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Adam Gacek - The Arabic Manuscript Tradition

Adam Gacek - The Arabic Manuscript Tradition

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Sections

  • ABBREVIATIONS
  • 1. Sources/References
  • 2. Technical terms in the glossary
  • I. GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES
  • I. 1. Bibliographies
  • I. 2. Periodicals
  • I. 3. Conference proceedings and composite works
  • I. 4. General studies and surveys
  • I. 5. Selected studies of one or more manuscripts
  • I. 7. Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies)
  • I. 9. Popular culture in manuscripts
  • I. 10. Forgeries
  • I. 11. Terminology
  • II. 1. General studies
  • a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world
  • - Bibliography
  • - Papermaking recipes and ethics
  • b) Watermarked paper and filigranology
  • II. 5. Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories
  • IV. 1. Types of compositions, their parts, etc
  • IV. 2. Page lay-out (mise en page)
  • IV. 3. Colophon and scribal verses
  • IV. 4. Dates, dating and numerals
  • a) Bibliography, chronology
  • b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems
  • c) Abjad, LV E DO-jummal, chronograms
  • d) Greek (Coptic) numerals
  • H 5 P ) V QXPHUals
  • f) Dating by fractions
  • g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties
  • IV. 5. Abbreviations
  • IV. 6. Arabic nomenclature
  • IV. 7. Transcription, corrections and etiquette
  • V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE
  • V. 1. General studies
  • V. 2. Transmission of individual works
  • VI. 1. Albums and exhibition catalogues
  • VI. 2. Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens
  • a) General
  • b) Maghribi and African scripts
  • VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK
  • a) Bibliographies
  • b) General studies and exhibition catalogues
  • c) Albums (muraqqa¶ W
  • a) Bibliographies and dictionaries
  • b) Exhibition catalogues
  • c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship
  • d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas
  • VII. 3. Ornament and painted decoration
  • VII. 4. Painted illustration
  • a) Drawing
  • b) Other studies
  • c) Descriptions of individual works
  • VII. 7. Decorated paper (marbled paper, etc.)
  • a) Bibliography
  • century texts
  • c) Other studies
  • VIII. QURµ ANIC MANUSCRIPTS
  • VIII. 1. Exhibition catalogues
  • IX. TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING
  • IX. 1. General studies
  • IX. 2. Some specific cases

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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....................................... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ............................. XI Preface .............PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ............................................................................................

.... 181 Bibliographies ......................................... ....................... Sources/References ............................................................................................. 181 Periodicals ....................................................... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY ............... 177 I....... Technical terms in the glossary .................................. GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ........................................... 156 2............................. 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ........................ 182 General studies and surveys ...................................... 156 1.. 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ...................... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK................................. 1 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

............................................ QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ....... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments.......................... 243 2................................................ 226 Calligraphy .. 240 Papercuts ............. 241 Bookbinding ........................................... General studies ...................... 247 Later QurÐans....... 259 ....... 7......................................... 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ............................................. 227 b) Exhibition catalogues .................... 236 Painted illustration ............ 256 Some specific cases ................ 4..................................................... 242 a) Bibliography.................................................................................................... 247 1..................... 6.......................................................................................) .............. ....... etc........ 238 a) Drawing......................................... 256 1............................................................ 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries ............... 2................... 238 b) Other studies ............................................................................................. 239 Lacquer .............................................................. 238 c) Descriptions of individual works.. Exhibition catalogues.................................. 3...................................... TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ................................................................... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship ............................................ 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ........................................................................................ 251 Facsimile editions .................. 242 c) Other studies........................... 4..................................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration ............................. 8............................................................................................................ 255 IX... 2. 5............ 3............. VIII.................................................................................. 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper.............

. CATALOGUING... 261 XI.............................. 2............................. 266 266 267 267 268 ............. ............... COLLECTIONS.. 263 XII. Descriptions of collections and catalogues ........ PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ....................... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts ...................... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ... 5............................................................................ 3. Catalogues of catalogues ................................. 4......X CONTENTS PREFACE X.. ETC....... CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS................................................................. 266 1....

. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. Last but not least. David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text.

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2). Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. Arab authors. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. both religious and scientific in nature. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. Along with this manuscript output. VII. scholars. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. the preparation of inks. papermaking and bookbinding. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

).VKE O G 1231).10/16th cent. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-. the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7. DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.

EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO. RI .

the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. Furthermore.

as well as on the collation and correction of books. The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G.984/1577). lineation). which deals with the preparation of inks. who in his work on education. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). Finally.

it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. e.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. respectively. book lovers and cataloguers. this chapter has been omitted. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). for the first time. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts.g. medieval and postmedieval texts. contemporary studies and catalogues. Nevertheless. which spans almost 14 centuries. To translate. could be very misleading. as it were. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. . without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. corrected. writing surfaces and implements used. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. bound and decorated. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). Some terms. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. It brings together. as well as extant specimens. some of the most important research in this field published to date. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. even in its present form. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. The glossary is a by-product. especially those relating to book formats. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development.

flap). the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. medallion. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. fore-edge. raÐs (‘head’. Thus. been largely omitted here. envelope flap). and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). case (box). upper margin. catchword). Ñaqib (‘heel’. fore-edge). for example. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. Some.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. Here we find. outer or inner margin). Áadr (‘chest’. book cover). have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. miqlab (Levant. udhn (‘ear’. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. marjiÑ (Morocco). the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. however. great caution is in order. serif. on the other hand. Therefore. Here. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. flap). for example. OLV Q (central Arab lands). upper cover). catchword. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. raddah (Levant). inkwell and the like. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). wajh (‘face’. and V TLÃah (Yemen). This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). North Africa). Thus. however. The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. catch- . recto. period and/or region in which they were employed. for example. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). incipit. lower margin. khadd (‘cheek’. as yet. Ñaqb. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. Iraq). may have been used exclusively in those circles. recto. OLV Q (‘tongue’. We do not.

This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. .XVI PREFACE word). an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script. either contemporary or earlier. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. On the whole. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. Most words are traced to a source. As far as transliteration is concerned.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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among other things.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. of minfadh (q. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS.v. GA. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. 8). for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. from Pers. muµabbar – sewn (KC. I. I. 176-178) 2. 97-98. 154. 8).). I. I. 107. 18-19. III. RN. ibar) – needle (UK. SD.v. ibrah (pl. 103. needle case (DM) 2. II. GA. AG. 60. TS. IA. 13. index.) (DD. MB. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. 12. 59. ebrû. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. 215.EU . al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. 104. 97. 107. DB.  EU  ZDUDT DO. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. I. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. syn. AG. 2: ibrishmah). 182). ST. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). SA. 392). 9. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. miµbar 1. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN.

 .

4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP. LEU VLP. LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.

taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. – closing matter of the text (composition). abbrev. 62. ilá NKLULK – et cetera. 53). explicit (TP. n.14). (DB. I. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM).

scribal etiquette 2. MF. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. 63. 71-72. 52). leather (UK. – etiquette (EI. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. passim. 106-108) 2. IW. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. I. I. AE. udum) 1. DG P (pl. 175-176). adam(ah). tanned red leather (DB.

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. XIV. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. MU.

DG K SO DGDZ W. comp. jild.. DGG P – tanner (DM).

e. implement. 345). – V\Q ODK (EI. I. tool. instrument.g. DGDZ W O W.

writing MB. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W. 153-156.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. 250). JKXU E – the last hour of day. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. VI.

NKLUDK DO-ukhar. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al. alDZ NKLU . al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).Oá (al-uwal) (1-10).

al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month.g. -30) (SA. 248-249). li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. VI. e.

244-248).EQ . al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . II. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . 106.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . e. 244-249).DP O 3 VK 73  CI. nos.VI. 178). VI.g.EQ . al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. 235). EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA.

 -248). al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9.

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 22.C. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . ar„ \DK – background (LC.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 6$ 9. taµU NK-L PDODN . FZ. 670). (EI. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. IV. X. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn.1st 5509 B. JL. taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. 262. ER.D.

 .

II. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). XVK UDK. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD.

90. 103. 43: VKDI . AG. punch (TS. KM. IA. I. 59. 10: ishfah. – awl. uÁ O. a¦l (pl. 11. MB. 115). 15. 107. sifr 4. ST. IB. IK.

 .  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9...

also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. VIII.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). MH. SD. original (main) text. 26. II. MU. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. 27) 3. exemplar.

2024. 136). but also 0= . MI.. XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. .

269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. SM. 23) 4. major work (TM. 126. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

e. 402) 2. 145). 928). maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. 24). 24. 29) 5. 80) 3. UI.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. rectangular panel (LC. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. headpiece (LC. rule-border. 27) 6. frame (within a border) (TF. 24. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. . I. DB. KR. 24. i. border (of a book cover) (LC. tabula ansata (UI. FT. . 25. ià U W XÃur) 1. rules. textual surround (LC. i¨ U (pl.

(…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. 581-582).8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-. 32). ER.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. 6. taµO I DK. 46). writing circa 1375’ (DW. I.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. DIVK Q (Pers. according to other sources al.

taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W. (pl.

 muµallaf (pl. muÐDOODI W.

umm. compilation. muÁannif. ummah . 360). I.1 . – composition. X. writer. 33. work (of prose or poetry) (SD. comp. . comp. EI. taÁQ I muµallif – author.

SO XPPDK W.

TM. transcript (from which another copy is made). shar¨ (IN. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. 246) 3. 130) 4. SD. exemplar. umm al-NLW E 1. I. 35. original (main) text. 29). archetype (LC. 26). fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. used in mosques (KN. copy. 26.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. . as opposed to a commentary. . I.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

II. KF. II. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. Umm al-EXOG Q. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). 99. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. 294). . al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. LP P – exemplar. textus receptus (NT. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. II. 37. archetype. Umm al-qurá. 39).

I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. II. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. comp. 99). taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. 2812). tadabbur. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. II. (CI. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. I. LL. xiv. abbrev.

 . or /'    $'  (. .

 FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã. XQE E DK.

SO DQ E E.

LQV see sinn. BA. KU. unnibbed reed (FN. III. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). 370. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. 31). anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. 370). 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. – unpared. II. 31. LM. III. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U.

n. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. 52. JA.14. I. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). (TP. AA. incipit. initia.

 .

taµZ O (pl. taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM).

– interpretation. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q.g. explanation (e.

34). incomplete (of text) (KC. baŒr (pl. **** PDEW U 1. bu¨ U. imperfect. passim) 2. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. acephalous.

 . 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . – panel on a book cover. cartouche (TS. AG. JL. 110. 33.

 . 355). badal. WDENK U – fumigation (TS. 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). bidl '% . tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 . RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &. [LLL..

fasc. MZ. comp. 59-60. . SD. also WDEG O – subal-matn. I. 412) 2.3. DT. wifq (US. fasc. II. conjecture. 100-103). EI. stitution. 296). 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0.3-4. conjectural substitution. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. 153-154. alteration (CL.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. RU badal respectively (KG. suppl. 49.

64-66). DD. I. EDUG \DK – papyrus. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. publishing (KM. QS. WS. 390: for trimming). VIII. qirà V mibrad – file. 417. IV.84. papyrus sheet or roll (DB. sifr 13. 60. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). II.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . 521-522. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). 407. lin. rasp (HT. IA. I. comp. EI.

 LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. . barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . I. 545).

17-18.148). index. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . IB. – endband (headband) (ST. ST. 8. n. 81. EDUVK P.

 al-PXE UDN DK.

– epithet of the months of ‚afar. ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY.

 DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. ELUN U SO EDU N U. nuskhah. etc.

(pair of) dividers (SA.9. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 . – compass. III.  '0.

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

18). 12. . Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS.

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

SA. III. 455 6. 154: IK. 232. trimming (of a reed ) (IR.).v. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU.  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. ELU \DK – paring. 85. EDUU \DK. KK. 49). PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. bary.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ).

SD. – pen knife (AA. 591). I. 8. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . mibzaq – lancet-like knife. DB. MP. bas¨ – spreading out.. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. 90.   $6 . flattening (of a letter). 81).. 88. 64. index. I. IK. DA: mibzagh.

11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. AS. line (KU. PDEV ¨ 1. comp. syn. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. 87) 3. mukhtaÁar. KH. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. 120) 2. original (comprehensive). jazm (IK. 34. horizontal stroke. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. III. rectilinear (of a script. 144) 4. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). unabridged work.

13. 47. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. basmalah SO EDV PLO. 144). maÁ ¨if. 322). – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. 365. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. TW.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

silk endband (headband) (HT. and opening a composition (TP. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. baà Ðiq) 1. MP. bi¨ TDK (pl.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. EI. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. index. 63. HT. bashr 1.97. slip (of paper) 2. LF. catalogue. 9. TS. lin. ba¨n (pl. dressing (of leather) (UK. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. piece. 78. ST.v. 58. 58. also known as al-JKXE U (q. IA. LF. 109. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. PDEVK U – pared. 161. 12). register (AD. paring. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. AG.111) 2. 155). I. 23-24. 145). 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). erased. bashra¨ 1. ratisser des peaux’.) (AS. 52. buà Q. lin. 78: ‘racler. 1084-1085).

inner cover. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. al-NLW E. E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. flesh side (of parchment).

HT. 159. lining (FT. 408) 2. 60. endleaf (ST. IV. lin. doublure (TS. passim. IA. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. MA. bi¨ QDK (pl. – inner cover. 102. 117. 47. pasteboard (UK. baà Ðin) 1.73-79) 3. 23. 49. MB. doublure (LC. AG. HD. paste-down endpaper. 89. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. 112). IB. UK. endpaper. 22-23.

. 92).  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' .

leather or silk (ST. 9. lining of the insides of book covers with paper. MU. XIV. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. index.

ba¶du – after. BA. 2. used for a transposed word. 61. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. II. comp. removal of sha¨mah (q. MB. bary. 87). abbrev. paring (of the calamus) (KD.) from the reed (IK.v. 370). III. /( .

53. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’.20). separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). n. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. tab¶ „ – word division. separation (MM. also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E.

biUN U WDEN U. 58. 153. 103. 103. (MB. measuring distances. TU. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. IB. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. MP. 101. IA. 104. etc. (pair of) dividers (UK. 44. 59. 60. comp. MB. 156. – compass. 105).

DD. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. 59). EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. 380. 42. IA. 103. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. comp. IB. I. 391). 153. MB.

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

56.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . JA. TP. 268.  EDO . E OLQ – worn. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . CT. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin.9 SO. damaged (TS. 45: EXO JK). I.119. comp.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

EI. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. 36). IV. kha¨¨L E KDU. E E SO DEZ E.

– chapter. . 0. abbrev.

murattib. n. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. comp. 53.20). IV. 376). bayt SO EX\ W. TP. mubawwib – compiler (DF. 609.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

KR. 95. 32. 31-33. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. . AG. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. compartment (in such a box) 3. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. Ãurrah) (TS. Bayt al-Maqdis. 110). 97. frame (as part of the border. 110) 4. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 82). AG. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 31. 33).

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

95. KR. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 82). W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. . gold dust (AQ.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 30-31. tibr – gold. 110). AG. 97. also TS.

 takht SO WXNK W.

WXU E – dust. AG. 107) 3. 9. 120). lin. IB. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. KM. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. 94. 156. 82. 6. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. sand. 22.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. index. index.  . earth. wooden pressing board (TS. 42. 127-. 24. 9). IV. KU. I. TD. HT. sifr 13.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

478-480). tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 6$ II.

detailed title of a book. indicating its contents (DB. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . chapter heading (IN.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 165). 28. AH. 122) 3. title (of a book) (LC. key word (LC. 28) 4. II.

disc) or margins (e. 27) 7.g. 27) 8.g.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. headpiece or tailpiece (LC. paragraph (LC. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. 27) 6. medallion) .

224) 12. IT. cryptography (AA. II.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. biographer 2. 1021). tirs. 260. translation (EI. 270). 1021) 13. ‘QaÁ GDW . explanation. 29-31. illuminator (TW. 28. X. 186. DB. X. biographical note. mutarjim 1. also mutarjam (e. biography (EI.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. 30) 9. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. turs SO WXU V. exegesis (DB. translator. 29. interpretation. II.g. 224) 10.

PA. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. shamsah. 82). 44) 3. writing tamma (lit. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. 95. turunj(ah) 1. comp. taftar see daftar. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. KR. LC. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. WDWP P – completion. illuminated oval medallion. 28) 2. 116). 15). rosette (HD. 69. corner-piece (ST. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 145. IB. IP. execution. 9. index. 97. 103. oval.

46). abbrev. . WDP PDK (pl. . talisman (EI. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. [LLL at the end of the colophon. ¨add. WDP Ðim) – amulet. &. II. RU CM. xiii). tatimmah – supplementation. X. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. supplement . comp. comp. finish. WDP P – end. 177-178). continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’).

no. 101. 100. II. FK.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. copying (MH.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E.

thabat (pl. atKE W. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’.

234. written testimony (SD. GA. I. document. 288: syn. muÑjam. record of attested study (HB.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. 157) 2.

also WDWKE W – attestation. I. authentication (formula). 157). WKDE W – signature (SD. vocalization (AD. 18) 2. LWKE W 1.  WDEOH RI contents. usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨.

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. n. 53.25. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. GA. 45. CT. muthabbit. 289).

CT. I. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. 101. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. 330). writer of the audition note (MH. 45).

WKDT O (lit. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. AS. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. 11. ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. AG. 107). 147). III. .

1125in Turkey). JM. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. .9 . III. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. TU. I. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ.in Persia. 349). 51). T OLE.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. abbrev. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. (TN.

DO-thumn. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. 795-.VII. octagon (EI.

. 102). abbrev.. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. VI. I. 12. MI. 361). MZ. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). FRPS NK WLP muthamman. SA. Taf. 232-234. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. no.VI.13. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points). 232-234) . I. [LY )0 167. .  RU &. 361). see also mashÐalah. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA.

either illuminated or stamped (KI. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. decorative medallion or panel.

 center-piece (on a book cover) (FI.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK . 87. 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . JL. 88.

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

WDMG G – repair. 87). restoring manuscripts. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. interlace (TF. 100). 83. 99. mending. restoration (KR. braid. nos. 141). 99).41. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. corner-piece (JL. 43). PDMG O SO PDM G O. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. repair (SJ. jabr – repairing.

33. 50. 42).6/2) 6. no. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). rules. table (LC. KC. talismanic seal (EI. 24) 4. TW. 63) 3. column (of text) (SD. I. 370. mujadwal – ruled (LC. creating rule-borders (WB. chart. 32). . DT. diagram. magic square. 148. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. 56. 160) 2. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. 26). 175) 5. II. 108). – leather strap. thong (KC. table of contents (CM.

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ .   ... FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah.

WDMU G 1. KF. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. mijrad(ah) – file. DD. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . inventory (SD. 184. II. MDU GDK – list. scraper (MB. 27). 183). 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . I. jard al-matn see matn. abridgement (SD. 107. I. extract. DG.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). 112. register. I.

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

passim). jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. majran SO PDM ULQ. jirm wasaÃ. HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm.

62). – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . passim: Œazz. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. shaving (MB. jazz – trimming. IA.8 154).

inset (UI.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. . rough copies 2. I. VII. 132. MU. 19. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. 103). KF. n.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid.

the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs).GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. single-quire codex. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. booklet. 79. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. AI.

128) 6. independent. tomaison) (SJ. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. small piece of writing. usually not more than a quire (IJ. 711). small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. 90). tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. I. DEEUHY RU (CI. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. VII. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. 128). 705). II. xii) 4.

38). 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. 143. 90). 87: qalam jazm. 89. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. MB. 99. jazm – reed pen. 421). IK. 7-9. LL. I. MP.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. 13). LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS. for other signs representing jazmah see GL. .

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. – background (UK. 23). 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). WDMV G – tinting in red (AD.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

.. )1   . .  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ ..

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

1123). WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. G Z Q MDO (SA. IV. III. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. .

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

416-417).GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. 123 and IX. LC. 26). VIII. majlis SO PDM OLV. 47. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. II.

sitting..  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. – session. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. . VIII. 1020).

KU. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). II. julfah – nib (of the calamus. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. 459-460. jalam SO DMO P. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah.

IR. II. abbrev. – (pair of) scissors (DS. / / (OS.Oá. -XP Gá al. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !).NKLUDK DO. 230). 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. CM.NKLU. CI. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. no. IK. -XP Gá al. 91-92. 89.

34) 3. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev. 89). contraction (of letters) (KU. SA. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2.9 . composition. rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. compilation. / (OS. 126. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . III.

major original compilation. 352).g.  FN.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. . FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . e. the QurÐ Q 8.

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

 FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. 359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. II. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ). III.

TM. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. tool box. mujamma¶ (UA. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). case. 380). box (NM. 233. codex compositus (LC. case with compartments (TS. NH. inkwell 6' . jumal. 12. 217. I.  composite volume. writing case. escritoire (TW. AG. SD. 25). 37. 52. 13) 3. DG. 32) 2. 393) 1.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). 106.  '' . 683) 4. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. 52.

II. 10). IA.) (AS. – book cover (ST. MI. abbrev. knife (TS.111). AG. xiv. index. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. 107: for cutting gold leaf . MDQ Œ (pl. 11. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. index. (CI. IA. ST. 10). 110. 145). ajwibah) – responsum. 61.v. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. 109. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. MDZ E (pl. better known as al-JKXE U (q.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

27. 273-275. IJ). certificate of transmission. 126-130. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. – authorization. 24. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . LB. ER. III. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. EI. VIII. 1020-1021. licence.

 . (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (. LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. 181).GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah.9 .

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH. OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license).

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

381: jawn. LQNZHOO (HI. SA. KU. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. 154: wa-al-M EDK . AT. NH. 133. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 468. II. DS. 179.

DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. see also the quotation under miqlamah). (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . also known as waqabah.

 **** Œibr (pl. a¨E U.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

18-21. KM. -100 and MB. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. IV. 13. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. sifr 13.53. 101-110 and MB. MP. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. n. MJ. 6: wa-al- . UK. MP. IR. Œibr al-raqq. 8.

84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. LM.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. II. AE. 349. IK. MR. SA. IK. I. 127-131. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . AT. 134-135. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. MA. IV. see LL. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn.

 FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. ma¨ ELU. 354). III. embellishment (DB. miŒbarah (pl. 2016). Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ.

SA. III. 372.  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: .  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. II. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ ..

SA. 468-. 443. II.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133.

II. 119). transcription (TE. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. embellished writing (composition) or copying. compiler (SS. 15. taŒE U 1. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. inscribing in ink (SM. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). a¨E V. WR. Œubs (pl. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. muŒabbir – author. 87. SA. I. elegant. 89). SK. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. inking.

ta¨E V W. taŒE V (pl.

. stitching (of a book) (TM. 28). endbanding with silk 2.. Œabk 1. 132) 3. . comp. 157. 62. MM. IA. AG. bequest note (LC. 104 ff. waqf.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment.. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). n. decorative endband (UK. 109. MB. sewing.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. 154. also Œabkah – endband (headband). TS. 18-20.

 VSLQH 74 .

109). AG. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 19. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. AG. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. 19. 109.

 .

478). I. AG. 246). 19. bookbinder (IB. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. AG. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. 28).GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. 19. 19. AD. n. 109). 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. 11. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. 109).

ma¨ MLU. miŒjar. Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. hone (TS. Œajar al-misann – whetstone. ŒLM E (pl. 69). ¨ujub) – talisman. amulet (DT. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. 10). abbrev. 89). maŒjar (pl. ajar al-¨XP ¨im). Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). 60). (OS.

 maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. ST. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. 142: 12.10. AG. 99. UK. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. 107. 36) 2. 36). 38. MB. MP. index.

$ . .

FN.H. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. 2733. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U.

 FRPS . I .

¨XG G. II. 711). Œadd (pl.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. honing (of a knife) (KD. taŒG G – whetting.

end. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). ŒDG G DK. – limit. used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU.

Œadr (pl. AG. TS. 29. 31. 59). 393. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. (pl. 188). MB. MP. 138). 109. 10. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. IA. 105. 59. ¨XG U. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. MJ.

  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. TE. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. XVII. 50). al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. 15) 4. 246) 7. 119) 2. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. secretarial style of shikastah script. 13. 215-227). outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. 10. comp. redaction (CM. e. compiler (SS. ŒDU U – silk (ST. ornamental surround. editor. 48. 15.. elegant writing. IV. III. 109. 16. DB. copying. AF. PA. 52. taŒU U 1. 701. muŒarrar (pl. 2408. mu¨DUUDU W. index. 1124. ÁaÑd. frame. composition (GA. SK.g. muŒarrir – 1. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. ER. 145. with black ink (TE. calligrapher. IV. 50. – descender (down-stroke. 15) 3. IV. TE. outline. MU. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . 214) 8. editing (of a manuscript text). 286). revised version (edition). 73) 2. EI. IP. 58. AQ. 38. terminal of a letter) (AA. 16) 6. 16) 5. author. fair copying (TE. transcription (TE. penman. 64. AG.

Œard al-matn see matn. – piece of calligraphy. . calligraph (DP. 53).

GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl. a¨U ] ¨XU ].

g. amulet (DT. – talisman. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. e. 69). maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. IV.

KK.g.9 . al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. 39-42) 2.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). e. 230. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. Œarf (pl. 549). muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR.  . distortion. II. Œarf (pl. lin.. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA.' . miŒra„ah. LL. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. ¨iraf) – edge. LM. border. 596-560). DS. 463. cutter). letter. I. word 2. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. II. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. III. error. sharp edge (of a knife. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. trimming (HT.80-86). taŒU I 1.

 FRPS TLU Ðah. .

224). falsification (of a text). ¨DUDN W. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ).32 GLOSSARY  08 . MJ. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. comp. 57. MQ. 59. Œarakah (pl. III.

393). 65. 704. 112-113. 8). al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. KD. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. shakl. Mecca and Medina. MB. vowelization (DM). miŒU N – spatula. UA. MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. comp. taŒU N – vocalization. II. – vowel (GL.

). (OS. Œizb (pl.v. 89). al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev. a¨] E.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

11).. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. index. 28. Œazm . 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. ST. ST. 11. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS.

III. chronosticon (TP. 468). . ŒLV E – calculation. computation. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. 54: EI.

with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . II. VI. ¨DZ VKLQ. 302). EI.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. 269-270. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. see SA. abbrev.

scholium. apostil. 217-219. 118. IA. 63) 2. collection of glosses. margin (of a page) 4. IA. 63. marginalia. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. often abbreviated as or . MB. lin. 119.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. MD. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. FZ.112. border (on a book cover) (MB. 109) 3.

al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. JM. 65. gutter. interpolation. IV.54. 222. pl. 977). 268-269. ¨DZ VKLQ. 110. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. EI. AS. 145. 71) 2. IX. FI. 412. parenthesis. DB. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 30. Œ VKLQ (pl. III. FT. Œashw(ah) 1. 73  00 139. 1820). AG. 89-90). 60. 63. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS.

372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . 332). 322. . Œa¦ramah – paring. 296. abbrev. AD. CI. 26.74. (MI. xi. II. nos. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. 34). muŒashshin – glossator. III. trimming (of a reed) (BA. taŒshiyah – glossing. gloss (AM. glossed.

I. 546). . taŒ¦ O – copying.89. no. transcription (FK.

tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. polisher (KM.v. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. smoothing leather (ST.31). 6. IB. AG. n. 107. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. MB. comp. sifr 4. ÑDU T W. IA. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. 34). inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. burnisher. TS. 5. 29. 118: mikhaÃà (!). 60. I.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing.).

surround. RN. 35. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . I. KH. headpiece (LC. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). Œa„ UDK (pl. 302) 2. 24). 34. frame (SD.

small box (DG. memorization (TP. miŒfa„ah – case. 51). FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. II. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. a¨fiÌah). Œif„ – learning by heart. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . ŒLI „ (pl. preservation.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. 44) 2. box (KC. NT. 55.

text editing. 89. FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . critical edition (of a text) (MH. MR.

 muŒaqqiq – corrector. editor. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1.

U T and alZDUU T (FN. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. III. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . 13) 2. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. 12.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

IV. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. III. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. 1123. LM. 78. 1125. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. EI.in Persia. TU.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. IR. comp.in Turkey).

I. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. Œalqah (pl. 112. syn. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. 62) 2. miŒakk al-rijl 1. 141) 2. pumice (MB. 31). ¨alaq. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. 59) 3. 392. scroll (in design) (UI.v. erasure. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. ¨DODT W.) (DD. miŒakk(ah). IA. mibrad (q. syn. Œakk – rubbing out. 137). effacement (TP.) (UK. MM. 104. NH. 58.v. IA. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad).

ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. AI. part of a clasp) (BA. II. 372) 2. study circle. scholar’s circle (SL. III. 48.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. ma¨ O T. 27).

422. AB. – tendril (FT. 136. 139). .

 composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. Œilyah. taŒliyah – decoration. 150-151). Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. 416). taŒP G DK.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. embellishment (KT. 204-209). al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah.

red ink (LC. rubrication. Œumrah 1.20. 38. n. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. 24) 2. 122-123). 53. TB. III. red colour. 95). TP. EI. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. rubrics (CM.

exemplar. LC. TP. ME. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. TP. sifr 13. 286. 51). ŒDP ODK (pl. codex (MA.  ‘pupitre’). 69). book cradle (TC. IV. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. 24). also miŒmal. IV. taŒQ VK (pl. ta¨ Q VK. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 169. amulet (DT. ÑUthmanic canon. WA. archetype (KM. 24. maŒmil 1. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. 15. 29). 55). 86) 3. 566. TW. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. 56-57.

44). (pair of) dividers (IB. 143) 3. index. 11) 2. 138.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. . rope work.) (MP. interlace (TF. 58. compass. ST.

 munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. 700). II.

8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). ma¨ ZLU. miŒwar (pl.

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

 FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). maΠU DK. as opposed to the border (TF. 138. 144).

665). ¨awr (LL. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. Œ µil. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. II. Œawqalah. 149-150). TP. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 99. 171. 58: as a means of cancellation. 109. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. 104-105). TP. 483). see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. 97. MH. I. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG.

73 . abbrev. RQH LVQ G from another.

 .

3. stamp. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. 24. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . tooling 2. MI.g. 31). 35). panel (in decoration) (UI. sealing. **** NK QDK – compartment. 214) 3. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. tool. colophon (TM. stamping. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. khatm 1. seal.

khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' . RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS).

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .9 . recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. – 1.

 .. NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P .

169. e.g. AG. IA. OS) 2. 130. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. 63).  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. CI. 110. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. 144). . 29. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). 34. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. 109. 108) 3. I. talismanic seal (DT. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. DT. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star).9 1105.

 LNKWLW P 1. epilogue 2. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. 108). n. 5. 8. 396) 4.14) 3. . conclusion. tailpiece (HD. colophon (UI. 52. FT. explicit.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

– inner or outer margin (IM. 165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ .

also LVWLNKU M (TW. backing (of the spine) (HN. 385). takh„ ¶ – rounding. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E.

RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

 omission.0 . TM. comp. ) 4. 58. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . la¨aq (TP. 187-188. insertion.

222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK. KF. I.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. WDNKU MDK 1.73: in the form of a curved line. omission. reference mark (signe de renvoi). extract from a book.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. 58.. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. I.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. n. 718). or a caret. 169) 7. transcription (TW. ÑaÃfah.) . insertion 2. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . copying. 606) 6. pl. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. quotation (TM.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

mukhraj – insertion (MH. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukharraj.

126130). . II. mukharrij – compiler. mustakhrij. catchword. TW. vox reclamans (MA. selector (DF. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. NM. copying (DM) 2. LVWLNKU M 1. 384. 683). 39). IV. excerpting.

12.40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. MP. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. 59). II. 99. 35. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. punch (SA. OM). DS. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). 181). 481. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. index. ST. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case.

70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94). khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK.

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

36). khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah.  DQVD roundel. Ãurrah. Ã P. palmette (KH. comp.

MI. II. 27. 12. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. undoing the sewing (ST. blank. 481) 2. sewing (of quires) (UK. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. lin.166). polishing cloth (MB. index. MB. HT. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. 104. 60. comp. 17. 157. IA. khiraq) 1. 109) 2. 114. 347. 59) 3. MB. MP. khirqah (pl. 459). gap. 15. SA. II. scrap (of paper) (DM). lacuna (SJ. 154. kharm 1.

 .

233: feuillets décousus. 26. fragments (HB. TC. KF.NKLU. PDNKU P. en vrac.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. incomplete (TC. 26). II. munkharim – imperfect.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO.

khazz SO NKX] ]. kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. IV. 527). sifr 13. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). II. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF.

al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. I. TP. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. EA. AG. xiii-xiv. kharm and ¨azm. epitome (EI. 107). 46). 27. GL. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. comp. 107. NKL] QDK. 55-56. 159-160. VII. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. abbreviation (contraction. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. II. 14-15. abridgement. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. 23-24) 3. 119). 536-540. maktabah. siglum. comp. . AD. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. – silk. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. suspension. 25-26). library. AG.

34-38) 2. stroke. handwriting. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. mark. calligraphy. penmanship (ML.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. sign. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . script. khuà Ã) 1. writing.

EI. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts.. 83. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. scriptio plena.g. yad. 144). 103). IV. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal).EQ 0XTODK 6$ . 681). al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). comp. copied by (e. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK.8  51  $6 . script (text) see also Ñajam. al-DTO P DO-sittah. III. comp. I.. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. LM. also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . 887: ER. AS. 41. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. 358). scriptio defectiva. CI. 114. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  .

8  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .

mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. no. makhà à W. makh¨ ¨ (pl. penman. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. I.1. 80). comp. 380). paleography (KJ. 26). calligraphy (WR. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher.

110. manuscript codex. drawing (MB.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. I. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. I. writing. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). takh¨ ¨ 1. 760. 60. 555. 61) 2. 760). MB. reed pen. 118. ruling (of lines). 12). . implement (made of wood. index. 103. mikha¨¨ 1. calamus (AA. tracer (ME. LL. 98. 110) 2. straightedge (LL. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. IA. tracing. UA.

khi¨ E (pl. akhÃibah) 1. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. IV. sifr 13.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. honorific (e.1). address.g. note. speech 2. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. letter.

pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. RIWen unpointed) (GL. abridgement. 105. extract. 59. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. 145). 53. trimming (TS. n. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. NKDI I (lit. IA. epitome. comp. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e.g. 18. TP. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. preface (LC. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. 44: ornament). NKLO I SO NKLO I W. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. MB. AG. abbrev. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). IB. mukhtaÁar.20). 14). 25.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. 156. 123). 109). althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. X.

XII. TP. 273. varia lectio (e. 95. XI. LNKWLO I – variant reading. MH. XVII. 46. MU.g. 58). 52. . ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. 126. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1.

 SO WDNK P V.

95. 50. – pentastich amplification of a poem. 405. I. EI. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. 401). al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.).v. 123-125). X. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. AD. 97). LNKWL\ U. pentameter (SD.

index. AG. 12. endbanding without silk (TS. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. MB. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. thick needle (ST. 109). i. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. 19. 107-108). al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). I. 12. 94-95).e. index.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . IR. IB. – anthology (EA. 12). index. 43.

 .

VI. 250). G E M SO GDE E M.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA.

XIV. – silk brocade (MU. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M.

preface. exordium. G E MDK 1. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY.

65. 52. reflection. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. WDGE M 1. GLE JK DK. 115). ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. /& ) 2. creating headpieces (AD. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. TW. PA. headpiece. frontispiece (MD.v). adorning something with arabesques. 259) 2. 127. tadabbur – consideration. composition (of a text) (DM).

63. 114-115. – tanning (MB.3-4. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. I. 60). 172). MP. fasc. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. EI. IA. 140-143.. suppl.

8.  IR. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q.

dirj :6 . darj. al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr.

SO GXU M DGU M.

141. IK. I. 138. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. 68. SA. 868: also daraj. rotulus (IK. I. parchment or paper (AJ. 138: al- .  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. roll. LL.

46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .$  Q.

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

AG. punch (IA. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. 142) 3. darmak – farina. 107). WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. 60). 287). I. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. dast(ah) SO GXV W. dirafsh – awl. 13. 432). inset (SD.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

39. comp. AB. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. IA. 92. 59. IV. 96. GXVW U SO GDV W U. 524) 2. rizmah. I. 92. burnisher (UK. wide polisher. MA. SD. 156. MB. 94. WS. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). 145. IB. 105. kaff 3. 81. 44). PT.

) .  .  KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN.  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP ..

 DXWKRU’s original. I. holograph (LC. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 23) 3.

II. book consisting of loose leaves (KF. unbound book. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). dasht – loose leaves. . HB. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad.

GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. formula of benediction. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. 54. 150-156). pious invocation. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu.  . etc. daffah SO GLIDI GDII W.g. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). II. AA. 617-618) 2.. adÑiyah) 1. (see e.+ 35). ‘prayer of request’ (EI. hence mudgham – contracted. assimilated (KU.. TP. supplication.

al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. index. index. book cover. also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. 104) 3. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. al-daffah al. 13).Oá (ST. 13). pasteboard (ST. 13. ST. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim).  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. index. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover.

SO GDI WLU.

KK. see LS) 2.g. . account book. 14 leaves. 60) 2. 29. 108. 192). rubbing. 63. bound or unbound codex . 481). 40 x 14 cm. I. 22-25. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). taftar (SK.. 321. IA. pounding (MP. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ).18) 3. Daftar kutub. 48. II. register (EI. 77-81.. n. volume (IK. fine writing (TM. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. pen wiper (SA. 4. daqq 1. . II. QRV  096) 3. SL. notebook (e.

damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. KM. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. 110. sifr 4. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. 11. 118. OH. I. KR. GDON WDGO N – polishing. 107). index. NH. burnishing. 23. MB. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. waraq damghah see waraq. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. 87). AG. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. 48-50. 139). midlak – polisher.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM).163. 461). FJ. SD. 85. HT. 217. lin. glazing (ST. 13. I.

Tabriz. oil. ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . 905-906). – fat. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. ' U DO-. midhan.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. Isfahan. Herat. grease.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. mudhun – container for oil (IR. . ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. 927). ' U DO-¶.E GDK – Yazd. I. 230: LL.

circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.  73 . 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1.

medallion.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. roundel. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. ta¨U I. I. 156. even (as opposed to oblique. TS. 59) 5. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass).g. MB. 56. JA. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. WDGZ U 1. straight.e. 105. disc (UK. e. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. (5) 4. UD. 30. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. i.

22. LM. RN. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. 10. 61) 3. 35). 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 9.g. hence PXVWDG U – round. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. curvilinear (e. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. LM. rounding (of the spine) (IA. 39-40) 2.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

II. I. UHJLVWHU account book. 323. 90) 2. chancellery (KM. office. 323). IV. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. WDGZ Q 1. writing down (of ¨DG WK. sifr 13. EI. collecting (collection). II. I. SA. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. 129. EI. collection of poems written by one author (DM).

 . (.  73 .

15. UI. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. 28. transcription (LC. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . TE. copying.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

IV. 1125-6). IURP which it is derived (EI. GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ.

 LQNZHOO . KU. .. 370) 2. escritoire. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. BA. III. -85. 169-170.

wiper and sand) (SA. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. aide-mémoire (EI. descender (of a letter) (AA. 54. 53).v.3-4. 53) 2. ND.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. 372) 2. memorandum. tadhkirah 1. 203-204. 73). dhabr. II. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK.132-133. 713. fasc. GDZZ µ. AT. 440-443. suppl. MB. 65. UK. 77. III. II. VII. 137-139).50 GLOSSARY ruler. ER. EI. X. DG. midhbar see mizbar.

53). dhanab SO DGKQ E. X. +%  (.

LC. 25. UD. paint (MU. 21). al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. 130-132. UK. MB. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. I. ¨arf (SA. I. 477. 59). (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- .’). 89-91. index. 13).V. etc. 24. LL. SA. III. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. WDGKQ E – appendix. 226. dhahab. 983: ‘water-gold. 151). II. – tail (foot) of a letter. supplement (AD.

145). gilding. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. writing with liquid gold. KA. IX. WDGKK E 1. TE. 27. 222. chrysography (LC.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. AS. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. 15.

 SO WDGK K E.

27. dhayl SO GKX\ O. MU. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. chrysographer (AB. LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. PA. 15). 385). 141). XV. TE. JLOW REMHFW 6' . 132. mudhahhib – gilder. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. 490).

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

23). dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. 206). dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. ruÐ V. lower margin. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC.

page or book. frontispiece (LC. e. 26). 62) 4. 26). SA. raµs al-waraqah. beginning of something. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. character. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. 107. IA. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. raµs al-NLW E). 26) 2. envelope flap (MB. 24. TM. 136. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. upper margin (TS. as opposed to the spine (MB. 172). 14.  KHDG RI D letter. 109). LC. 108. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . fore-edge of the codex.g. III. i. raµs al-¦afŒah. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1.e. IA. 61) 3. (qalam) al-riµ V .g. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. e. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. 109.

52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d.5 -242. 12. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. vox reclamans (NZ. script akin to a large naskh. AQ. U EL¨ah – catchword. RN. 213. 236. 126. 37. FZ. JM.202/817-8) (FN. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 84. 100). 144. 83-84. 215). MO. WDUZ V 1. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. TU. 226. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. AS. 30. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . (qa¨¶ or T OLE. 13) 2. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh).. KH.. 35. HI. 65). 100. 33. 146.

UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. DO-rub¶. 5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I.

89. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. abbrev.NKLU (al-PXE UDN. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). 5DE ¶ al. / / (OS. CM. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q .

rabaÑ W. – the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl.

 .  VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

51. MS.  6' .  &$ .21. nos. 48. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ.

…spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á .128). 109). AG. WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. stalk (?) (TS. lin. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. 11.

50. composition (MU. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . arrangement (of the text). I.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam.170) 2. AM. no.

IV. compact writing. SS. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. n. 384. sifr 13. mubawwib. II. ratm – close. murattib – author. 72). compiler (DF.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. comp. 53.20). copying (KM.

abbrev.  26 . Rajab (al-murajjab. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. al-aÁabb. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm.

 . DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi).1 . 376).   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . VIII. XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. raj¶ (pl. didactic poem (EI. often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0.

U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. polychrome illumination (TE. 17) 2. 28. 252). UXM ¶ – reference. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. writing in bold characters (TE. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. source (in a text) (IN. muÑallaqah. FRPS SD. III. I. 109). retouchage (of a letter). WDUM ¶ 1. retouching. comp. KM. IV. AG. I. sifr 13. 17. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). 99. MJ. 513: ‘barrage.

. 62).  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. epilogue (AD.

31: MD. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. index. RI. ST. n. 13).13.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 137. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. index. index.185). 13). raŒl(ah) – book cradle. book support (MD.% 81. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶.

abbrev. numrah) (TP. comp. 584. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. 1055. 54. nos. 1062. 1035. 294. 3099. 1038. UXNK P DK. 2152.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 419. 3185). tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. VA. 1223.

OM). 14. XXIB). 107. TP. ST. 59. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. pl. TS. 11. 10. marble slab (MB. raddah – envelope flap (TM. 103. . AG. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). . IA.

92. AJ. AB. 39. consisting of five quires. WS. ream (of paper). . dast (q. 145.) (PT.v.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . rizam) 1.

also ruzmah – booklet (SD. letter. FRmp. treatise. 524: ‘cahier’). VIII. monograph (EI. LUV O DK. tract. dast 2. I. ULV ODK 1. epistle 2. 532).

72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ ... 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH. LM.

 tarassul – art of letter writing. designing. making a mark (ST. rasm al-muÁ¨af. MB. EI. 451-. marking. sketching (ME. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. execution. drawing. 45) 3. epistolography (DM). e. index. PA. copying. 100. 14) 2.VIII. writing. 561. rasm 1.g. 101. 100.

 SO UXV P.

unpointed letter or word ( NO. I. chapter (in a composition) (SD. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. 527) 7. – stroke. 527). line (traced with a pen) (SD. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. faÁl. 560. I. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. 15) 6. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. I. 527) 5. 528). I. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. bi-rasm see mustanad. painter (ME. SD. comp. designer.

14). decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. 14) 2. 137). 164) 3. wood block (AB. 370). index. index. – woodcut. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. III. marking (syn. UDVKVK VK – reed pen.129. rasm) (ST. lin. calamus (BA. . tooling (HT.

rizmah. 532). ream (of paper) (SD. comp.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. marshim. mark (TS. I. 18) 2. marsham SO PDU VKLP.

125) 2. hot iron (SD. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. 532).  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. 135). tar¦ ¶ 1. I. decoration (MS. illumination.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

gilding the inside of the surround (outline). . 103. ta¨U U TY. TE.3 145. covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. decoration (with liquid gold). 126). 17) 3.

$) .

III. SA. writing. 35) 2. KH. joining letters together (AP. ra¦f. 140. composition (NS. 79. tar¦ I 1. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q.

used for the companions of the Prophet. tar„iyah. 89.    73 54. AR. abbrev. 125). 34. II. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. KH. SL. MI. 15. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. 35. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK.

 FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah. DQW RI \ ELV.

AS. 24). . – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. 15. 19. istir¶ µ \DK – note. 14. 16. statement (LC. 144).

11. 111-112). mirfa¶ 1. 230. n. riqq SO UXT T. book support. ND.133. lin. support (for an inkwell) (AA. book cradle (IN.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. 137). 44. KK. 70) 2. I. raqq. 231.

UDTT ¦ – catchword. 105. LL. IV. sifr 13. AA. AE. vocalization by means of points. n. embellished writing. making something multicoloured (LL. AK. I. 119. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). KK. 105. 269). arabesque decoration (KA. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. paper or other writing surface (MU. IW. 407). 53.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . I. UDTT JKD] O see jild. 353). 407-410. KJ. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. SK. 230). UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. 93. parchment leaf (ND.. elegant. I. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. diacritical point (JA. IK. 108-111.1. 1135) 3. 683. KM. EI. EP) 2. 17. copying (TE. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . parchmenter (DG. 17. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. 53. 85). 74-75. diacritical pointing (TE. 60-63. 1135) 4. al-raqq al-a¨mar. calamus (IR. WS. KR. raqshah – pointing. piece (slip) of leather. VIII. no.67). I. vox reclamans (NM. VIII. mirqash – reed pen. -485.

note. brief message.  OHWWer. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY.

1126). DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. . IV.

VII. 1123. LM. often sewn in). 78-82.) script (AS. EI. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. passim. sifr 13. IV. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. MN. inset (MK. IV. 602-603). 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. writing (KM. 1125. 139. raqm 1.v. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. 146.in Persia. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. 86). JM.in Turkey). patchwork.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

NI. – piece of calligraphy. calligraph (AC. 266) 4. 41. DP. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. 54. AW. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV.

..  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ.

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

372. sifr 13. AM. IR. fasc. no. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. no. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. 468-9: AN. 106). 183. 230. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. 82. – abbreviation. siglum (CL. 5. 147. 183). 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. KJ. 160). 30). AW. GA. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. 17. GA. 2. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. 387-388. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. 17. 141. arqam. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. copyist (AC. raqn – compact writing (KM. 1140). WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. 383. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. IV. calamus (TE. IV. IK. TE. III. III. SK. BA.3. 45. UDT P – inkwell (KM. 244. sifr 13. LL. mirqam – reed pen.76). 154). I.

 .

writing) (KM. IV. embellishing ( a text. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. sifr 13.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. WDUN E 1.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). on the line) (MY. UA. 60ff). markaz SO PDU NL]. murakkab 1. 83). 109. hybrid (of a script) (LM. I. 389. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). 393). linking (joining) one letter with another. 58. IV. HT. 24-27. ¨ibr 2. MP. (Turk. comp. lin. 45). ligatured. 14. 681) 2. ligature (e. 78) 3. III. ST. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . 50. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. boarding (TS. e. mürekkeb) – ink (DD.g.g.73. SA. comp. index. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. ¨ibr. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. AG.

UXN ¶ . – support (for reed pens) (UA. 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q.

VIII. rukn SO DUN Q. DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. EI. juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. 36. 406).

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

5 . .

index. IB. rakwah (pl. AG. corner piece itself (ST. . 31. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM).  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. 107) 3. II. 30. 703). 69). ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. 14.

murammim – restorer.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada).60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .0 . restoration (DM). ramz SO UXP ].

TW. chronogram. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. 55. 468. WB. 427) 4. chronosticon (EI. VIII.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. III. VIII. 159) 3. code. cypher. secret alphabet (EI. 428) 2.

V.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. 209. . KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC.

abbrev. Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 .

I. 127136). I. al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. 393). WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. II.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦).  '' . . TD. 86. 478- $7  6' . UA.

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

1186. I. UXZ K. LL. – little stick for the application of kohl. 393. DM). UA.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. syn. mik¨ O '' .

53. 109-111). variant reading. VIII. – transmitter.) (TP. 26. 53). EI. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. varia lectio (MR.v. transmission. recension (recensio) (LC. 417418 and 500-501) 3. II. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. link in the chain of transmission (TP. 545-547) 2. ULZ \DK 1. also known as sanad (q. XII. version (versio). ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. 94). KF. tradition (traditio).

JM. 73-77.EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. 1125. 146. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  .v. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. IV. 1123. LM. 38. 545-547). 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah).in Turkey). of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. VIII. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. MB. MP.in Persia. 144. 43: wa-T OD .) script (AS. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q.

¨ibr.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. also dhabr – writing.v. I. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. CI. IV. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. q. sifr 13. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. transcription (TE. inscription on stone (KM. 18. copying.). ]DEU WD]E U 1.

80. 92). 444. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. copyist (TE. ND. ND. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. zubur) – composition. zab U (pl. 80. II. IK. work (SA. 18. KK.

copying (KK. 18). ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1.18. 230). 18) 2. elegant. TE. TE. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. 85. polychrome illumination (TE. embellished writing. SA. IK. copying (KK. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. elegant. IR. 444-465. II. calamus (TE. zakhrafah 1. 53. embellished writing.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

87). 80). decorator (WR. muzakhrif – illuminator.  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK.

110. KT. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. . comp. Ñurwah. 25. AG. 135). 34.

35. ST. 109).GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. zalf (MN. 1222). zulf (Pers. 19: in 12). index. 69. ‘hair lock’. ]LP P DK. 360) 1. IV. ]XO \MDK. V. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . 25. fastener (TS.. zulayjah (]DO MDK. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. 682. I. ‘curl’). lit. MN. ER. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). AG. see DC.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). decoration in gold and colours (LL. 689)./Turk.

601). 95) 2. GA. register (IK. NA.9. 181). 383-385. catalogue (SD. 127. azimmah) 1. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. 222: al-WDUP N . (pl. pt. I. list. (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. account book.

478). 101. 315. II. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. comp. . KF. 145. II. vermillion ink (SA. MB. 320). zinjafr – cinnabar.

44. hence muzahhar. 38. floriated (KJ. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq).1.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. KR. zawj SO D]Z M. WD]K U – floral decoration. no. 91). box (DG.

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

18) 2.120b. AD. copying (TE. 376). X. X. 408-409. WD]Z U 1. muzawwir – forger (EI. 391). 73). GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. forgery. 409). 73. VII. conjugate leaf (AG. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. TK. EI. X. 825 and VIII. falsification (UI. 6. 107). 90-100). ER. 283. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. 107) 2. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. AG. embellished writing. f. I. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. GA.

 HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ . ..

12). 11) 3. miniature painting (WA. multi-colour illumination (HT.102.  decoration. 4). . decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA.4. writing. 105). MS. ]DZZ T – illuminator. 560. 560) 4. n. lin. WA. miniature painter (ME. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. ]LZ TDK – art of illumination.

111. 9). 73). addition (CM. abbrev. IA. 52. MI. index. 62). 59. 136). 9). square (an implement) (MB. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. ]L\ GDK 1. 98) 3. MH. superfluous. angle 2. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. 127) 2. post-scriptum (AD.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. dittography (TM. interpolation. index. 184) 2. interpolation. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . corner. addition (TP. 60.

embellished writing (SK. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . FRPS TDUU Á. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. elegant.

 HPEHOOLVKPHQW GHFRUDWLRQ '0.

suµ O (pl. xiv. jaw E (CI. 128) 2. abbrev. II. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. comp. preamble to a fatwá. . asÐilah) 1. MI. quodlibet.

461. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. 53. n. VA.20. nos. 1853.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. 696. 3214) 2. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. used after the word All K 73 .

parchment) (IB. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. IB. 13. 637). I. piece (of poetry. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). 11-12).185). al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. lapsus calami (DM). etc. siŒ µah – piece.) (SD. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. n. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). index. 81. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY.

plug (in the inkwell) (IK. WDVG G – copying. 83). VLG G (pl. . 17). asiddah) – stopper. transcription (TE.

reading. hence V ULG – reader. recital. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. n. awling. 122) 2. 1347). al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla).52). center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. LL. misrad – awl.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. punch (SK. 40. I. Áurrah. 122. KM. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. sifr 4. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. comp. punching (SK. 1347). 56. I. 39. 115. prelector (TP. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). I.) 1. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E.

MD. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. 27. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ .  frontispiece. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. 36). 127.. KR. AF. also known as lawzah (JL.. 82). 95. horizontal stroke (UD. munsa¨iŒ – flat. . 97.

sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U. asÃur.

line of writing. . – line (KD. II. 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð).

MB. index. 155. 13. copying (TE. MB. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. redaction.%  Q LC. lineation. IA. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). 104-105). I. number of lines per page (TK. 91. straightedge (UK. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. 18. 17. designing (UK. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. 48) 5. WA.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. 78. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. 104. IB. stencil (AF. 104. ruling (of folios). 155. 247) 4. 59). pasteboard (HT. LC. 174) 3. TM. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. composition (AD. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 28) 5. 73. WR. lineation (LC. MB. 50. 105. WS. IA. 86. III. V ¨ir. 77). musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. IN. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. folder (UK. ruling board (ST. 28. TS. 43). 155). SDVVLP 6$ . 103. lin. TA. IA. KA. writing. 12. 155. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". ruler. (grid of) guidelines. 28. ruling.. number of lines per page (LC. TS. 155. 17). lining. ff. 25) 3. 59). 87). used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. 155). 134) 4. tas¨ U 1. 15.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. creating a line (of writing) (SA.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. 113) 6. 59). 104- 7.

DM: snuff box). . 1364. .5  // .

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

 SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. book. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. codex. MS. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK.

 FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.

9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 . V ILU (pl.

g. WDVI U 1. index . bookbinding (e. ST.

 SO WDV I U.

PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. AG. AD. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 158. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). passim). 97. IV. 110). 78). end of a letter or book 2. 31. oblong format (of a book) (MD. . 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. 11. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. index. – book cover (MB. 15. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. MB. TF. EI. 150). HT. I. lower margin. AG. VDI QDK 1. VIII. 742) 2. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). tail (of the page). 660. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. lin. 109) 2. spine (of a book) (UK.115.

58. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. haplography (TP. 238) 1. KR. XII.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. also LVT ¨ – omission. 88). 97. saqa¨ (MU. see above) (JL. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 95. 97). MH. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 95. 87) 2.

VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. lin. jazmah 2.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. 148. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. 133. circle-like tool (HT. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. VXN Q 1. comp. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. 80). 137). 230). AT.133. 60). II. WS. 482. 107. IR. comp. ÑLO M PLVT K. 118. IA.

II. 31-33). SA. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. AA. silsilah SO VDO VLO. 90-91.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. pen knife (IK. SK. LM. 711. 103-104. VI. 248). VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. – knife. II. 115- . 465-466. KD.$  8.

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

611). IX. stemma codicum (AL. 27). (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . I. silsilat al-nasab – stemma.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI.

WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. KK. EI. 15. VDO P. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK.GLOSSARY 71 146. 107). AG. JM. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. IV. 5863. 1124).

VA. I. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. mas P U. MI. no. CI. 128). 2211.1830. 54. PLVP U (pl. xiii.

TM. 372. – nail. III. peg (part of a clasp) (BA.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

g.. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. TP.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. EI. 485493). TP. auditor. 267. VIII.. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. MU. 69. 1019-1020). XVII. abbrev.25. 278. II. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . MU. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. LC. 53. n.. KF. (CW. X. 27. 53. certificate). .

audition note. certificate (JA. 45) 2. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. I.

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. audition leader (master). certifier (CT. 45). authoritative commentator.

PDTU Ð. ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ. comp.

proper name (EI. 1. . title of a book (ism al-NLW E). IV. 179-181) 2.

28) 2. n. TP. tasmiyah 1. title (of a work) (LC. 28. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC.v. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 100). ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. sinn SO DVQ Q. 53.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name.20) 3. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q.) (MH.

– half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit. shaqq ) (UK.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6.

9  LQV – left side.. .  (. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // . 6$ ..  . .

153. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. IA. MB. hone (UK. misann ÃXOD\O ". 103. 60: misann akh ar.

TS. NH..  $7 133.5  6$ . . 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . AG. 10. 107.

q.v. misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. 395).). musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM). musannanah – chevron (FT. sanad SO DVQ G.

 DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. 53. musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. 56).

6/ .   (. 9... .

sifr 13. 365. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. FN. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. 47). IV. 692). 2. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. 8. 704-705). RN. I. EI. FRPS muÁannaf. TW. 14. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . VII. 5. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT.

sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. CM. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. II. VI. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). OS. 264-265. 88. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. 232).

al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK.D.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA. comp. VI.). Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A. 252).

I. 388). SK. VDZ G 1. black ink (LC. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. 27. 384. 320. – Muslim era (DD. AI.

XIII. 161. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 .9 . MU.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. MU. MU. XV. 126. 27. VI. rough copy (LC.

AM. 237).IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. nos. copying by an apprentice (TE. copying (TE. 18). also LVZLG G (!) – writing. 97. 18. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . WDVZ G 1. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. preparation of a draft (TE. musawwid – copyist. marring (of a text). vox reclamans (NZ. 18) 2. calligrapher (AW. 50A) 3. making it difficult to read (MH. 45. FRPS PXED\\D ah. 98) 4.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

– woodworm. .

II. (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. 463. musawwas – worm-eaten. 105. 702). ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. 50. damage caused by worms (LC. 17-18). trimming the textblock (TS. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. comp. SA. KK. 28).74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. II. KD.

183). RA. was known as qirmah (GA. 1125. IV. 1124. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. 178-180.in Turkey. sayr SO VX\ U. DR. used in Ottoman Egypt. A variety of this script.in Persia. 24-24).

 VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .$ .

 endband (headband) strip (ST. MB. index. lin. HT. 114. 16. sayf SO VX\ I.96).

– trimming sword. cutter (UK. 103. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. 154. IA. MB. 104.

nos. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. 19. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. 20) 2. WDVKE N 1.88-106. endband (headband) (HT. WDVK E N. DH. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. 73). 407. (pl. lin. 115. **** VKDE NDK 1. 33.

passim). . – interlace (TF.

406). Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV.GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT.

.' .  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ . shajjah SO VKLM M. .  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). comp... jilfah.

86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. 14. I. also mushajjar – foliated design. mishŒadh – whetstone. I. shaŒdh – whetting. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). 86. WDVKG G DK. shajarah – genealogical tree. tree-like way. 9. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). stemma (AL. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . EI. shaŒm(ah) – pith. 87. DH. hone (DD. 711). 35-35). UD. composing a text in a schematic. II. 390). VII. WDVKM U 1. no. LM. stemma (SL. creating a genealogical tree. 967) 3. I. honing (of a knife) (KD. arabesque decoration (WR. shaddah. white interior substance of the reed (IK.73) 2. 27).

– doubling (of a consonant). doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. 14). shidq SO DVKG T.

book cover. . case binding (TS.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). 27.

fore-edge flap (?) (NH. 109). sharaj SO DVKU M. 369). comp. fakk 2.76 GLOSSARY AG.

sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.) (BA.v. III. sharŒ (pl. – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. 372).

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

 [Lv). frame (on a book cover) (FJ. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ.0 . xiv. 106-107. cutter (IA. 139. abbrev. 29) 4. I. OM). 5051). 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. EI. rule-border (LC. 397-320. NH. 158. MB. II. MM. VLU V and V U V (DM).  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. al-VKDU I DK. FZ. 27) 2. IB. 27. 100. 109) 3. I. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. rules.. comprising the text commented upon (matn). al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. DD. decorative band (UI. IX. long commentary. IA. fillet (in decoration) (FT. 401). 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . (LC. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. EA. paste (MB. mishra¨(ah) – knife. abbrev. 385. CI. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). 217. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. shuraÃ) – line. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). 60. comment-text book. MD. &. ashriÃah) 1. 60. 392: for opening sealed documents. stroke (DM). . DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. 174-175). shars – pasting. also VKLU V. shar¨(ah) (pl. MI.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

ligatured Maghrebi script. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . 322).v. 365. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. 47. 250). VI. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA.). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. nuskhah and the like.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. TW. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af.

)'  .

113) 2. FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. 756). 11. whisk (?). mish¨ab – 1. AG. eraser (TS. sha„ \DK (pl. comp. I. cancellation (LC. 390). polisher (NH. burnisher. shaqq. 251). 28: IN. duster.  arb. shaÌ \ . I.

88. 13) 2. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  .8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. KH. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. à Ð \ Ð. III. 35. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. serif-like stroke (LM. also tash„ \DK – line. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . AA.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA.

 FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. al-mukarram.

 26 . – the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

 .

78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. shi¶r (pl. ashÑ U.

versification. II. – poetry. CI. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. 82. CI. nos. 81. 116). no. scribal verse (see e. I.g. 12.

11. 224). III. 104. outline (KF. MJ. 144. III. II. 45. tash¶ U 1. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . 91-93. shaving (HT. 112. AI.83. bookbinder’s sword. 161). paring knife. 16.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. 59) 3. shaqq SO VKXT T. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. shafrah 1. lin. 161) 2. IP. UK. 250). 59. trimmer (HT. index.104. cutting edge (SK. LM. NA. illumination in gold. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. WDVKI U – trimming. 153. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). 109). MB. lin. al-musha¶¶ar. outlining. 50) 3. 103.159). SA. 9. VI. 127. pt. AG. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. 58). parer. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. scraper (ST. JM. IA. AF. 145.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

8' -12: SK. 117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK.

SA.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. 97. 460-462). splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. 59. IM. MH. . 171) 3. slit (of the nib). II. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh.

- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). punch (UA.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. 1124. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. 1124. 62) 2. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. IV. ER. ER. IV. preliminary endbanding (IA.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. awl. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. . IV. sewing endbands (headbands). 699-702). WDVKN ] – 1. 393).1. IV. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. 43. 694). no.

vowel marks. 125. III. shaqq. diagram. III. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. vowelization. 150). KH. hence mushakkal – vocalized. 59. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. 81). SA.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. IM. GL. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. III. vowelized (for various practices see SA. comp. 36).g. 160-167. 12) 2. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q.

.+  8'   .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .  FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK.

110. 116). 118. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. MB. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. 63). PA. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. AF. IA. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. 27. passim.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. 51). 135). rosette (LC.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

g. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

IX. 340-. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. 53.20. n. EI. 201 and X. – copy of a letter. document (DM).

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

 XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. 90). Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . Mashhad (al-)´usayn.

DUEDO Ð). shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU. al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas. al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. – .HUEHOD .

v. month (LL. II. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. shuhrah. 1612). – new moon.).

 . .. EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &.

 .

al-PXE UDN.GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram.

– the tenth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

8. RN. fihrist. 118). VK U ]DK (Pers. 725). 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah).5. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI.v. pt. 117. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN.) – endband (headband) (LA. comp. 19-20. PA. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. 250). i¦E ¶ (pl.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. KH. VI. . VI. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. mashyakhah (pl.). fahrasah.

95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. writing word in the text (GA. 285. abbrev. mara  and saqam). MP. dye. ¦LE JK – pigment. MH. I. NW. AR. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. attestation (of correctness in transcription). IA. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. sic. 473. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. tinting. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). NH. QS. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). VIII. LE. tint (UK. thus (JA. 136.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. 73  . emendation 2. 120-129. CT. 35. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. 114-118. 29-32. (KG. abbrev. 267-268). 370: Áabgh al-waraq. 63. II. MB. 45). 671-672. correction.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

53. n. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. signing (a document) 4. comp. editor.25). aÁ¨ E. ¦ Œib (pl. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. preparation of a critical edition.

 DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). owner (OS). abbrev. possession (OS). 0. isti¦Œ E – ownership. .

maÁ ¨if) 1.. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. leaf (TC. notebook (SL. sheet of writing material.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. IV. BA. I. Áu¨uf. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. 9. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. I. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . II.. page (DM) 4. folio (folium).  parchment. IK. 22) 3.. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. III. 22. papyrus or paper (KD. 24). sifr 13. ma¦Œaf. mi¦Œaf (pl. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). -835) 2. mu¦Œaf. small pamphlet. . often leather.

17. II.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2.4). 25. KF. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. 16). sometimes two. AG. 16). 25. VII. 17. 146. 107) 3. n. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. 107. AG.GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. MS. JM. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. 107. 17. 316. 54-57). MS. AG. volumes) (EI. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. parchment textblock (TS. 668-669.

distortion. error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e.  .g. ta¦Œ I 1.  .

04  6$ .  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK..

syn. ta¨U I TY. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing).

5. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. bookbinding (LA. pt. (. -348) 3. .U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I.

IB. 11. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. II. ÁXG U. ¦aŒŒ I 1. II. 118) 2. 9. HD. 269-270). bookseller (QS. ¦adr (pl. 13.

also ta¦G U – incipit. ¦DG UDK 1. preamble. preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

IB. 15) 5. 27) 4. 107) 6. MB.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. 59). ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. IA. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . II. 105. as opposed to inner side. AG. 156. 44. fore-edge flap (TS. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. wajh (SA. 218). 16. 464. MJ. fore-edge (TS.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

 FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. 99. surrah. MD. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. 110). mandorla (FZ. ¦a¶d (pl. ¦urrah – center-medallion. ÁuÑ G. comp. 109. 83. JL.

34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. TU. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. 50.

II. 227. study (KF. ta¦affuŒ – examination. 58). II. 30. vox reclamans (TT. 107). KD. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. ta¦I Œ – catchword. ¦DI Œah (pl. AG. 11. siglum) (TP. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. FN. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. verso of the first folio (LC. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. 27). 371. 192).

iafar (al-khayr. al-PXE UDN. al-muÌaffar. al-Ìafar. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨).

– the second ¦ifr (pl. aÁI U.

month of the Muslim calendar. 59). . (OS. 89). – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. TP.171. abbrev.

GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl. maÁ ILQ.

KA. ¦aql – polishing. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. strainer. 393: for ink). maÁ TLO. burnishing (MB. – filter. sieve (UA. passim. 134).

  DS. I. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 99. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). 44. 156. 149. aÁO E. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. – polisher. aÁlub. IB. 105. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. MB. ¦ulb (pl. 142.. DD. IA. 149. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ .

1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . 62) 3. no. comp. MB. matn. 166. ta¦O E 1. 111. 62). 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. . 27). main. text-column (LL. IA. II. i¦O Œ 1. 1712. 27) 2. LC. correction (FK. making pasteboards (MB. 59). II. original text (LC. bookbinding (IA.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. 119). lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA.

&   7: .  UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .

mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. 191. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. 55-56. II. i¦¨LO Œ. CI. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. siglum) (TP. no. MM. suspension.

 .

used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. abbrev. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK.      73  Q 73  &. -359). [LLL (. . . also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’.86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah.

 al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. ta¦P P – design.v. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. ÁDQ G T. sketching (MO. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 83).). ¦LP P – plug.

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

Ñamal. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦un¶. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). taÁ Q I. ta¦Q I (pl. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl.

98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. III. work (MU. – composition.

compiler. mu¦annif – author. 39. VII. 662663. 705). as opposed to musnad (q. EI. work. often the author of the original text PDWQ.v.) (SL. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. II.

craft (EI. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). art. (CI. 625-626). abbrev. I. duction by artisans. IX. xi). E\ $E +LO O.

 .

mu¦awwir – painter. XV. painted illustration (EI. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. DH.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. IX. comp. copy. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. 889892 and X. ta¦Z E (pl. 361-363) 2. EI. X. miniature painting (MU. MU. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. 121. I. pt. 268) 4. transcript (e. 56) 3. aÁwinah) – case.141: ‘portraitiste’). ¦ UDK (pl. box (NT. 559). correctness. ta¦Z U 1. apograph (TP. 143. 225. exact copy. taÁZ E t) – correction. **** LI Ì. 57). used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. illustrator (PA. 136. comp.212).g. Áuwar) 1. ¨ ¦awn. XVI. 361. ME. taÁ¨ ¨. no. microfilming. „abbah (pl. ¦LZ Q (pl.2. example (JA. TP.  LE E. preservation (DM).

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

ta„E E. marking the word with a  abbah (TP. MH. sic. a  E U. 57. 95-96).64. thus (TP. DEEUHY 73  AR. also known as WDPU „. i„barah (pl. 30) 2. 57. n. MH. 95-96).

a„barah. bundle of documents (IK. KM. „LE UDK 1. a number of leaves or sheets put together. sifr 13.. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. IV. quire . 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd.

18. 11) 2. „ EL¨ 1. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. orthographer (MH. (pl. 19. 17. 29. album (FT.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). IB.. n. ST. 388).) . AG. 26. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . 12. AG. 13. 18. 112) 4. AG. (pair of) dividers (TS. textblock (TS.) . 16. f.177).  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O .120a-b). 107. binding (IB. index. II. 107) 3. 44. 5) 3.16. 97) 2.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. ta„E U 1. TK. collation (of quires) (TS. specialist in  abÃ. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB.  XU E.  DZ ELÃ) – compass.

62). KF. erasure (MF. mallet (LF. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. II. stalk?) (TS. 109) 2. a U V  XU V. „irs (pl. 59). small tool (resembling a drum stick. mi„rabah 1. AG. 11. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. – cancellation.

a Ñ I. AG. 12.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. also TS. 109) 2. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. „i¶f (pl. AG. interlace (TS. 109-110). 32-33.

 ta„¶ I (pl. ta  Ñ I.

– space between lines.. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . XVII. 1792. MU. II.  /& . interline (LL.

 .

30. 107). (SA. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. 11.  DI Ðir) 1. 33.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. AG. 413) 2.406). braid (FT. passim). 32. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. 45). mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. 217). interlaced (FZ. ma„I U – plaited. 12. 44. 110). al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. polygon. Á G à Р. AG. ‘eye’ (of a letter).g. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. plait. III. 44). e. interlace (TF. „awµ (pl. „DI UDK (pl. a Z Ð) – counter.

76   $* .

seal. mi¨ba¶ 1. ÃDZ ELÑ ). signet. ¨ ED¶ (pl. stamp (IK.medallion) (HT.  ODUJH stamp (for a center.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). ¨ EL¶. . 96). comp. lin.

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

 PRXOG VKHHW of paper. roll (AJ. 144. . WS.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

comp. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

DB. 154. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah.5 . III. 2019) 4. (KU. 83. 979) 5. tirs. sarwah) (JL. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE.

ÃDEDT W ÃLE T. ¨abaqah (pl.

gloss. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. marginalia. Ãurar) 1. ¨LE T – large sheets.120a) 4. 28. 113. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). 372). marginal note. 1020. I. 21. AG. AG. TK. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. 102). ¨urrah (pl.7. 109) 2. border (on a book cover) (TS. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. AD. f. Taf. IA. VIII. audition note (EI. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). margin (LC. . 107. turn-in (TS. edge. 73  Q $. MZ. leaves (of paper) (NH. 60). abbrev. 110) 3.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

VI. SD. II. address (ÑXQZ Q. 29) 6. 313. ML. 46. SA. 58. margin (TP.

lin. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. illuminated headpiece (LC. 16). HT. palmette (LC.85). ansa. 28) 11. n. ta¨U U – glossing. 57. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. . RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. annotated (WA. comp. 58. 28. Ãughrá 7. 689). 28) 10. IV. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. f. mu¨arrar – glossed. 28) 13. 16). 28) 9. 36) 12.120a). f. KH. TP. 682.120a. X.67). 28) 8. tailpiece (LC. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. annotation (WA.

PA. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. ta¨U Œ – sketch. celui qui fait le tracé initial. 132. ÃXU ¨). MB.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. 118. composition’). 101. draftsman (AB. 69. 159: ‘dessin. HD. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. 103). ¨DUU Œ 1. PA. 141: ‘dessinateur. manuscript restorer. ÃXU V DÃU V. ¨irs (pl. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. 118. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. Ãar¨’) 2. outline (HD. sketcher. 133). 61.

VIII.  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. 75-76. IW. LL. 63-64. comp. 1840). 93. EI. IK. 408. II. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU .

79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . aÃU I. sifr 13. ¨araf (pl. IV. LF. 371). 140. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). 8. III. HJ µ. ta¨U V – obliteration.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. BA.

15. AG. . AG. 30. IA. 11. TH. 107. 107). ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. AG. 109). 38. mi¨raqah – mallet. 11. 31. hammer (TS. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. 166. 60). 87). 57.

à ¨ughrá. 109). sifr 13. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). erasure (KM. 595-598) 3. 28). 28) 4. IV.v. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. X. 134.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. X. 406). FT. 11. AG. headpiece (LC. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS.) 2. (MU. ¨XJKU µ (pl. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. inlay work (AB. ta¨¶ P – inlay.

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

SD. leaf (of paper) (TS. AJ. 83). ¨alaŒ – sheet. 483). 145. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. II. UK. 27. I. 52). ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. ÃDO ¨ \. WS. 147. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. ¨alŒ. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 92.

SD. II. roll (WS. 87: al-darj. – sheet (of paper from the mould). . 52). ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM).

Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. NH. comp. NH. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. ¨ilsam. 63.) (pl. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. sifr 13. 82.0 . ÃDO VLP.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. erasure (ND. ¨alsah. II. ¨ilsim (etc. 373: ¨als. ¨ilsim. thus differing from Ãirs’).GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . IV. syn. ta¨O V – obliteration. LL. Ãirs. 373: ¨ulsah).

magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). ascender (of a letter). 258). beginning of the text.v. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. tion of words (EI. naÌDUD ZDTDID. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. 11. incipit (WA. 56). WB.) (KH. 500-502). – talisman. X. ¨ OL¶ (pl. headpiece (TW. iÁE Ñ (q.

/&  26 .

al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. 144. al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. 29: ‘common. FRPS WDTU Ì. popular class of scripts’). SA. RN. MJ. III. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . naÌar. . 59. 224). III.

II. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. erasure (JA. ¨ams 1. 136). daubing. gilding (SD. I. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. ‘eyes’. KD. obliteration. 278. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. pasting (MB. gilt and the like (MB. ¨LO µ – coat of paste.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. 58. passim) 2. DG. of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. 110). coating. II.

AS. 6$ .. KH. 144). ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶.. IR. -47. 242. 36.

a¨Q E (sg. 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). Ãunub) – ascenders (TU.

IA. 17. 26) 2. 26). rectangular panel (AB. musta¨ O 1. 35. 31. ¨ TDK 1. / / / (CI. abbrev. 61). a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. rule-border (LC. 107. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. IA. Áilah. rules. MB. 111. 32. 120b) 2. comp. AG. AG. f. cartouche (LC. . unabridged work. strand (UK. MB. TK. mu¨awwal – original. 157. layer) of paper (TS. I. 135) 3. xviii). 109. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). 110). ¨DZ O – long. 62. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. sheet (piece.

  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U.GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .%  $-  ..

sifr 13.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. KM. IV.

147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. ÃDZ P U. 49-57). In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. It was written with a reed pen. 12). mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). 11. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. III.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

abbrev. . – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK.120a).  0. f. person.

g. misk) (e. MJ. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. 212). musta¨ E DK. 206.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

CM. II. 18). 3. CI.g. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e.

**** „arf (pl. AH. ÌXU I. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. WKDU KX – requiescat. 182). 98. inset (EM.

 UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ . ..

ME. 575). II.  FDVH ER[ /& 29. . LL. 1910.

aÌI U. „ufr (pl. 495). al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.).96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. al-„afar.v. II.

usually the thumbnail) (TM. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). outline (KJ. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. ta„O O (lit. no. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. ‘shading’) – outlining.3. 29).

 „ann (pl. ÌXQ Q.

64. „DKU \DK 1. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. GA. SL. 29. front of the textblock (LC. 59) 2. 29). verso. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). n. back of a document. 285). hair side (of parchment). blank reverse of a letter (LC. placed in the margin. comp. xv. 29). abbrev. – conjecture. (TP. 57. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. II. CI. baÃn. „ahr – back. I. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC.

AG. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. first page(s) of the textblock (KF. ME. evident’. 109). gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. obvious. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture. II. 88. 8 and II.Oá). 473: wajh al-waraqah al. .  IO\-leaf (SD. abbrev. comp. 11. ‘alleged.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . I. ‘external. „ KLU (lit.

 .

148-149. 40.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. aÑM ]. MP. ¶ajz. WS. ¶ajuz (pl. 147. AJ. 80-82). ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

P P DO-0DKG . TP. n.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU.14). 21-22. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. V. 52.

 DEEUHY MI. treatise. 146.  (. 26). . sifr 13. IV. vocalization (KM. ... 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . diacritical point 3. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). RA. III.

pointed letters (TP. SA. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. . 90. ¶ajm. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. 57). ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. i¶M P WD¶M P 1.

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

(pl. taÑ U M.

curvature (of the descender) (SA. ¶arsh (pl.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). 30). ÑXU VK. III. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. – curve.

230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U. al-sa¨r – base line (TW.

II. 29). 45). Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). 25. ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. I. ¶LU „(ah). III. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . ¶ar„(ah). 464. SA. 423) 2. abbrev. KU. 45). taÑ U T. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar.  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. LC. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK.9. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. 202). 218. JA. trellis (FT. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. lattice-work (AB. TP. reciter (CT. mu¶ UL„ – collator. 136). 56.. SA. MH.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih..

 mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. KH. III. 50. KU. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. 36. 40. 22. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. SA. 37. 11.

U T see mu¨aqqaq. ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. (al-kha¨¨) al-¶. . 11). FRPS PXÑaqqaf.

AG.. 25.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 110. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ . Ñuran) – thong. KT..  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. 34.

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

¶ashr (pl. DEEUHY / (CI. xiii). aÑVK U. I.

 ¶ VKLUDK (pl. ÑDZ VKLU.

  8.  6' . . ¶ VKLU \DK – mark..7  // . decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   ..

 al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. ta¶VK U 1.

11. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 109) 2. 109).7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). stamp with vegetal design (TS. 109). AG. 116: gha  UDK . ¶ushar 1. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. AG. 108. ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB.

II. 155. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. 154-155. 134). 154). maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. IB. . mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 42). SD. 84). IK. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. 154. mi¶¦arah (pl. also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK.

95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 .130) 2. signe de renvoi). lin. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. caret (MR. curved line (used as a reference mark.

ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. 35. 145. connection. AM. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. 37) 4. introd.). 36. 147.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. / / / (AR. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. MI. abbrev.

54). 00 132. MR. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. 93. TM. TP. 176.

LL. 2091). 83. II. index. margin (ST. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . 17. 19). ¶LI ¦ – plug. 16. ¨ibr) (MP. ¶af¦ – galls. ST.

vox reclamans (TN. aÑT E. ta¶T EDK 1. 27) 2. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . note. ¶aqib (pl. catchword. ¶aqb.+  10  SJ. comment (LC. 344).

AG. Ñuqad) 1. lower ¶uqdah (pl. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. . 11. 36) 2. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. 47. 46. 58. KH. 109). III. counter. knot-like tool (TS. – end of the text (matn) on a page.

37). comp. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. taÑU T ¶allahu.GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. la¶allahu (lit. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. ‘perhaps. 126).

 . WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0.

80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.Q DO-ÑLO M. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB. 90. WS.

transcript (AD. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . composition. 124). FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. ligature (KU. copying (TE. transcription. 15) 2. script. writing. copy. 119) 3.9 .

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

) . . .

abbrev. 107) (pl.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.  (MI. taÑ O T WDÑO T W.

scholium. II. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. LC. X. 1124. 165) 6. ER. 15. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. comment. 27. 162). 694-696) 2. IX. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. – marginal gloss.v. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. name often given. 26). the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI.). 71. EI. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. IV. explication (TE. MU. IV. in the Turkish/Arabic context.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. III.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. AG. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. 77). 26. 28. FRPS U MLÑ.. 104). al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. also TS.. . al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ .

371. III. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA.

aÑO P. ¶alam (pl.

¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. 164. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. 164). also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. 352) 4. mark. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. ¶DO PDK – 1. marking. 27) 2. 135. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. XII. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. index. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. book mark (e. 22). signature (SD.g. II. II. I. 18) 2. TS. EI. ta¶O P 1. 2140). marking quires before sewing (ST. 381). II. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. signing a document (AA. – decorated border (LL. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. SD. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. autograph (LC. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. motto.

¶  0.HUEHOD .39). al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .DUEDO Ð) (CM. ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ. no. 100).

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. . 372). ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. abbrev. III.

GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. 2153: ‘text of the book’). al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah. aÑP O. II. ¶amal (pl.

compilation (MU.  FRPSRVition. VII. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ.

taÑZ U 2. IX. etc.). ta¶miyah 1. also mu¶ammá – cryptography.e. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. SA. 257-258). chronosticon (TI. 229. laà I DO-Ñamal. cryptogram. i. painting. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. 123). 47-48. EI. TC. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. main work of a painter (PA. FRPS ÁanÑah 2.v. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. colouring. used in opposition to Ãar¨. comp. writing. q. 30) 3. VII. (SJ. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

SL. EI. ¶XQZ Q (pl. 110. ÑDQ Z Q. I. PK. 260-261). 16. (MW. VII. 211.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

EI. 870-871) 4. II. tarjamah 2. 36. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. section heading (LC. X. EI. 116. X. 870). 871-872) 3. title (of a book) (LC. 29. comp. 29. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. . 2183). X. 66. EI. 29). PA. chapter.

104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. i¶ZLM M – curvature. I. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah. curved (of a line. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. VWURNH. 200-203).

e.g. UD. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). ta¶awwudh. 7). ta¶Z GKDK (pl. collation master. 14). VII. 74). I. . 726). isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. collation session (MF. 13. IN. taÑ Z GK. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. repetitor (EI. 12. 230).8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. X.

– talisman. 95. amulet (DT. aÑZ P. 69). KU. 114. 123-124). ¶ P (pl. of letters) (AP. comp. Ãams. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. ‘eyes’.

252-253). – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. 43). ¶ayn (pl. LM. Ñuqdah. . 194. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. comp. VI. comp. sanah.

97. AG. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. 145. MP. 74. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. red and black colours (SD. VI. aghriyah) – paste. rasm al-JKXE U. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. IK. IV. VI. 19-23. ghubrah – mixture of white. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. 141. 32-34. 42. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. 73). NW.60-72. 244). VI. EI. HT. index. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. 141. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. pasting (ST.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. 41. NW. 37. JM. MB. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. lin. OD. MP. 47). 97. 45-47). IB. MP. n. 58-63. 107. NW. 250). 90. sizing (of paper) (AB. 145).18) 2. taghriyah 1. 37. IB. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. IB. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. II. 250). JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. 199). DW. adhesive (TS. North Africa. 74). 12-13. 88. 233. MB.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. 47. 1124). AS.

IU T  . FRPS .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

passim). II. JKLVK µ (pl. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. book cover. 214. binding (TS. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. box (SD. ME. covering of the board. 36. KC. aghshiyah) 1. 35. JKD] O see jild. 554. case. 564) 2.

71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. pl. CD. III.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah.

 ODVW SDJH V.

) . I. binding (IN. 257). taghshiyah – book covering. 473). I. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. LVWLJKI U DK.

 WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' ...  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ.. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ . 217) 2. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.

  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). . ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). mistake. 192). bold character. a word) (MI. ghal¨ah – error. 150). WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. abbrev. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). OHWWHU 6.

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

213. 108). JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. AB. 214. binding (FZ. WDJKO I – book covering. 132). – book cover (MD. mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 157).

III. SA. – WDLOSLHFH .v. also iftit Œ. 114..  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal).) . comp. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. VIII. 128). **** I I U – papyrus (EI. 261).Ñuqdah. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ.). 47. 46.

9. proem (MU. 23) 2. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . LC. LQFLSLW 08 .  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. preface. XV.. prologue.

IDZ WLŒ al-suwar. II. 23) 4. headpiece (KF. LC.g. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT.  KHDGLQJ (e.

 PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. 245). AG. IDW ODK 1. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. 104. 59). TS.18. IA. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. 109) 2. . 62. VI. IA. press screw (MB. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh.

VI. comp. SD. II. leaf (of paper) (SA. 189. 249). Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet.

28). LIU G – letter in its isolated.v. – one of a pair. conjugate leaf. as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. WDUN E TY. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. one half of a piece of leather (TS. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM).).

. 6$ . ..

IR.g. II. 390). SA.) (KU. shaqq (q. 133. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. III. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. 154). 83). fur„ah (pl. 230. 481. DD.v. 60. I. AT. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. MY. far„ al-qalam – syn.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

. . // .

23) 2. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. most probably a variant of PLTU „. note. index. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK .=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«.18). mifra¨ – cutter (ST. annotation (TM. LC. apograph. witness (MR. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

) (UD. scroll (FI. (AD.v. 269) 4. KR. q.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. JL. argument resulting from a legal point. 15. 93. aÁl. 87. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. 82). abbrev. 131). SM. application as opposed to theory. 88. IDU JK SO IDU JK W.

 DOVR WDIU JK (MO. completion. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W. 41) – end. execution.

blank. 23. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. GA. 26. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. 289) 3. lacuna (LC. farkah (MN. 23).+  /0 . 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC.

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

comment. explication. 1. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

commentary and/or translation. e. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. three dots. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. fa¦¦ (pl. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. 23. LC. mufassir – commentator.5 . AK. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . X. paragraph mark (TP. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). 83). SA. 351. 55. disc. III. MS. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. from Greek into Arabic (EI.g.

 .

110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl. fuÁ O.

138. word division (in a text). space between words or passages. QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. spacing (TP. MM. taf¦ O 1. 55. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). III. 145-146) 2. SA. 134. .

MB. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. n. or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn.20). (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. 37. comp. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. MP.  FKDSWHU 6' II. 53. 271). silver-based ink (UK. TP. 33). 130-133.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ .. 92..

section of a text. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). DM). paragraph (LC. SD. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. 273. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. xiii. I. abbrev. II. fiqrah (pl. comp. fiqar) – passage. 351). AK. 23.

– book cover (HN. BA. 385. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. III.

 FRPS VKLGT .

g. mufakkak – loose. fihris. box (KC. disbound (e. 45). IDQ T (pl.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. fihrist (pl IDK ULV. funuq) – case. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah).

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

50). II. bibliography. 743-744) 4. 23. abbrev. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. II. abbrev. 286. gloss. record of attested study. 207. 36). comp. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. also I µidat al-a¦l. RU &0  RU 66. 149. II. AR. 293) 2. EI. fahrasah 1. marginal note. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. list. catalogue (SD. mashyakhah 2. cataloguing.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. 49. (CA. nota bene (notabilia). LC.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. 15). 76  AG. . al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). 107). Qubbat al-.

qub¨al. AG. SD. abbrev. 107. qabla – before. straightedge (TS. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. 302). lit. II. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. (when used for a transposed word) (LE.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. . 471). qabr. IV.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg.

letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. MH.TP. comp. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. 56.52. EI. n. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. corrector. muÑ UD ah 2. collation note (statement). VII. II. 490492). PXT ELO – collator.

abbrev. II.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. aqudd) – strip (of leather). TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. 24. etc. qaÃÃ. AA. 10. comp. n.xiii. FRPS ] Ðidah. . 107). II. AG. 54. / / / / / (TP. 18. CI. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’.37. 109). qidd (pl. CI. xiv). 701. 11. I.

fore-edge flap (TS. 59. AG. 52. 17. 26. introduction (EI. comp. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. also TS. 495-496). 173). al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. preface. abbrev. VII. TP. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. MI. 107). 120. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. muqaddimah – forward. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr.

– marginal note. commentary (AD. reciter. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. reading. gloss. 26) 2. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. collection of glosses. manner of recitation. 9 -129) 3. variant reading (varia lectio). TLU µah 1. prelector. 139). recitation (LC. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (.

  73 . $/ .

494-498). PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W.25. FRPS VDP Ñ.g. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. FRPS ¨arf. 53. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. n. KF. II. TP.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. 36. 36. 110). 466) 2. AG. sleeve case (TS. . 110). 110). 35-36. AG. 104. II. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. SA. sheath (SK. TLU E (pl. AG. aqribah) 1.

qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. compact writing (KM. 91-92. ST. 63). MP. sifr 13. 19. IB. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. II. 20). 44). 10. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. 63.19. IA. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. QS. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. AG. MP. index. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. 107. screw press (MB. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. qar¦a¶ah – fine.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. IK. IB. index. ST. 59). 19. index. IV. 47). AG. 103: PLTU   (!). 21. 94). 417). 44. IK. 60). putting something into a press (ST. 18. 107.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. 261. UD. 407) or paper (SA. II. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). 50. 173-174. 66-93. EI. parchment (AE. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. 17). V. 108. IW. EI. AE. VIII. I. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. 66-76. VIII. WS. 82-91). AE. comp. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. 98.

often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript. .

XIV. 335- WDTU   W .GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA.

5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. 313). 182. IV. 186). muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL.  qarmadah. 136. %/ $0 QRV     122.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . 143. comp. compact writing (KM. qarma¨ah – fine. sifr 13. muà ODÑah.

miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK.19. HT. EI. 153. DS. trimming (ST. JM. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. IB. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. 393: not defined). 103. 42. IV. 59. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. . qa¦ab(ah) – reed. 682. IV. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. AA. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. qa¦¦. 60. al-qurnah al-yusrá). EI. see also UA. 86. qirmah see VL\ T. reed pen (IK. 69). 181. 80). qurnah – corner (MB. IK. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. 41). 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). 146. MB. index. miqsam(ah) (lit. IA.

qa„m – syn. miqaÃÃ.116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. comp. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. MP. qa„ P DK. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 86). qa¦amah. 153). tin-based ink (UK. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 32). 130. 154).

sifr 4. nibbing. KU. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . I. 153. 72-74.) breadthwise (KD. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 102. AA. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. IK. cutting (of leather. LM. 2-463. KM. 50. II. KK. etc. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. 109-110.. 93). the point itself. leather (IW. – white hide.

having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. I. LM. 462.e. i. II. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. LL. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. longer than the left’.

2996. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. 217). see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. II. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 217). 462). MJ. straight point of the nib (SA. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. . 154). opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. ivory. MJ. II. II. 1742.

131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. AT. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. MM. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. IP. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ.GLOSSARY 117 etc. 105: maqaÃÃ. 65. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI.742. 133). MK. qa¨¶ (pl. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 76. II. 468. qaÃÑ al-thumn. 45. MB. 54. IV. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. SK. LS. ND. SA. 62.

 FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. piece of poetry) 2. VI. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. decoupage (ER. principle of the interlace. 475). 110). qi¨¶ah 1. calligraph (AC. piece of something (e.g. piece of calligraphy. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1.  irs (AG. .

. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. 475). papercut(s). tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER.  (5 9. VI. 107). 144. filigree work (IP. 90) 4. muqaÃÃa¶ ). 9. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. decoupage. (pair of) scissors (IK. AG. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. 11. . instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. PA. taq¨ ¶ 1. WS. collage. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. 21) 2. mishraÃ. comp. 91).  +'   T ÃiÑ. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. format (of a book) (TL. cutting instrument (DM) 2. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

 26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

. 377). – clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH.

AG. flat back (TS. 107). al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. 15. 14. index. qalb. 107. 641).118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. ST. al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. comp. 15. AG. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. 107). AG. 15-17. 20). 15. taqfiyah – backing (TS. 107). AG.

  .  PRXOG 8.

19. LC.3. ST. 26. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. 14. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. 26. MK. index. no.

 FRPS TDÃÑ 3. miqlab SO PDT OLE. 93) 4. 43). 214. FI. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. FZ. 59. 88. folder (IB. JL.

7XUN PLNOHE.

DW. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. 68). 26). 83. – envelope flap (MT. TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. 202-203).

.  76 .  SLHFH RI ZRRG .

45-87. IK.  calamus. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. 44-465. reed pen.e. i. 13 (AA. II. copper pen. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". TC. SA. 232. KU. see TW. also qalam al-qa¦ab.

qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. ductus. 133-134. EI. script. MP.. 38-39. 144. 59-64. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . handwriting. AT. 356. 471) 3. . IV. MB. UK. -50. hand. 71-75. MB. 100).

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. see khaÃÃ.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. 335). an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. 11-12). I. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. used in talismans and amulets (IT. muqawwar.

153. al-thuluth. 145). al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. DO-mu¨aqqaq. 85). and used extensively in the main Arab lands. 144). al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. IK.

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

$  Q.  $. .  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  . SA.. .  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah..

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

49-51. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. WDTO P – paring. I. II. KR. 2565). qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). II. trimming (a reed). 85). hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. 79). . 43. 11. chest (LL. 109). 43. AG.

al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. AS. 11. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. III. 37). al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. 144).120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. comp. 144).

 qawl SO DTZ O.

T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. tract 2. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. xiv. short composition. II. – quotation. MI. treatise. MU. PDT ODK 1. passage. XII. 238). 190. TP. 155. 154.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

KF. 86. III. 377. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. 83. 190. 327. folio (folium) (MK. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 82. I. KF. 283. DF. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. I.

comp. . mDEV Ã. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e.g. RN. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. 22). erect. PXVWDT P – upright.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

  DPP DO-Ñ.U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 . – HQGSDSHU 8.

 al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq. qayd SO TX\ G.

  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. committing something to writing. statement. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. composition (TE. 17. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . – note..

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh.. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. IA. . IK. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. 113.  tying. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . 62) 4. III. binding.

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

187). N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). N ]DQ – mallet (UK. 43). muqayyid 1. gloss (LC. 27). N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. IB. – marginal note. N JKL¨. author 2. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. no. 153. glossator (AM.

77) – paper (EI. al-kalŒ . WS. 98-105. comp. 136). N JKLGDK – sheet. see waraq. waraq. IV. SO NDZ JK Ã. 77-85). WS.VO P . leaf (of paper) (AJ. 419-420. al-N JKDG DO-. AE. etc. al-5 P . .

kubab) – ball (of fibre. in papermaking) (OM). as in the beginning of w Z. ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. WS. 136. munkabb – inclined. 374). kubbah (pl. 85-86).

8'  /0 .

katb. II.) (US. 91. 40. II. TH. CM. UA. q. AG. 440. 169). KL. 416). II. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . TS. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. mikbas. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS.107. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. SD. WDNE V – pressing (QS. mun¨anin. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. Ranunculus asiaticus.) 2. comp. 49-53. kitbah (MH.v. 393). 416. NDE NDM 1.

copying. transcription. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . NLW E NLW EDK – writing. composition.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

45: ‘hence katabah. CT. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). +. NI. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. Turkish ketebehü.

554-760). 180). comp.  VHFUetary. mu¨arrir. scribe. IV. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. amanuensis (EI. scrivener 2. .

NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . lin. archetype. V. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. book.) . piece of writing. 86). booklet. maktab – place designated for writing. 384). tail (of a book or document) 2. spine (of a codex) (HT. EI. 207-208). IV.. 53. KD. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. I. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. 197-200).115). letter. maktabah – library (EI.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 388: mukattab). codex (MA. VI. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . document. 705. NH. chapter in a book (SL. copying (KK. IK. PDNW E SO PDNW E W. 23. II. NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y.

II. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. muktib. sifr 13. KM. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. IV.g. 4. master calligrapher (KK. calligraph (DP. – piece of calligraphy. KD. 51. 705). mukattib (e. 53).

.0 .9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .  26 . .

mikŒ O see mirwad. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). pointing (of a wall) (FT. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. 187). akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. takŒ O 1. outline (of letters) (DH. kuŒl – antimony. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. 230). 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). no. kohl. IR. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). outlining. I. 414) 2.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. 393.

comp. misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. 68).

OLQHV LQ .

124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK. 142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.

 VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. AG. 12. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O. 33. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs.

42). kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. IB.  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . 0. NDGK – thus. abbrev. sic. 154.

48. WLNU U. takarrur – graphic error. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. 184). ditto- NXUU V DK. TM. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). 162).g. dittography (e.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

60). SA. SK. IK. CI. II.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . AG. NXUV – book cradle. 48. II. 132). kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK.0 . TS. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. reading stand (MD. . quire (gathering). x. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT.92). KU. 84. TS. 131. ra¨l. 700). 14. comp. KD. II. 468-471. passim. 60).  . II. SL. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. 107) 2. abbrev. AA. lin. 100.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .

P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P. QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH . mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af.

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

miksar SO PDN VLU. kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. 363).

274. DD. 128). miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. TP. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). 391). syn. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . NH. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. of bashr (LF. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. 58). 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 79. knife (for making erasures) (IR. 137. 389. IR. I.

kuÑ E.126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl.

flat back (MB. FT. main de papier). al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. 39. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. 109. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. 94). – spine (back of a codex) (MB. DE. 92. 109). NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. JL. 92. AJ. 977. 61. usually 25 sheets (PT. dast. 84. 90). 97. NXQQ VK DK. passim. 406). AB. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. WS. comp. 82). tongs (MB. 442. 109). 145. IA. inlay (SA. WDNI W – inlaying. II. rizmah. KR. DM). kaff(ah). 95.

SO NDQ Q VK.

– 1. 25. commonplace book (LC. HB. .

V. mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI.  kunyah (pl. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). 395-396).

an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-. I 1.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. I . originally and properly speaking.

±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV. AV. 27ff. comp.g. 11-13.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. OD). 363. MV. FN. 8-9.

76  $*  86 .

WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. II. SA. 29. 119. 139). 145. 27. ultramarine. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 478). 85). azure ink. paint (UK. MP. al¨ T OL¨ T. JM. 114. laŒaq (pl.

 ilŒ T. mulŒaq – omission. . insertion (TP.

703)..14). 279). milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. 185. OL] T – paste. 24. TM. IB. I. LC. 42). JA. adhesive (KD. comp. 154. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. II.128 GLOSSARY  .

n. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). SA.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. 15. 230. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. book cradle (TW. II. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. DD. 133. 481) 2. WA. IR.24.169. AG.  76  11. SA. II. copyist’s book support. I. 481. 390) 3. 107. 14.

where each gathering is numbered separately).  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. /&  /( . abbrev.

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. $'  /( 137) 3. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. LC. 25. index. 20. 13. ST. JL. 25). HT.109. 90. MM. OLV Q (pl. 132). alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. 119. lin. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ.

 .

DD. 230) 2. lin. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. 145. 167. spool (DS. lafŒ – tooling. adhesive (SA. IR. comp. 26). stamping (HT. 391. abbrev. II. wrapper (DM). mulaffaq. or (MI. SD. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . OL] T la¶nah – curse. 181. milaff 1. malediction.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. I. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB.166). RA. 131. laqab SO DOT E. II. alÁiqah) – paste. passim). 530). 480. DM).

. – nickname. (pair of ) tongs. pincers. tweezers (MB. honorific title (EI. DD. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. I. WDOT P – inlaying. 618-631). V. 109) 2. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. inlay (FT. 406). 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ).

lak. 11. LM. stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. 49). lakk RU O N '* .

v.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. 16). varnish (AB. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. comp.g. burnished (e. lacquer. 109). ODPP ¶ – glossy. 11. namq. AG. q. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. lamq – elegant writing. copying (TE. law¨ W. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. 140). glazed.).

(Turk. . 24. 124) 3. II. MB. headpiece (FT. OM) 4. MS. 125). wooden board (TS. pasteboard (ST. 31) 6. usually framed). wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. 11. illuminator (HD. 142-143.or tailpiece) (LC. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. gloss (DM). 99. head. panel (in decoration). lin. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator.123. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. 5) 5.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. 25. HT. 58-59) 2. 29. 402).

WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design).v. MB. 156. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. 38). 11. 109. central medallion (on a book cover). almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. 59. IA. 105. oval figure 2. mandorla 4.). 44. 31. also known as sarwah (q. see also nuqÃah) 3. IB. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. raÐs al-lawzah. AG.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. TS.

45. lawn SO DOZ Q. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. IR. 133. MJ. 478. – spatula. IB. II. 230. AT. 208).

698-707. . pigment. JA. tint (EI. 148. – colour. AI.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. V.

86. IK. III. tinting (of paper). LC. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. 27) 2. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. see also the quotation under sha¨m). polychrome illumination (WA. WDO\ ¨ 1. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. 11. WDOZ Q 1.

AT. II. 160) 3. 111-119. paper pulp (OM). 702. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. 370). coloured ink (SA. . MP. also PLO T (UA. 393) tow (wad. liyaq) 1. 133). III. MJ. UK. 203) 2. tuft of unspun silk. 477-478. BA. 26-29. MB. 20. 55. MP.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. 26-29. n. IK. index. 13. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. II. tint (AD. colour. O TDK (pl. 84. 79-84.

II. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 . amliqah) 1. III.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. 370) – compartment for ink (KD. also PLO TDK (BA.

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

%$ ... .

144. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. KH. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS.

**** matn SO PXW Q. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. muraÃÃab. muqawwar. comp. such as al-thuluth. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

text-column (MU. 1. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. VI. V. 843) 2. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . II. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. EI.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. ¨ VKL\DK. shar¨ or gloss.

139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. 25). 109. P WLQ – author of the original composition. Œard al-matn (HN. 53). . also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). MD. SD. 214. LC. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. (qalam) al-matn. TP. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. 843) 4. II. 1. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. 568). VI. IX. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. EI. 24.

MP. erasure. 55. 121-122. IV. SA.52.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). 138-140. MJ.v. 86. MB. n. ¨ibr. maŒ UDK (q. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. 21. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. obliteration (by means of a cloth. or licking) (TP. 58. IV. 216). 38.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. KR. maŒw – ink removal. ¨aÃÃ. 134-135. III. . amiddah) – soot ink. TP. BA. 238). hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. PLG G (pl. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. UK. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. 38. 13.) . tamŒ ¨ 1. 371). khirqah. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. 89). MJ. UK. apograph (CD. 1031). amthilah) – copy. AE. 90). MP. KH.  madd. 36-37). tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. 67-71. blind tooling. 15-18. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. ink (in general) (SK. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. VI. comp. JL. AT. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. II. comp. 471-477.) . comp. 127-131.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). 79-90. process of softening leather (making it flexible. transcript. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. III. EI. 79: dalk) 2. pl. index.

465-467. mudan. II. I  mudyah (madyah. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). SK. pen knife (SA. midan) – knife. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . midyah) (pl. 103- 8$  .134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah).5  .

 FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). WDPU „ see  abbah. ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

wiping (MB. 60: misann almis¨) 2. masŒ – rubbing. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . I. . misŒ 1. II. sackcloth (DG. 202). 133. SA. 114). see shar¨. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. 166. 391). 230. 110. IA. coarse haircloth. 481-482. DD. AT.

. FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð.

262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. I. IR. SK.I. 60. copying. 16) 3. mashq 1. AA. hasty. 116-117. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . 55) 2.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ .. scribbling (MM. transcription (TE. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. elongation (of letters) (JA. mush¨ – comb (IA. inelegant hand.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. 230).

’). 4. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. MY. KT. 134: ÑDQ . IK. for example. 16. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. calligraphic hand (CM. elegant. calligraphic model (AD.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. copying from a model (TE. 48. 151). unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. fine elongation. mashqah 1. 83) 5. 164) 6. according to some opinions. calligraphic exercise. fine elongated stroke (SK. KK.

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

183). P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG.

'' . .

signature. signing. FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. autograph (DM) 2. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   .

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

107) 2. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . ex-library. AG. al-musharrafah. 60-61). 88. 27). VII.). etc. I  mimlasah 1. ex-dono. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. FRPS QDÌar 3. LC. EI. plane-like instrument (TS. also malasah – burnisher. 478). 411). PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. LC. 8). AG. 31. al-maghrah al-¶. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. milk – ownership (OS. 25. Makkah (al-mukarramah. TS. 11. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. II. 11. polisher (NH. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. 107).U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. 88. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. 390.

work (known as al-DP O . 85-94) 2. KF. SDVVLP :6 -13. I.  GLFWDWLRQ $.

725-726). VII. stamp (EI. famulus (AI. 48). muhr – seal. passim. passim. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk.VII. signet. VII. GA. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. II. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). 725-726. SL. EI. 472-.

. stamping (EI. VII. 472-473). FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing.

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

sifr 13. 472. AE. WS. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. sheet. 79-82. 50-52) 2. II. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. II. leaf (of paper) (SA. KM. IV. 105-106. 8-9. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. (IW. sheet.

polisher (IA. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. mawzah – burnisher. 60. 63).

UD. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] .$  maws. trimmer (TW. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK . – pen knife.

PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. LC.  1+  '' . 25). 64). P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. V. 226.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. II.

442) 2. 12. inlaying (SA. script) (UD. 403). . SA. tilting (of a script). WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. slanting (of the line. hence P µil – inclining. II. 45). FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. coating. II. gilt (SD).

138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). 40). sifr 13. WDQE K – note. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. copying (TE. 16. IV. remark (in the body of a composition). QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). 146. nota bene. JM. KM.

trimming (of a reed) (IR. UD. IB. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. 232. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. 36). index. 21. 43: P MDPDK). paring. minjam – mallet (ST. naŒt 1.

35). 133-134.g. nuŒ V – copper. (MG. basmalah. e. ¨amdalah. I. MP.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. 482). etc. . copper-based ink (UK.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

selector (DF. 97. I. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. – anthology (EA. nasab SO DQV E. 384). 230. 82). 95. II. DM). munkhul – sieve (IR. KR. muntakhib – compiler. 94-95).

967-968). VIII. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. 53-56). religious sect or school. pedigree (EI. tribe. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. nisbah (pl. – lineage. ending in – (EI. etc. genealogy. VII.

DO-PDQV E DK.

which according to the Mamluk tradition. 17. IV. see khaÃÃ. 21). naskh 1. transcription (TE. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . 57) 2. 1124 (in Persia). belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. KM. 1126 (in Turkey). sifr 13. IV. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. par excellence. naskh-ta¶O T). index. 696-699). (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. KK. IV. 1127 (in Muslim India). a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. ER. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST.5.

47. 141. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. nuskhah (pl. 1123. badal) 4. 1127. VIII. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. but erroneously. LM. XVI. catalogue (AD. CA.in Turkey. 128. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. comp. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK .      $5  $. nusakh) 1. I.12) 2. 146. LE. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. variant reading (varia lectio)./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. LM. pl. EI. commonly. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. 89). 26). naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. IV. CD. abbrev. archetype (LC. 149) 2. xv. II. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. CI. IV. 1125. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq.in Muslim India). recension (MU.in Persia. al-naskh al-mu¶W G.171). xiv). transcript. QDVNK 1. MZ. copy (EI. al-makh¨ ¨ W. version. 123. list. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. personal) nature (CI. 138. I. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. 182. 36. n.  0. CM.

archetype (LC. unicum. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. 26). 26). al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. Q VLNK SO QXVV NK.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

MA. 348. 16. 47). 17. TW. scribe (TE. passim). muntasikh – copyist. PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. WB. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G .

 . LQVK µ – construction. e. of letters. 9. letter-writing. III. layout (mise en page ) (FK. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. no.. style or composition. I.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement.g. documents or state papers. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). 1241-1244). epistolography (EI.

PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. 173. 278. 136). IK. AI. 134. 94. I. I. TD. 67). FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. WDQVK U. nashr. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

76   $*  .$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV.

IB. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. MB. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. index. 136). II. 230: minshaµah). 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). index. nashan – wheat starch. 60. I. IA. . 480. 21. starch paste (made of sorghum. IR. ST. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. 50. OM. I. starch paste (TS. DD. AT. 390. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. II. minshafah – blotter (TD. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). 21). 395). 12. dhurah) (OM). 133. 13. 106. SA. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq.

103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ . straight line. 240. lin.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1.  . 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. handle (SK. pallet-like tool (HT. the letter alif (IR. 241..133. stroke. 249. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn. 137). . ni¦ E 1..

IA. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. III. up-stroke (SA. IB. 101. 103. LM. 59) 3. 59).  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. UD. munta¦ib – ascender. MB. 43. 47. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. 156. 11.

medallion. 93. 43). reading note. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI.g. 88. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. 218. FZ. III. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). 217. e. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. JL. ZM. na„ar – study note.

$+  .) .  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK.

XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I. FRPS PXà ODÑah. un„ur – ‘see’. abbrev.

nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. no. II. .170). curator. shiÑr. 2812). na„m. I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. comp. versification.

nafdh – punching.3. sifr 13. 392). IV. awl (SA. II. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. naqr – inscription. 230. I. QDTT U – carver. 391: for sewing of quires). epigraphy (KM. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. awling (MB. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). AT. II. MJ. 208. engraving (on stone). 133. tanaqquŒ – correction. nafa¨ (sg. no. DD. engraver (KM. sifr 13. IR. IV. nafÃah) – pockets of air. 481. passim). WDQT Œ.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. 5). minfadh – punch. revision (KF. 23).

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

471. II. 49. KM. IK. 84. 5). – ink (KK. SA. naqsh SO QXT VK. 469. IV. sifr 13.

engraving. 63) 3. IA. naqr 2. illumination (EI. VII. 156. MB. comp. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. epigraphy (FT. 29-32. painting. 400). TS. QLT VKDK 1. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. 105. inscription. 931).

.  0% 105. ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. 59). IA.

engraver (KM. sifr 13. IV. VII. illuminator (PA. designer. 155. miniature painter. copying (FK. 5) 2. 931-932). III. 141. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. WDQT VK – writing. 266). carver. 159). 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI.

III. nuq¨ah (pl. SA. naq¨ 1. SA. TE. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. 160. III. III. haplographic error. naq¦. letter-pointing (TE. haplography (TP. nuqaÃ. 38). vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. 16-17) 2. 58). 16-17. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. KH. 151.

EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.  T OD .  GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.

 . 12. Q TLO (pl. naql 1. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. 137. numrah. AW. 105. HT. orthographer (LT. copyist. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). MB. 368). naqalah) 1. exact copy (apograph). quoting.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. IA. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. transcription (MU. copying. 68) 5. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). abbrev. quotation 3. XII. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. translator. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. figure. calligrapher (TE. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. nimrah – number. 16. 33. 218) 2. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. translation. 16) 4. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . extract. IA. 133. citing. TE.

written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. 62. copying (TE. 53. 16. KK. namq WDQP T – elegant. 45. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. 53. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 .GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. embellished writing. 91). SK. numbering. AM.

180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). NI. 45. Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC.

elegant. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy).1). 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. namnamah 1. AA. II. compact writing (KM. embellished writing. 38). 369. n. calligraph. 237). QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. sifr 13. 105) 2. copying (KH. WDQP O – compact writing. AW. copying (SK. IV. 181. 119. painted illustration (KF. calligraphic composition (NI.

) (LM. having an open counter (ant. 26. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. IB. 43). 22.v. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . of mufatta¨. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. of maÃP V q. 69). IB. PXQ U – syn. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. 44). – floral design. index. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST.

86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. EI. KF. II.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. 498-450. 27). Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. III.

82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. 106. KD. – inkwell (SK. 700. IK. II.

285). LQWLK µ – end. xi. xiii. CI. SL. abbrev. / / / (for intahá) (MW. GA. termination. CI. 87. I. II. II. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. 110. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

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 **** DKG E (sg. hudb. 36). hud hud SO KDG KLG. hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

abridgement.. revision (DM) 2. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . WDKGK E 1. LKG µ – dedication (FN. epitome (EA..  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). 23). I. correction. ..

69. EI. backing (MB. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. IA. 483. compiler (SS. author. WDKO O 1. 108) 2. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. abridger. 72. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. 181. X.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. 61). 109. epitomist. I. rounding (of the spine). 73) 2. MG. muhall.

VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9. .

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

   ..  PDUJLQ ') ..

abbrev. gloss.  PDUJLQDO note. /&  0. .

. WDKP VK 1. annotation (TT.  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn).. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ . glossing. 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $. .

102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. annotated (TW. muhammash – glossed.

90). unpointed letters (TP. 57. 4. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah... K PDK – head (of a letter). IR. syn. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. GL. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. 57. MH. 244).  K PDW DO-alif). . raÐV HJ 6$ .

148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. 25) 2. 31) 3. face. II. transcription in full. 31. 25.. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') ..   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). 43-45). epitome (DM). upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. ¶alá al-wajh – copying. wajh(ah) 1. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. IV. page (MU. upper cover (TS. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . wajh al-hirr (lit.

wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG.. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. 6$ . 82).Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al. 109). -92). 29.. MK.

MJ. waŒy – writing. MK. sifr 13. 218). piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. 82). KK. KM. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. 464. 29. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. 53). IV. 5. . SA. II. waŒVK see sinn. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh.

73).73). no. 95. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. DA). lobed medallion (DH. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. no. waraq SO DZU T.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing.

 SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. 85-. -195. WS.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

piece (of paper. abbrev.  $5  . leaf. parchment or leather) 2. waraqah 1. folio (folium).

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

(TS. 29). 25). AG. wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. 109). 11.

85). I.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. DO-. al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

I. 31). French paper (PT. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. DO-5 P 1. 378). 77) 2. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. 75.

. DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. VI. 30. waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). SA. paper bearing an imitation watermark. 31). Tre Lune) (PT. 193. OM). al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark.

al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O. 32).150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT.

MS. – glazed paper (PT. 82). 394). 88. 107. II. WS. cardboard (FT. pasteboard (JL. 35. 104) 2. MD. 487. 87. 32. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . JL. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. WS. SA. 84). 380).

MP. IB. bookbinder (QS. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. KF. I. 161). 69. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. – marbled paper (DM. WS. IV. 558-561). 495). IK. 22. index. II. MN. index. transcription (WS. stationer. scribe (SL. 22. 65). professional copyist. foliated arabesque design (ST. 14. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. 88. 148) 2. EI. II. LC. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). WDZU T 1. I. JL. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. WR. 82. 93. maysam SO PD\ VLP. 28. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. 94). vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. 16. 81. copying. 380). FI. 87. bookseller. 9. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book.

mawsim SO PDZ VLP. 135). stamp (AB. – tool.

MP. – feast. II. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. festival. CI. 10). decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST.g. 65). ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . 22. index. washŒ – decorating.

186) 2. 93) 3. .125. writing. stamping (of leather) (HT. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. drawing (AD. lin. also WDZVK P – tooling.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

126). wa¦l. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). stamp (HT. awÁ O ZDÁO W. lin. – pattern (created by tooling). 18. washy. wu¦l (pl. UK. wi¦l.

leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. collema (kollema) (WS. SA. II. wa¦lah 1. HB. 812. 144) 3. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. darj). also Z ¦ilah – catchword. 234. 90). 683. 10. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. piece. 110). vox reclamans (NM. VI. 65) 2. 88. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . NZ.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD.

$' .

wa„¶ (pl. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. 3132). 12. arrangement (of a text) (MU. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. KF. 187. 62. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. VI. aw  Ñ ) – composition. comp. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. PA. I.

 Z „i¶ – compiler. . 376). author (DF. IV.

proem (DM). P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G.152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. prologue.

192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $.  . – collation session (TP. 56. TM.

 wi¶ µ (pl. ME. awÑiyah) – 1. 87: ZDT ¶ah. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. DA). 575) 2. container (OM). box (MS. wifq SO DZI T. case. 16. 19.

. decree (EI. 124. apostil (usually signed) (AD. 100. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . 108). autograph. 189. WDZT ¶ 1. sifr 13. 28. al-WDZ T ¶. IV. AD. . KF. LC. stamp (IK. KM. LC. 10) 2. X. gloss. 392-393) 3. 28. 189). QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. X. P IDT – seal. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. 392. taking something down in writing (SL. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). royal edict. writing something down. I. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. 96). motto. I. signature (EI. 69. 125) 4.

tashÑ U W.GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines.

number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS..g. 90).) (BL. 146). LM. 428-442). above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. WDZT I (KF. 441). 63). Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. II. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). 61. 69). WDZT I SO WDZT I W. unfinished stroke (e. (AS. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. 146. 38) 2.v. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . 1125. 146. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. wakf 3. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. reading. waqfiyah.in Persia.29. bequest note (OS. 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. JM.in Turkey). 43-46.g. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. KH. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. KF. endowment. 100. 73-77. 90. II. AS. 146. waqf 1. .. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. WDTU Ì (q. KF. 187).g. III. LC. II. PDZT I 1. LM.9 1123. LM.

95. taÐammul 2. 28). It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. overlining (TP.) (LC. 122). wahm – mistake. K P – omission (IK. AA. logograph. 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). error (IK. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. sifr 13. 55). comp. IV. wakt – letter pointing (KM. 123). . 95.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. AA.

154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. III. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. III. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . SA. 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146). 95-96. 96). III.

DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. ray¨ Q QDVNK. maÁ ¨if.

ant. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. 144). 6$ III. of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. \ ELV – rectilinear. al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q.

.  8'  $6  /0 .. 6$ .

 FRPSPDEV Ã. yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ.

UA. reed pen (IK. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). – hand. 393. II. 86. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. DM. I \DG. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. . \DU ¶(ah) – reed. 42). KD. in the hand of) (OT.

g.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. CM. no.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &.  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK. .

 .

VKE O LQ KLV µ. Vol. transl. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. 2 (1989): 37-53. The arts of the book in Central Asia. A. 2-3 (1887): 87-159.1. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . ed. AG = Adam Gacek. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Gray. Paris/ London. Algiers. Arabische Paläographie. AF = Oleg F. ed. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. Beirut. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. Akimushkin and Anatol. von Karabacek. 1981. 1989. “Das arabische Papier”. 1967. Riyad. AD = E. Al-. 1979: 35-57. AJ = J. ±aydar Ghaybah.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. AE = Adolf Grohmann. “The art of illumination”. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. 1923. AC = Adam Gacek. Damascus. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. B. Max Weisweiler. 1414/1994. Fagnan. Wien.ABBREVIATIONS 1. AI = ÑAbd al-. ed. Ivanov.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah.

Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. .D. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. Manuscripts of the Middle East. decoration. AW = Nabil F. 1996. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. New York. AO = Adrian Brockett. AQ = David James. 4 (1989): 144-149. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 2 (1987): 45-67. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. 15. AV = François Déroche. ed. Descriptive catalogue. 1982: 1. nos. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. 8 (1941): 65-104. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . 1992. 1992. AP = Nabia Abbott.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. binding and paper”. London/Oxford. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. AN = Richard Lemay. 1. “Arabic numerals”.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. 1996. London/Oxford.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”.4 (1986): 131-137. London/Oxford. Safwat. Montreal.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. Manuscripts of the Middle East. no. AL = . AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. Ars Islamica. McGill University. AS = Adam Gacek. 382-398.

MacKay. 1984-85. CD = Arthur J. The Chester Beatty Library.. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. 1982 . -CCA = Adam Gacek. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. Dublin. London. CM = Adam Gacek. 1958. 4 (1991): 35-53.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. Montreal. Leiden.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. Oriens. CL = Jan Just Witkam. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. CI = Adam Gacek. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . Arberry. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. 1991. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. CT = Pierre A.

N. CW = A. Dictionnaire . 61. Chouémi and C. De Biberstein Kazimirski. Blachère. Iskandar. 1967.Z. Paris. London. -DDA = A. M. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society.4 (1971). 1960.S. DB = R. Denizeau. Dictionnaire arabe-français. no.

ed. DR = Donald P. J.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. 1989. ed.D. DQ = François Déroche. Paris. 4. ed. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. Cowan.2 (1938): 141-151. DC = A. Wiesbaden. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. NY. 0DPO N studies review. 1984. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. Little. 4 (1989): 44-55. 1967. Ithaca. ±amd al-.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. DT = Tawfik Canaan.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah.-L. 59 (1991): 229-235. Beryus. DP = Adam Gacek. DM = Hans Wehr. DG = Werner Diem. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Kuwait.1986. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. fasc. de Premare. . 1993 . Paris. Archeological studies. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. Beirut. Revue des études islamiques. 1994. 2 (1998): 93-193. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. . Frankfurt..M. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar.. 1994. fasc. 4th ed.1 (1937): 69-110. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. 5. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East.

Istanbul. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. New York. -FFD . Al-)XQ Q DO-. 1993.. -EEA = J. n. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”. 5 . Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. EP = François Déroche.). Meisami and P. 1998.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. eds. 1986. Dimand.S. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.EU K P .EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. E. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. New ed. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. transl. 1979. 1997. 1982 . London/ Oxford.S. 1995: 93-101. Yarshater. Part 1. 1960 . FM . Leiden. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. à W´ Al-Mawrid. Calif.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. ed. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. 1999. London. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Cairo. Baghdad. Starkey..d.VO P \DK. 1995: 17-57. London (later Costa Mesa. London. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q.

. ed. Cambridge. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. Cairo. 3rd ed. 50-99. Kaziev (Gaziev).U. 1987. transl. ³. HD = A. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. Baku. A Grammar of the Arabic language. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. Fischer. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. GL = W. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. 1992. Cairo. Manuscripts of the Middle East. HT = Adam Gacek. 1966. 1967. 1994. 6 (1991): 41-58.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. 1987. Rabat. HN = Ñ \LGDK . Wiesbaden. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. Wright. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. 1982. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. Istanbul. herausgegeben von W. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”.

F. The Oriental Institute. Beirut. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. Cairo.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. IJ = Jan Just Witkam.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M.2 (1979): 221-284. 1389/1970. London. Déroche and F. May 18 . )DKP 6DÑd. ed. Carswell and G. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. à W´ Al-Mawrid. Univ. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. 1973. 1995: 123-136. Chicago.1981. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q . IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. 1319 A. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . Cairo/ Tunis. . 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. ed.. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. Paris. Qum. 1981.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. ed.1987? . IM = Ñ. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. A¨mad ‚aqr. 8.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. no. 1997: 57-63. Petherbridge. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. Beirut. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145.August 18. of Chicago. Damascus. Richard. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.H. 1983. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Bosch. J. IB = G.

LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. 1962. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . 1983. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. Baghdad. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G. . ed.1961.1 (1958): 81-106. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  .D. 1969. Beirut.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. 1985. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. Ph. University of Michigan. ed. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”..G E (Cairo).PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. Al-0DQ KLO. no. 1363 [1984]. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I . ÑIzzat ±asan.. Riyad. 1982. 0DMDOODW . Damascus.n.l. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. s. 1997. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-.. 38 (1989): 7-103. Cairo. 1962. Qum. 20. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. 6 pl.XOO \DW DO. S. [Tehran?].G E DOV PLÑ. Algiers. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU .LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie).

1937: 125-161. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.3 (1964): 1933. 1316-21 A. Cairo. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue.VO P .2 (1973): 43-78. no. no. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. Al. ed. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. no. 2 (1946): 9-18. 1.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq.LW E. RDVK G DOÑ. Leiden. 1.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. London.DWW Q  ³. Á KL = G.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. no. by Arthur Jeffery. Fehervari and Y. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. 1978. KM = Ñ$O LEQ .H. Safadi.240 (1984): 61-68. KS < VXI DO-. ed. 1981. 1 (1963): 26-48. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo.H.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK .LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo).Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. 2. “Al-.

LW E DONXWW E. . Raif Georges Khoury. Wiesbaden. . . ed. ed.LW E DO-zuhd. KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  .XZDLW 1977. 1976. .

VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. Brill. van Koningsveld and Q.S. Baghdad. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . LE = M. 1929. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. 1911-1931. LL = Edward William Lane. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. 48 (1989): 21-29. Leiden. Cairo.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab.J. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. Cambridge. LD = P. 2 (1987): 68-87. 1978 (catalogue no.500). Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. Arabic-English lexicon. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. Rev. Revue africaine. 1992. 1790-1930. Samarrai. Ben Cheneb. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. 1984. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. ed. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. LB = Jan Just Witkam. LC = Adam Gacek. MELA Notes. ed.

MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . no. Beirut. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut.OP DO-Ñ. Lamare. Cairo. Leiden. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. MK = Etan Kohlberg.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 20 (1970): 88-137. ed. 1995.d. Journal asiatique.U T . 230 (1938): 551-575.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . n. Beirut. Damascus. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK.G DO-Mawlá. Beirut. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. 1391/1971. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. Beirut. 1980. 1992. ME = A.4 (1986): 185-248. 1992. 1349 [1930]. Damascus.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. 1972. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. ed. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. 15. MC OL¨ \DK . MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. . 1913. ed.

MY = François Déroche.4 (1962). MV = François Déroche. pt. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 32 (1987): 105-114. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð.6 (1993): 641649. no. MT = Adam Gacek. MP = Martin Levey. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. no. 1992.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. 1936-38. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”.. 15. 14. 52.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . Al-Mawrid. 18. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. ed. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-.1 (1969): 3-47. .2 (1989): 201-203.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. no. 1976-87. N. London/Oxford.S. MW .EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. Revue des études islamiques. Cairo.

NS = S. Bonebakker. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. 2 (1987): 126-130. Sadan. 1418/1998: 341-393. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East.2 (1992): 679-683. ND = J. no. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI .EU K P 6KDEE ¨. Cairo. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts.. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. Manuscripts of the Middle East.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. 1367/1949. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. Damascus.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”.A. London. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). NH .168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. 1. 1928. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. NC = Adam Gacek. 45 (1977): 1-87.VO P  . NO = Dimitri Gutas. Cairo. Revue des études islamiques. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ. 13. 1 ILPELU  HG .VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. 2 (1987): 8-17. 1342/1923 . NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub.

OS = Adam Gacek. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. 1985: 29-48. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. M. PT = Terence Walz.W. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. New York. ed. Daly. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche.H. 5 (1960): 124-143. “O. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. 26 (1976): 199-212. . Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. 1994 : 75-81. 10 (1998): 41-63. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. 2 (1987): 88-95. 1992.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . Paris/Teheran. Derek Latham. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. OH = J. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. Manuscripts of the Middle East. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. PK = S. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). OM = Adam Gacek. Rabat. -PPA = Yves Porter. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”.

“Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1938. no. 1973.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . SL = Nabia Abbott. Beirut.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. Beirut. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. Paris. . Cairo. SD = R. 15. a new direction”. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 1995. Dozy. 2 (1956): 339-372. -RRA = William L. 1960. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. 195772. ed. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð.4 (1986): 259-270. Chicago. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. Bookbinder. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. SJ . Studies in Arabic literary papyri. 3rd ed. Paris. RI = W. Costa Mesa.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Chicago. 1 (1987): 21-38. RN = Nabia Abbott. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. 1410/1990. 1967. Bull.

Paris. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. 1995. 41. 1965. Ricard. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. TE = Adam Gacek. François Déroche. MELA notes. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG .H. 1303 A. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. .VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. Paris/Istanbul.1 (1997): 55-90. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. 1997: 135-150. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. 1989: 49-50. P.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. 1994: 11-32. Bibliothèque nationale. no. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). ed. Rabat. Beirut. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. 1925. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. MS (Paris.DWW Q  . Rabat. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. ed.VO P . 1346-49 A. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. ed. arabe 6844). TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN.Q Q  London.H. Damascus. Damascus.

Kuwait. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. Rabat. TS %DNU LEQ . “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. Hyderabad. Damascus. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh. ed. 1989: 51-60.EU K P DO-.d. Jedda. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. F.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. 1353/1934. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E.VKE O  ³. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. pl. TP = Adam Gacek. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. ±amd al-. Paris/Istanbul. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . Déroche. ed.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. 1991. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. Ñ$EG $OO K . n. 1949. xx-xxxii. . 1982.

18. 1981-83.2 (1977): 45-56. . Graz. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. Dublin. Beirut.4 (1982): 10-24. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften.10 (1975): 80-92. 1980. Hildesheim/New York. Chester Beatty Library. no. 23. DaÑwat al-|aqq. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. DaÑwat al-|aqq. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. 16. Manuscripts of the Middle East. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. 17 (1971): 43-172. Beirut. no. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. 1992. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. no.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 1983. 1 (1986): 49-53.

NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. 17. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed). no.G E (Cairo).1 (1955): 43-48. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW . 6 pl.Oá / -XP Gá al. Tehran.XOO \DW DO.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. 2.

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar).

 ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah). numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P.

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. Áa¨ ¨. Á ¨ib. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨.

ra L\D $OO K . ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah).

 abbah (ta E E.ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).

faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. Ñ UL a. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. rajÑ. = Ãurrah.

fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. / = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). tamma. aÁl. Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). malzamah.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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Bozzolo. Dain. 1993. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. 1988. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. A. 1976-1980. ed. Bernhard. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. Gumbert. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. Maniaci and P. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. Leonard. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Alphonse. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Paris. Paris. Transl. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. 1953 (repr. Sydney M. It does not. Bischoff. Les manuscrits. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. Cambridge. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. M. Bookbinding. 5 vols. 1984.1. Carla. Boyle. however. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. Munafò. Beit-Arié.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Jerusalem. Gruys and J. 5th ed. Toronto. 1993. Leiden. 2 vols.P. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Paris. London/New York. 1997. Paris. Cockerell. Vatican City. 1979). 1983. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. 1990. 1976. . Malachi. Indeed. ed.

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Taxation in Islam. Islamic quarterly. and Young.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . Ben Shemesh./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. M.L. A. nos.] Ebied.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. 18. 4 (1981): 82-103. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. [Vol.Y.J. Leiden. R. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”.1-2 (1974): 3-7. 1967. Le Muséon. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”. 87 (1974): 445-465.

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72.K OLG $¨PDG DQG 6D\\LG $P Q 6XOD\P Q ³0DU MLÑ al-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-KhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE PLQ NKLO O DO-makhà à W. [See also the English version : Arabic calligraphy in manuscripts.´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK ELDimashq.] b) Exhibition catalogues 'HUPDQ 0 8÷XU Letters in gold: Ottoman calligraphy from the Sakip Sabanci collection. Calligraphy and the decorative arts of Islam. no. . London.3 (1997): 481-526. al-< VXI . 1-27 June 1987. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 259-267. New York. Bluett. Riyad. Ahuan Gallery of Islamic Art.1987. London. Istanbul. Ernst J. 1998. 1406 [1986] : 241-254. The calligrapher’s craft. Oliver. 1976. Grube. Hoare. Summer exhibition.

4 (1986): 157-270. K. “Recherches autour l’opuscule la ‘±ikmat alLVKU T LO NXWW E DO. al-. Nabil F. including „u¨IDW O DO-DOE E by Ibn al-‚ ÐLJK  LM ] W DQG Handasat alkhaÃà by Shaykh ±DPG $OO K@ Ibn Muqlah. James. Mustafa Hakkâk-zâde. MuÐassasat al-Kuwayt lil-Taqaddum al-Ñ. Ibn Muqlah. khaÃà Ãan wa-DG EDQ ZD-LQV QDQ E\ +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG ' U DO-ShuÐ Q DO-7KDT I \DK DO-Ñ PPDK  126.I T¶ GH 0XUWD  DO-=DE G ´ 'RFWRUDO WKHVLV EPHE (Paris). [exposition]. Mohamed U. WLE ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad. Paris. Musée d’art et d’histoire. 2 (1987): 126-130. c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship Abouricha. 1977. Géza and Zakariya. 1997.. Noureddine.J. Lam¨at al-mukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃà al-Áalif HG +D\ 0X¨DPPDG 'DZVDU  . Mu¨ammd ibn Ñ$O  ³5LV ODK I DO-khaÃà wa-al-qalam”. Mizânü’l-KDWW 0 ] Q DOkhaÃÃ) . ——— “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Safwat. 25 mai –19 juin 1977. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1 M  +LO O ³1XÁ Á I DO-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-Mawrid. The harmony of letters: Islamic calligraphy from the Tareq Rajab Museum. 1992. Fehérvári. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”.G UDW DO-TaÐO I ZDal-Tarjamah wa-al-Nashr. Geneva. Cathcart and J. Sandycove. 15.XZDit. [Contains five texts: Wa   ¨at al-uÁ O I DO-khaÃà by ÑAbd al-4 GLU DO-‚D\G Z  NaÌm laÐ O DO-simà by A¨mad al- . Musée de la calligraphie arabe.F.VWDQEXO 2VPDQOÕ <D\ÕQHYL  >)DFVLPLOH HGLWLRQ RI an album calligraphed by ±akN N ] dah in 1266/1850 and containing a number of texts in Arabic and Turkish. “The commentaries of Ibn al-BaÁ Á and Ibn al-Wa¨ G on Ibn al-%DZZ E¶V µ2GH RQ WKH DUW RI FDOOLJUDSK\¶ 5 ÐL\\DK I l-khaÃÃ)”.1989: 164-191. David.OP  . Biblical and Near Eastern studies in honour of Dermot Ryan. ed. Back to the sources. Singapore. Calligraphie arabe: oeuvres du Musée de Damas. Hilmi Efendi. Adam. 2000. no. Gacek. 1988.228 BIBLIOGRAPHY Islamic calligraphy: sacred and secular writings (= Calligraphie islamique). 4 (1989): 144-149. Healey.

²ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DO.OP DO-Ñ.] d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas Á $EE V DP\ Ð Mu¨DPPDG ³1LV Ð khaÃà à W´ Al-Mawrid. %DJKG G DO-MajmaÑ al-Ñ.U T   al-AÑÌDP  :DO G Jamharat al-khaÃà à Q DO. “Der Wettsreit der Schriftarten – eine arabische Handschrift aus der Forschungsbibliothek Gotha”. American journal of Semitic languages and literatures. ed. no.4 (1987): 760-795.%DJKG G \ Q PXQGKX taÐV V %DJKG G ¨attá nih \DW DO-qarn al-U ELÑ Ñashar al-KLMU . Ekkehard. [Contains a facsimile of *K \DW DOPDU P I WDNK Ãub al-DTO P by Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $¨mad al0DTGLV @ SaÑG ) U T 5LV ODK I DO-khaÃà wa-bary al-qalam li-Ibn al-‚ Ðigh.QGH[ RI SHQPHQ LQ 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q’s ‘MuÁawwar alkhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ’”. Rudolph. Abbott. al-SaÑG DO-MawÁLO  6 OL¨ ³8UM ]DK I Ñilm rasm al-khaÃÔ. no. 63. no. 15. 62. al-$WKDU  0X¨ammad Bahjah. MELA notes. Mu¨ammad „al¨DK %LO O -HGGD ' U DO-0DGDQ   [Contains (pp. 13 (1978): 27-35. no. Nabia. Ñ . “The contribution of Ibn Mu¯lah to the North-Arabic script”. Heft 2 (1988): 301-316.I T. Sharikat al-MaÃE Ñ W 97. ed. Zuhayr = KLG DQG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.BIBLIOGRAPHY 229 5LI Ñ DO-Qasà O  0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK by Mu¨ammad al-=LIW Z  Bi  Ñat al-mujawwid by Mu¨ammad al-6LQM U DQG Shar¨ almanÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm al-NLW EDK by Ibn BaÁ Á and Ibn al-Wa¨ G@ ³5LV ODK I ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW Eah”. $OELQ 0: ³. al-=DE G  0X¨ammad Murta á.4 (1986): 141-148. al-6 ZLU  ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] ³. Ta¨T T W ZD-taÑO T W Ñalá kit E µDOKhaÃà à al-BaghG G Ñ$O LEQ +LO O DO-PDVKK U EL-Ibn alBaww E’. 2 vols.113-138) a compilation by the editor entitled: 7DWLPPDK I naqd al-DWK U DO-maÑU IDK Ñan al-khaÃà wa-al-NLW EDK. no.LW E DO-qalam li-$E 0X¨ammad al-6DUU M al-%DJKG G ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. 15.O K 1DEK Q Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK ELDimashq. 15.1 (1988): 50-65. Beirut.4 (1986): 345-376. 65. ed. %DJKGDG :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK ZD-al-IÑO P ' U DO-ShuÐ Q DO7KDT I \DK DO-Ñ PPDK 1989.1 (1994): 70-73. 56 (1939): 71-83. ÑAbd al-Laà I DO-5 Z DQG ÑAbd al. Der Islam.

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A selection of fine and rare Holy Quran leaves and manuscripts exhibited by the National Bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (= MaÑri  al-MuÁ¨af al-6KDU I. 1. Exhibition catalogues The Holy Quran in manuscript. QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS VIII.BIBLIOGRAPHY 247 VIII.

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E. Steiner. 1994. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets.). 1994. 1994. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. 2nd ed. J. (ed.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . Hunwick. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. and Stolbova. Ibrahim. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. 1994. 1994. O. M.1: Text. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. A. 1996. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. W. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . 2: Ab-bildungen. Mosak Moshavi and B.C. Y. M.). V. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. R. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . Phonology. 2 Parts. Jagd. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. 1996. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. S. (eds. Hofheinz. 1995. H. Tanz und verwandten Themen. Compiled by John O. und Sardshweladse. Roman Loimeier. 1900. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. und Herb. R. Abu Salim.). Porten.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. M. (eds. Bd. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. and O’FAHEY. Marín. Chief consultant to the editor. Orthography. Manuel de recherche. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. Band 22 . Bd. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 .HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. Judaism in Late Antiquity. I.). 1994. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. Judaism in Late Antiquity. A. K. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. 1994. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. M. B. Nouns. with the assistance of M. O’Fahey. and Peters. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. V. Spiel. A. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. (éd. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. and Jongeling. S. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . With Full DefiniKinberg. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. (ed. K. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. References and Index of Texts Cited. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. J. Hamidu Bobboyi. (ed. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. J. Compiled by R. S. 1996.T.). Materials for a Reconstruction. 1995. Volume I. J. With appendices by R.). O. Vikør. 1980-1993.Lagarde.F. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. V. S. Numerals. 1994. Arabic Literature of Africa. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. V. N. S. 1995. Radtke and K.L. L. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. 1995.

H.W. H. 1997. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber.H. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. G. Bonner. 1. and Neusner. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. 1999. H. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. T. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. 1999. 1999. J. and Sou‘ek.J. 1997. M. 2: 1988-1992. van. A. D. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. 1999. J. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. D. V. W. Religious Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. 1998. F. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. 1996. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. B. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. 1999. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene.1: B. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. W. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török.F. N. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . and Porten. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). Translated from the German by M. 1999. Mesopotamian Lexicography. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. Judaism in Late Antiquity. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic.G. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. The Mishnah. J. III. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. and Pingree. Vol.1. 2 Volumes. 1997. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. B. Terms and Topics. Vol. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. J. 1997. 1999. 1999. Index of Names. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. G. Social Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. III. L. 1998. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. 2000. M. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. 1999. H. The Mishnah. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. The Empire of the Mahdi. The Kingdom of Kush. J. J.L. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. Vol. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. 1: A. A Bibliography.J. and Wyatt.E. The Rise of the Fatimids. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. R. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. R. 1997. 1999. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil.2.Band 26 Halm. Judaism in Late Antiquity. H. J. and Healey.

(2 Volumes) 2000. Theory of Israel. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek.Band 50 Tal.2. Culture. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. 2001. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. B.. 1 : Glossary 2001. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. Judaism in Late Antiquity V..E. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. 2000.J.. and Society in Eastern Arabia. The Arabic manuscript tradition. Neusner. A. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. Dialect.3. A.4. Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. Ch. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. B. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic.J. 2001. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. and Chilton. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. C. 2000.. J.J. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. 2001. Vol.J. World View. Comparing Judaisms. A. R. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. A. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. Band 56 Avery-Peck. R. 2001. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. 2001. and Neusner. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . de. A. A.. J. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. 2001. J.1. J. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. U. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. and Chilton. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. and Neusner.

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