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . glossed. CI. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. 296. (MI. III. Œa¦ramah – paring. muŒashshin – glossator. 26. trimming (of a reed) (BA. 34). taŒshiyah – glossing. . 322.74. gloss (AM. II. nos. AD. abbrev.

 taŒ¦ O – copying. I. 546). transcription (FK.89. . no.

29.31). comp. n.v. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. MB.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. ÑDU T W. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. 118: mikhaÃà (!). TS. burnisher. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. 6.). AG. IA. polisher (KM. 107. smoothing leather (ST. I. sifr 4. 34). IB. 60. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. 5.

34. frame (SD. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . KH. 302) 2. 35. headpiece (LC. 24). RN. surround. Œa„ UDK (pl. I.

the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO .8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. miŒfa„ah – case. preservation. small box (DG. Œif„ – learning by heart. box (KC. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. ŒLI „ (pl. 51). II. 55. memorization (TP. 44) 2. a¨fiÌah). NT.

MR. 89. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. text editing. critical edition (of a text) (MH.

 muŒaqqiq – corrector. editor. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q.

22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA.U T and alZDUU T (FN. 13) 2. 12. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. III.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.


50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr ( Persia. 78. comp. IR. TU. IV.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. 1125. EI. Turkey). 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. III. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. LM.

) (UK. scroll (in design) (UI. erasure. 141) 2. miŒakk(ah). effacement (TP. Œalqah (pl. 59) 3. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. 104.) (DD. MM. 58. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). NH. 392. I. 31). miŒakk al-rijl 1. pumice (MB. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. ¨DODT W. mibrad (q. 112. IA. 137). of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. Œakk – rubbing out.v.v. 62) 2. ¨alaq. syn. syn. IA.

ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. AI. study circle. scholar’s circle (SL. 48. 27). 372) 2. II. III. ma¨ O T. part of a clasp) (BA.

– tendril (FT. 136. 139). . 422. AB.

150-151). taŒP G DK.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. 416). embellishment (KT. taŒliyah – decoration. Œilyah. Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. 204-209). al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah.

122-123). III. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. TB. Œumrah 1. 24) 2. 38. 53. red ink (LC. n. 95).20. rubrication. EI. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. red colour. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. rubrics (CM. TP.

codex (MA. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . 86) 3. 56-57. TW. 24. 69). amulet (DT. IV. LC. 169. ÑUthmanic canon. 24). 51). ŒDP ODK (pl. ME.  ‘pupitre’). taŒP U – rubrication (TE. ta¨ Q VK. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. sifr 13. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 55). ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. also miŒmal. TP. TP. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. maŒmil 1. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. exemplar. WA. taŒQ VK (pl. 15. 566. 29). 286. IV. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. archetype (KM. book cradle (TC.

 VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. 143) 3. interlace (TF. compass. rope work. index.) (MP. 138. 11) 2. 58. 44). ST. (pair of) dividers (IB. .

II. 700).GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD.  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O.

ma¨ ZLU. miŒwar (pl. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah).


$% .

144).  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). maΠU DK. 138. as opposed to the border (TF.

Œ µil. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. 109. 149-150). TP. I. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. TP. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). 99. ¨awr (LL. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. Œawqalah. 97. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. 171. 665). 58: as a means of cancellation. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. II. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. 104-105). 483). MH.

73 . abbrev. RQH LVQ G from another.


stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. MI. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. khatm 1. 214) 3.g. 31). 3. stamping.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. seal. **** NK QDK – compartment. panel (in decoration) (UI. sealing. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. stamp. 35). ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . tool. tooling 2. colophon (TM. 24.



9 . – 1. complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ . recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2.


NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. OS) 2. DT. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). IA. 29. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. 169. e. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. 109. 110. 63). I. 34. . AG.g. 144). talismanic seal (DT. CI. 130. 108) 3.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (.9 1105. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star).

. FT. conclusion. explicit. 8. LNKWLW P 1. epilogue 2. 5.14) 3. 108). 52. 396) 4. tailpiece (HD. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. colophon (UI. n.

GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl. khXG G.

165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ . – inner or outer margin (IM.

210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. takh„ ¶ – rounding. 385). backing (of the spine) (HN. also LVWLNKU M (TW.

126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK. RI WKH material from the original work (TW.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

0 . 58. insertion. TM. ) 4.  omission. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . la¨aq (TP. 187-188. comp.

222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. WDNKU MDK 1.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. I. 169) 7. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. 606) 6. pl. or a caret. copying. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. omission. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . insertion 2..) .  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. reference mark (signe de renvoi). extract from a book. 718). quotation (TM.73: in the form of a curved line. 58. transcription (TW. I. n. ÑaÃfah. KF.


mukhraj – insertion (MH. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukharraj.

384. vox reclamans (MA. mukharrij – compiler. 683). mustakhrij. LVWLNKU M 1. 126130). catchword. excerpting. . NM. IV. selector (DF. II. copying (DM) 2. 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. TW. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. 39).

NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. 99. II. ST. 59). book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. 181). mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. 35. DS. OM). 481. index.40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. punch (SA. MP. 12.

70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94). khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK.

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah.  DQVD roundel. 36). Ãurrah. palmette (KH. comp. Ã P.

15. MI. blank. comp. 109) 2. 104. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. II. 154. lin. 481) 2. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. 12. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. MB. lacuna (SJ.166). MP. scrap (of paper) (DM). undoing the sewing (ST. 459). index. 114. IA. polishing cloth (MB. SA. 59) 3. khiraq) 1. 347. HT. sewing (of quires) (UK. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. 17. 27. gap. kharm 1. 60. II. khirqah (pl. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. 157. MB.


en vrac. 26).  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. KF. munkharim – imperfect. 26.NKLU. PDNKU P. incomplete (TC. TC. fragments (HB.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. II. 233: feuillets décousus.

sifr 13. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. khazz SO NKX] ]. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. IV. II. 527).

cloth made of silk and wool (TS. I. siglum. suspension. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. VII. . 25-26). abridgement. GL. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. – silk. comp. 107. TP. library. 536-540. 46). 23-24) 3. 159-160. epitome (EI. EA. 55-56. AG. AD. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. maktabah. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. 27. xiii-xiv. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. 107). kharm and ¨azm. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. comp. 119). 14-15. II. NKL] QDK. abbreviation (contraction. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. AG.

penmanship (ML.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. khuà Ã) 1. sign. writing. calligraphy. 34-38) 2. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. handwriting. mark. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . stroke. script.

khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . IV. LM.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . scriptio defectiva. 681). as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). 103). 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. 41. al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . III. CI. comp. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. yad. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . 887: ER. 144). comp. 83.8  51  $6 . script (text) see also Ñajam. 358)..g.. 114. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. copied by (e. I. AS. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. al-DTO P DO-sittah. EI. scriptio plena.

8  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .

26). 380). makhà à W. 80). khi¨ ¨ah – writing. makh¨ ¨ (pl. comp. I. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. penman. no. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD.1. paleography (KJ. calligraphy (WR.

takh¨ ¨ 1. writing. tracing. 110. calamus (AA. 760. 98. implement (made of wood. index. MB. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. 61) 2. mikha¨¨ 1. LL. 118. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. 110) 2. drawing (MB. 555. UA. manuscript codex. 760). . I. straightedge (LL. ruling (of lines). I. reed pen. 103. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). 12). IA. tracer (ME.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. 60.

1). sifr 13. speech 2. letter. note. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. honorific (e. address.g. khi¨ E (pl. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. akhÃibah) 1.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. IV.

n. TP. 123). 105. 18. RIWen unpointed) (GL. 156. 109). abbrev. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). extract. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. mukhtaÁar. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. MB. 59. 14). preface (LC. AG.20). takhallu¦ – pseudonym. abridgement. NKDI I (lit. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. 44: ornament). trimming (TS. X. 25. epitome. IA. 53.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl.g. 145). NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. IB. comp.

g. TP. 95. 46. 52. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. LNKWLO I – variant reading. XVII. XI. varia lectio (e. MU. MH. XII. 273. . 58).




RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. 126.


al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. 97). X. 123-125). PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. AD.). 401). I. 95. 405. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. pentameter (SD. EI. 50. – pentastich amplification of a poem.v. LNKWL\ U.

107-108). 12. 12. index. MB. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. index. – anthology (EA. IR. AG. 94-95). index. 109). khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. endbanding without silk (TS.e. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. 12). 19. thick needle (ST. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). i.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . I. 43. IB.


VI. G E M SO GDE E M.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. 250). of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA.

XIV. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. – silk brocade (MU.

preface. exordium. G E MDK 1. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY.

frontispiece (MD. /& ) 2. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. adorning something with arabesques. composition (of a text) (DM). TW. reflection. 259) 2. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. tadabbur – consideration. 115). GLE JK DK. 52. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. PA. WDGE M 1. 65. headpiece. 127. creating headpieces (AD.v).

GDEE JK – tanner (QS. MP. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. I. – tanning (MB. 114-115. suppl. IA. 63. EI..3-4. 140-143. 60). 172). fasc.

  IR. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.

dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. darj.


rotulus (IK. 68. 868: also daraj. I. roll. 138.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. SA. parchment or paper (AJ. I. IK. 138: al- . LL. 141.

$  Q.46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. 287).  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. dast(ah) SO GXV W. 13. 432). inset (SD. darmak – farina. dirafsh – awl. 60). paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 107). punch (IA. I. 142) 3. AG. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA.


94. IB. I. 39. burnisher (UK. PT. IV. kaff 3. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). 96. SD. 145. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. IA. 81. 156. wide polisher. 44). MA. rizmah. 59. 92. 92. 105. AB. WS. 524) 2. GXVW U SO GDV W U. comp. MB.


29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK.  DXWKRU’s original. holograph (LC. 23) 3. I. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL.

HB. . dasht – loose leaves. unbound book. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). book consisting of loose leaves (KF. II. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad.

assimilated (KU.. 150-156). pious invocation. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’.g. TP. (see e..  .GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. supplication. II. hence mudgham – contracted. ‘prayer of request’ (EI. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . etc. adÑiyah) 1. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). 617-618) 2. 54. AA.+ 35). daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. formula of benediction.

ST. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. 104) 3. 13). index.Oá (ST. index. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. index. book cover. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. 13.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. pasteboard (ST. al-daffah al. 13). al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST.


22-25. volume (IK.g. register (EI. account book. II. 29. fine writing (TM. SL. II. 4. 77-81. pen wiper (SA. KK.18) 3. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). . 40 x 14 cm. 481). rubbing. taftar (SK. 60) 2. QRV  096) 3. 321. 108. pounding (MP. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. daqq 1. Daftar kutub. I. bound or unbound codex . 63.. see LS) 2.. notebook (e. IA. 192). 48. 14 leaves. n. .

I. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. 48-50. 139). SD. NH. OH. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. 118. 85. 13. GDON WDGO N – polishing. KM. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q.163. I. index. AG.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. lin. 23. sifr 4. 11. FJ. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. midlak – polisher. HT. 461). KR. 217. MB. waraq damghah see waraq. 107). 87). glazing (ST. 110. burnishing.

' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . Herat. 230: LL. ' U DO-. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. grease. oil. . ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. 927). 905-906). I.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople.E GDK – Yazd. Isfahan. midhan. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. mudhun – container for oil (IR. ' U DO-¶. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. Tabriz. – fat.

93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1.  73 . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.

TS. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. (5) 4. 105. straight. JA. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. e.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. ta¨U I. 56.e. 156. disc (UK. I. roundel. MB.g. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. 59) 5. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). UD. medallion. i. WDGZ U 1. even (as opposed to oblique. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. 30.

22. 39-40) 2. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). RN.g. LM. rounding (of the spine) (IA. hence PXVWDG U – round. 61) 3. 9. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. 10. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. 35). curvilinear (e. LM. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q.


WDGZ Q 1. writing down (of ¨DG WK. office. II. collecting (collection). chancellery (KM. I. IV. I. 129. EI. EI. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. II. UHJLVWHU account book. collection of poems written by one author (DM). 323. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. SA. sifr 13. 90) 2. 323).

  73 . . (.

 FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. 15. TE. copying. transcription (LC. 28. UI. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G .

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.


IV. IURP which it is derived (EI. 1125-6). GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ.

169-170. escritoire. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56.. . KU. 370) 2. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. III.  LQNZHOO . BA. -85.

suppl. midhbar see mizbar. memorandum. III. wiper and sand) (SA. UK. 137-139). 372) 2. 77. 73). X. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. MB.3-4. II. II. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. descender (of a letter) (AA.50 GLOSSARY ruler. dhabr. 713.132-133. GDZZ µ. aide-mémoire (EI. EI.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. 65. DG. tadhkirah 1. fasc.v. 440-443. 53) 2. 53). ER. AT. VII. 54. ND. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. 203-204. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1.

dhanab SO DGKQ E. +%  (. 53). X.

supplement (AD.V. 21). UD. 477. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. etc. II. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. 13). ¨arf (SA. – tail (foot) of a letter. WDGKQ E – appendix. 226. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. MB. 59). UK. I. paint (MU. 130-132. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. SA. III. LC. 24. index. I. dhahab. 983: ‘water-gold.’). 89-91. LL. 25. 151).

222. 15. writing with liquid gold. gilding. TE. 145). KA. IX.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. WDGKK E 1. 27. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. chrysography (LC. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. AS.


chrysographer (AB. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. 141). JLOW REMHFW 6' . LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. mudhahhib – gilder. 15). dhayl SO GKX\ O. 132. 27. TE. MU. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. 385). PA. 490). XV.


dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. 23). dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. ruÐ V. lower margin.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. 206). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl.

e. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. page or book. 108.g. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. 62) 4. IA. envelope flap (MB.e. (qalam) al-riµ V . frontispiece (LC. 172). beginning of something. LC. 136. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. 26) 2. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . raµs al-NLW E). raµs al-waraqah.g. TM. 24. SA. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. 26). as opposed to the spine (MB. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. fore-edge of the codex. raµs al-¦afŒah. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. i. character. upper margin (TS. 109). e. 61) 3. 14. 107. III. IA. 109. 26).  KHDG RI D letter.

35. KH. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh).202/817-8) (FN.5 -242. TU. RN. script akin to a large naskh. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. 65). 12. U EL¨ah – catchword. FZ. vox reclamans (NZ. JM.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 84. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. WDUZ V 1. 30. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . 144. 146.. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. 215). HI. 37. 33. MO. AS. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . AQ. 13) 2. 100). 126.. 213. 100. 236. 83-84. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. 226.

DO-rub¶. 5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah.

NKLU (al-PXE UDN. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). / / (OS. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . abbrev. 5DE ¶ al. CM. 89.

– the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl. rabaÑ W.


 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

48.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ.  &$ .21. 51.  6' . 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +. MS. nos.

…spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . stalk (?) (TS. AG. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. 11. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. 109). WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT.128). lin.

51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. AM. arrangement (of the text).GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. composition (MU. I. no. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . 50.170) 2.

mubawwib. IV. 72). 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. ratm – close. copying (KM. 384. murattib – author.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. comp. sifr 13. SS. compact writing. 53. n. II. compiler (DF.20).

abbrev. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm.  26 . al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. Rajab (al-murajjab. al-aÁabb.

VIII. 376). raj¶ (pl. didactic poem (EI. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi).1 . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory.   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . .

retouching. 28. AG. 109). polychrome illumination (TE. KM. UXM ¶ – reference. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. IV. 17. MJ. FRPS SD. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. writing in bold characters (TE. muÑallaqah. I. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). III. I. 99. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. 252). source (in a text) (IN. 17) 2. comp. retouchage (of a letter). sifr 13. 513: ‘barrage. WDUM ¶ 1.

62).  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. . epilogue (AD.

n. book support (MD. ST. index.% 81. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. 137. 31: MD.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 13). 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. index.13. 13). al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. RI. index. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST.185). 13: yusammá al-OLV Q .

1062. 1223. nos. 419. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. abbrev. 294. UXNK P DK. 54. 584. 1035. comp. 3185). numrah) (TP. 2152. VA.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 3099. 1038. 1055.

14. . 59. TS. 107. XXIB). ST. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. AG. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. raddah – envelope flap (TM. . OM). 11. marble slab (MB. 10. pl. TP. 103. IA.

rizam) 1.v. AB. AJ.) (PT. 92. . 39. WS.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. ream (of paper). dast (q. consisting of five quires. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . 145.

letter. 532). 524: ‘cahier’). also ruzmah – booklet (SD. I. FRmp. VIII. LUV O DK. monograph (EI. dast 2. epistle 2. tract. treatise. ULV ODK 1.

. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . LM. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð..

sketching (ME. rasm al-muÁ¨af. epistolography (DM). marking. designing. 451-. 14) 2.VIII. rasm 1. making a mark (ST. tarassul – art of letter writing. execution. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. 561. MB. 101.g. 100. copying. EI. e. index. PA. writing. 45) 3. drawing. 100.


560. SD. chapter (in a composition) (SD. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. – stroke. line (traced with a pen) (SD. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. 528). rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. 527) 5. bi-rasm see mustanad. unpointed letter or word ( NO. 15) 6. faÁl. 527) 7. comp. designer. 527). painter (ME. I. I. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. I. I.

calamus (BA. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. 14). 137). wood block (AB. index. 164) 3. . marking (syn. rasm) (ST. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. index. lin.129. tooling (HT. 14) 2. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. III. 370). – woodcut.

56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. 18) 2. 532). comp. ream (of paper) (SD. rizmah. marshim. mark (TS. I. marsham SO PDU VKLP.

532). hot iron (SD. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. illumination. I. decoration (MS. 135).  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. 125) 2. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. tar¦ ¶ 1.


decoration (with liquid gold).3 145. 126). gilding the inside of the surround (outline). . ta¨U U TY. 103. covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. TE. 17) 3.

$) .

184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. KH. tar¦ I 1. composition (NS. joining letters together (AP. ra¦f. writing. 79. III. 140. 35) 2. SA.

abbrev. 35. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. 89. MI. used for the companions of the Prophet.    73 54. SL. tar„iyah. 15. AR. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. 125). II. KH. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. 34.

DQW RI \ ELV. FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah.

– curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. 24). 15. istir¶ µ \DK – note. . 19. 14. AS. statement (LC. 16. 144).

GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. 230. ND. KK.133. 137). mirfa¶ 1. support (for an inkwell) (AA. riqq SO UXT T. 70) 2. I. 44. book support. 231. lin. n. raqq.11. book cradle (IN. 111-112).

paper or other writing surface (MU. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. 17. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . IK. 230). mirqash – reed pen. IW. 60-63.67). 1135) 4. parchment leaf (ND. KK. 74-75. diacritical point (JA. 105. I. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. -485. VIII. 119. calamus (IR. 108-111. UDTT JKD] O see jild. elegant. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. EI. KJ.. AE. VIII. 1135) 3. no. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. 85). 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). I. I. 407-410. parchmenter (DG. 353). AK. KM. copying (TE. LL. AA. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. 93. SK. 53. 269).1. diacritical pointing (TE. embellished writing. I. 17. sifr 13. vocalization by means of points. al-raqq al-a¨mar. making something multicoloured (LL. 53. 407). UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. WS. vox reclamans (NM. EP) 2. arabesque decoration (KA. UDTT ¦ – catchword. 683. IV.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . KR. raqshah – pointing. 105. piece (slip) of leather. n.

(kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk.  OHWWer. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. brief message. note.

1126). . DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. IV.

muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. often sewn in). LM. VII. 146. 1125. inset (MK. 602-603). drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. 86).58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. passim. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. EI. MN. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair.v. sifr 13. raqm 1. 78-82. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. Turkey). IV. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. Persia. writing (KM. JM.) script (AS. patchwork. IV.



– piece of calligraphy. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. AW. 266) 4. NI. 41. DP. calligraph (AC. 54.




sifr 13. 183). sifr 13. 30). fasc. III. arqam. 154). GA. 45. AM. 1140). 160). IK. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. 106). III. mirqam – reed pen. 5. I. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. 230. – abbreviation. 141. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. UDT P – inkwell (KM. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. 82. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. copyist (AC. raqn – compact writing (KM. BA. no. KJ. IR. AW. 372.76). LL. 147. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. siglum (CL. no. GA. 17. 383. 17. 468-9: AN. IV. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. 2. calamus (TE. 183. IV. 244.3. 387-388. SK. TE. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher.


IV. embellishing ( a text. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. sifr 13. writing) (KM.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1.


on the line) (MY.g. ligatured. murakkab 1.73. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. index. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . III. e. AG. comp. MP. ¨ibr 2.g. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). WDUN E 1. ST. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. UA. (Turk. hybrid (of a script) (LM. I. linking (joining) one letter with another. lin. 83). HT. ligature (e. 50. SA. boarding (TS. 681) 2. markaz SO PDU NL]. 58. 14. 109. IV. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. ¨ibr. 78) 3. 389. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. 393). 24-27. comp. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. 45).5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). 60ff).

393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). – support (for reed pens) (UA. rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. UXN ¶ .



5 . .

AG. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). 69). 30. 107) 3. . II. corner piece itself (ST. 14. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. IB.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. 703). 31. rakwah (pl. index.

murammim – restorer. ramz SO UXP ].0 . WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada). restoration (DM).60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair.

428) 2. secret alphabet (EI. VIII. chronogram. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. 468. VIII. TW. chronosticon (EI. 55. cypher. 159) 3. III. WB.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. code. 427) 4.

&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. 209. . V.

 26 . abbrev. Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.

86. WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. 393). PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. TD. .  '' . II. al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). 478- $7  6' .  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. I. 127136). sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. UA. I.


– little stick for the application of kohl. LL. syn. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. UXZ K. DM). 1186. mik¨ O '' . 393. I. UA.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi.

link in the chain of transmission (TP.v. 94). marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. variant reading. II. transmission. varia lectio (MR. ULZ \DK 1. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. VIII. 53. tradition (traditio). 26. KF. – transmitter. also known as sanad (q. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. 109-111). recension (recensio) (LC. EI. 545-547) 2. 417418 and 500-501) 3. XII. 53). version (versio).) (TP.

rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. Persia. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). 1123. MB. 38. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI. LM. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . 146.) script (AS. 43: wa-T OD .EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. IV.v. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ.in Turkey). 144. 1125. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. JM. MP. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. 73-77. 545-547).

transcription (TE. inscription on stone (KM.). q. ¨ibr. also dhabr – writing. 18. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. ]DEU WD]E U 1. IV. I. sifr 13. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. CI.v. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. copying.

work (SA. IK. zab U (pl. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. 80. 80. 92). ND. 18. KK. ND. 444. copyist (TE. zubur) – composition. II.

zakhrafah 1. copying (KK. 18) 2. calamus (TE. elegant. TE.18. 444-465. 85. 18). mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. embellished writing. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. embellished writing. IR. SA. 230). copying (KK. TE. elegant. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. II. polychrome illumination (TE. 53. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. IK.


87).  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. 80). decorator (WR. muzakhrif – illuminator.

Ñurwah. 135). 34. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. comp. . 110. 25. KT. AG.

zulayjah (]DO MDK. V. fastener (TS. ‘curl’). ST. decoration in gold and colours (LL. MN. 360) 1. 35. 69. ‘hair lock’. ]XO \MDK. ]LP P DK. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). ER. I. 689). index. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN .GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. zulf (Pers. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). AG. see DC. lit. 682.. 1222). 109). 19: in 12). 25. zalf (MN. IV./Turk.

222: al-WDUP N . 95) 2. (pl. 181). NA. (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. catalogue (SD. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. list. 127. account book. pt. 601). GA. I.9. register (IK. 383-385. azimmah) 1. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN.

145. vermillion ink (SA. KF. 101. 315. 320). zinjafr – cinnabar. II. . comp. 478). ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. II. MB.

KR.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. floriated (KJ. no. 44. 91).1. hence muzahhar. 38. zawj SO D]Z M. box (DG. WD]K U – floral decoration. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq).


conjugate leaf (AG. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. 73). embellished writing. copying (TE. 90-100). muzawwir – forger (EI. 409). ER. VII. 376). WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. 73. X. 391). TK. X. f. EI. AD. 408-409.120b. 6. GA. 18) 2. 107) 2. WD]Z U 1. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. 107). ]DZZ U – painter (AD. falsification (UI. forgery. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. I. 283. AG. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. X. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. 825 and VIII.


miniature painter (ME. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME.  decoration. . WA. 12). ]DZZ T – illuminator. 560) 4. 560. MS. lin.102. n. 105). decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. 11) 3.4. writing. multi-colour illumination (HT. miniature painting (WA. 4). ]LZ TDK – art of illumination.

interpolation. 60.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. interpolation. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. post-scriptum (AD. 136). ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. 52. IA. addition (CM. 9). ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . 59. superfluous. angle 2. dittography (TM. MH. also takht al-]L\ U (ST.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. 111. corner. square (an implement) (MB. abbrev. addition (TP. MI. 184) 2. index. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. 73). 9). 98) 3. index. 62). ]L\ GDK 1. 127) 2.

] QDK WD]\ Q 1. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . FRPS TDUU Á. elegant. embellished writing (SK.


jaw E (CI. comp. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. xiv. 128) 2. quodlibet. MI. abbrev. preamble to a fatwá. suµ O (pl. II. . asÐilah) 1.

696. 53. 3214) 2. n. nos. VA. used after the word All K 73 .66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. 1853. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. 461.20.

IB.185). mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). I. 13. etc. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. lapsus calami (DM). 637). parchment) (IB. n. 11-12). 81. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab.) (SD. index. piece (of poetry. siŒ µah – piece. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen.

. transcription (TE. plug (in the inkwell) (IK. 17). 83). asiddah) – stopper. WDVG G – copying. VLG G (pl.

center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. prelector (TP. n. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). punching (SK. 1347). reading. 39. comp. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). KM. I. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. awling. I. 115. sifr 4. punch (SK. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. 1347). I. 40. 122) 2. LL. recital. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. Áurrah. 122. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E.52). 56.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. hence V ULG – reader.) 1. misrad – awl.

MD. KR. . 95. also known as lawzah (JL. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. 27.. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. 82). 36).  frontispiece. 127. 97.. horizontal stroke (UD. AF. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . munsa¨iŒ – flat.

sa¨r (pl. asÃur. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U.

705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). II. line of writing. . – line (KD.

48) 5. index. pasteboard (HT. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. 13.. 17. 103. writing. III. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. 155. 12. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. 247) 4. composition (AD. 28. IB. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. MB. WA. WR. 59). 104- 7. ruler. WS. 104. lineation. MB. 59). 73. number of lines per page (TK. creating a line (of writing) (SA. ruling. 155). 28) 5. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. folder (UK. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 155). IN. 77). TS. 25) 3. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. stencil (AF. 113) 6. 155. TS. tas¨ U 1. 155. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. 174) 3. 86.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. redaction.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. IA. designing (UK. 15. 43). 28. IA. 87). number of lines per page (LC. 104-105). musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. IA. MB.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. I. KA. 105. 50. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. 91. 18. 78. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. 155. SDVVLP 6$ . 17). V ¨ir. ff.%  Q LC. 134) 4. 59). lineation (LC. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. TA. straightedge (UK. lin. copying (TE. ruling (of folios). LC. TM. 104. ruling board (ST. (grid of) guidelines. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". lining.

5  // . DM: snuff box). . . 1364.



codex. book.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. MS.


 V ILU (pl.9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 .

index . bookbinding (e. WDVI U 1. ST.g.


110). 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. 15. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. passim). 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). EI. 158. lin. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. 109) 2. AD. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. HT. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. VDI QDK 1. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. index. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. 11. – book cover (MB. AG. lower margin. IV. AG. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 31. TF. tail (of the page). al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. 742) 2. VIII. MB. 660. 150). I. oblong format (of a book) (MD. spine (of a book) (UK. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. end of a letter or book 2. . 78).115. 97. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh).

95. 87) 2. also LVT ¨ – omission. KR. 97). 238) 1. see above) (JL. XII. saqa¨ (MU. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . haplography (TP. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. MH.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. 58. 88). 95. 97.

60). saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. AT. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. comp.133. comp. IA. WS. 230). IR. VXN Q 1. 80). 118. 133. 107. jazmah 2. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. lin. 482. II.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. 137). mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. circle-like tool (HT. ÑLO M PLVT K. 148.

AA. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. SA. – knife. 248). 115- . silsilah SO VDO VLO.$  8. 90-91. VI. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. II. SK. 31-33). KD. 465-466. II. 103-104. 711.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. LM. pen knife (IK.


76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

silsilat al-nasab – stemma. 27). stemma codicum (AL. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . I. IX.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. 611).

15. EI. AG. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. JM.GLOSSARY 71 146. 1124). IV. KK. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. 5863. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. VDO P. 107).

128). 2211. 54. I. mas P U.1830. VA. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. MI. CI. PLVP U (pl. xiii. no.

III. – nail. TM.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. peg (part of a clasp) (BA. 372.



&7 .

abbrev. II. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶.. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. MU.. (CW. 1019-1020). 27. auditor.g. LC. TP.. X. 53. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. 485493). KF. TP. . n. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 .  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. 278. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. XVII.25. EI. 53. MU. 69. VIII. 267. certificate).

268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . 45) 2. I. certificate (JA. audition note. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT.

 musammi¶. musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK.

FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. certifier (CT. authoritative commentator. 45). audition leader (master).


1. . IV. proper name (EI. title of a book (ism al-NLW E). 179-181) 2.

n. 28.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. sinn SO DVQ Q.20) 3. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 53. 28) 2.) (MH. title (of a work) (LC. tasmiyah 1. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q.v. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. TP. 100).

shaqq ) (UK.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit.

.  . 6$ . . .9  LQV – left side.  (.. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // .

misann ÃXOD\O ". IA. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. MB. 103. 153. hone (UK. 60: misann akh ar.

107. 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . . AG.. TS. 10.  $7 133.5  6$ . NH.

q. sanad SO DVQ G.). 395). musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM). musannanah – chevron (FT.v. misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨.

56). musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. 53.

. . 9.. 6/ .   (.

8. 704-705). 365. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. 692). IV. 47). EI. 14. 2. I. FRPS muÁannaf. RN. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . FN. VII. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. 5. sifr 13. TW.

CM. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. OS. 232). in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. 88.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. II. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). 264-265. VI.

). al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. comp. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A. 252). and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. VI.D.

SK. black ink (LC. 320. 384. I. 27. AI. VDZ G 1. 388). 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. – Muslim era (DD.

XV. MU. 126. XIII.9 . VI. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . MU. MU.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. rough copy (LC. 27. 161.

237). also LVZLG G (!) – writing. 18) 2. 97. musawwid – copyist. preparation of a draft (TE. 45. 18). 50A) 3.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. FRPS PXED\\D ah. copying by an apprentice (TE. marring (of a text). nos. calligrapher (AW. making it difficult to read (MH. 98) 4. 18. copying (TE. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. vox reclamans (NZ. WDVZ G 1. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . AM.

 V V DK.


. – woodworm.

28). LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. comp. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. trimming the textblock (TS. II. II. KD. 702). 105. 463. 50.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. musawwas – worm-eaten. damage caused by worms (LC. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. SA. 17-18). KK.

183). A variety of this script. used in Ottoman Egypt. IV. RA. 24-24).in Turkey. DR. 1124. was known as qirmah ( Persia. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. 1125. 178-180. sayr SO VX\ U.


 endband (headband) strip (ST. index. 16. 114. sayf SO VX\ I. lin.96). MB. HT.

104. – trimming sword. MB. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. cutter (UK. 103. IA. 154.

20) 2. **** VKDE NDK 1. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. 73). preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. lin. DH. 407. 19. 33. nos. (pl. 115. WDVKE N 1. endband (headband) (HT. WDVK E N.88-106.

– interlace (TF. . passim).

à VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV. 406).GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT.

..  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ .' . jilfah.. . shajjah SO VKLM M.  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). comp.

mishŒadh – whetstone. shajarah – genealogical tree. arabesque decoration (WR. shaŒm(ah) – pith. 967) 3. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). 87. 390). I. WDVKG G DK. UD. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . I. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. creating a genealogical tree. I. DH. tree-like way. 9. shaŒdh – whetting. white interior substance of the reed (IK. composing a text in a schematic. shaddah. also mushajjar – foliated design. honing (of a knife) (KD. 86. no. LM. VII. EI. II. hone (DD.73) 2.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). 14. 27). stemma (SL. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. 711). stemma (AL. WDVKM U 1. 35-35).

14). shidq SO DVKG T. doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. – doubling (of a consonant).

book cover. 27.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). . case binding (TS.

fakk 2. 369). sharaj SO DVKU M. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. comp. 109).76 GLOSSARY AG.

v. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.) (BA. 372). – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. III. sharŒ (pl.


392: for opening sealed documents. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. FZ. al-VKDU I DK. 158.0 . stroke (DM). DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. shar¨(ah) (pl. [Lv). frame (on a book cover) (FJ. 60. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn).. abbrev. I. I. mishra¨(ah) – knife. 217. shars – pasting. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . rule-border (LC. 60. xiv. (LC. EA. OM). 100. 106-107. 5051). MD. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. 139. long commentary. 27. 27) 2. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. . &.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. DD. shuraÃ) – line. 174-175). al-sharŒ al-PD]M . VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). IX. comment-text book. decorative band (UI. II. cutter (IA. paste (MB. fillet (in decoration) (FT. CI. 109) 3. MI. 29) 4. MB. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. EI. 397-320. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. comprising the text commented upon (matn). NH. IB. MM. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. 385. 401). rules. abbrev. also VKLU V. IA. VLU V and V U V (DM). ashriÃah) 1.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. nuskhah and the like. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. TW. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. 322). sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . VI. ligatured Maghrebi script. 365. 47.). 250).v. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q.

)'  .

shaqq. FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. 251). polisher (NH. I. I. 11. whisk (?). sha„ \DK (pl. 113) 2. cancellation (LC. 28: IN. comp. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD.  arb. burnisher. eraser (TS. shaÌ \ . AG. mish¨ab – 1. 390). duster. 756).

Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. 13) 2. serif-like stroke (LM. AA.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. III. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . KH. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. à Ð \ Ð. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. also tash„ \DK – line. 88. 35.

al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. al-mukarram. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam.

abbrev.  26 . – the eighth month of the Muslim calendar.


78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. ashÑ U. shi¶r (pl.

(qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. 82. scribal verse (see e. CI. nos.g. 116). no. 81. – poetry. II. versification. 12. I. CI.

9. IA. 45. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. lin. UK. 91-93. illumination in gold. 11. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. paring knife. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. 109). WDVKI U – trimming. IP. 145. bookbinder’s sword. pt. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I .104. outlining. 59) 3.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. lin. parer. 112. cutting edge (SK. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. 58). 127. MJ. 104. 16. shafrah 1. SA. 250). shaqq SO VKXT T. 59. III. shaving (HT.159). NA. JM. index. 50) 3. AI. AG. 161) 2. 153. al-musha¶¶ar. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. 144. VI. 103. MB. tash¶ U 1. trimmer (HT. 161). LM. outline (KF. 224). also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. AF.83. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. III. II. scraper (ST.


117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

460-462). 59. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. slit (of the nib). 171) 3. . IM. II.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. SA. MH. 97.

ER. IV.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. 43. 393). . WDVKN ] – 1. 62) 2.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. 1124. 1124. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. IV. 694). Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. awl. punch (UA.1. IV. no. sewing endbands (headbands). a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. ER. 699-702). preliminary endbanding (IA. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. IV. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers.

150). diagram. vowel marks.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. 125. vowelized (for various practices see SA. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e.g. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. IM. shaqq. III. comp. KH. 59. 12) 2. hence mushakkal – vocalized. vowelization. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. GL. 160-167. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. SA. 81). III. 36). III.

+  8'   . .


80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

 FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK. 156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .

63). 27. 110. 135). IA. passim. MB. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. 118. AF. rosette (LC. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. PA.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. 116). sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. 51).


g. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.


IX. EI. 53. n. – copy of a letter. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. 340-. document (DM).20. 201 and X.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.


90). XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. Mashhad (al-)´usayn. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU .

al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. – . shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU.DUEDO Ð).HUEHOD . al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.

v.). usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. month (LL. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. II. shuhrah. 1612). al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. – new moon.

 . .. EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &.


al-PXE UDN.GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram.

abbrev.  26 . – the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.

of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. mashyakhah (pl. . 19-20. 250). fihrist.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD.v. RN.5. 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah).). PA. 117. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. VI. fahrasah. 8. VI. VK U ]DK (Pers. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. comp. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 118). KH. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. i¦E ¶ (pl. 725).) – endband (headband) (LA. pt.

attestation (of correctness in transcription). QS. 671-672. dye. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. writing word in the text (GA. tint (UK. 136. AR. 29-32. LE. 285. 473. II. 114-118. emendation 2. mara  and saqam). 370: Áabgh al-waraq. NW. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. sic. (KG. CT. 267-268). 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. correction.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. MP. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. ¦LE JK – pigment. IA. VIII. 35. 120-129. 45). ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. I. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). 63. MH. tinting. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). 73  . abbrev. abbrev. NH. thus (JA. MB.


DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. aÁ¨ E. n. 53. ¦ Œib (pl. comp.25). editor. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. signing (a document) 4. preparation of a critical edition.

 DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). isti¦Œ E – ownership. abbrev. 0. possession (OS). . owner (OS).

folio (folium). III. notebook (SL. maÁ ¨if) 1.  parchment. IV. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . papyrus or paper (KD. .. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. I.. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. sifr 13.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. small pamphlet. -835) 2. 24). codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. 22. Áu¨uf. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). I. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. BA. 22) 3. IK. leaf (TC. ma¦Œaf. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. often leather. 9. page (DM) 4. mu¦Œaf.. mi¦Œaf (pl. sheet of writing material. II.

107. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. 17. AG. 54-57). 16). 668-669. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. AG. n. 146. VII. 316. JM. parchment textblock (TS.GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. volumes) (EI. 17. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. 17. 16). 25. sometimes two. KF. 25.4). MS. 107. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. MS.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. AG. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . 107) 3. II.

distortion.  .g. ta¦Œ I 1.  . error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e.

.  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK. 04  6$ .

 FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). syn. ta¨U I TY.

 .5. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. -348) 3. bookbinding (LA. (. pt.

IB. 11. bookseller (QS. 9. 118) 2. 269-270). ¦aŒŒ I 1. ¦adr (pl. ÁXG U. II. 13. II. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. HD.

preamble. ¦DG UDK 1. also ta¦G U – incipit. preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

464. 16. 27) 4. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . 107) 6.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 59). 105. AG. IA. II. as opposed to inner side. fore-edge (TS. fore-edge flap (TS. MJ. 218). 15) 5. IB. MB. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. wajh (SA. 44. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. 156.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

¦a¶d (pl. ÁuÑ G. mandorla (FZ. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. ¦urrah – center-medallion. JL. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). 83. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. 99. surrah. 109. comp. 110). MD.

50. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. TU. 34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK.

ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. verso of the first folio (LC. 192). ta¦affuŒ – examination. FN. 30. study (KF. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. II. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. 58). siglum) (TP. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. 371. 11. ¦DI Œah (pl. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. ta¦I Œ – catchword. AG. 27). 227. KD. 107). vox reclamans (TT. II.

al-PXE UDN. iafar (al-khayr. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). al-muÌaffar. al-Ìafar.

aÁI U. – the second ¦ifr (pl.

– cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. 59).171. . TP. 89). abbrev. (OS. month of the Muslim calendar.

maÁ ILQ.GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl.

KA. – filter. maÁ TLO. ¦aql – polishing. sieve (UA. 134). strainer. burnishing (MB. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. 393: for ink). passim.

DD. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu.  DS. 149. aÁO E. 99. 44. ¦ulb (pl. I. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. 105. MB. 149. aÁlub. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . IA. – polisher. 156. 142.. IB.

original text (LC. IA. no.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . 1712. 62) 3. 166. comp. making pasteboards (MB. 27). i¦O Œ 1. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. II. 62). ta¦O E 1. 59). bookbinding (IA. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. MB. 27) 2. . correction (FK. LC. II. 119). main. text-column (LL. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. matn. 111. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2.


55-56. CI. no. suspension. i¦¨LO Œ. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. siglum) (TP. II. 191. MM. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq.


also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. [LLL (. -359).      73  Q 73  &. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. abbrev. .86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. .

ÁDQ G T.v. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl.). ¦LP P – plug. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. sketching (MO. ta¦P P – design. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 83).

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

taÁ Q I. Ñamal. ¦un¶. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. ta¦Q I (pl. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ).

III. – composition. work (MU. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I.

 FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. 39. compiler. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation.v. work. 705). II. VII. 662663. mu¦annif – author.) (SL. often the author of the original text PDWQ. EI. as opposed to musnad (q.

625-626). (CI. art. xi). DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). I. duction by artisans. IX. E\ $E +LO O. abbrev. craft (EI.


exact copy. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. DH. „abbah (pl. comp. preservation (DM). 889892 and X. 57). XVI. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. taÁ¨ ¨. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. EI.212). Áuwar) 1. no. **** LI Ì. mu¦awwir – painter. illustrator (PA. example (JA. aÁwinah) – case. miniature painting (MU. painted illustration (EI. comp. 361.  LE E.2.g. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. 225. 559). XV. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. 56) 3. ME. pt. TP. ta¦Z U 1. apograph (TP. 136. taÁZ E t) – correction. 361-363) 2. microfilming. box (NT. 121. ¨ ¦awn.141: ‘portraitiste’). correctness. ¦LZ Q (pl. 268) 4. transcript (e. 143. ¦ UDK (pl. X. I. IX. MU. copy. ta¦Z E (pl.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

marking the word with a  abbah (TP. also known as WDPU „. DEEUHY 73  AR. 57. a  E U. 95-96).64. n. 30) 2. ta„E E. MH. MH. thus (TP. sic. 57. i„barah (pl. 95-96).

95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. KM. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. IV. bundle of documents (IK. quire . sifr 13. a number of leaves or sheets put together. „LE UDK 1.. a„barah.

ta„E U 1. AG. 18.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. 11) 2. ST. 29. IB. 44. 12. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. 18. AG. 17. 388). 97) 2. orthographer (MH. album (FT. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl.. specialist in  abÃ.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . index. n.120a-b). 16. 19. 5) 3. AG.) .  XU E.177). 112) 4. 26.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). binding (IB.  DZ ELÃ) – compass. TK. 107. II. 107) 3. f. 13. textblock (TS.16. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . „ EL¨ 1. (pair of) dividers (TS.) . (pl. collation (of quires) (TS. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ.

– cancellation. mi„rabah 1. stalk?) (TS. AG. 59). II. erasure (MF. 109) 2. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. 62). mallet (LF. a U V  XU V. small tool (resembling a drum stick. „irs (pl. 11. KF.

 SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. a Ñ I. 12. AG. AG. „i¶f (pl. 109-110). interlace (TS. 32-33. also TS. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. 109) 2.

 ta„¶ I (pl. ta  Ñ I.

  /& . 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . XVII. 1792.. II. interline (LL. – space between lines. MU.


ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. passim). 12.406). III. plait. 33. interlaced (FZ. a Z Ð) – counter. 217). mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. 11. AG. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. 44. braid (FT. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk.g. 45). „DI UDK (pl. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. „awµ (pl. ‘eye’ (of a letter). 44). 413) 2. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. interlace (TF. 110).GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. AG. (SA. 30. polygon. e. 32. Á G à Р.  DI Ðir) 1. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. ma„I U – plaited. 107).

76   $* .

seal.medallion) (HT. 96). comp. signet. mi¨ba¶ 1.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ).  ODUJH stamp (for a center. ¨ EL¶. stamp (IK. ÃDZ ELÑ ). lin. ¨ ED¶ (pl. .

90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl. aÃE T ÃLE T.

.  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. WS. roll (AJ. 144.


6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). comp. qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. sarwah) (JL. 154. tirs.5 . 2019) 4. DB. III. (KU. 83. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. 979) 5.

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

border (on a book cover) (TS. VIII. turn-in (TS. ¨urrah (pl. edge. IA. 28. ¨LE T – large sheets. 1020. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. 113. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. AG.7. MZ. audition note (EI. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. marginalia. 73  Q $. 107. f. TK. abbrev. leaves (of paper) (NH. 21. marginal note. gloss. I. 109) 2. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). 372).120a) 4. AG. . AD. Taf. 110) 3. 102). Ãurar) 1. 60). ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). margin (LC.


313. margin (TP. 58. II. SD. ML. 29) 6. 46. address (ÑXQZ Q. SA. VI.

TP. 689). 58. HT. Ãughrá 7. 16). 28) 13. 57. palmette (LC. ansa. 28) 10. 28) 11. mu¨arrar – glossed. lin. 682.120a). comp. X. 28.67).85). disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. n. 36) 12. 28) 9. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. f.120a. . ta¨U U – glossing. 28) 8. KH. annotated (WA. IV. 16). tailpiece (LC. annotation (WA. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. f. illuminated headpiece (LC.

MB. 61. 101. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. HD. outline (HD. ÃXU ¨). al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. ÃXU V DÃU V. PA. 118. 118. 159: ‘dessin. Ãar¨’) 2. 103). manuscript restorer. 69. draftsman (AB. ¨irs (pl. ¨DUU Œ 1. PA. composition’). sketcher. 141: ‘dessinateur. celui qui fait le tracé initial.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. 133). 132. ta¨U Œ – sketch. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD.

63-64. VIII. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU . 93.  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. comp. 75-76. 1840). LL. 408. IW. IK. II. EI.

ta¨U V – obliteration. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). ¨araf (pl. sifr 13. IV. BA. aÃU I.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . 371). LF. III. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 140.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. HJ µ. 8.

109). 87). IA. mi¨raqah – mallet. 107. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. 166. 38. hammer (TS. 11. AG. 60). TH. AG. 15. 31. 107). 11. 57. . AG. 30.

erasure (KM. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. inlay work (AB.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. X. headpiece (LC. à ¨ughrá.) 2. 134. 28). 28) 4. FT. 11. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. 406). decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. X.v. 109). ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. 595-598) 3. AG. sifr 13. ta¨¶ P – inlay. ¨XJKU µ (pl. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. IV. (MU.


requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. SD. leaf (of paper) (TS. 83). I. 145. UK. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. 92. 147. 52). ¨alŒ \DK (pl. 483). WS. ÃDO ¨ \. II. ¨alŒ. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 27. ¨alaŒ – sheet. AJ.

87: al-darj. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). II. . SD. roll (WS. – sheet (of paper from the mould). 52).

thus differing from Ãirs’). ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. 373: ¨ulsah).0 . ta¨O V – obliteration. NH. ÃDO VLP. comp. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. 63. NH. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. LL.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). 373: ¨als. ¨alsah.) (pl. ¨ilsim (etc. syn.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . IV. ¨ilsam. erasure (ND. 82. Ãirs. II. ¨ilsim. sifr 13.

incipit (WA. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. naÌDUD ZDTDID. 56). headpiece (TW. 500-502).) (KH. iÁE Ñ (q. – talisman. ascender (of a letter). 258). magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM).v. WB. ¨ OL¶ (pl. 11. beginning of the text. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. tion of words (EI. X.

/&  26 .

59. 224). RN. MJ. popular class of scripts’). naÌar. III. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. 29: ‘common. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. SA. . 144. III. FRPS WDTU Ì. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA.

‘eyes’. erasure (JA. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. II. passim) 2. ¨ams 1. I. 58. pasting (MB. 278. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. 110). of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. II. KD. daubing. gilt and the like (MB. coating. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. DG. 136). gilding (SD. obliteration. filling in (inking in) (of the counters.

IR. AS... 36. -47. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. 144). KH. 6$ . 242.

Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). a¨Q E (sg.

IA. / / / (CI. mu¨awwal – original. MB. 26). IA. 157. AG. 17. 35. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. TK. musta¨ O 1. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. 31. ¨DZ O – long. 111. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. I. 62. rules. strand (UK. 109. f. . cartouche (LC. comp. 110). 107. 32. unabridged work. xviii). a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). 120b) 2. 135) 3. rule-border (LC. ¨ TDK 1. 26) 2. abbrev. sheet (piece. rectangular panel (AB. 61). Áilah. AG. MB. layer) of paper (TS.


8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. sifr 13.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. IV. KM.

49-57). (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. ÃDZ P U. 11. mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. It was written with a reed pen. III. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. 12).


person. . f.120a). – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK. abbrev.  0.

misk) (e. 206.g. 212). MJ. musta¨ E DK. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk.


18). RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e.g. CI. 3. II. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. CM.

98. ÌXU I. 182). prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. **** „arf (pl. inset (EM. WKDU KX – requiescat. AH.


. II.  FDVH ER[ /& 29. 1910. 575). LL. ME.

II.). „ufr (pl.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. aÌI U. 495). al-„afar. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.v.

– outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC.3. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). no. usually the thumbnail) (TM. outline (KJ. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. ‘shading’) – outlining. 29). ta„O O (lit.

 „ann (pl. ÌXQ Q.

hair side (of parchment). GA. „ahr – back. 285). title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. II. SL. 29). 59) 2. blank reverse of a letter (LC. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. „DKU \DK 1. placed in the margin. 57. xv.64. (TP. I. back of a document. abbrev. 29. CI. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. 29). comp. verso. front of the textblock (LC. baÃn. – conjecture. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). n.

Oá).  IO\-leaf (SD. 109). II. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture. comp. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. .*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. ‘external. 8 and II. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. obvious. first page(s) of the textblock (KF. AG. 88. evident’. ‘alleged. „ KLU (lit. I. 11. ME. abbrev.


aÑM ]. 80-82). ¶ajz. MP. 40. 147. 148-149. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. AJ.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. ¶ajuz (pl. WS.


52.P P DO-0DKG .14).  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. V. TP. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. 21-22. n.

  (. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). RA. treatise. III. sifr 13. diacritical point 3. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2.. IV. 146. . vocalization (KM. 26).. . DEEUHY MI.

. SA. i¶M P WD¶M P 1. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. 90. ¶ajm. pointed letters (TP. 57). FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH.


(pl. taÑ U M.

   P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). – curve. 30). ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. ÑXU VK. ¶arsh (pl. III. curvature (of the descender) (SA.

230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U. al-sa¨r – base line (TW.

III. lattice-work (AB.. 45). 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . abbrev. TP. KU. ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1.. 29). 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. 25. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . 464. II. reciter (CT. 218. 45). I. 136).9. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). SA. mu¶ UL„ – collator. trellis (FT. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl.  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. 202). taÑ U T. LC. JA. 423) 2. ¶ar„(ah). SA.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. MH. 56. ¶LU „(ah).

 mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 11. KU. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. III. 50. 40. SA. 36. KH. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. 37. 22.

U T see mu¨aqqaq. FRPS PXÑaqqaf. ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. 11). . (al-kha¨¨) al-¶.

AG. 25.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. Ñuran) – thong.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. 34. KT. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 110... 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ .

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

 DEEUHY / (CI. xiii). ¶ashr (pl. I. aÑVK U.


 . ¶ VKLU \DK – mark. decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .7  // ..  6' ..  8.

ta¶VK U 1. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W.

¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 108. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. 109). 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . 109). AG. ¶ushar 1. 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah.7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). 11. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 116: gha  UDK . ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. 109) 2. AG. stamp with vegetal design (TS.

IK. 155. II. 42). 154-155. 154). IB. 134). 154. SD. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. . also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. mi¶¦arah (pl. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 84). mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK.

130) 2. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. signe de renvoi). curved line (used as a reference mark. lin. caret (MR. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1.

145. MI.). 35. abbrev. introd. AM. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. connection. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. 147.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. / / / (AR. 37) 4. 36.

TM. 93. 176. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. MR. TP. 00 132. 54).

LL. margin (ST. II. ¶LI ¦ – plug. ST. ¶af¦ – galls. 83. ¨ibr) (MP. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. 16. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 2091). 19). 17. index. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 .

 ta¶T EDK 1.+  10  SJ. note. comment (LC. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . ¶aqib (pl. ¶aqb. catchword. aÑT E. 27) 2. 344). vox reclamans (TN.

11. 36) 2. KH. counter. lower ¶uqdah (pl. III. AG. 47. knot-like tool (TS. Ñuqad) 1. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. 109). ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. 46. 58. – end of the text (matn) on a page. .

37).GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. comp. ‘perhaps. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. 126). la¶allahu (lit. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. taÑU T ¶allahu.


 RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB. WS.Q DO-ÑLO M. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO. 90.

 FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. ligature (KU. 124). composition. writing. transcript (AD. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. copy. transcription. copying (TE. 119) 3. script.9 . 15) 2.


 .) . .

107) (pl.  (MI. taÑ O T WDÑO T W.  DOVR ta¶O TDK. abbrev.

165) 6. IV. EI. explication (TE. MU. in the Turkish/Arabic context. It is characterized by numerous ligatures.v. scholium. IV.). to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. II. name often given. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. 694-696) 2. – marginal gloss. X. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. 1124. 27. 15. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. LC. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. comment. 71. 26). 162). ER. IX. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ.


76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. 77). III. also TS. FRPS U MLÑ. 26. 28. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ .. AG. .. 104).

372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . 371. III. mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA.

aÑO P. ¶alam (pl.

marking quires before sewing (ST. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. 135. II. autograph (LC. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. SD. ta¶O P 1. 22). ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. book mark (e. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. II. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. 27) 2. 18) 2.g. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. signing a document (AA. 164). index. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. 381). 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. TS. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. I. XII. signature (SD. EI. 352) 4. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. – decorated border (LL. 164. mark. marking. motto. ¶DO PDK – 1. II. 2140).

 100). ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ. al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .DUEDO Ð) (CM.HUEHOD .39). no.¶  0.


III. abbrev. 372). a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. . ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA.

¶amal (pl. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah. II. 2153: ‘text of the book’).GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. aÑP O.

VII.  FRPSRVition. compilation (MU. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ.

passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. cryptogram. 257-258). 47-48. VII. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. laà I DO-Ñamal. ta¶miyah 1. comp. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. used in opposition to Ãar¨. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. painting. EI.).v. i. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. IX. main work of a painter (PA. TC. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. writing. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. 229. 30) 3. 123). also mu¶ammá – cryptography. colouring. q. (SJ. etc. taÑZ U 2. SA. chronosticon (TI.e.


16. 260-261). EI. SL. VII. I. 211. ÑDQ Z Q. 110. (MW. ¶XQZ Q (pl. PK.


II. EI. comp. 871-872) 3. X. X. tarjamah 2. 29). title (of a book) (LC. X. 29. 66. 870-871) 4. 2183). EI. 116. PA. chapter. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. 870). . 29. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. EI. section heading (LC. 36.

I. VWURNH. curved (of a line. i¶ZLM M – curvature. 200-203). hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI.

UD. collation master. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. collation session (MF. 14). i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. 74). taÑ Z GK. ta¶awwudh. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). . 12. 7). e.g. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. I.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. repetitor (EI. 726). 230). 13. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. X. VII. IN.

– talisman. 114. KU. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. Ãams. ¶ P (pl. 123-124). 95. 69). of letters) (AP. aÑZ P. ‘eyes’. comp. amulet (DT.

– year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. Ñuqdah. comp. comp. 194. VI. sanah. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. LM. 43). 252-253). . ¶ayn (pl.

MP. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. n. 74). MP.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. 250). NW. 74. VI. IB. sizing (of paper) (AB.18) 2. 42. 141. 97. EI. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). VI. 199). AG. 233. red and black colours (SD. rasm al-JKXE U. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. DW. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. IB. 32-34. 1124). 37. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. adhesive (TS. 90. index. 37. AS. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. 19-23. JM. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. MB. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. 12-13. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. MB. OD. II. 41. IV. 58-63. 47. 47). 145).289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. North Africa. 107. HT. 145. 45-47). MP. 73). 97. NW. pasting (ST. VI. 88. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. taghriyah 1. IK. 244). ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. 250). JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. aghriyah) – paste. 141. lin. IB. NW.60-72. ghubrah – mixture of white.

IU T  . FRPS .


JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. passim). 35. box (SD. 214. JKD] O see jild. binding (TS. 36. aghshiyah) 1. 554. covering of the board. book cover. case. JKLVK µ (pl. 564) 2. KC. II. ME. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah.

CD.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. pl. III. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah.


I.. taghshiyah – book covering. binding (IN. 473). RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .) . LVWLJKI U DK. 257). I.

.  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ... 217) 2. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' . ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ .

ghal¨ah – error. bold character. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). mistake. 150). ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. OHWWHU 6.  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). . a word) (MI. abbrev. 192). WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM.


AB. 213. 108). JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. 157). 214. WDJKO I – book covering. 132). binding (FZ. – book cover (MD. mughallif – bookbinder (DG.

46. 261). VIII.Ñuqdah. 47. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU.v. III.). I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. **** I I U – papyrus (EI.  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. 114.) .. comp. SA. – WDLOSLHFH . also iftit Œ. 128).

proem (MU. 23) 2. LC.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. preface.9. XV. LQFLSLW 08 .. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . prologue.

LC. headpiece (KF. II.  KHDGLQJ (e.g. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. 23) 4. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar.

press screw (MB. 62. VI. . muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. IDW ODK 1. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. TS. AG. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. IA. 59). 104.18. IA. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. 109) 2. 245).

comp. 189. SD. VI. leaf (of paper) (SA. II. 249). Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet.

– one of a pair. WDUN E TY. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM).v. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. LIU G – letter in its isolated. 28). al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.). one half of a piece of leather (TS. conjugate leaf.

6$ ... .

 al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. IR. I. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. 390). 133. AT. fur„ah (pl.g. 60. 83).) (KU.v. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. DD. II. 230. SA. 154). shaqq (q. 481. MY. III. far„ al-qalam – syn.


. // . .

far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. index. mifra¨ – cutter (ST. witness (MR. apograph.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«.18). annotation (TM. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK . also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. LC. 23) 2. most probably a variant of PLTU „. note.


argument resulting from a legal point. 93.) (UD.v. 87. 131). application as opposed to theory. IDU JK SO IDU JK W.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. aÁl. 88. 269) 4. abbrev. 82). (AD. JL. scroll (FI. KR. q. 15. SM.

 DOVR WDIU JK (MO. execution. completion. 41) – end. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.

lacuna (LC. 26. blank. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. 23). also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. 23. GA. 289) 3. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK .+  /0 . 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. farkah (MN.


1. comment. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. explication.


fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 83). mufassir – commentator. III. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. from Greek into Arabic (EI. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. AK. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. 55.g. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . e. fa¦¦ (pl. three dots. SA. MS. paragraph mark (TP. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). X. LC.5 . 23. commentary and/or translation. 351. disc.


110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl. fuÁ O.

division of a composition into fuÁ O ). . 145-146) 2. QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. 55. taf¦ O 1. SA. 134. word division (in a text). space between words or passages. III. MM. 138. spacing (TP.

place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. 37. 271). fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ .. MB. 130-133. n. 33).20).  FKDSWHU 6' II. 92. TP. MP. silver-based ink (UK. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 53.. comp.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn.

taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. section of a text. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). paragraph (LC. 23. 351). DM). abbrev. fiqrah (pl. II. xiii. fiqar) – passage. SD. comp. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. 273. AK. I.

III. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. BA. 385. – book cover (HN.


fihris. disbound (e. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah).g. mufakkak – loose. 45). funuq) – case. fihrist (pl IDK ULV.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. IDQ T (pl. box (KC.


II. comp. cataloguing. 23. II. abbrev. 49. (CA. AR. LC. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. list. 50). marginal note. RU &0  RU 66. nota bene (notabilia). 286. abbrev. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. also I µidat al-a¦l. catalogue (SD. mashyakhah 2. record of attested study. EI. 207. gloss. 36). 743-744) 4. 149. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. II.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. fahrasah 1. bibliography. 293) 2.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

76  AG. 15). .VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. Qubbat al-. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). 107).

AG. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. abbrev. qabla – before. IV. 107. SD. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. 471).112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. qub¨al. II. lit.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. 302). qabr. . straightedge (TS.

corrector. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. MH. II. 490492).TP. 56. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. PXT ELO – collator. comp. EI.52. collation note (statement). 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. VII. n. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . muÑ UD ah 2. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah.

TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. / / / / / (TP. 109). 18. 10. FRPS ] Ðidah. II.37. 11. qidd (pl. 54. aqudd) – strip (of leather). AG.xiii. . comp. qaÃÃ. II. CI. xiv). abbrev. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. etc. CI. 701. n. AA.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. 107). 24. I. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’.

AG. VII. 59. 107). 120. MI. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. fore-edge flap (TS. TP. 17. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. 495-496). abbrev. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. introduction (EI. preface. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. comp. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 173). 52. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. muqaddimah – forward. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. 26. also TS. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr.

lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. 9 -129) 3. reading. manner of recitation. 26) 2. TLU µah 1. – marginal note. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. gloss. variant reading (varia lectio). reciter. 139). recitation (LC. commentary (AD. prelector. collection of glosses.

$/ .  73 .

PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. 53. KF. n. II. TP. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa.g. FRPS VDP Ñ.25. FRPS ¨arf. 494-498).


sleeve case (TS. aqribah) 1. SA. 110). II. 104. 36. AG. AG. 466) 2. 110). al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. TLU E (pl. 110). al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. 35-36. sheath (SK. . 36. AG.

index. 20). IK. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. qar¦a¶ah – fine. MP. index. AG. 63). 21. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. 59). 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. IA.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. 47). MP. sifr 13. 19. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. 94). 417). ST. IB. 107. index. 18. AG. 63. 10. 44). 107. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. ST. 19. II. 60). 103: PLTU   (!). IV. 44. screw press (MB. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. putting something into a press (ST. compact writing (KM. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. IB. IK.19. QS. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. 91-92.


UD. EI. II. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. 17). I. 66-93. AE. EI. AE. 66-76. comp. 108. 82-91). VIII. VIII. 50. WS. IW. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. 98. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. 261. 407) or paper (SA. 173-174. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). V. parchment (AE.

– approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript. often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. .

XIV. 335- WDTU   W .GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA.

muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL.  qarmadah. comp. 186). muà ODÑah. IV. compact writing (KM. 313). 143. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. 136. qarma¨ah – fine. sifr 13.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . %/ $0 QRV     122. 182.

reed pen (IK. 42. 86. IV. 80). miqsam(ah) (lit. 393: not defined). AA. 682. qa¦¦. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. 60. EI. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. 146. . IV. 69).19. DS. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. JM. al-qurnah al-yusrá). 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). IA. see also UA. trimming (ST. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. qurnah – corner (MB. 59. EI. index. 181. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. 153. 103. IB. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. MB. IK. 41). HT. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. qirmah see VL\ T.

116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. 130. qa¦amah. 153). 154). MP. 32). miqaÃÃ. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. comp. qa„ P DK. qa„m – syn. 86). miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. tin-based ink (UK.

KU. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . 109-110. etc. – white hide. AA. KM. 93). 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. 153. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. LM. cutting (of leather. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 50.) breadthwise (KD. KK. IK. I. the point itself. leather (IW. nibbing. II. 102. sifr 4. 72-74. 2-463..

551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. longer than the left’. LL. II.e. 462. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. I. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. i. LM.

154). 1742. 217). MJ. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. II. opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. 462). . 217). II. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. MJ. straight point of the nib (SA. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 2996. ivory. II.

70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. 76. qa¨¶ (pl. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. 65. MM. SK. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 105: maqaÃÃ. MB. 133). SA.GLOSSARY 117 etc. MK. 62. LS. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. II. ND. IP.742. qaÃÑ al-thumn. 45. AT. IV. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 468. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. 54.

piece of calligraphy. calligraph (AC. piece of poetry) 2. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. qi¨¶ah 1. VI. 110).g.  irs (AG. principle of the interlace. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. decoupage (ER. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. 475). piece of something (e. .

90) 4. WS. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. 107). papercut(s). tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. cutting instrument (DM) 2. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. mishraÃ. decoupage. (pair of) scissors (IK. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. collage. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. PA. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. 9. . instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. muqaÃÃa¶ ).. format (of a book) (TL. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. filigree work (IP. VI. 144. AG. 91). 475). 21) 2.  (5 9. taq¨ ¶ 1. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. 11.  +'   T ÃiÑ. comp.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

 26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

– clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. 377). .

107. 107). 14. 107). al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. 15-17. 641). AG. 15. index. taqfiyah – backing (TS. qalb. AG. flat back (TS. comp. AG. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. 20). 15. 107). ST. AG. 15. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE.

  .  PRXOG 8.

3.19. 14. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. LC. 26. MK. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. no. 26. ST.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. index.

miqlab SO PDT OLE. FZ. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. JL. folder (IB. 59. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. 214. 88. 93) 4. FI. 43).


202-203). TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. 83. – envelope flap (MT. 26). DW. 68).

  76 .  SLHFH RI ZRRG ..

also qalam al-qa¦ab.e.  calamus. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. copper pen. IK. 13 (AA. KU. TC. 45-87. II. i. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. 232. reed pen. see TW. SA. 44-465.

 . MB. 38-39. handwriting. ductus. -50.. 59-64. hand. 144. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . AT. 100). MB. UK. EI. 471) 3. 356. IV. 133-134. 71-75. MP. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. script.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. see khaÃÃ.


al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. 11-12). I. 335). al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. muqawwar. used in talismans and amulets (IT. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah.

TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. IK. al-thuluth. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. 145). DO-mu¨aqqaq. 144). miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. 153. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. 85). al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ.


.  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  .  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah.. SA.$  Q.  $. . .


'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

11. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. II. AG. 79). . 2565). 49-51. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. II. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. chest (LL. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. I. KR. WDTO P – paring. trimming (a reed). 85). 43. 109). 43.

144). as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK .120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. 11. comp. III. 37). muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. AS. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. 144).

 qawl SO DTZ O.

in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. MI. MU. PDT ODK 1. TP. treatise. 238). short composition. passage. 155. XII. 190. II. – quotation. tract 2. 154. xiv.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

folio (folium) (MK. KF. 327. KF. DF. 377. I. 190. III. 86. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 82. 83. I. 283. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶.

PXVWDT P – upright.g. . mDEV Ã. RN. 22). al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. erect. comp. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.


qayd SO TX\ G. al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq.

qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1. – note.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. 17. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . statement. committing something to writing. composition (TE..


 . diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. 113. binding.  tying. IA. III. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB.. 62) 4. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . IK. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh.


N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. N JKL¨. 27). N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). muqayyid 1. no. 153. 43).187). gloss (LC. glossator (AM. IB. author 2. – marginal note. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq.

419-420. 77-85). 98-105. WS. N JKLGDK – sheet. etc. see waraq. al-kalŒ . WS. IV. SO NDZ JK Ã. leaf (of paper) (AJ. waraq. AE. al-N JKDG DO-.VO P . 136). 77) – paper (EI. al-5 P . . comp.

kubbah (pl. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. WS. munkabb – inclined. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. kubab) – ball (of fibre. 374). 85-86). in papermaking) (OM).122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. as in the beginning of w Z. 136. ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy.

8'  /0 .

TH. NDE NDM 1. II.107. Ranunculus asiaticus. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ .v. II. 169). Asiatic crowfoot (bot. II. 393). KL. mun¨anin. 440. SD. UA. comp.) 2. kitbah (MH. 49-53. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. 416. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. mikbas. 91. WDNE V – pressing (QS. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. CM. 40. q.) (US. TS. AG. 416). katb.

kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . transcription. NLW E NLW EDK – writing. composition. copying.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. Turkish ketebehü. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. NI. CT. 45: ‘hence katabah. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). +.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK.

. 180). 554-760). mu¨arrir. scribe. amanuensis (EI. comp. IV. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI.  VHFUetary. scrivener 2.

 384). 207-208). a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). 388: mukattab).GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 53. I. chapter in a book (SL. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. letter. IK. maktabah – library (EI. EI.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . booklet. lin. V. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 197-200). tail (of a book or document) 2. codex (MA. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . II. archetype. PDNW E SO PDNW E W.115). wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. NH. 86). copying (KK.) . 23. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ.. NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. spine (of a codex) (HT. document. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. 705. IV. VI. KD. piece of writing. maktab – place designated for writing. book.

4. calligraph (DP. 51. KM. mukattib (e. IV. muktib. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. – piece of calligraphy. KD. master calligrapher (KK. 53). LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. II. 705). sifr 13.g.


paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). mukŒul – kohl container (UA. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. 393. IR. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il).383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. takŒ O 1. outlining. 187). pointing (of a wall) (FT. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). no. outline (of letters) (DH. mikŒ O see mirwad. 414) 2. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. I. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. kuŒl – antimony. kohl. 230).

comp. misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. 68). RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB.


142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK.

12. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs. 33. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O. AG.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS.

for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . 42).  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). NDGK – thus. IB. 0. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. abbrev. sic. 154.

162).g. 48. TM. 184). takarrur – graphic error. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). dittography (e. ditto- NXUU V DK. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. WLNU U.



14. CI. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. lin. 48. 700).0 .  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. 131. quire (gathering). x. 60). passim. 84. SL. KD. II. 60). SA. ra¨l. II. IK.92). SK. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. KU. comp. . TS. abbrev. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. 468-471. II.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . reading stand (MD. NXUV – book cradle. AG. II. AA. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. 107) 2.  . TS. 100. 132). kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK.


 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .



363). kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. miksar SO PDN VLU.

– fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. 58). I. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. TP. knife (for making erasures) (IR. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. 274. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). of bashr (LF. 79. IR. syn. 128). 137. NH. DD. 389. 391).

126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl. kuÑ E.

passim. 109. WDNI W – inlaying. 109). al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. – spine (back of a codex) (MB. FT. flat back (MB. II. 145. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. IA. DE. 94). dast. NXQQ VK DK. 442. tongs (MB. 61. 84. inlay (SA. main de papier). NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. AB. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. WS. rizmah. usually 25 sheets (PT. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. 90). 82). JL. 92. 406). KR. 97. comp. 977. 109). kaff(ah). DM). 39. 92. AJ. 95.


– 1. HB. commonplace book (LC. 25. .

mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). 395-396).  kunyah (pl. V. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK .

I 1. originally and properly speaking.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-. I . an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI .

 JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV.g. OD). 363. FN. 8-9. MV. 27ff. 11-13. AV. comp.

76  $*  86 .

al¨ T OL¨ T. MP. 145. SA. paint (UK. 139). 478). 114. 27. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. JM. 85). 29. 119. ultramarine. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. II. azure ink. laŒaq (pl. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli.

. mulŒaq – omission. ilŒ T. insertion (TP.

154. 279).14).  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. 24.128 GLOSSARY  . JA.. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK. I. 185. LC. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. TM. comp. II. 703). OL] T – paste. 42). IB. adhesive (KD.

SA. IR. 107. II. n. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). I. AG. book cradle (TW. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. II. 481. 230. 390) 3. 481) 2. 14. 133. copyist’s book support. 15. DD. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. WA.169. SA.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8.24.  76  11.

 TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. abbrev. /&  /( . where each gathering is numbered separately).


25. 25). 90. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. $'  /( 137) 3. 13. index. JL. 132). alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. 20. ST. OLV Q (pl. LC. HT. MM.109. 119. lin. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah.


230) 2. lin. IR. malediction. spool (DS. II. 131. 145. 167. mulaffaq. I. 181. passim). al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. SD. 391. RA. DD.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. stamping (HT. abbrev. lafŒ – tooling. wrapper (DM). 480. 530). alÁiqah) – paste. laqab SO DOT E.166). II. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . adhesive (SA. 26). or (MI. OL] T la¶nah – curse. comp. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. DM). milaff 1.

109) 2. DD. (pair of ) tongs. – nickname. pincers. 618-631). honorific title (EI. 406). 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). V. WDOT P – inlaying. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. . I. tweezers (MB. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. inlay (FT.

49).130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. lak. lakk RU O N '* . stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. LM. 11.

).g. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. lacquer. comp. glazed. 11. 16). copying (TE. 109). ODPP ¶ – glossy.v. q. law¨ W. namq. varnish (AB. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. burnished (e. lamq – elegant writing. 140). AG.

5) 5. MB. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. . headpiece (FT. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. pasteboard (ST. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. OM) 4. 24. gloss (DM). WDOZ Œ – marginal note. lin. 25. head. II. 124) 3. illuminator (HD. wooden board (TS. 125). MS.or tailpiece) (LC. HT. 99. 402). (Turk. 11. usually framed). 31) 6.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. panel (in decoration). lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator.123. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. 58-59) 2. 29. 142-143.

IB. MB.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. central medallion (on a book cover). WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH.v. also known as sarwah (q. 109. mandorla 4. IA. AG. see also nuqÃah) 3. oval figure 2. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. 59. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). 44. 156.). 38). 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. 105. TS. 11. 31. raÐs al-lawzah.

230. MJ. IR. 133. II. 478. 208). IB. AT. – spatula. lawn SO DOZ Q. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. 45.

698-707. AI.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. tint (EI. V. pigment. – colour. JA. 148. .

11. IK. tinting (of paper). 370: qishr al-qaÁab. 86. III. LC. see also the quotation under sha¨m). O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. polychrome illumination (WA. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. 27) 2. WDO\ ¨ 1. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. WDOZ Q 1.

coloured ink (SA. MP. 55. MB. UK. 160) 3. also PLO T (UA. 477-478. . colour. BA. 111-119. tuft of unspun silk. II. 20.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. n. IK. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. MP. III. tint (AD. O TDK (pl. liyaq) 1. MJ. paper pulp (OM). 79-84. index. 133). 370). 13. 84. 26-29. 702. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. AT. 26-29. II. 393) tow (wad. 203) 2.

amliqah) 1. II. III. also PLO TDK (BA. 370) – compartment for ink (KD. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 .132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl.


%$ ... .

KH. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. 144.

such as al-thuluth. comp. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. **** matn SO PXW Q. muqawwar. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. muraÃÃab.


843) 2. II. EI. text-column (MU. V. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . main body of the text (as opposed to margins). 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. VI. 1. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL.


¨ VKL\DK. shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary.

139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. 109. VI. (qalam) al-matn. TP. IX. 25). 24. MD. II. Œard al-matn (HN. 1. P WLQ – author of the original composition. . 214. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. LC. 843) 4. 53). 568). SD. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. EI.

52. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. comp. SA. ¨ibr. khirqah. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. 15-18. 86. transcript. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. AE. erasure. ¨aÃÃ. maŒ UDK (q. JL. amthilah) – copy. pl. ink (in general) (SK. EI. KH. BA. comp. 238). 79-90. 89).) .) . 127-131. maŒw – ink removal. blind tooling. 58. 55. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. 38.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. 36-37). MB. . MP. obliteration (by means of a cloth. MJ.  madd. 216). KR. UK. MP. 121-122. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. AT.v. 134-135. 90). index. PLG G (pl. amiddah) – soot ink. apograph (CD. IV. 21. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. 371). MJ. 67-71. 138-140. III. comp. 1031). 471-477. VI. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. tamŒ ¨ 1. UK. IV. TP. 38. III.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. process of softening leather (making it flexible. n. or licking) (TP. 13. 79: dalk) 2.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). II.

0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM).5  . midyah) (pl. mudan. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. 465-467. pen knife (SA. I  mudyah (madyah. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . SK. midan) – knife. 103- 8$  . II.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah).

WDPU „ see  abbah. FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

60: misann almis¨) 2. 230. IA. masŒ – rubbing. DD. misŒ 1. wiping (MB. I. 481-482. . mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . 391). 114). sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. 110. see shar¨. II. SA. 166. sackcloth (DG. 202). coarse haircloth. AT. 133.


SK. inelegant hand. mashq 1. 55) 2. transcription (TE. 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. elongation (of letters) (JA. 16) 3.I. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . scribbling (MM. IR. 230).  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . mush¨ – comb (IA. I. copying. hasty. 60. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨.. 116-117. AA.

according to some opinions. for example. fine elongated stroke (SK.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. 134: ÑDQ . unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. 83) 5. elegant. MY. IK. 164) 6. copying from a model (TE. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. 16. mashqah 1. fine elongation. calligraphic exercise. calligraphic hand (CM. calligraphic model (AD. 48. 4. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah.’). (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. KT. 151). KK.


PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. 183).

 . '' .

signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . autograph (DM) 2. signature. signing. FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1.


88. 88.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. 11. 8). AG. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. 25. 27). also malasah – burnisher.). VII. 411). al-maghrah al-¶. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . LPO µ SO DP OLQ. 11. EI. plane-like instrument (TS. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. 60-61). LC. ex-dono. 31. LC. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. milk – ownership (OS. TS. I  mimlasah 1. 107) 2. polisher (NH. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. 390. etc. FRPS QDÌar 3. II. al-musharrafah. 478). PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. Makkah (al-mukarramah. 107). ex-library. AG.

KF.  GLFWDWLRQ $. SDVVLP :6 -13. work (known as al-DP O . 85-94) 2. I.

EI. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. passim. famulus (AI. VII. signet. 725-726). stamp (EI. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). 472-. 48). mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. SL. passim. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. 725-726. muhr – seal. VII. II.VII. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. GA.

VII. stamping (EI. . FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. 472-473).



II. sifr 13. 105-106. sheet. 79-82. II. sheet. 472. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. WS. KM. (IW. AE. 50-52) 2. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. 8-9. IV. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. leaf (of paper) (SA.

 mawzah – burnisher. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. 60. 63). polisher (IA.

16: al-maws al-6K U ] . 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK . UD. – pen knife.$  maws. trimmer (TW.

226. 25). II. V.  1+  '' . 64). P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. LC.

gilt (SD). tilting (of a script). II. . 12. 442) 2. 45). inlaying (SA. script) (UD. 403). II. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. coating. SA. hence P µil – inclining. slanting (of the line. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1.

WDQE K – note. nota bene. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). 146. 40). PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). 16. KM. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. remark (in the body of a composition). (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. IV. sifr 13. JM.138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. copying (TE.

index. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. naŒt 1. trimming (of a reed) (IR. paring. IB. 21. UD. minjam – mallet (ST. 43: P MDPDK). 232. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. 36).

.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. basmalah. copper-based ink (UK. e. MP. 482). 133-134. nuŒ V – copper. ¨amdalah. I. (MG. 35).g. etc.


selector (DF. 82). 95. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 384). KR. II. nasab SO DQV E. 230. 94-95). DM). munkhul – sieve (IR. 97. I. – anthology (EA. muntakhib – compiler.

etc. 967-968). nisbah (pl. 53-56). tribe. – lineage. genealogy. religious sect or school. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. ending in – (EI. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. VIII. pedigree (EI. VII.


naskh-ta¶O T). IV. transcription (TE. ER. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. naskh 1. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. sifr 13. see khaÃÃ. 1126 (in Turkey). IV. 57) 2. par excellence. index. 17. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. KK. IV. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. 1124 (in Persia). which according to the Mamluk tradition. 21). 1127 (in Muslim India). 696-699). KM. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying.5. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST.

while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping ( Persia. 149) 2. Muslim India). 182. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. CA. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. nusakh) 1.171). I.      $5  $. catalogue (AD. 26). 138. CM. copy (EI. 146.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. but erroneously. archetype (LC. badal) 4. I. pl. 141. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq.12) 2. transcript. II. CD. al-makh¨ ¨ W. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. 1125. 123./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. xiv). variant reading (varia lectio). EI. 89). 1123.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. list. comp. n. commonly. XVI. nuskhah (pl. LM. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . CI. LM. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. LE. IV. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. MZ. abbrev. IV. personal) nature (CI. Turkey. al-naskh al-mu¶W G. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. 128.  0. version. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. 1127. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. xv. QDVNK 1. 36. recension (MU.

Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. archetype (LC. 26). al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. 26). DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. unicum. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph.


PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. 47). passim). 16. 348. 17. scribe (TE. MA. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . WB. TW. muntasikh – copyist.

epistolography (EI. I. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). layout (mise en page ) (FK. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. no. . letter-writing. III. of letters. e.. LQVK µ – construction. style or composition. 1241-1244). documents or state papers. 9.g.

 FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. I. 136). TD. 67). IK. 278. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. 134. 173. AI. 94. WDQVK U. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. I. nashr.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.


. index. OM. 230: minshaµah). 390. 480. 13. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. II. I. DD. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). I. nashan – wheat starch. IA. ST. dhurah) (OM). PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. 106. 136). 133. 12. starch paste (made of sorghum. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. minshafah – blotter (TD. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. 21). IB. II. AT. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. 60. starch paste (TS. index. MB. SA. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). 395). IR. 50. 21.

. 240. 241..133. stroke. the letter alif (IR. handle (SK. 137). 249. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. straight line. ni¦ E 1. . 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ .  . pallet-like tool (HT. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. lin.

MB. 43. 59). 59) 3. III. 156. LM. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. munta¦ib – ascender. UD. up-stroke (SA. IA. IB. 47.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. 103. 11. 101.

FZ. 43). III. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. e. 93. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. 217. JL. 88. ZM. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. reading note.g. 218. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). na„ar – study note. medallion.

  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .) .


 Q „ir (pl. nuÌÌ U.

. curator. 2812). I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. na„m. comp. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM.170).  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. versification. shiÑr. no. II.

230. AT. 481. nafa¨ (sg. tanaqquŒ – correction.3. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). 208. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. MJ. 391: for sewing of quires). II. no. revision (KF. I. passim). sifr 13. 133. II. naqr – inscription. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. engraving (on stone). IV. nafÃah) – pockets of air. QDTT U – carver. engraver (KM. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. minfadh – punch. IR. 392). awling (MB. nafdh – punching. awl (SA.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. epigraphy (KM. 5). WDQT Œ. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). DD. sifr 13. IV. 23).

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

5). II. IK. 49. – ink (KK. SA. 471. naqsh SO QXT VK. sifr 13. KM. 84. 469. IV.

400). tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. 105. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. inscription. QLT VKDK 1. IA. 156. painting. VII. 29-32. comp. naqr 2. 63) 3. 931). TS. illumination (EI. epigraphy (FT. MB. engraving.

IA.  0% 105. . ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. 59).

sifr 13. 5) 2. 159). VII. engraver (KM. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. III. IV. copying (FK. carver. WDQT VK – writing. designer. 931-932). 141.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. miniature painter. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. illuminator (PA. 266). 155.

16-17) 2. III. 16-17. 151. III. nuq¨ah (pl. TE. 38). naq¦. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. SA. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. naq¨ 1. nuqaÃ. letter-pointing (TE. KH. III. haplographic error. 58). haplography (TP. SA. 160. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA.


138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. naql 1. IA. citing. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . figure. 133. nimrah – number. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah).  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. 368). naqalah) 1. . 137. 12. calligrapher (TE. transcription (MU. AW. 68) 5. XII. HT. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. copying. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. 218) 2. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. IA. 33. extract. 16) 4. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. orthographer (LT. copyist. translator. 105. quoting. translation. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). MB. quotation 3. Q TLO (pl. exact copy (apograph). abbrev. 16. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). numrah. TE.

written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. 16. copying (TE. embellished writing. SK. 62. numbering. 53. namq WDQP T – elegant. KK. 91). 45. AM. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. 53. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 .

Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC. NI. HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . 45.

5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). 181. embellished writing. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. sifr 13. calligraphic composition (NI. 369. AW. painted illustration (KF. 38). calligraph. 105) 2. compact writing (KM. II. n. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). copying (KH. IV. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U.1). copying (SK. 119. elegant. WDQP O – compact writing. AA. namnamah 1. 237).

44). used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. IB. IB. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . – floral design. of mufatta¨.v. PXQ U – syn. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. index.) (LM. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. 26. 22. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. of maÃP V q. 69). having an open counter (ant. 43).

III. 27). Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. II. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. 498-450. KF. EI.

700. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. KD. 106. – inkwell (SK. IK. II.

CI. abbrev. SL. xi. xiii. II. 285). II. CI. termination. LQWLK µ – end. I. 110. 87. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. GA. / / / (for intahá) (MW.



hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. 36). hudb. hud hud SO KDG KLG. **** DKG E (sg.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

23). correction.. . abridgement.. WDKGK E 1. epitome (EA. I.  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). LKG µ – dedication (FN. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 .. revision (DM) 2.

483. 69. 61). MG. backing (MB. WDKO O 1. IA. 72. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. 181.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. 108) 2. author. EI. epitomist. rounding (of the spine). 109. muhall. I. X. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. abridger. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. 73) 2. compiler (SS.

VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9. .


   .  PDUJLQ ') ...

/&  0. .  PDUJLQDO note. gloss. abbrev.

 K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ .  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn). glossing. 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK. annotation (TT.. WDKP VK 1..


102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. muhammash – glossed. annotated (TW.

syn. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah.. GL. . MH. 90). 57.  K PDW DO-alif). IR. raÐV HJ 6$ .. 244). 57. K PDK – head (of a letter). al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. unpointed letters (TP. 4.

upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. transcription in full. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. page (MU. 43-45). II.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). upper cover (TS. ¶alá al-wajh – copying.. IV. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . 31. 25) 2. wajh al-hirr (lit. wajh(ah) 1. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . 31) 3. 25.. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. epitome (DM). face.

6$ . al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. MK. 29. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al. wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. -92).Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 109).. 82)..

wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. . wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. MK. SA. 464. waŒVK see sinn. IV. 29. 218). 5. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. sifr 13. KK. 82). waŒy – writing. II. MJ. 53). KM. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK.

piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. no. waraq SO DZU T.73). DA). muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH. lobed medallion (DH. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. no. 95. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette.73).

 SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-. 85-. -195.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. WS.


abbrev. parchment or leather) 2. leaf.  $5  . folio (folium). waraqah 1. piece (of paper.


29). khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. 11. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 109). AG. wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. (TS. 25).

al-waraq (al-N JKDG. I.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. 85). DO-.

European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. DO-5 P 1. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. French paper (PT. I. 77) 2. 31). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 378). 75.

193. paper bearing an imitation watermark. Tre Lune) (PT. 31). al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. SA. 30. OM). waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). VI. . DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT.

al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O.150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. 32).

394). WS. 487. 88. 380). cardboard (FT. 82). 84). 35. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . JL. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. SA. 87. pasteboard (JL. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. – glazed paper (PT. II. MD. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. 107. WS. 32. MS. 104) 2.

KF. 28. EI. bookbinder (QS. 9. 14. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. 93. IB. 22. 22. 495). 94). MP. FI. scribe (SL. JL. WS. 65). maysam SO PD\ VLP. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. 558-561). 81. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. WR. copying. 161). 88. I. WDZU T 1. IV. MN. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. 69. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. II. stationer. 87. – marbled paper (DM. professional copyist. I. foliated arabesque design (ST. transcription (WS. II. 380). index. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. 16. 82. IK. index. bookseller. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. LC. 148) 2.

mawsim SO PDZ VLP. stamp (AB. 135). – tool.

index. washŒ – decorating. 65).g. 22. CI. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. 10). MP. festival. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. – feast. II.

diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. 186) 2. .125. drawing (AD. also WDZVK P – tooling. writing.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1. lin. stamping (of leather) (HT. 93) 3.


UK. wa¦l. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). 18. stamp (HT.126). wi¦l. wu¦l (pl. awÁ O ZDÁO W. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. – pattern (created by tooling). washy. lin.

also Z ¦ilah – catchword. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . NZ. 88. darj). 683. 812. vox reclamans (NM. 90). 65) 2. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. 10. collema (kollema) (WS. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. HB. wa¦lah 1. 110). piece. 234. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. VI. II.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. SA. 144) 3.

$' .

VI. I. wa„¶ (pl. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 12. 3132). arrangement (of a text) (MU. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). 187. aw  Ñ ) – composition. PA. KF. 62. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. comp. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn.

376). Z „i¶ – compiler. author (DF. . IV.

152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G. proem (DM). prologue.

TM. 56.192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $.  . – collation session (TP.

87: ZDT ¶ah. ME. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. case. awÑiyah) – 1. 16. DA). container (OM). wifq SO DZI T. 575) 2. box (MS. wi¶ µ (pl. 19.

 QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. LC. . decree (EI. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. autograph. 100. I. signature (EI. I. royal edict.. al-WDZ T ¶. apostil (usually signed) (AD. taking something down in writing (SL. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. 189). P IDT – seal. 108). 69. X. KF. 392-393) 3. 28. 124. 392. 125) 4. LC. KM. 28. 96). sifr 13. gloss. motto. stamp (IK. X. writing something down. WDZT ¶ 1. AD. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. 10) 2. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . 189. IV.

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. 38) 2. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. III. Turkey). II. 73-77. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . KF. PDZT I 1. 187). 146.. 90). (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. II. 441). 146. 63). al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). AS. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. waqfiyah. wakf 3.g. KH.g. KF. LM. . LC. 146). (AS.g. 146. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA..) (BL. endowment. WDZT I (KF. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. LM. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. JM. 90. 428-442). reading. 61. 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. 43-46. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. WDTU Ì (q. unfinished stroke (e.29. 1125. bequest note (OS. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. waqf 1. 69). Persia. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. 100. 473) – endowment certificate or statement.9 1123.

wahm – mistake. wakt – letter pointing (KM. AA.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. 55). 95. error (IK. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. IV. . 28). comp. overlining (TP. taÐammul 2. K P – omission (IK. 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). sifr 13. 95. 123).) (LC. AA. 122). logograph.


DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. maÁ ¨if. ray¨ Q QDVNK.

6$ III. ant. 144). al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). \ ELV – rectilinear. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah.

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bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. 42). in the hand of) (OT. \DU ¶(ah) – reed. DM. KD. I \DG. 86. reed pen (IK. 393. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. . II. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. UA. – hand.

no.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e. CM.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK.g.





Akimushkin and Anatol. 1923. Ivanov. “Das arabische Papier”. 1979: 35-57. 1414/1994. The arts of the book in Central Asia. 1967. “The art of illumination”. Fagnan. Gray. Paris/ London. Arabische Paläographie. ±aydar Ghaybah. B. Riyad. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.1. Beirut. AF = Oleg F. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Damascus. 2 (1989): 37-53. transl.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. AG = Adam Gacek. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. Max Weisweiler. A. ed. AI = ÑAbd al-. AE = Adolf Grohmann. ed. Wien. AJ = J. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Al-. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E.VKE O LQ KLV µ. 1981. AD = E. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. Vol. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- .LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. Algiers.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. ed.ABBREVIATIONS 1. AC = Adam Gacek. von Karabacek. 1989. 5 (1990-91): 106-113.

15. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. London/Oxford. Safwat. Montreal.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. AS = Adam Gacek. New York. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. “Arabic numerals”. 1992. decoration. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì.D. McGill University. AQ = David James.4 (1986): 131-137. nos. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Ars Islamica. 8 (1941): 65-104. ed. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Descriptive catalogue. 1992. . AN = Richard Lemay. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. AW = Nabil F. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. AV = François Déroche. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . 382-398. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. AL = . “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. London/Oxford. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. no. 1. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. London/Oxford. 1982: 1. 4 (1989): 144-149. binding and paper”. 1996. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1996. AO = Adrian Brockett.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. 2 (1987): 45-67. AP = Nabia Abbott.

CM = Adam Gacek. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. Montreal. 4 (1991): 35-53.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. CT = Pierre A. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. Arberry. Oriens. CI = Adam Gacek.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. The Chester Beatty Library. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 1982 . MacKay. Leiden. CD = Arthur J.. -CCA = Adam Gacek. 1984-85. 1991. 1958. CL = Jan Just Witkam. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . Dublin. London.

Blachère.Z. Denizeau. CW = A. 1967. N. Iskandar. De Biberstein Kazimirski. 1960. no. Dictionnaire .S. 61. Chouémi and C. -DDA = A. Dictionnaire arabe-français. M. DB = R. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. Paris.4 (1971).´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. London.

1994. Paris. DM = Hans Wehr. 1984. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. 4th ed. 4 (1989): 44-55. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. ed. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. J.M. Little. . ±amd al-.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. Beryus. Revue des études islamiques. Beirut. Wiesbaden. Frankfurt. 1994. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. Kuwait.. DT = Tawfik Canaan. DR = Donald P.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. 5. fasc.2 (1938): 141-151. Ithaca. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. Paris. 2 (1998): 93-193. de Premare. 59 (1991): 229-235. DG = Werner Diem. DC = A.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. DP = Adam Gacek. ed. NY. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. DQ = François Déroche. 1989. 1967. Archeological studies.1986. Cowan.-L.. 1993 . 0DPO N studies review. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S.1 (1937): 69-110. ed. Dictionnaire arabe-français. fasc. 4. .D. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah.

EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”.EU K P . London. n. Al-)XQ Q DO-. à W´ Al-Mawrid. 1979. 1993. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. New York.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. EP = François Déroche. -EEA = J. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation.S. 1960 . FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q.S. London/ Oxford. Starkey. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. Yarshater. 1995: 17-57.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. 5 .EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. Baghdad. London (later Costa Mesa. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. 1999. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. 1998.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. Part 1. 1982 . E. ed. 1997. 1995: 93-101. Leiden. transl. New ed. FM .VO P \DK. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. 1986. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature.d. Cairo. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley.. Dimand. -FFD .. Calif. Istanbul.). The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Meisami and P. eds.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. London.

EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. HT = Adam Gacek. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1992. A Grammar of the Arabic language. Cairo. Wright. Cambridge. GL = W. Istanbul. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. 1987. 1982. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. 1994. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. Rabat. 6 (1991): 41-58. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). 1987. 50-99. HN = Ñ \LGDK . Cairo. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. Kaziev (Gaziev). 1966.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . Wiesbaden. ³. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. herausgegeben von W. . A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. 1967.U.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. Fischer. Baku. HD = A. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. transl. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. ed. 3rd ed.

1401 AH [1989 or 1990].VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. The Oriental Institute. 1983. Beirut. Richard. 1319 A. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. 1973. 1981. 1997: 57-63.1981. 1389/1970. à W´ Al-Mawrid. no. May 18 .M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q .\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. ed. )DKP 6DÑd. Bosch. Déroche and F. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. . Carswell and G. 8. of Chicago. ed. Chicago.H. Cairo.. F. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. IB = G. IM = Ñ. Damascus. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. Qum. 1995: 123-136.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. IJ = Jan Just Witkam.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. Petherbridge. A¨mad ‚aqr. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. London. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. J. Beirut. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient.August 18.2 (1979): 221-284.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . Paris. ed. Univ. Cairo/ Tunis.1987? .

ed. Damascus..G E DOV PLÑ.D. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-.1961.XOO \DW DO. Cairo. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. s.. 38 (1989): 7-103. Beirut. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I .. Qum.n.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”.G E (Cairo). 1983. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . 1969. 20. 1997. 0DMDOODW . no.l. 6 pl. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU .1 (1958): 81-106.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. Algiers. Riyad. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð. University of Michigan.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). [Tehran?].PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. 1363 [1984]. Baghdad. S. 1962. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. Ph. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . Al-0DQ KLO. . ÑIzzat ±asan. 1985. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). 1982.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. ed. 1962.

RDVK G DOÑ.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.240 (1984): 61-68. no. Al. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³.DWW Q  ³. 2 (1946): 9-18. no. ed. Fehervari and Y. no. Leiden.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). 1937: 125-161. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. 1.3 (1964): 1933. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”.H. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q. London. 2. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue.H.VO P .KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. 1. 1 (1963): 26-48. “Al-. 1981.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. ed. 1978. no. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. by Arthur Jeffery.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. 1316-21 A.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . Cairo. Safadi.LW E. Á KL = G. KM = Ñ$O LEQ .2 (1973): 43-78. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. KS < VXI DO-.

ed. Raif Georges Khoury. 1976. Wiesbaden. ed.XZDLW 1977. . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá. .LW E DO-zuhd.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . .LW E DONXWW E. .

WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. Leiden. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . ed. Cambridge. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. LE = M. LL = Edward William Lane. MELA Notes. Arabic-English lexicon. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. 1911-1931. Ben Cheneb. 1978 (catalogue no. Samarrai. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. Brill. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts.500). “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. Rev. ed. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. van Koningsveld and Q. Baghdad. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. 2 (1987): 68-87.J. 1984. LC = Adam Gacek. 48 (1989): 21-29. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1992. 1790-1930. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. Manuscripts of the Middle East. LD = P. Cairo.S. Revue africaine. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. 1929. LB = Jan Just Witkam. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382.

Leiden. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. Beirut. ed. 230 (1938): 551-575. ed. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ.d. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. 20 (1970): 88-137. n.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. MC OL¨ \DK . Beirut.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . MK = Etan Kohlberg.G DO-Mawlá. no. 1992. 1995. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . 1980.U T . 1349 [1930]. Damascus. ME = A. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. Damascus. 1992. Beirut. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. 1972.OP DO-Ñ. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. Cairo. 1913. . A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. Beirut. 1391/1971. Journal asiatique. 15. ed. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . Lamare. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa.4 (1986): 185-248. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W.

55/57 (1987/89): 343-379. N. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. 14. MW . no. 18. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. 1976-87. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Cairo. 52. Al-Mawrid. 32 (1987): 105-114.4 (1962).ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. 1992. ed.S. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. MP = Martin Levey. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ .6 (1993): 641649. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”.1 (1969): 3-47. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte.2 (1989): 201-203. 15. MV = François Déroche. MY = François Déroche.. London/Oxford.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . 1936-38. Revue des études islamiques. . MT = Adam Gacek. no. pt. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. no. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”.

 1 ILPELU  HG . NC = Adam Gacek. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 2 (1987): 8-17.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub.VO P  . NH .EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ. Revue des études islamiques.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. NO = Dimitri Gutas.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. 1342/1923 .A. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. 13.. 1367/1949.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. Damascus. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. 2 (1987): 126-130. 1418/1998: 341-393. NS = S. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos. 45 (1977): 1-87.2 (1992): 679-683. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. ND = J. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- .VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. Bonebakker. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . Sadan. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). no. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. London. 1. 1928. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. Cairo. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. Cairo.

Manuscripts of the Middle East. Rabat. New York. . Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. Paris/Teheran. 26 (1976): 199-212.H. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie).W. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). ed. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. 1994 : 75-81. “O. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. -PPA = Yves Porter. OH = J. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. 10 (1998): 41-63. PT = Terence Walz. OS = Adam Gacek. Derek Latham. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. 1985: 29-48.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . M. Daly. OM = Adam Gacek. 5 (1960): 124-143. 2 (1987): 88-95. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. PK = S. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 1992.

Beirut. Costa Mesa. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. 195772. Chicago. RN = Nabia Abbott. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. SJ . SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. 1410/1990. SD = R. 3rd ed. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. Paris. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. 2 (1956): 339-372.4 (1986): 259-270.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). Chicago.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 1 (1987): 21-38. Paris. Bookbinder. . 15. Cairo. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. no.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . ed. a new direction”. Beirut. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1995. -RRA = William L. 1973. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. 1938. 1967. 1960. SL = Nabia Abbott. RI = W. Dozy. Bull.

arabe 6844). ed. 1995. MS (Paris. Rabat. 1989: 49-50.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . no. 1346-49 A. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. ed. Damascus.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. Bibliothèque nationale.H. 1925. TE = Adam Gacek. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). -TTA = Yvette Sauvan.H. P. 1965. . MELA notes. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Ricard. Rabat. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. 1994: 11-32. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. Paris.1 (1997): 55-90. ed.Q Q  London. Damascus. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. 1303 A.DWW Q  .VO P . 1997: 135-150. Beirut. 41. Paris/Istanbul. François Déroche.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.

1991. ±amd al-.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. 1949. n. TP = Adam Gacek. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. Paris/Istanbul. Rabat.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. 1989: 51-60. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. 1982. Kuwait. TS %DNU LEQ . TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . xx-xxxii. Hyderabad. ed. .172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. Jedda. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. Ñ$EG $OO K . F. ed.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. 1353/1934. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.d.VKE O  ³. Déroche.EU K P DO-. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. pl. Damascus.

DaÑwat al-|aqq.10 (1975): 80-92. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. Hildesheim/New York.4 (1982): 10-24. no. 18. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. Beirut. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1983. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. . -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. DaÑwat al-|aqq. 23.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. 16. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. 1 (1986): 49-53. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 1981-83. 17 (1971): 43-172. Beirut. Dublin. 1992. Manuscripts of the Middle East. no. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. Chester Beatty Library. 1980. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. no.2 (1977): 45-56. Graz.

NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O.Oá / -XP Gá al. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW . no. 6 pl.1 (1955): 43-48.XOO \DW DO. 2. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. Tehran. 17.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).G E (Cairo).

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P.

 ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah). numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P.


 VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. Áa¨ ¨. Á ¨ib. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl.

‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . ra L\D $OO K . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah).

ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).  abbah (ta E E.

rajÑ. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. = Ãurrah. Ñ UL a. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ.

/ = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu). fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V.

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

malzamah. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . aÁl. tamma. NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn.

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1976. 5 vols. 1993. Gumbert. Paris. Gruys and J. Cambridge. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. Les manuscrits. It does not. Paris. Beit-Arié. Bookbinding. Maniaci and P. Boyle. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. Leonard. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. 1976-1980. Carla. Jerusalem. ed. ed. 1953 (repr. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts.1. Bischoff. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Paris. Dain. 1983. Munafò. Cockerell.P. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. Vatican City. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. however. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. A. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. 1993.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. London/New York. 1988. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Toronto. 1984. Sydney M. Indeed. 1997. Malachi. 2 vols. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. M. 5th ed. Leiden. Bernhard. 1990. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. . Alphonse. 1979). Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Paris. Transl. Bozzolo. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction.

Diringer. Paris. M. David. 1 (1976): 84-90. Lemaire. Gruijs. Greek and Latin papyrology. Muzerelle. études historiques et physico-chimiques. and Skeat. H. 1974 : 19-25. N. enluminure. Johnston. Dukan. Albert. Paris. Paris. Turnhout. New Castle. Edward. ed. New York. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Murdoch. 1953. Kristeller. Maniaci. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. Paris. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. Oxford. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. The birth of the codex. T. “The codex”. London/New York. ed. Reynolds. 1974.C. 2nd ed.G. Paris. Delamare. London. 1996. Glaister.D.. Denis. Codicologica. New York. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. 1998. 1977. M. Glenisson. Encyclopedia of the book.H. Roberts. Rome. Geoffrey Ashall. 1984. and Wilson. 1988. Paris. Italo. “Paléographie. Introduction à la codicologie. peinture. 1989. Gallo. Bernard. P. Louvain-la-Neuve. London. Del. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. 1985. 1983. 1985. 11-13 septembre 1972. & lettering. Proceedings of the British Academy. John E. Le livre au Moyen Age. François and Guineau. Paris. Writing & illuminating. Paris. C.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex. Blanchard. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. Paul O. . codicologie et archéologie du livre. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. Les matériaux de la couleur. 1999. 1989. Hoffmann. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). 1996. Roberts. Jacques. 1986. L. M. C. 2nd ed. 1983. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. 1990. 1988. Jean. A. Paris. The hand-produced book. 40 (1954): 169-204.

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Rivista degli studi orientali. 9  ./10 m. ilá . G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”. 48 (1973-74): 55-74. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-..M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad.

——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”.L. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. 18.] Ebied. Islamic quarterly.1-2 (1974): 3-7. 4 (1981): 82-103. nos.J. M. Taxation in Islam.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. [Vol. 1967./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. R. A. and Young.Y.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . 87 (1974): 445-465. Le Muséon. Ben Shemesh. Leiden. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G.

M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. “Al-.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 18-19 October 1973. Studies on Islam. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. van.S. Amsterdam. . “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles.] Lecomte. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. 1998. -DOO E ±asan. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). 1974:92-110. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. P.1 (1997): 55-90. 32 (1994): 115-123. 35-36 (1414 A. Les . al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ . 26 (1994): 75-96. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. Koningsveld.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. 41.H.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). Gérard. 326 (1997): 97-102. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. .): 270-372. Amsterdam.H. no. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. ed. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. Iran.

Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409. ——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K.

Stefan. Pierre A. MacKay. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE ./12. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. Oriens. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. 34 (1994): 57-75. 550-750/1155-1349. 1996 – . Jhdt. Damas: Institut français. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. Leder.1. Suppl. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas.”.

6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.1 (1407 A. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”. 1. 8: 1019-1020. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³. Hamdard Islamicus.H): 107-114. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . 4 (1924): 345-355. n. no. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. new ed. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.1 (1408 A. 1. al-Munajjid.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ .. 61. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”.H): 115-117.H): 172-182. 7 (1989): 238-252. no. “Al-. no.1 (1985): 7-20. no. “Al-. 8. Hespéris. 2. ——— “Al-.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”.1 (1955): 232-251. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. Sayyid.. 3. EI.2 (1406 A. ed. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. no. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. no.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ .4 (1971.s. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101.

 5DPD  Q ³$KDPP \DW Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q DO-ÌDKU \DK.

VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. .VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar.Q Q  London. 1997: 179-196.

——— “Idj ]D´ EI. vol.] $P Q  )DNKU DO-' Q 1DÁ U  *DQM QDK-Ði khuà Ã-i ÑXODP Ð-i aÑO P YD G QLVKPDQG Q-L NLU P YD VKXÑDU -yi ÑiÌ P YD NK VKQDY V Q-i FK UDKGDVW YD PXÑ ÁLU Q 7DMU VK . 1983: 85-92. 1957. London. ARABIC ALPHABET. Yarshater. Georges. Albums and exhibition catalogues Ahlwardt.Q Q  London. Witkam. E. new ed. Berlin. Jan Just. The LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. “The human element between text and reader. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. 1997: 163-177. ——— “Al-ÑUnÁ U DO-EDVKDU ED\QD DO-naÁÁ wa-al-T ULÐ: al-LM ]DK I DOmakhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. no. VI. Wilhelm. 1995: 123-136. 1899. Vajda.3 (1954): 337-342. Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation.. Zwölf arabische Schrifttaffeln. Arabica. Paris. 1981. 3: 1020-1021. [Also in: idem.UDQ. Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. ——— “Un opuscule inédit d’as-6LODI ´ La transmission du savoir en Islam (VIIe-XVIIIe siècles). ed. 8: 273-275.10. 1993. 1. 1.BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 SteZDUW 'HYLQ - ³(M ]D´ Encyclopaedia Iranica. SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY VI.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. London. Hildesheim/ New York. ——— “Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris”.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar.

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220 BIBLIOGRAPHY ——— Arabic calligraphy in manuscripts.). al-JuzÐ al-awwal: al-QDP GKLM &DLUR  6KDEE ¨ (ChabERXK. 1905.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makhà à ilá al-qarn al-Ñ VKLU DO-KLUM /H 0DQXVFULW DUDEH MXVTX’au Xe s. Bernhard. Riyad. 1986. al-Munajjid. Arabic palaeography: a collecton of Arabic texts from the first century of the Hidjra till the year 1000. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q Al-. Cairo. Moritz. de l’H.

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A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. with the assistance of M. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. and Jongeling. A. Numerals. S. 2: Ab-bildungen. 1994. 1995. J.1: Text. O. Radtke and K. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . Porten. L. J. Spiel. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. 1980-1993. Abu Salim.C. W. M. 1994. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. R. Mosak Moshavi and B. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. Y. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. S. and O’FAHEY. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. und Herb. 1995. 2 Parts. Steiner. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. Hamidu Bobboyi. Volume I. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. A Bibliography of Islamic Law.). R. Compiled by John O. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. und Sardshweladse. V. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . and Peters. Vikør. 1996. Hunwick. (ed. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. A. M. K. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . O’Fahey. Orthography. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1900. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. M. Ibrahim. With appendices by R.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı .). (ed. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. V. I. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 .F.).æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. Jagd. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. References and Index of Texts Cited. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. O. Marín. (éd. H. Bd. 1994. 2nd ed. V. 1996. 1994. With Full DefiniKinberg. Manuel de recherche. V. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. S. S. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. Materials for a Reconstruction. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. (eds. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. J. (eds.L. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. Tanz und verwandten Themen.T. 1994. N. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. 1995. A. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. (ed. 1994. 1996. Nouns.Lagarde. Chief consultant to the editor. K. Arabic Literature of Africa. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings.). Roman Loimeier. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. J. 1994. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. B. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Hofheinz. Bd. M. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV.). 1995. Band 22 . A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. E. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II.). S. 1994. and Stolbova. Compiled by R. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. Phonology.

2000. H. and Pingree. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. N. Religious Perspectives 1999. M. Vol. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. and Porten. Social Perspectives 1999. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon.Band 26 Halm. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. 1998. 1997. G. 1997. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. III. F. Mesopotamian Lexicography. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. T. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV.H. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. 1997. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. Vol. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. A Bibliography. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. W. B.L. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. 1999.1: B. III. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp.G. 1997. The Kingdom of Kush. Translated from the German by M. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. Terms and Topics. H. H. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. J. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. 1999. 1999. V. Index of Names. 1999. A. 1. H.J. 2 Volumes. D. The Rise of the Fatimids. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. 1999. Bonner. J. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. The Empire of the Mahdi. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. van.W. L. M. Vol. J. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. 1996. and Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . 1999. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. and Wyatt. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. R. 1999. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam.1.2. and Healey. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. 2: 1988-1992. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. D. B. The Mishnah. W. 1: A. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová.J. 1997. and Sou‘ek. 1998. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East.F. J.E. J. J. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. G. J. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. The Mishnah. H. 1999. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. R. 1999.

2.Band 50 Tal. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. Culture. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. Band 56 Avery-Peck. 2001. Dialect. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. A. 2001. U. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. A. 2001. de.. R. Neusner. B.. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. Theory of Israel. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek.J. Comparing Judaisms. (2 Volumes) 2000. Vol. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . Judaism in Late Antiquity III. Neusner.J. Ch. 2001. J. A.1.J. and Chilton. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. J. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck.E. 1 : Glossary 2001. The Arabic manuscript tradition. and Neusner. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. J. and Neusner. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. and Society in Eastern Arabia.3.J. 2001. World View. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. A.. J. R. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. 2000. and Chilton. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. B. C. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. 2000. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. 2001. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar.. A. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. A. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Special Problem of the Synagogue.4..