THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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................................................................................................... XI Preface .....................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements .............. XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( .......................................

.............................. 181 Periodicals .... 181 Bibliographies .......... 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ............................... 1 Abbreviations ..................... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK. 156 1........................ 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................... 156 2....................... Sources/References ......................................... 182 General studies and surveys ...................................... 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ...... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ................................ Technical terms in the glossary ............ ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 177 I.

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

............ 238 c) Descriptions of individual works............................ 5....................................................................... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship .............. 7.................................................................... 242 c) Other studies.......................... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS .... 236 Painted illustration ................... 238 a) Drawing............................................................................. 256 Some specific cases ........................................................ 238 b) Other studies ................. 247 Later QurÐans........................ 6................ 3....... 256 1........................................................... 240 Papercuts ............................................................ 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas .. 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ................ 247 1................ General studies ............................... 226 Calligraphy ................................... 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries ......................... 4...........................................................) .... 243 2...... 251 Facsimile editions ................... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues .................................................... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments.......................................................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration ................................... VIII.. 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ... 2........................................................ 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper........ 4....................... TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ........ 241 Bookbinding ...................................................................................................................................... Exhibition catalogues........................................ 259 ............................. 2...................................... 255 IX............ 242 a) Bibliography.................................................................................................................. etc.......... ..................................................... 3... 239 Lacquer ................................................................................................. 8......

.. COLLECTIONS................................................................... CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS.. 3....................................................... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ......... Descriptions of collections and catalogues ...... Catalogues of catalogues ............ PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ............................................. ...... 261 XI.................................... 266 1.... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts ........ 5. 263 XII................ 4.. 266 266 267 267 268 ...........X CONTENTS PREFACE X................... CATALOGUING.................... 2. ETC......................

PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. . My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. Last but not least. David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day.

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2). most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. the preparation of inks. VII. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. Along with this manuscript output. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. Arab authors. papermaking and bookbinding. scholars. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. both religious and scientific in nature.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.). DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.VKE O G 1231). the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7.10/16th cent.

RI .EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO.

the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. Furthermore. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials.

who in his work on education. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. lineation). mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. as well as on the collation and correction of books.984/1577). RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . which deals with the preparation of inks. al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). Finally. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling.

calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). book lovers and cataloguers. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. writing surfaces and implements used. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. for the first time. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. as well as extant specimens. . as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. some of the most important research in this field published to date.g. Nevertheless. Some terms. bound and decorated. even in its present form. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. e. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. contemporary studies and catalogues. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. this chapter has been omitted. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. It brings together. corrected. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. which spans almost 14 centuries. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. could be very misleading. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. as it were. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. The glossary is a by-product. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). To translate. medieval and postmedieval texts. especially those relating to book formats. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. respectively. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive.

The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). flap). as yet. flap). on the other hand. case (box). OLV Q (central Arab lands). Some. North Africa). for example. raddah (Levant). We do not. recto. Ñaqb. recto. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). marjiÑ (Morocco). OLV Q (‘tongue’. for example. miqlab (Levant. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. serif. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. Here we find. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. however. upper cover). Thus. Therefore. Áadr (‘chest’. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. khadd (‘cheek’. medallion. Thus. envelope flap). The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. catchword). upper margin. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. been largely omitted here. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. period and/or region in which they were employed. Here. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. fore-edge.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. catch- . shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. Ñaqib (‘heel’. lower margin. may have been used exclusively in those circles. outer or inner margin). book cover). inkwell and the like. fore-edge). and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. however. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). incipit. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. for example. Iraq). raÐs (‘head’. and V TLÃah (Yemen). wajh (‘face’. udhn (‘ear’. great caution is in order. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. catchword.

Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary.XVI PREFACE word). the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. On the whole. . This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script. As far as transliteration is concerned. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. Most words are traced to a source. either contemporary or earlier.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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miµbar 1.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. syn. I. 60. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. 107. 8). ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. GA. 107. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS.v.v. SA. I. 182).  EU  ZDUDT DO. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. I. 13. I. of minfadh (q. 154.) (DD. ibar) – needle (UK. AG. IA. TS. GA. 59. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. 97-98. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. AG. 12. RN. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). DB.). 104. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. ebrû. needle case (DM) 2. III. SD. from Pers. among other things. I. 176-178) 2. muµabbar – sewn (KC. 9. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. 392). DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. ibrah (pl. ST. 103. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. II. 97. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. 8). MB. index. 18-19. 2: ibrishmah). 215.EU .

 .

LEU VLP.4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP. LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.

n. I. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). – closing matter of the text (composition). abbrev. (DB. 62. 53). taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. ilá NKLULK – et cetera. explicit (TP.14).

71-72. 175-176). adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. tanned red leather (DB. AE. 63. leather (UK. DG P (pl. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. I. MF. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. scribal etiquette 2. udum) 1. – etiquette (EI. IW. 106-108) 2. 52). adam(ah). I. passim.

\XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. MU. XIV.

jild.. DGG P – tanner (DM). comp. DG K SO DGDZ W.

DGDZ W O W. tool.g. I. 345). – V\Q ODK (EI. e. instrument. implement.

153-156. writing MB. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

JKXU E – the last hour of day. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. VI. 250).

RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20). alDZ NKLU . al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al.Oá (al-uwal) (1-10).NKLUDK DO-ukhar.

g. VI. li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. e. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. 248-249). -30) (SA.

235). nos. EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . II. VI. e. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA.DP O 3 VK 73  CI. 106. al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month.EQ .g.EQ . 244-248).VI. 244-249). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . 178).

al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9. -248).

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A.1st 5509 B. FZ.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 670). 6$ 9. IV. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn.C. (EI. ar„ \DK – background (LC. 262. X. ER. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . taµU NK-L PDODN .D. JL. 22. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK.

 .

taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ. II.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. XVK UDK. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah).

15. KM. uÁ O. 10: ishfah. 59. IA. ST. punch (TS. IB. I. sifr 4. MB. 115). – awl. 90. AG. IK. 11. 107. a¦l (pl. 103. 43: VKDI .

.  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9.. .

SD. 26. VIII. exemplar. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. 27) 3. II. original (main) text. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. MH. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. MU.

2024. 136).. but also 0= . . XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. MI.

23) 4. 126. SM. major work (TM. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

24. 80) 3. . 24. I. 24).  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. KR. 145). frame (within a border) (TF. tabula ansata (UI. 24. rectangular panel (LC. i¨ U (pl. 27) 6. textual surround (LC. ià U W XÃur) 1. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. border (of a book cover) (LC. FT. 25. 402) 2. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. . 29) 5. UI. i. rule-border. headpiece (LC. 928). 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. rules. DB.e.

8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-. writing circa 1375’ (DW.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. ER. 46). I. taµO I DK. DIVK Q (Pers.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. 6.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages. according to other sources al. 32). 581-582).

taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W. (pl.

muÐDOODI W. muµallaf (pl.

work (of prose or poetry) (SD. – composition. . comp. umm.1 . 33. 360). writer. comp. ummah . compilation. taÁQ I muµallif – author. I. EI. X. muÁannif.

SO XPPDK W.

26). used in mosques (KN. umm al-NLW E 1.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. 35. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. transcript (from which another copy is made). 26. TM. . exemplar. SD. . I. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. 246) 3. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. shar¨ (IN. copy. 130) 4. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. 29). original (main) text. I. archetype (LC. as opposed to a commentary.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

textus receptus (NT. KF. 99. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). II. II. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. 39). al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. LP P – exemplar. . II. 294). Umm al-EXOG Q. archetype. 37. Umm al-qurá.

taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q).GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. I. comp. tadabbur. II. 99). usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. (CI. II. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. abbrev. LL. xiv. 2812). taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn.

or /'    $'  (. . .

XQE E DK. FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã.

SO DQ E E.

BA. III. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. – unpared. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. 31. II. III. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. 370. 31). anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. 370). unnibbed reed (FN. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. LM. KU. LQV see sinn.

n. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. 52. AA. initia. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition).14. I. JA. incipit. (TP.

 .

taµZ O (pl.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taÐ Z O.

taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q. – interpretation.g. explanation (e.

34). bu¨ U. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. baŒr (pl. passim) 2. acephalous. **** PDEW U 1. incomplete (of text) (KC. imperfect.

33. . 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . cartouche (TS. – panel on a book cover. JL. 110. AG.

40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). bidl '% . tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. . 355). WDENK U – fumigation (TS. badal.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 [LLL.. . RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &.

fasc. EI. 153-154. II. conjectural substitution. I. 412) 2. 100-103). SD. wifq (US. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. conjecture. . fasc.3-4. stitution. alteration (CL. DT. comp.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. suppl. 59-60. 49.3. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. RU badal respectively (KG. MZ. also WDEG O – subal-matn. 296).

417. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). papyrus sheet or roll (DB. IA. IV. DD. qirà V mibrad – file. VIII. comp. lin. QS. 64-66). I. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). 407. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. 521-522. EI. I. WS.GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . sifr 13. rasp (HT. 60. publishing (KM. EDUG \DK – papyrus. II. 390: for trimming).84.

 . LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. I. EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. 545).

EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . – endband (headband) (ST. 8. 17-18. 81. EDUVK P. index. n. ST. IB.148).

 al-PXE UDN DK.

– epithet of the months of ‚afar. ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY.

nuskhah. DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. etc. ELUN U SO EDU N U.

III. (pair of) dividers (SA. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 . – compass.9.  '0.

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

18). 12. Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS. .

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

 ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. SA. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU.). III.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). 455 6. 232. 85. PLEU K SO PDE ULQ. bary. KK. 49). trimming (of a reed ) (IR. ELU \DK – paring.v. EDUU \DK. 154: IK.

IK. index. 591). 64. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . I. mibzaq – lancet-like knife. SD. 8. 81). – pen knife (AA. DB. 88. 90. bas¨ – spreading out. DA: mibzagh. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. flattening (of a letter). I.   $6 . MP...

144) 4. III. unabridged work. 87) 3. rectilinear (of a script. jazm (IK. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. 120) 2. horizontal stroke. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. comp. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. AS. line (KU. mukhtaÁar. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). PDEV ¨ 1. original (comprehensive). 34. syn. KH.

13. maÁ ¨if. 365. basmalah SO EDV PLO. 144). well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. 322). (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. 47. TW.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

bashra¨ 1. 12). 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). 145). 155). 109. silk endband (headband) (HT. 1084-1085). and opening a composition (TP. 58. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. paring. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. 9. 78: ‘racler. TS. 161. 58. 63. AG. ratisser des peaux’. dressing (of leather) (UK.) (AS. LF. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts.v. 78. 23-24. erased. register (AD. bi¨ TDK (pl. lin. baà Ðiq) 1. slip (of paper) 2. also known as al-JKXE U (q. EI. piece.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. HT. ST. catalogue. I.97. buà Q. IA. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. 52. MP. index.111) 2. bashr 1. lin. ba¨n (pl. LF. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. PDEVK U – pared.

al-NLW E. inner cover. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. flesh side (of parchment). E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side.

AG. HD. 408) 2. doublure (LC. pasteboard (UK. paste-down endpaper. 112). IA. lin. MB. 49. MA. lining (FT.73-79) 3. 102. 47. baà Ðin) 1. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. 159. 23. UK. IV. passim. 60. 89. bi¨ QDK (pl. HT. 22-23. 117. endpaper. – inner cover. doublure (TS. IB. endleaf (ST.

. 92).  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' .

index. leather or silk (ST. XIV. lining of the insides of book covers with paper.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. 9. MU.

87). 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. 2. II. bary. MB. used for a transposed word. 61.v. 370). ba¶du – after. III. abbrev. removal of sha¨mah (q. /( . comp. BA. paring (of the calamus) (KD.) from the reed (IK.

separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP.20). also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. 53. separation (MM. tab¶ „ – word division. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). n. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U.

also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 156. MB. measuring distances. 60. – compass. 105). biUN U WDEN U. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. (MB. TU. IB. MP. (pair of) dividers (UK. 59. 101. IA. 44. 103. 58. comp. 103. 153. 104. etc.

mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. I. MB. 153. 103. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. 42. 59). DD. IA. 380. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. IB. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. comp. 391).

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

comp. 268. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . I.9 SO. 45: EXO JK). JA. damaged (TS. 56. CT. E OLQ – worn.  EDO . TP.119.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

IV. 36). 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. E E SO DEZ E. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). EI. kha¨¨L E KDU.

abbrev. 0. – chapter. .

376). mubawwib – compiler (DF. 53. 609. bayt SO EX\ W. murattib. comp. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF.20). IV. TP. n.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

110). KR. frame (as part of the border. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 33). . 31-33. Ãurrah) (TS. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. 95. AG. 31. 110) 4. AG. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. compartment (in such a box) 3. 32. 82). 97. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. Bayt al-Maqdis.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

tibr – gold. KR. AG. . 82).GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 30-31. 95. 97. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . gold dust (AQ. 110). also TS. W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL.

 takht SO WXNK W.

TD. wooden pressing board (TS.  . KM. index. sifr 13. earth. index. 94. 42.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. 9. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. HT. KU. 127-. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. 156. WXU E – dust. I. 120). 9).  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. 24. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. 6. lin. AG. IV. sand. 82. 107) 3. 22. IB.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 6$ II. 478-480).

detailed title of a book. 122) 3. chapter heading (IN. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . 28) 4. title (of a book) (LC. AH.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. indicating its contents (DB. key word (LC. II. 28. 165).

decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. disc) or margins (e. 27) 8.g. headpiece or tailpiece (LC. medallion) .  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. paragraph (LC. 27) 7. 27) 6.g.

18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. 1021). 186. explanation. DB. interpretation. translation (EI. biographer 2. X. X. 260. illuminator (TW.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. 29-31. mutarjim 1. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. translator. 224) 12. cryptography (AA. 30) 9. II. II. IT. tirs. biographical note. also mutarjam (e. ‘QaÁ GDW . 28. 1021) 13. 270). exegesis (DB.g. turs SO WXU V. biography (EI. 29. 224) 10.

KR. 145. 103. writing tamma (lit. 15). 44) 3. rosette (HD. LC. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. IP. IB. 116). taftar see daftar. illuminated oval medallion. 95. 28) 2. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. oval. shamsah. WDWP P – completion. turunj(ah) 1. execution. PA. corner-piece (ST. index. comp. 9. 82). – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. 69. 97.

often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. . 46). WDP P – end. comp. 177-178). xiii). WDP Ðim) – amulet. [LLL at the end of the colophon. finish. X. talisman (EI. . used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). supplement . comp. continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). RU CM. ¨add. &. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. WDP PDK (pl. abbrev. tatimmah – supplementation. II.

FK. II.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. 100. copying (MH. no.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. 101.

atKE W. XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’. thabat (pl.

I. 157) 2. GA.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. written testimony (SD. document. muÑjam. 234. 288: syn. record of attested study (HB.

I. also WDWKE W – attestation. vocalization (AD. 18) 2.  WDEOH RI contents. WKDE W – signature (SD. LWKE W 1. 157). authentication (formula). usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨.

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. 53. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. muthabbit. n. GA. CT. 45.25. 289).

I. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. writer of the audition note (MH. 101. 330). 45). SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. CT. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL.

107). ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. AS. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. III. WKDT O (lit. . 147). AG. 11.

T OLE.in Persia. 1125in Turkey). al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. 51). . (TN. abbrev. 349). I. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. III.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA.9 . TU. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. JM. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL.

DO-thumn. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. octagon (EI.VII. 795-.

I. 12. VI.VI. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. abbrev. see also mashÐalah. 232-234) . muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. [LY )0 167. . 232-234.  RU &. I. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. 102). Taf. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points). PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above.. MI. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 361). SA. 361). MZ. no. .13.

GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& . either illuminated or stamped (KI. decorative medallion or panel.

83: M PDK ZXV¨á .  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 88. 87.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK . JL.

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

nos. WDMG G – repair. 141). mending. restoring manuscripts. interlace (TF. jabr – repairing. 43).41. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. 99. restoration (KR. repair (SJ. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. braid. 87). 99). rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. corner-piece (JL. 100). 83. PDMG O SO PDM G O.

33. 42). no. 175) 5. 370. DT. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. table of contents (CM. I. chart. II. table (LC. 24) 4. 50. 63) 3. 56. KC. 148. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). . mujadwal – ruled (LC. 26). rules. magic square. 160) 2. 32). – leather strap. TW. diagram. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. creating rule-borders (WB. thong (KC. 108). column (of text) (SD.6/2) 6. talismanic seal (EI.

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

.. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ . FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah.   .

331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. inventory (SD. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. KF. register.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). abridgement (SD. scraper (MB. DD. WDMU G 1. extract. I. DG. 27). FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . jard al-matn see matn. I. 112. 107. 184. 183). MDU GDK – list. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . I. II. mijrad(ah) – file.

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

passim). majran SO PDM ULQ. HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. jirm wasaÃ. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ.

8 154). passim: Œazz. jazz – trimming. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. 62). shaving (MB. IA. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K .

. rough copies 2. 19.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. 103).2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. MU. I. n. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. KF. inset (UI. VII. 132.

AI.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). 79. booklet. single-quire codex.

passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. small piece of writing. 128) 6. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. DEEUHY RU (CI. usually not more than a quire (IJ. 128). juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. xii) 4. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. 705). small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. 90). chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. 711). VII. I. tomaison) (SJ. II. independent. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK.

99. jazm – reed pen. IK. 421). 143. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. LL. 90). PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. 87: qalam jazm. 38). al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. MP. 7-9. 89. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. I. MB.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. 13). . for other signs representing jazmah see GL. LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

23). Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. – background (UK.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

)1   ...  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ . ..

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. 1123). III. G Z Q MDO (SA. . 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. IV.

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

416-417). 47. LC. VIII. 123 and IX. II.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. majlis SO PDM OLV. 26).

  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. . 1020). majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. sitting. majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. VIII.. – session.

julfah – nib (of the calamus. the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. KU. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). 459-460. II. jalam SO DMO P. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah.

-XP Gá al. CM. II. IR. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. -XP Gá al. no. IK. / / (OS.Oá. 91-92.NKLU. 230). 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar.NKLUDK DO.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). abbrev. CI. – (pair of) scissors (DS. 89.

composition. rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. / (OS. 89). 34) 3. III. contraction (of letters) (KU. abbrev. SA. compilation. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar.9 . jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. 126. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') .

major original compilation. 352).  FN.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. . the QurÐ Q 8. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ .g. e.

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. III.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ). II.

box (NM. DG. I. AG. NH. SD. 683) 4. 106. codex compositus (LC.  '' . 393) 1. 233. case.  composite volume. 12. 380).  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). mujamma¶ (UA. inkwell 6' . majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). 32) 2. writing case. 25). 13) 3. tool box. TM. 52. 37. jumal. 52. case with compartments (TS. 217. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. escritoire (TW. inkwell for coloured ink (TC.

145). M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. II. index. MI.) (AS. knife (TS. MDZ E (pl. MDQ Œ (pl. 10). ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. abbrev. 110. 11. ajwibah) – responsum. ST. 61. IA. (CI. index. 109. better known as al-JKXE U (q. 107: for cutting gold leaf .v. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. – book cover (ST. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. xiv. AG. IA. 10).111).

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

IJ). statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. 126-130. VIII. 273-275. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . ER. licence. 27. 1020-1021. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. LB. 24. III. – authorization. EI. certificate of transmission.

181). LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. .9 . (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (.GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah.

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license). M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH.

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

II. 154: wa-al-M EDK . NH. SA. LQNZHOO (HI. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. AT. 133. 381: jawn. 179. DS. KU. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 468.

see also the quotation under miqlamah). also known as waqabah. DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   .

a¨E U. **** Œibr (pl.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

Œibr al-raqq. -100 and MB. 13. sifr 13. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. IR. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. MP. IV. n. 8. KM. MJ. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. MP. 101-110 and MB. UK. 18-21.53. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. 6: wa-al- .

7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . IV. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. MR. 349. 134-135. AT.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. I. IK. 127-131. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . MA. SA. IK. see LL. LM. AE. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. II.

2016). 354). FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. embellishment (DB. III. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. miŒbarah (pl. ma¨ ELU.

SA. III..  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ .  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. 372. II.

SA. 468-. 443. II.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133.

compiler (SS. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. a¨E V. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). muŒabbir – author. WR. inscribing in ink (SM. SK. elegant. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. 15. inking. SA. 119). transcription (TE. 89). 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. Œubs (pl. embellished writing (composition) or copying. I. taŒE U 1. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. II. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. 87.

 taŒE V (pl. ta¨E V W.

104 ff..  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. 157. MM. IA. endbanding with silk 2. 62. Œabk 1. 109. n.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. MB. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding).. comp. bequest note (LC. decorative endband (UK. 18-20. 132) 3.. 154. also Œabkah – endband (headband). 28). stitching (of a book) (TM. AG. TS. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . sewing. waqf. .

 VSLQH 74 .

3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. AG. 109. 19. AG. 109). 19. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS.

 .

478). I. 11. 246). bookbinder (IB. 28). AG.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 19. 109). ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. AD. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. 19. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. 19. ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. 109). AG. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. n.

Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. (OS. 69). miŒjar. ma¨ MLU. 10). Œajar al-misann – whetstone. hone (TS. Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). maŒjar (pl. ŒLM E (pl. abbrev. 60). 89). ajar al-¨XP ¨im). amulet (DT. ¨ujub) – talisman. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM).

index. 36). 99. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. 107.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH.10. AG. MP. 38. UK. MB. ST. 36) 2. 142: 12.

 .$ .

H. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A. 2733. FN. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV.

 FRPS . I .

30 GLOSSARY Œadd. 711). Œadd (pl. ¨XG G. taŒG G – whetting. honing (of a knife) (KD. II.

used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. ŒDG G DK. – limit. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). end.

59). MJ. 59. AG. 109. MP. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. (pl. MB. ¨XG U. 10. 188). 29. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. 31. IA. 138). 393. TS. Œadr (pl. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. 105.

48. EI. ornamental surround. 15. AG. 145.g. editor. penman. transcription (TE. AQ. 16. TE. copying. muŒarrir – 1. 58. 10. 16) 5. III. index. 2408. 50. PA. ŒDU U – silk (ST. with black ink (TE. compiler (SS. editing (of a manuscript text). revised version (edition). redaction (CM. 15) 4. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. ER. 109. SK. IP. taŒU U 1. composition (GA. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ .. DB. IV. 701. IV. 38. e. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. secretarial style of shikastah script. 119) 2. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. 214) 8. 15) 3. 73) 2. calligrapher. outline. 16) 6. 1124. muŒarrar (pl. 13. author. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. TE. 286). 50). ÁaÑd. MU. AF. – descender (down-stroke. terminal of a letter) (AA.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. frame. fair copying (TE. 52. 246) 7. 64. XVII. IV. elegant writing. mu¨DUUDU W. comp. 215-227).

calligraph (DP. 53). Œard al-matn see matn. . – piece of calligraphy.

a¨U ] ¨XU ].GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl.

maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. – talisman. amulet (DT. IV.g. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. 69). e. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K.

549).g. 230. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. e. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. 463. LM. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. LL. III. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . 596-560). II. border. distortion. Œarf (pl. II. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. KK. trimming (HT. miŒra„ah. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). 39-42) 2. cutter).  . I. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal.80-86). usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word.' . sharp edge (of a knife. taŒU I 1. ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. letter.. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. lin. word 2.9 . Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. Œarf (pl. ¨iraf) – edge. DS. error.

. FRPS TLU Ðah.

641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). 224). III. MJ. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. comp. falsification (of a text).32 GLOSSARY  08 . Œarakah (pl. ¨DUDN W. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. 57. 59. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. MQ.

al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. miŒU N – spatula. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. MB. 704. UA. KD. comp. II. 65. 112-113. – vowel (GL. taŒU N – vocalization. 393). 8). shakl. Mecca and Medina. vowelization (DM). MuŒarram (al-¨DU P.

 al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. 89). Œizb (pl. al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. a¨] E.). (OS.v. abbrev.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

index.. Œazm . 28. ST. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. ST. 11). 11.

III. ŒLV E – calculation. 54: EI. 468). computation. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. chronosticon (TP. .

EI. II. 269-270. VI.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . 302). ¨DZ VKLQ. see SA. abbrev.

112. IA. scholium. IA. marginalia. apostil. often abbreviated as or . border (on a book cover) (MB. lin. 217-219. 109) 3. collection of glosses. FZ. 63) 2. MD. MB. 63. 118.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. margin (of a page) 4. 119. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss.

73  00 139. 63. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. pl. JM. IV. EI. IX. III. parenthesis. DB. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. FI. AG. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. ¨DZ VKLQ. 222. FT.54. Œashw(ah) 1. 268-269. 1820). 977). 71) 2. 30. 65. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. 145. 110. gutter. interpolation. AS. 412. 89-90). Œ VKLQ (pl. 60.

(MI. 322. nos. glossed. taŒshiyah – glossing. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . 296. 332). xi. gloss (AM. muŒashshin – glossator. CI. II. Œa¦ramah – paring. AD.74. III. 26. 34). abbrev. . muŒashshá – provided with glosses. trimming (of a reed) (BA.

89. 546). no. taŒ¦ O – copying. . I. transcription (FK.

5. IB. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. IA.31). 60. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. AG. burnisher. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. I. 6. 34). TS. ÑDU T W. 118: mikhaÃà (!). smoothing leather (ST. polisher (KM. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. n.). sifr 4. 107.v. MB. comp. 29.

PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . 302) 2. 35. KH. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. I. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. headpiece (LC. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). 34. surround. 24). Œa„ UDK (pl. RN. frame (SD.

the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . box (KC. Œif„ – learning by heart. NT. memorization (TP. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. a¨fiÌah). small box (DG. 44) 2. preservation. 55. II. ŒLI „ (pl.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. miŒfa„ah – case. 51).

89. MR. critical edition (of a text) (MH. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. text editing.

(al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. editor. muŒaqqiq – corrector. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q.

U T and alZDUU T (FN. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . III. 13) 2. 12. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

1125.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. III. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. EI. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. 78. IR. LM.in Persia. 1123. IV. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. comp. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. TU.in Turkey).

ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q.) (DD. 31). effacement (TP. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB.v. IA. mibrad (q. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. 59) 3. ¨alaq. MM.v. 112. miŒakk(ah). Œalqah (pl. 104. 58. syn. 137). erasure.) (UK. pumice (MB. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). syn. 392. scroll (in design) (UI. I. 141) 2. ¨DODT W. 62) 2. Œakk – rubbing out. NH. IA. miŒakk al-rijl 1.

II. study circle. scholar’s circle (SL.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. part of a clasp) (BA. 27). AI. III. 372) 2. ma¨ O T. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. 48.

139). 422. . AB. 136. – tendril (FT.

 composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. Œilyah.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. taŒliyah – decoration. 204-209). embellishment (KT. 416). 150-151). al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah. taŒP G DK.

Œumrah 1. TP. 38. 53. 122-123).20. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. 24) 2. red ink (LC. rubrication. 95). – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. TB. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. EI. rubrics (CM. III. n. red colour.

ME. 15. maŒmil 1.  ‘pupitre’). 169. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . exemplar. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 29). TP. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. also miŒmal. TW. TP. amulet (DT. 56-57. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. sifr 13. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. ta¨ Q VK. 566. IV. 24). IV. 86) 3. LC. ÑUthmanic canon. 286. 51). taŒQ VK (pl. WA. 24. ŒDP ODK (pl. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. 55). ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. codex (MA. archetype (KM. book cradle (TC. 69).

143) 3. ST.) (MP.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. . compass. 11) 2. 44). 138. interlace (TF. 58. (pair of) dividers (IB. index. rope work.

 munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O.GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. II. 700).

ma¨ ZLU. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). miŒwar (pl.

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

 FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). maΠU DK. 144). as opposed to the border (TF. 138.

II. 665). 483). Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. MH. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. Œawqalah. TP. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. I. TP. ¨awr (LL. 171. 149-150). taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). 104-105). 99. 109. 58: as a means of cancellation. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. 97. Œ µil. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG.

abbrev. 73 . RQH LVQ G from another.

 .

tool. 214) 3. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. stamping. colophon (TM. sealing. MI. khatm 1.g. 24. tooling 2.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. panel (in decoration) (UI. stamp. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . 35). seal. 3. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. 31). **** NK QDK – compartment.

khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' . RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS).

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .9 . recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. – 1.

 . NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P ..

NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. 108) 3. 109. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. e. IA. CI. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. talismanic seal (DT. 110. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. 29.g. 63). . AG.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. 144). DT. OS) 2. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. 34. 130. 169. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). I.9 1105.

n. LNKWLW P 1. FT. colophon (UI. . tailpiece (HD. 8. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. conclusion. 52.14) 3. 396) 4. 108). 5. explicit. epilogue 2.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ . – inner or outer margin (IM.

 takh„ ¶ – rounding. 385). 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. also LVWLNKU M (TW. backing (of the spine) (HN.

RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK.

explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ . FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce.

la¨aq (TP.0 . comp. TM.  omission. 187-188. 58. insertion. ) 4. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   .

243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . n. reference mark (signe de renvoi). extract from a book. ÑaÃfah. 58.73: in the form of a curved line.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. 606) 6. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. copying. transcription (TW. quotation (TM. pl. or a caret.. 169) 7. omission.) . 718). I. KF. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. insertion 2. I.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. WDNKU MDK 1. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

mukhraj – insertion (MH. mukharraj. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK.

mustakhrij. TW. 384. mukharrij – compiler. II. NM. excerpting. 126130). vox reclamans (MA. catchword. copying (DM) 2. 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. . 39). 683). selector (DF. IV. LVWLNKU M 1. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC.

40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. ST. MP. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. 59). OM). al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. punch (SA. 99. 181). 481. index. 35. 12. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). II. DS.

70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94). khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK.

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

palmette (KH. comp. 36). Ãurrah.  DQVD roundel. khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. Ã P.

59) 3. 114. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr.166). comp. index. MB. 27. 12. 459). polishing cloth (MB. 157. blank. undoing the sewing (ST. sewing (of quires) (UK. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. lacuna (SJ. 104. 60. 15. HT. MP. lin. MB. khirqah (pl. 109) 2. 481) 2. IA. SA. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. kharm 1. gap. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. khiraq) 1. scrap (of paper) (DM). 17. II. 347. II. 154. MI. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W.

 .

NKLU. 233: feuillets décousus. 26). TC. en vrac. KF.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. II. fragments (HB. 26. incomplete (TC. munkharim – imperfect. PDNKU P.

kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. sifr 13. khazz SO NKX] ]. IV. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. II. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). 527).

al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. VII. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. 107. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. 55-56. TP. NKL] QDK. siglum. – silk. xiii-xiv. abbreviation (contraction. AD. 46). comp. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. epitome (EI. library. kharm and ¨azm. suspension. 23-24) 3. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. 25-26). WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 107). I. 536-540. EA. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. 159-160. maktabah. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. abridgement. . 27. GL. 119). 14-15. AG. comp. AG. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. II.

52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . 34-38) 2. khuà Ã) 1. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. stroke. writing. handwriting. penmanship (ML. calligraphy. mark. script.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. sign.

CI. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. al-DTO P DO-sittah. 887: ER. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . scriptio plena. khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. copied by (e. yad.. IV. 103). used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. script (text) see also Ñajam. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. 144). as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). 83. scriptio defectiva. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . AS. 681). also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. comp.g.8  51  $6 . 41. 114. EI. 358). LM. I. al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text).. comp. III. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of.

 khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .8  $6 .

I. makh¨ ¨ (pl. 80). comp. 380). khi¨ ¨ah – writing. 26). makhà à W. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. no. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. penman.1. paleography (KJ. calligraphy (WR.

index. 110) 2. drawing (MB. tracer (ME. takh¨ ¨ 1. UA. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. mikha¨¨ 1. MB. manuscript codex. straightedge (LL. reed pen. I. 98. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. 118. 110. tracing. writing. 61) 2. ruling (of lines). calamus (AA. 760). 555. . I. 60. LL. 103. implement (made of wood. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). IA. 760. 12).  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript.

speech 2. honorific (e. akhÃibah) 1. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. address. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. letter.g. sifr 13. IV.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. note. khi¨ E (pl.1).

al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving.g. 145). mukhtaÁar. 44: ornament). NKLO I SO NKLO I W. AG. 105. comp. n. 14). takhallu¦ – pseudonym. 109). fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. IA. trimming (TS. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. 25. X. abbrev. 156. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. 53. extract. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. epitome.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. preface (LC. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. 59. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. 123). 18. IB. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). RIWen unpointed) (GL.20). MB. abridgement. NKDI I (lit. TP.

g. 273. MU. LNKWLO I – variant reading. 95. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. TP. XVII. 46. varia lectio (e. XII. 52. 58). MH. XI. .

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

126. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W.

 SO WDNK P V.

). al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. – pentastich amplification of a poem. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. 405. AD. X. I. 50. 97). 123-125).v. pentameter (SD. 401). 95. EI. LNKWL\ U. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL.

43. I. 107-108). index. IR. 12.e. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. endbanding without silk (TS. i. MB. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). IB. index. 12. 12). AG. 94-95). 19.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. – anthology (EA. thick needle (ST. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. index. 109).

 .

250). VI. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA. G E M SO GDE E M.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl.

– silk brocade (MU. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. XIV.

 G E MDK 1. preface. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY. exordium.

259) 2. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. WDGE M 1. tadabbur – consideration. 65. 52. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. adorning something with arabesques. /& ) 2. TW.v). PA. composition (of a text) (DM). 115). GLE JK DK. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. creating headpieces (AD. frontispiece (MD. headpiece. reflection. 127.

suppl. – tanning (MB.3-4. I. EI. MP. 63. 60). IA. 172). 114-115. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. fasc.. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. 140-143.

236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q.  IR. 8.

dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. darj.

SO GXU M DGU M.

68. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. 868: also daraj. rotulus (IK. 141. parchment or paper (AJ. 138. I.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. roll. I. 138: al- . LL. SA. IK.

$  Q.46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

432). dirafsh – awl. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. inset (SD. punch (IA. dast(ah) SO GXV W.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. 142) 3. darmak – farina. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. 13. AG. I. 107). 287). 60). WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

 XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. rizmah. SD. PT. IB. 44). 81. 39. 156. GXVW U SO GDV W U. 105. I. 524) 2. 94. IV. kaff 3. comp. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). 59. MA. 92. MB. burnisher (UK. AB. IA. 145. 96. 92. wide polisher. WS.

.  KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN.  .  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP .) .

 DXWKRU’s original. holograph (LC. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. I. 23) 3.

. dasht – loose leaves. HB. unbound book. II. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. book consisting of loose leaves (KF.

GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. AA. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. pious invocation. II. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). supplication.. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . TP.. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. formula of benediction. (see e. hence mudgham – contracted.  . daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. 54.+ 35). assimilated (KU. ‘prayer of request’ (EI.g. adÑiyah) 1. etc. 150-156). 617-618) 2.

al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. 13). index. ST. pasteboard (ST.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim).Oá (ST. index. book cover. al-daffah al. 104) 3. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. 13). 13. index.

SO GDI WLU.

beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact.. 48. 192). II.g. SL. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). . 63. 108. see LS) 2. 60) 2. . bound or unbound codex . 40 x 14 cm.. register (EI. pounding (MP. 4. I. 14 leaves. Daftar kutub. volume (IK. 321. II.18) 3. daqq 1. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). pen wiper (SA. 481). account book. 22-25. KK. 29. IA. rubbing. n. taftar (SK. QRV  096) 3. fine writing (TM. notebook (e. 77-81.

107). HT. 118.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). KM. 461). glazing (ST. 11. I. sifr 4. 139). 85. midlak – polisher. 23. burnishing. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. OH. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. 87). AG.163. KR. 217. I. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. NH. 48-50. FJ. waraq damghah see waraq. GDON WDGO N – polishing. 13. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. SD. lin. MB. index. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. 110.

I.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. 905-906). grease. 927). ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. . ' U DO-. 230: LL. Tabriz.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. ' U DO-¶. Herat. Isfahan.E GDK – Yazd. mudhun – container for oil (IR. midhan. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. – fat. oil. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople.

GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .  73 . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.

circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. 30. 105.g. straight. 156. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. JA. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. TS. (5) 4.e. disc (UK.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. even (as opposed to oblique. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). medallion. 59) 5. I. UD. i. ta¨U I. MB. WDGZ U 1. roundel. e. 56.

22. curvilinear (e. LM. LM. 39-40) 2. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. hence PXVWDG U – round. RN. 9. rounding (of the spine) (IA. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 35). 10. 61) 3. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH.g.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

sifr 13. 129. writing down (of ¨DG WK. office. SA. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. I. IV. collecting (collection). 90) 2. EI. collection of poems written by one author (DM). 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. II. UHJLVWHU account book. WDGZ Q 1. 323. II. 323). EI. I. chancellery (KM.

(.  73 . .

TE. transcription (LC. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. UI. 28. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . 15. copying.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

IURP which it is derived (EI. IV. GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. 1125-6).

escritoire. III. KU. 370) 2. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. BA. 169-170. -85. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens..  LQNZHOO . .

372) 2. AT. 73). descender (of a letter) (AA. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. 53) 2.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. II.v. EI. X. II. GDZZ µ. DG. 713. VII.3-4. MB. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. dhabr. ER.50 GLOSSARY ruler. fasc.132-133. 77. aide-mémoire (EI. III. ND. wiper and sand) (SA. 54. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. 440-443. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. suppl. UK. 203-204. 137-139). 65. midhbar see mizbar. memorandum. 53). tadhkirah 1.

dhanab SO DGKQ E. +%  (. X. 53).

– tail (foot) of a letter.’). UK. 130-132. LL. MB. 25. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. I. II. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . 477. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. 226. 89-91. index. 13). WDGKQ E – appendix. 151).V. 24. supplement (AD. LC. 983: ‘water-gold. 21). ¨arf (SA. paint (MU. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. 59). III. I. SA. UD. etc. dhahab. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink.

writing with liquid gold. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. AS. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. TE. 15. 145). 222.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. 27. WDGKK E 1. gilding. IX. chrysography (LC. KA.

 SO WDGK K E.

XV. 15). 141). 490). TE. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. PA. 385). MU. JLOW REMHFW 6' . WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. mudhahhib – gilder. 132. chrysographer (AB. dhayl SO GKX\ O. 27.

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

lower margin. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. ruÐ V. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. 23). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. 206).

IA. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. SA. 136.g. 26). 24. 61) 3.  KHDG RI D letter. frontispiece (LC. beginning of something. i. 108. 107. 172).g. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . 109. upper margin (TS. fore-edge of the codex. III. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. raµs al-¦afŒah. 62) 4. 26). envelope flap (MB. e. 14. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. as opposed to the spine (MB. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. 109). TM. raµs al-NLW E). e.e. LC. IA. (qalam) al-riµ V . raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. raµs al-waraqah. 26) 2. character. page or book.

TU. vox reclamans (NZ. 100). (qa¨¶ or T OLE. AS. FZ. HI. 30. 213. 144. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . 100.. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. U EL¨ah – catchword. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. JM.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 126. 236.202/817-8) (FN. KH. 37. 65).. 35. 226. WDUZ V 1. 146. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). 84. 33. RN. 83-84. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 12. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. 13) 2. MO. AQ.5 -242. script akin to a large naskh. 215).

5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. DO-rub¶.

CM. 5DE ¶ al. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). abbrev. 89.NKLU (al-PXE UDN. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. / / (OS.

– the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl. rabaÑ W.

 VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' . .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  6' . 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +. 48. MS. 51.  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ.  &$ . nos.21.

109). AG. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb.128). WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. stalk (?) (TS. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. lin. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . 11.

I. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K .170) 2.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. no. 50. AM. arrangement (of the text). composition (MU. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam.

compiler (DF. II. copying (KM. IV. 53. 72). murattib – author. ratm – close. comp.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. compact writing. sifr 13. SS. 384.20). mubawwib. n.

abbrev. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. al-aÁabb. Rajab (al-murajjab.  26 . al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm.

didactic poem (EI. raj¶ (pl. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). VIII. . 376).   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK .1 . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory.

U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. 99. WDUM ¶ 1. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. source (in a text) (IN. I. muÑallaqah. AG. I. comp. FRPS SD. MJ. 17. KM. IV. sifr 13. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. retouchage (of a letter). 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). retouching. writing in bold characters (TE. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. 109). III. 513: ‘barrage. UXM ¶ – reference. 17) 2. 252). polychrome illumination (TE. 28.

 DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. epilogue (AD. 62). .

% 81. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. index. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q .13. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. 13). 13).54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST.185). 137. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. book support (MD. ST. n. 31: MD. index. index. RI.

1223. 1038. comp. 1055. numrah) (TP.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. abbrev. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. VA. 584. 419. 1035. 294. 54. 3099. 2152. 3185). tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. UXNK P DK. 1062. nos.

107. 14. 10. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. 11. raddah – envelope flap (TM. AG. . TP. 103. TS. OM). IA. ST. marble slab (MB. . pl. 59. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). XXIB).

96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' .v. ream (of paper).GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. 92. consisting of five quires. WS. 39. . AB. 145. dast (q.) (PT. AJ. rizam) 1.

epistle 2. 524: ‘cahier’). VIII. ULV ODK 1. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. I. treatise. dast 2. FRmp. LUV O DK. tract. 532). letter. monograph (EI.

 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná.. LM. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH..

VIII. 100. drawing. rasm 1. 101. 14) 2. 100. EI. e. 561. MB. copying. PA. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. making a mark (ST. tarassul – art of letter writing. 451-. 45) 3. execution. designing. marking. index. sketching (ME. epistolography (DM). rasm al-muÁ¨af. writing.g.

 SO UXV P.

mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. faÁl. 528). painter (ME. 560. I. SD. line (traced with a pen) (SD. 527). chapter (in a composition) (SD. 527) 5. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. – stroke. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. unpointed letter or word ( NO. comp. bi-rasm see mustanad. I. I. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. 527) 7. designer. 15) 6. I.

. wood block (AB. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. 14) 2. tooling (HT. index. 14). 370). marking (syn. III. 164) 3. lin. index. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. calamus (BA. rasm) (ST. UDVKP WDUVK P 1.129. 137). – woodcut.

rizmah. mark (TS. ream (of paper) (SD. marsham SO PDU VKLP. 532).56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. marshim. 18) 2. I. comp.

ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. 125) 2. tar¦ ¶ 1. decoration (MS. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. 135).  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. hot iron (SD. 532). I. illumination.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

17) 3. ta¨U U TY. 103. 126). covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. . decoration (with liquid gold). gilding the inside of the surround (outline).3 145. TE.

$) .

composition (NS. ra¦f. KH. III. tar¦ I 1. 79. 35) 2. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. writing. 140. joining letters together (AP. SA.

35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. SL. II. 35. 34. MI. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. 15. 125). AR. KH. abbrev. 89. used for the companions of the Prophet. tar„iyah.    73 54.

 FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah. DQW RI \ ELV.

16. 19. statement (LC. AS. 14. – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. . 24). 144). 15. istir¶ µ \DK – note.

ND. 137). lin. book support. KK. 231. mirfa¶ 1.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. 111-112). riqq SO UXT T. 44. book cradle (IN.133. I.11. 70) 2. raqq. 230. support (for an inkwell) (AA. n.

EP) 2. diacritical point (JA. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). no. 269). making something multicoloured (LL. 1135) 3. 60-63. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. arabesque decoration (KA.67). KM. KK. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. 353). copying (TE. mirqash – reed pen. 108-111. IK. KJ. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . 1135) 4. I. embellished writing. 17. vox reclamans (NM. UDTT ¦ – catchword. VIII. KR. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. UDTT JKD] O see jild. EI.1. al-raqq al-a¨mar.. 407). paper or other writing surface (MU. parchmenter (DG. vocalization by means of points. 230). 683. AA. 74-75. VIII. AE. calamus (IR.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . 105. 17. 53. raqshah – pointing. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. 407-410. IW. 105. I. 119. n. -485. 53. AK. 85). elegant. I. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. WS. parchment leaf (ND. diacritical pointing (TE. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. LL. I. 93. piece (slip) of leather. sifr 13. SK. IV.

(kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. brief message. note.  OHWWer. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY.

DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. IV. 1126). .

ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. 602-603). often sewn in). patchwork. 1125. 139.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. inset (MK. 146. LM. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. VII. MN. sifr 13. 78-82. IV. raqm 1.) script (AS. 1123.in Turkey). EI. passim. JM. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair.v. IV. 86). 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. writing (KM.in Persia. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. NI. calligraph (AC. AW. – piece of calligraphy. DP. 41. 54. 266) 4.

  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ. ..

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. copyist (AC. TE. sifr 13. 17. 383. 82. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. fasc. 468-9: AN. 244. UDT P – inkwell (KM. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. III. BA. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. AM. calamus (TE. 160). WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. 183. 5. 106). 147. – abbreviation. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. siglum (CL. 372. III. raqn – compact writing (KM. LL. SK. 230. 2. sifr 13. 154). GA. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. IR. IK. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. KJ. AW. arqam. no. 30). al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK.3. no. I. 183). IV. 141.76). 387-388. GA. IV. 1140). mirqam – reed pen. 17. 45.

 .

5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. IV. sifr 13. embellishing ( a text. writing) (KM.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

g. HT. ligature (e. 389. IV. comp. MP. 50. 14. 78) 3. comp. 45). mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). ¨ibr 2. linking (joining) one letter with another. lin.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. ligatured. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . 60ff). III. ¨ibr. e.g. boarding (TS. index. (Turk. markaz SO PDU NL]. 393). 58. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 109. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. SA. AG. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. I.73. WDUN E 1. 681) 2. 24-27. on the line) (MY. UA. hybrid (of a script) (LM. 83). murakkab 1. ST. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together.

UXN ¶ . rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. – support (for reed pens) (UA. 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ).

juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. EI. DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. 36. VIII. rukn SO DUN Q. 406).

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

5 . .

107) 3. 69). index. . 14. 30. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). II. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. rakwah (pl. corner piece itself (ST. IB. 703). AG. 31.

restoration (DM). ramz SO UXP ].0 .9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada).60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. murammim – restorer. WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .

TW. 427) 4.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. code. cypher. 55. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. VIII. 159) 3. chronosticon (EI. WB. VIII. III. 428) 2. secret alphabet (EI. 468. chronogram.

V.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. . KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. 209.

 26 . abbrev. Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.

135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. 86. 478- $7  6' . 393).  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. I. UA. TD. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. 127136). II.  '' . sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. . WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. I.

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

I. – little stick for the application of kohl. DM). 1186. 393.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. UXZ K. LL. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. mik¨ O '' . syn. UA.

also known as sanad (q. 109-111). 26.) (TP. KF.v. transmission. recension (recensio) (LC. ULZ \DK 1. 417418 and 500-501) 3. EI. II. – transmitter. 53. tradition (traditio). VIII. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. 53). ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. 94). version (versio). variant reading. LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. XII. link in the chain of transmission (TP. varia lectio (MR. 545-547) 2.

rish(ah) – quill pen (UK.in Turkey). of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. 1123. 1125. MP. 146.) script (AS. 38.in Persia.v. LM. VIII. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. 43: wa-T OD . JM. 73-77. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). IV. 144. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah).EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. 545-547). MB.

I.). 18. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. ¨ibr. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«.v. IV. sifr 13. ]DEU WD]E U 1. q. copying. also dhabr – writing. CI. transcription (TE. inscription on stone (KM.

ND. 80. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. 444. IK. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. 92). work (SA. II. zab U (pl. 18. 80. copyist (TE. ND. zubur) – composition. KK.

zakhrafah 1. TE. 444-465. TE. elegant. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. 18) 2. embellished writing. SA. 85.18. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. polychrome illumination (TE. embellished writing. elegant. II. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. calamus (TE. IR. 53. 230). 18). copying (KK. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. IK. copying (KK.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

80). decorator (WR.  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. muzakhrif – illuminator. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. 87).

– knob (of a clasp) (TS. 135). 34. Ñurwah. . 110. 25. AG. comp. KT.

. IV. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH./Turk. ER. 109). index. 69. 19: in 12). 35. ‘hair lock’. fastener (TS. zalf (MN. zulf (Pers. I. see DC. ‘curl’). AG.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. ST. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). zulayjah (]DO MDK. ]LP P DK. 25. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN .& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). 682. 1222). MN. ]XO \MDK. decoration in gold and colours (LL. 360) 1. V. lit. 689).

register (IK. catalogue (SD. pt. 222: al-WDUP N . 181). ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. 95) 2. list. azimmah) 1. 383-385.9. 601). NA. 127. GA. account book. (pl. I.

KF. 320). II. II. 145. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. 315. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. comp. zinjafr – cinnabar. vermillion ink (SA. . 101. MB. 478).

38. zawj SO D]Z M. no. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). 91). WD]K U – floral decoration. hence muzahhar. box (DG.1. KR.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. 44. floriated (KJ.

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

copying (TE. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. GA. X. 825 and VIII. embellished writing. X. 283. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. 6. 376). 73). AG. EI. 90-100). 107). X. 391). WD]Z U 1. VII. conjugate leaf (AG. 107) 2. 408-409. forgery. muzawwir – forger (EI. AD. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. 73. falsification (UI. I. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. 18) 2. f. 409).120b. TK. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. ER. also WD]Z UDK – elegant.

 ..  HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ .

11) 3. . ]LZ TDK – art of illumination. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. multi-colour illumination (HT.4. 560) 4. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. MS.102. miniature painting (WA. n. writing. WA. 12). miniature painter (ME. 560. 105). lin. ]DZZ T – illuminator. 4).  decoration.

9). index. post-scriptum (AD. index. 9). angle 2. 52. 111. 184) 2. 59. superfluous. addition (TP.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. interpolation. dittography (TM. interpolation. 60. IA. ]L\ GDK 1. MH. 62). corner. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. 136). 98) 3. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. square (an implement) (MB. abbrev. 73). 127) 2. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . MI.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. addition (CM.

119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . elegant. embellished writing (SK. FRPS TDUU Á. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1.

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II. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. asÐilah) 1. MI. xiv. jaw E (CI. comp. suµ O (pl. preamble to a fatwá. 128) 2. abbrev. . quodlibet.

1853. nos. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1.20. 696. 53. VA. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. used after the word All K 73 . n. 461. 3214) 2.

piece (of poetry. 13. IB. 11-12). I.) (SD. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. index. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. etc. siŒ µah – piece. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. parchment) (IB. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). 637). mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. 81. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY.185). n. lapsus calami (DM).

83). asiddah) – stopper. 17). . plug (in the inkwell) (IK. VLG G (pl. WDVG G – copying. transcription (TE.

56. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. reading. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. I. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. comp. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. punch (SK. I. prelector (TP. sifr 4. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla).) 1. recital. LL. hence V ULG – reader. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it).GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. Áurrah.52). 122) 2. punching (SK. 1347). awling. n. misrad – awl. 122. I. 115. KM. 40. 39. 1347).

horizontal stroke (UD. KR. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. munsa¨iŒ – flat. MD. AF. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . 127. 36). double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. 27.. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. 95. 97. also known as lawzah (JL.. . 82).  frontispiece.

sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U. asÃur.

line of writing. . II. 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). – line (KD.

mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". lineation (LC. IA. 15.. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. 105. lineation.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. number of lines per page (TK. 50. 25) 3. number of lines per page (LC.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. V ¨ir. straightedge (UK. 103. 59). 104.%  Q LC. WS. lining. MB. copying (TE. 247) 4. 13.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. (grid of) guidelines. 155. TS. 104- 7. TS. 78. 59). I. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. 28. MB. IA. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. IB. pasteboard (HT. III. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. ruling. 43). tas¨ U 1. MB. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. ruling (of folios). 28) 5. KA. redaction. 73. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. stencil (AF. 155). 104. 28. IA. designing (UK. writing. 87). folder (UK. 155. 134) 4. 48) 5. 17). 174) 3. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. SDVVLP 6$ . creating a line (of writing) (SA. 12. IN. lin. 59). 86. WA. 155. 155). ff. LC. 18. 113) 6. TA. ruler. 104-105). ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. 91. 155. 17. TM. 77). WR. index. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . ruling board (ST. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. composition (AD.

DM: snuff box). .5  // . . 1364.

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

codex. MS. book. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3.

& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.  FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .

safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU.0 . V ILU (pl.

ST.g. index . WDVI U 1. bookbinding (e.

 SO WDV I U.

fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. oblong format (of a book) (MD. tail (of the page). 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). lawzah (mandorla) (TS. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. lin. 150). asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. index. passim). 31. – book cover (MB. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. 97. 660. EI. 158. IV. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). 78). al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. AG. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). HT.115. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. TF. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. VIII. VDI QDK 1. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. AG. MB. spine (of a book) (UK. 109) 2. 11. end of a letter or book 2. 742) 2. 15. . I. 110). lower margin. AD. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af.

also LVT ¨ – omission. haplography (TP. XII.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. 58. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 97). 95. see above) (JL. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 238) 1. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. 88). saqa¨ (MU. MH. KR. 95. 97. 87) 2.

80). comp. 230). 148. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. VXN Q 1. 107.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. WS. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. comp. ÑLO M PLVT K. 482. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. IR. circle-like tool (HT. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs.133. jazmah 2. 60). mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. lin. II. AT. 133. 118. IA. 137).

248). II. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. SK. silsilah SO VDO VLO.$  8. LM. – knife. 465-466. pen knife (IK.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 103-104. 90-91. II. VI. SA. AA. 31-33). 711. 115- . VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. KD.

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

I. 611). 27). stemma codicum (AL. silsilat al-nasab – stemma. IX.  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 .

EI. 1124). JM. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. VDO P. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. AG. 15. IV. 5863.GLOSSARY 71 146. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. KK. 107). WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM.

1830. 128). xiii. MI. mas P U. VA. no. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. CI. PLVP U (pl. I. 54. 2211.

III. TM.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. peg (part of a clasp) (BA. – nail. 372.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

485493). certificate). II.25. TP. 53. LC.. (CW.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. TP. 69. n. XVII. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. VIII. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. MU. 278. 27. abbrev. KF. MU. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. X. 53. ... auditor.g. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. 267. 1019-1020). EI.

I. 45) 2. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. certificate (JA. audition note. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ .

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

certifier (CT. audition leader (master). PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. 45). authoritative commentator. FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session.

ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ. comp. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ. PDTU Ð.

title of a book (ism al-NLW E). . 1. IV. proper name (EI. 179-181) 2.

100).) (MH. TP.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. n. 53. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q.v. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. 28) 2. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. tasmiyah 1. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. title (of a work) (LC.20) 3. sinn SO DVQ Q. 28.

– half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. shaqq ) (UK. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6.

. . 6$ . waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // ..  (. .  .9  LQV – left side.

IA. hone (UK. 103. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. MB. 153. 60: misann akh ar. misann ÃXOD\O ".

5  6$ .. 10. 107. TS. 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . NH. .  $7 133. AG.

 misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨.v. 395). q. sanad SO DVQ G. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).). musannanah – chevron (FT.

 DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. 53. musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. 56).

   (.. .. 6/ . 9.

mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . FRPS muÁannaf. 5. 8. 47). misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. I. sifr 13. 2. EI. FN. 704-705). also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. VII. 365. 14. 692). TW. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. IV. RN. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script.

¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. CM. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. OS. 232). Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). II. 88. 264-265. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. VI.

).D.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. comp. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A. 252). VI.

VDZ G 1. 320. 388). AI. black ink (LC. 384. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. 27. I. SK. – Muslim era (DD.

27. 161.  DOVR musawwadah – draft.9 . XV. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . rough copy (LC. VI. 126. XIII. MU. MU. MU.

98) 4. nos. copying (TE. WDVZ G 1. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. 18. AM. vox reclamans (NZ. making it difficult to read (MH. 237). calligrapher (AW. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . 18) 2. musawwid – copyist. FRPS PXED\\D ah. 18). marring (of a text). 45. 97. 50A) 3. preparation of a draft (TE.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. copying by an apprentice (TE.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

. – woodworm.

(kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. 28). LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. KK. trimming the textblock (TS. damage caused by worms (LC. SA. 463. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. II. KD. 702). comp. 50. musawwas – worm-eaten. 17-18).74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. 105. II.

in Turkey. 1124. sayr SO VX\ U. 183). NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. 1125. 178-180.in Persia. IV. RA. used in Ottoman Egypt. DR. was known as qirmah (GA. A variety of this script. 24-24).

$ .  VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .

 endband (headband) strip (ST. MB. sayf SO VX\ I.96). 114. 16. index. HT. lin.

MB. 154. 103. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. 104. cutter (UK. – trimming sword. IA.

 **** VKDE NDK 1. 20) 2. nos. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. endband (headband) (HT. 73). 407.88-106. WDVK E N. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. 19. 115. lin. WDVKE N 1. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. DH. (pl. 33.

– interlace (TF. passim). .

GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. 406).

  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ . .. shajjah SO VKLM M... jilfah. comp.  VKDE WXK ¨adduh).' .

EI. 86. UD. 967) 3. hone (DD. composing a text in a schematic. stemma (SL. shaddah. tree-like way. VII. shajarah – genealogical tree. creating a genealogical tree. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. WDVKM U 1. 35-35). 87. shaŒm(ah) – pith. 14. white interior substance of the reed (IK. II. arabesque decoration (WR. 711). also mushajjar – foliated design. I. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). shaŒdh – whetting. DH. stemma (AL. 27). al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. I. honing (of a knife) (KD. no.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). WDVKG G DK. I. LM. 9. mishŒadh – whetstone.73) 2. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . 390).

14). – doubling (of a consonant). doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. shidq SO DVKG T.

.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). 27. book cover. case binding (TS.

sharaj SO DVKU M. comp. 109).76 GLOSSARY AG. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. fakk 2. 369).

sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.) (BA.v. III. 372). – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. sharŒ (pl.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

109) 3. xiv. 106-107. FZ. mishra¨(ah) – knife. EI. MI. 217. 60. 100. IA. [Lv). 5051). I. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. comprising the text commented upon (matn). al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. cutter (IA. stroke (DM). MD. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). NH. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. paste (MB. abbrev. II. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. MM. 385. 174-175). rule-border (LC. 392: for opening sealed documents. DD. 27) 2.0 . ashriÃah) 1. CI. 158. MB. shar¨(ah) (pl.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. also VKLU V. al-VKDU I DK. shars – pasting. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. IX. 401). OM). 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . decorative band (UI. shuraÃ) – line. I. 397-320. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . 139. 27.. VLU V and V U V (DM). frame (on a book cover) (FJ. long commentary. &. 60. comment-text book. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. IB. fillet (in decoration) (FT. 29) 4. . (LC. abbrev. EA. rules.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

322). as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. 47. ligatured Maghrebi script. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. nuskhah and the like.v. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. 250).GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. 365.). TW. VI. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG.

)'  .

comp. 28: IN. I. sha„ \DK (pl. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. whisk (?). mish¨ab – 1. duster. shaqq. 390). FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. polisher (NH. burnisher. 251). I. 11. AG. eraser (TS.  arb. 113) 2. cancellation (LC. 756). shaÌ \ .

40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. serif-like stroke (LM. AA. 13) 2. also tash„ \DK – line.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. KH. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. à Ð \ Ð. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . III. 88. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. 35.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib.

al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-mukarram.

– the eighth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

 .

ashÑ U.78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. shi¶r (pl.

scribal verse (see e. no. CI.g. II. 82. nos. versification. I. 81. 116). (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. – poetry. 12. CI.

SA. AG. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. VI. MJ. lin. 224). trimmer (HT. 16. shafrah 1. UK. 91-93. III. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . 59) 3.104. IP. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. parer. lin. 161) 2. scraper (ST. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). outline (KF. 145. 250). AF. 11. 109). paring knife. IA. 58). 112. LM. index. 9. tash¶ U 1. cutting edge (SK.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. bookbinder’s sword. AI. illumination in gold. 103. al-musha¶¶ar. pt. JM. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. NA. shaving (HT. 50) 3. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. 59. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. 161). design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. shaqq SO VKXT T. 45. II. 153. WDVKI U – trimming. 127. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC.159). MB. 144.83. III. outlining. 104.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

460-462). 97. 171) 3. MH. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. . IM. slit (of the nib). SA. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. 59. II.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP.

shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. preliminary endbanding (IA. ER. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. 393). IV. 1124. IV.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. WDVKN ] – 1. 1124. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. 694). . sewing endbands (headbands).- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. IV. 43. 62) 2. IV. awl. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century.1. no. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. punch (UA. ER. 699-702).

VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q.g. GL. shaqq. diagram. 81). 150). 160-167. hence mushakkal – vocalized. III. 36). orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. vowelization. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. SA. 12) 2. 59. comp.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. KH. III. 125. vowel marks. III. vowelized (for various practices see SA. IM.

+  8'   . .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

 FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK. 156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .

51). rosette (LC. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. MB.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. 110. 63). 27. 118. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. passim. 116). 135). IA. PA. AF.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

g. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

n. 53. 201 and X. document (DM). IX. 340-. – copy of a letter. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. EI.20.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . Mashhad (al-)´usayn. 90).

– .HUEHOD . shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU. al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.DUEDO Ð).

month (LL. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. – new moon.v. 1612). shuhrah.). II.

 . EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &.. .

 .

GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram. al-PXE UDN.

abbrev.  26 . – the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.

386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. VI. 8. . 250). fahrasah.v. VI. PA. comp.). For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. 118). mashyakhah (pl. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI.5. 725). fihrist. pt.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. 117. 19-20. VK U ]DK (Pers. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.) – endband (headband) (LA. RN. KH. i¦E ¶ (pl.

114-118. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. 73  . 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. sic. 671-672. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). 29-32. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. abbrev. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. emendation 2. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). writing word in the text (GA. 267-268). ¦aŒ Œ – correct. correction. tint (UK. thus (JA. attestation (of correctness in transcription). MP. QS. 35. MB. 45). CT. dye. AR.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. IA. (KG. 473. VIII. MH. II. 63. NH. 120-129. tinting. ¦LE JK – pigment. NW. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. mara  and saqam). 285. LE. I. abbrev. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. 136.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. n. aÁ¨ E. preparation of a critical edition. signing (a document) 4. comp. editor. 53. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP.25). ¦ Œib (pl.

 . possession (OS).  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). 0. isti¦Œ E – ownership. owner (OS). abbrev.

 -835) 2. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an.. 22. mi¦Œaf (pl.  parchment. small pamphlet. BA. papyrus or paper (KD. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. folio (folium). I. 22) 3. sheet of writing material. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). IK. 24). IV. sifr 13. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . notebook (SL. page (DM) 4. .. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. I. ma¦Œaf. 9. III.. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. mu¦Œaf. leaf (TC. Áu¨uf.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. II. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. maÁ ¨if) 1. often leather.

17. 16). 146. II. 107. 316.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. AG. 107. volumes) (EI. 16). sometimes two. 668-669. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. parchment textblock (TS. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. 17. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. AG. VII. AG. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. JM. 17. 54-57). MS.4).GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. 25. 25. 107) 3. n. MS. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . KF.

distortion.g. error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e.  .  . ta¦Œ I 1.

04  6$ ..  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.

 FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). syn. ta¨U I TY.

pt. bookbinding (LA. (. . -348) 3.5.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ.

¦adr (pl. ÁXG U. 269-270). II. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. IB. 118) 2. 13. 9. 11. bookseller (QS. II. HD. ¦aŒŒ I 1.

also ta¦G U – incipit. preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. preamble. ¦DG UDK 1.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

59). 107) 6. 16. IA. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. wajh (SA. 464. MB. as opposed to inner side. 156. fore-edge (TS. fore-edge flap (TS. 27) 4. 15) 5. 218). 105. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). IB. AG. 44. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . II.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. MJ.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

99. surrah. 109. mandorla (FZ. 110). MD. ÁuÑ G. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. comp. JL. 83. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. ¦urrah – center-medallion. ¦a¶d (pl.

34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. TU. 50.

371. 107). 30. 227. study (KF. siglum) (TP. 58). ¦DI Œah (pl. II. 27). AG. II. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. verso of the first folio (LC. ta¦I Œ – catchword. vox reclamans (TT. 192). 11. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. FN. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. KD. ta¦affuŒ – examination.

al-muÌaffar. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). iafar (al-khayr. al-PXE UDN. al-Ìafar.

– the second ¦ifr (pl. aÁI U.

abbrev. (OS. . – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. month of the Muslim calendar. 59).171. TP. 89).

GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl. maÁ ILQ.

passim. – filter. burnishing (MB. ¦aql – polishing. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. 393: for ink). strainer. 134). maÁ TLO. KA. sieve (UA.

. IB. DD. 156. 142. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . ¦ulb (pl. 105. aÁO E. aÁlub. 99. 149. IA. I.  DS. 149. 44. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). MB. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. – polisher.

111. 62) 3. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. MB. main. II. 59). IA. matn. comp. II. 27). ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. 119). text-column (LL. 166.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ .  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. bookbinding (IA. 27) 2. making pasteboards (MB. correction (FK. LC. . i¦O Œ 1. 62). ta¦O E 1. original text (LC. 1712. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. no.

&   7: .  UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .

i¦¨LO Œ. CI. II. no. suspension. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. 191. MM. siglum) (TP. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. 55-56.

 .

 .      73  Q 73  &. abbrev. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. [LLL (. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. -359).86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. .

83). ¦LP P – plug.v. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.). stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ÁDQ G T. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. sketching (MO. ta¦P P – design.

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

0'  7% -94). ¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  .

ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. taÁ Q I. ta¦Q I (pl. ¦un¶. Ñamal. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp.

– composition. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. III. work (MU.

v.) (SL. often the author of the original text PDWQ. mu¦annif – author. II. 662663. as opposed to musnad (q. VII. 39. 705). EI. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. work. compiler.

IX. (CI. art. E\ $E +LO O. xi). DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). abbrev. I. duction by artisans. craft (EI. 625-626).

 .

ta¦Z E (pl. 268) 4. painted illustration (EI. taÁ¨ ¨. preservation (DM). ME. miniature painting (MU. pt. 136.  LE E. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. 143. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. 559). XV. box (NT. microfilming. transcript (e. no. „abbah (pl. 121. exact copy. ¨ ¦awn. apograph (TP. example (JA. **** LI Ì. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. I. mu¦awwir – painter. ¦ UDK (pl. DH. XVI. taÁZ E t) – correction. 56) 3. 889892 and X. 361.g. 225.212). X. comp. 361-363) 2. Áuwar) 1.141: ‘portraitiste’). EI. TP. illustrator (PA. IX. MU. aÁwinah) – case. correctness. ta¦Z U 1. ¦LZ Q (pl. 57).2. copy.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. comp. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

64. a  E U. 95-96). i„barah (pl. ta„E E. 57. DEEUHY 73  AR. 30) 2. also known as WDPU „. MH. 95-96). MH. 57. sic. thus (TP. n. marking the word with a  abbah (TP.

a„barah. a number of leaves or sheets put together. bundle of documents (IK. IV. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. quire .. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. „LE UDK 1. KM. sifr 13.

f. 44. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. binding (IB. AG. IB. collation (of quires) (TS. TK. textblock (TS. ta„E U 1. 97) 2.120a-b).   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). 11) 2. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU .88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. 13. n. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. (pair of) dividers (TS.) . 26. II. 18.. 107. album (FT. specialist in  abÃ. 17. (pl.16. 29. index. 16. orthographer (MH. 112) 4. AG. ST. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. 5) 3. AG. 12.177). 107) 3. 388).  DZ ELÃ) – compass.  XU E. 19. 18.) .  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . „ EL¨ 1.

small tool (resembling a drum stick. – cancellation. mi„rabah 1. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. 59). erasure (MF. II. a U V  XU V. 62). 11. AG. „irs (pl. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. KF. mallet (LF. 109) 2. stalk?) (TS.

interlace (TS. „i¶f (pl. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. 109) 2. also TS. 12. AG. 32-33. a Ñ I. 109-110). AG.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS.

 ta„¶ I (pl. ta  Ñ I.

II. XVII. – space between lines.. interline (LL. MU.  /& . 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . 1792.

 .

 DI Ðir) 1. interlaced (FZ. (SA. 45). 413) 2. e. 12. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. 44. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. plait. 217). mu„alla¶ – polygonal.406). interlace (TF. passim).GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. AG. AG. 30. ‘eye’ (of a letter). a Z Ð) – counter. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. „DI UDK (pl. ma„I U – plaited. 110).g. braid (FT. 11. polygon. 33. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. 107). mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. Á G à Р. „awµ (pl. 44). 32. III.

76   $* .

medallion) (HT. lin. seal. 96). comp.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). ¨ ED¶ (pl. mi¨ba¶ 1. ¨ EL¶. signet. stamp (IK. .  ODUJH stamp (for a center. ÃDZ ELÑ ).

90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl. aÃE T ÃLE T.

WS.  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. 144. . roll (AJ.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

comp. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

5 . center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. (KU. 2019) 4. III. 83. sarwah) (JL. DB. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. 979) 5. 154. tirs.

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

AG. AD. 102). I. 21. gloss. 60). 107. AG. border (on a book cover) (TS. ¨LE T – large sheets. Ãurar) 1. f. audition note (EI. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. margin (LC. Taf. 1020. TK. MZ. 109) 2. leaves (of paper) (NH.7. 28. abbrev. edge. VIII. marginal note. turn-in (TS. . 110) 3. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). 73  Q $. IA. 372). 113. marginalia. ¨urrah (pl.120a) 4. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

58. 29) 6. address (ÑXQZ Q. II. SD. 313. margin (TP. 46. VI. SA. ML.

al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. Ãughrá 7. mu¨arrar – glossed. ansa. 16). f. n.85). palmette (LC. 28) 9. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. tailpiece (LC. comp. IV. 28) 10. 28) 13. 57.120a. 36) 12. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. lin. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. 28) 8. KH. 682.67). 16). X. HT. annotation (WA. illuminated headpiece (LC. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. TP.120a). 689). annotated (WA. 58. 28. . 28) 11. f. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. ta¨U U – glossing.

132. ¨DUU Œ 1. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. 118. 133). 159: ‘dessin. MB. celui qui fait le tracé initial. Ãar¨’) 2. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. 69. sketcher. draftsman (AB. HD. 118. ¨irs (pl. ÃXU ¨). al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. 101. outline (HD. ta¨U Œ – sketch. 103). manuscript restorer. PA. PA. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. composition’). ÃXU V DÃU V.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. 141: ‘dessinateur. 61.

63-64. IK. LL. IW. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU .  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. 93. 75-76. VIII. 408. 1840). II. comp. EI.

EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. LF. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. IV. sifr 13. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). ta¨U V – obliteration. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . BA. 371). effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 140. III. 8. ¨araf (pl. HJ µ. aÃU I.

hammer (TS. 107). . 15. mi¨raqah – mallet. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. 11. AG. 109). IA. 87). AG. 166. 107. 30. 57. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. TH. 11. 38. 31. 60). AG. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS.

headpiece (LC. AG. ta¨¶ P – inlay. 406). sifr 13. FT. ¨XJKU µ (pl.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). X. (MU. erasure (KM.v. 134. 28) 4. à ¨ughrá. 595-598) 3. inlay work (AB. X. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC.) 2. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. IV. 11. 109). 28).

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

I. UK. ¨alŒ. 145. 147. WS. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. 92. 27. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. 483). II. ÃDO ¨ \. ¨alaŒ – sheet. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. leaf (of paper) (TS. 83). SD. AJ. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 52).

. II. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). 87: al-darj. – sheet (of paper from the mould). 52). roll (WS. SD.

¨ilsim (etc. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. comp. 373: ¨als.) (pl. Ãirs. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. ÃDO VLP. ta¨O V – obliteration. ¨ilsim. 82. syn. thus differing from Ãirs’). ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. LL.0 . NH. 373: ¨ulsah). Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. erasure (ND.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). ¨ilsam. II. ¨alsah. IV. sifr 13. 63.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . NH.

ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. headpiece (TW. iÁE Ñ (q. 500-502). beginning of the text. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. X. 11. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. 56). WB. ¨ OL¶ (pl. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. – talisman.) (KH. tion of words (EI. incipit (WA. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. 258). naÌDUD ZDTDID. ascender (of a letter).v.

/&  26 .

III. III. 224). 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . . RN. al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. MJ. 144. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. 29: ‘common. naÌar. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. SA. FRPS WDTU Ì. 59. popular class of scripts’).

136). of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. passim) 2. erasure (JA. DG. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. 278. obliteration. daubing. coating. pasting (MB. ¨ams 1. 58. I. gilt and the like (MB. 110). II.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. gilding (SD. II. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. ‘eyes’. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. KD.

242. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. 6$ . 144). KH. -47. AS.. IR. 36..

 DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter). 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. a¨Q E (sg.

cartouche (LC. . IA. 61). MB. / / / (CI. 107. 26) 2. abbrev. mu¨awwal – original. 157. musta¨ O 1. AG. ¨DZ O – long. unabridged work. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. I. 35. Áilah. 26). 62. ¨ TDK 1. f. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). 17. rule-border (LC. strand (UK. rectangular panel (AB. xviii). sheet (piece. MB. 31. 120b) 2. comp. TK. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 110). IA. 111. 135) 3. AG. 32. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. 109. layer) of paper (TS. rules.

.GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U.%  $-  .

 VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. KM. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. IV. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. sifr 13.

mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). It was written with a reed pen. 11. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. ÃDZ P U. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. III. 12). 49-57). (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

person. abbrev. f.120a). – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK. .  0.

misk) (e.g. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. 206. MJ. 212). musta¨ E DK.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

18).g. CI. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e. II. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. 3. CM.

98. 182). ÌXU I. inset (EM. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. AH. WKDU KX – requiescat. **** „arf (pl.

 ..  UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ .

LL. II. 575).  FDVH ER[ /& 29. 1910. . ME.

495). „ufr (pl. aÌI U. al-„afar.v. II. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.).96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS.

‘shading’) – outlining. usually the thumbnail) (TM. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC.3. 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). 29). outline (KJ. ta„O O (lit. no.

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

64. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. 29). „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. placed in the margin. xv. hair side (of parchment). II. baÃn. 29). verso. n. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. 29. 285). I. 57. front of the textblock (LC. GA. abbrev. – conjecture. SL. comp. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). blank reverse of a letter (LC. 59) 2. (TP. CI. „DKU \DK 1. „ahr – back. back of a document.

8 and II. first page(s) of the textblock (KF. abbrev. obvious. evident’.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . 11.  IO\-leaf (SD. ‘alleged. I. comp. ME. ‘external. 88. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture. 109). gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. .Oá). 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. „ KLU (lit. II. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. AG.

 .

MP. 80-82).GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. ¶ajuz (pl. ¶ajz. WS. 148-149. aÑM ]. 40. 147. AJ. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

52. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. TP.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU.P P DO-0DKG . V.14). n. 21-22.

treatise. . 26). ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. diacritical point 3. IV...  (. 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. sifr 13. 146. RA. DEEUHY MI. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). . III. vocalization (KM. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' .

SA. . pointed letters (TP. i¶M P WD¶M P 1. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. 57). 90. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. ¶ajm. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH.

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

taÑ U M. (pl.

30).    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). curvature (of the descender) (SA. ÑXU VK. – curve. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. III. ¶arsh (pl.

230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U. al-sa¨r – base line (TW.

423) 2. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. TP. ¶ar„(ah). 45). KU.  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. 25. 56. 464. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. SA. taÑ U T. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. 202). SA. 218. trellis (FT. LC. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. 45).. JA. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. MH. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan).. reciter (CT.9. III.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. II. ¶LU „(ah). lattice-work (AB. 136). ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. abbrev. mu¶ UL„ – collator. I. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . 29).

40. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. 50. 22. 37. III. SA. KH. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. KU. 11. 36.

U T see mu¨aqqaq. FRPS PXÑaqqaf. 11). . ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. (al-kha¨¨) al-¶.

.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ . 25. Ñuran) – thong.. AG. KT. 34. 110.

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

xiii). ¶ashr (pl. aÑVK U. I. DEEUHY / (CI.

ÑDZ VKLU. ¶ VKLUDK (pl.

  8. . decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .7  // .. ¶ VKLU \DK – mark.  6' ..

dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). ta¶VK U 1.

31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. 116: gha  UDK .7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). 11. ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 109). 108. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 109). 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . AG. ¶ushar 1. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. AG. 109) 2. stamp with vegetal design (TS.

 mi¶¦arah (pl. 84). mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. 42). ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. 154). IB. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 134). . 155. IK. II. SD. 154-155. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. 154.

95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . signe de renvoi). fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT. curved line (used as a reference mark. lin.130) 2. caret (MR.

37) 4. 145. / / / (AR.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. AM. introd. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. 36. abbrev. 147.). 35. connection. MI. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction.

176. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. TM. 00 132. 93. TP. 54). MR.

2091). 17. 16. II. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . LL. ¨ibr) (MP. index. 19). margin (ST. 83. ¶af¦ – galls. ¶LI ¦ – plug. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ST. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks.

+  10  SJ. aÑT E. 27) 2. ¶aqib (pl. catchword. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . ta¶T EDK 1. vox reclamans (TN. comment (LC. 344). ¶aqb. note.

47. KH. III. . knot-like tool (TS. – end of the text (matn) on a page. 36) 2. 11. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. 46. 109). counter. lower ¶uqdah (pl. Ñuqad) 1. AG. 58.

maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV.GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. 37). ‘perhaps. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. taÑU T ¶allahu. comp. 126). la¶allahu (lit.

 WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0. .

 RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB.Q DO-ÑLO M. 90. WS. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.

 FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. ligature (KU. composition. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. transcript (AD. writing. copying (TE. transcription. 119) 3.9 . script. 15) 2. 124). copy.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

 . .) .

abbrev.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.  (MI. 107) (pl. taÑ O T WDÑO T W.

15. explication (TE. – marginal gloss. 26). IV. in the Turkish/Arabic context. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. name often given. EI. scholium. ER. II. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. 71. X. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. 162). mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. IX. 694-696) 2. MU.). LC. IV. 1124. 165) 6.v. 27. comment. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. 26. III. . al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. FRPS U MLÑ.. also TS. 104). 77). al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . 28. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA.. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. AG.

 mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. 371. III. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K .

 ¶alam (pl. aÑO P.

index. 164). EI. motto. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. I. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. SD. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. 164. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. 27) 2. marking. 2140). II. 381).g. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. II. marking quires before sewing (ST. XII. II. 352) 4. signature (SD. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. – decorated border (LL. ¶DO PDK – 1. mark. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. 135. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. book mark (e. TS. autograph (LC. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. 18) 2. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. ta¶O P 1. signing a document (AA. 22).

39). al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .¶  0.HUEHOD .DUEDO Ð) (CM. no. ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ. 100).

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

372). abbrev. . ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. III. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication.

2153: ‘text of the book’). II. ¶amal (pl.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah. aÑP O.

256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ. VII. compilation (MU.  FRPSRVition.

ta¶miyah 1. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. used in opposition to Ãar¨.). laà I DO-Ñamal. writing. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU.v. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. 30) 3. taÑZ U 2. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. SA. VII. colouring. comp. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. main work of a painter (PA.e. (SJ. IX. q. i. 123). chronosticon (TI. EI. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. 47-48. etc. TC. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. painting. cryptogram. 257-258). al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. 229.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

260-261). SL. ¶XQZ Q (pl. PK. EI. 16. (MW. VII. 110. ÑDQ Z Q. I. 211.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

 the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. PA. 870-871) 4. X. EI. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. 871-872) 3. II. 29. 29). . 29. 36. 66. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. X. chapter. X. EI. 2183). 870). section heading (LC. title (of a book) (LC. EI. 116. comp. tarjamah 2.

200-203). curved (of a line. I. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah. VWURNH.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. i¶ZLM M – curvature.

taÑ Z GK. UD. collation session (MF. 74). 13. collation master. VII.g. . IN. 12. 726). ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. ta¶awwudh. e. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. repetitor (EI. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. 7). X. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. I.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. 230). 14).

¶ P (pl. Ãams. amulet (DT. aÑZ P. KU. comp. 95. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. 123-124). – talisman. of letters) (AP. ‘eyes’. 69). 114.

194. ¶ayn (pl. 252-253). LM. sanah. comp. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. VI. Ñuqdah. 43). – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. . comp.

47. 250). 58-63. VI. sizing (of paper) (AB. 37. IK. adhesive (TS. NW. 141. 45-47). 32-34. 37. 73). 88. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. 12-13. VI. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. 244). 97. pasting (ST. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. 107. 47). 141. 74). OD. rasm al-JKXE U. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. 233. 90. II. IV. VI.60-72. red and black colours (SD. taghriyah 1. 1124). JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. IB. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. AS.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. MP. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. JM. IB. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. North Africa. aghriyah) – paste.18) 2. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. MP. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. 199). 74. index. 145. NW. ghubrah – mixture of white. MB. lin. 97. HT. 42. DW. EI. 145). 19-23. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. IB. AG. MB. n. NW. 250). 41. MP. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK.

 FRPS .IU T  .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

passim). 554. JKD] O see jild. aghshiyah) 1. KC. binding (TS. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. 35. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. case. book cover. II. ME. JKLVK µ (pl. 36. box (SD. covering of the board. 214. 564) 2.

71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. pl. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. CD. III.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM.

 ODVW SDJH V.

. binding (IN.) . I. 473). RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. taghshiyah – book covering. 257). LVWLJKI U DK. I. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .

 WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' . ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ . prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness... 217) 2..  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ.

OHWWHU 6. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). abbrev. . a word) (MI. mistake. ghal¨ah – error. ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). 192). bold character. WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. 150).  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma).

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

mughallif – bookbinder (DG. WDJKO I – book covering. 157). – book cover (MD. 132). 108). JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. 213. AB. binding (FZ. 214.

46. SA. 261).) .v. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ.Ñuqdah.). comp. VIII. 114. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. 128). 47.  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q.. – WDLOSLHFH . **** I I U – papyrus (EI. III. also iftit Œ. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1.

.9. LQFLSLW 08 . 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . LC. preface. prologue.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. proem (MU. 23) 2. XV.

g. 23) 4. headpiece (KF. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar. II. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT.  KHDGLQJ (e. LC.

also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. TS. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. IA. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. 62. .18. 109) 2. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. AG. IDW ODK 1. IA. 59). 104. press screw (MB. 245). VI.

VI. leaf (of paper) (SA. comp. II. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. SD. 249).108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. 189.

IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). conjugate leaf. 28).v.). as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. LIU G – letter in its isolated. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. one half of a piece of leather (TS. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. WDUN E TY. – one of a pair.

. .. 6$ .

III. SA.v. fur„ah (pl. DD. I. 230. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. far„ al-qalam – syn.) (KU. II. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. 83). IR. 481. 154). 60. AT. 390). mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA.g. 133. MY. shaqq (q.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

// . ..

94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. 23) 2. LC. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. annotation (TM. witness (MR. index. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK .=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. apograph.18). most probably a variant of PLTU „. mifra¨ – cutter (ST. note. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

scroll (FI. abbrev. (AD. 82). JL. 87. 88.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. q. application as opposed to theory. aÁl. KR. 93. SM. 131).) (UD. IDU JK SO IDU JK W. 15.v. 269) 4. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. argument resulting from a legal point.

completion. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W. 41) – end. execution.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO.

 HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. 23). also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. 26. farkah (MN. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. blank. 23. lacuna (LC. GA. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . 289) 3.+  /0 .

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

1. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. explication. comment.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

23.g. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. X.5 . 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . FRPS VKDU¨ 2. three dots. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. 55. e. AK. paragraph mark (TP. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. MS. fa¦¦ (pl. from Greek into Arabic (EI. mufassir – commentator. III. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). LC. 83). SA. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 351. disc. commentary and/or translation.

 .

110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl. fuÁ O.

55. III. . MM. taf¦ O 1. space between words or passages. QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. word division (in a text). spacing (TP. 138. 134. 145-146) 2. SA. division of a composition into fuÁ O ).

place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. silver-based ink (UK. comp. or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ .  FKDSWHU 6' II. 271). 37..  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U.20). TP. 53. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 33).. 130-133. n. 92. MP. MB. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ.

 fiqrah (pl. 23. II. AK. 351). RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). I. DM). comp. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. fiqar) – passage. section of a text. 273. SD. abbrev. paragraph (LC. xiii.

372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. BA. – book cover (HN. III. 385.

 FRPS VKLGT .

al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah).g. IDQ T (pl. box (KC. fihrist (pl IDK ULV. disbound (e. 45). mufakkak – loose. fihris.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. funuq) – case.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

abbrev. 207. bibliography. 49. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. 743-744) 4. list. 23. (CA. nota bene (notabilia). cataloguing. comp.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. LC. abbrev. gloss. 36). 149. II. RU &0  RU 66. fahrasah 1. also I µidat al-a¦l. record of attested study. marginal note. EI. II. 286. AR. mashyakhah 2. 293) 2. II. 50). catalogue (SD.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

Qubbat al-. WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. . 107). 76  AG. 15). al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem).

IV. qabr. II. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. qub¨al. qabla – before. lit. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. . straightedge (TS. 302). SD. 471). 107. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. abbrev. AG.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg.‘grave’) – pen box (EI.

TP. PXT ELO – collator. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. EI. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . 490492). muÑ UD ah 2. MH. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. 56.52. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. corrector. II. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. collation note (statement). comp. n. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. VII. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR.

. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. 54. qaÃÃ. I. AG. II. aqudd) – strip (of leather). etc. FRPS ] Ðidah. 11. abbrev. CI. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather.xiii. xiv).) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. 18. 10. 701. comp. CI. qidd (pl. 24.37. n. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. AA. II. 107). / / / / / (TP. 109).

fore-edge flap (TS. preface. 107). 120. introduction (EI. also TS. AG. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. VII. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. 52. muqaddimah – forward. 59.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. TP. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. MI. 173). comp. 26. 495-496). abbrev. 17.

reading. 139). T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. 26) 2. reciter. – marginal note. gloss. 9 -129) 3. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. recitation (LC. TLU µah 1. commentary (AD. manner of recitation. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. collection of glosses. variant reading (varia lectio). prelector.

$/ .  73 .

PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. II. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. KF. FRPS VDP Ñ.g. 494-498). 53. TP. FRPS ¨arf. n. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e.25.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

AG. 110). 110). 36. sleeve case (TS. . 466) 2. 36. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. AG. 110). 104. AG. 35-36. sheath (SK. II. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. TLU E (pl. aqribah) 1. SA.

sifr 13. II. 60). compact writing (KM. IV. IB. 20). QS. 18. 103: PLTU   (!). ST. qar¦a¶ah – fine.19. 59). putting something into a press (ST. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. index. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. 91-92. 417). IB. screw press (MB. index. 63. 44). 94). 19. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. 44.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. 47). MP. 10. 21. 107. 107. IK. 63). AG. AG. IA. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. MP. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. ST. 19. IK. index.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. EI. IW. 50. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. V. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. WS. 407) or paper (SA. 66-76. 261. comp. VIII. 173-174. AE. II. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. AE. 17). I. 82-91). 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). VIII. 98. 66-93. EI. parchment (AE. 108. UD.

– approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript. often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. .

GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. 335- WDTU   W . XIV.

186). 313). muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL. qarma¨ah – fine. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. sifr 13. muà ODÑah.  qarmadah. 143. %/ $0 QRV     122. compact writing (KM. comp.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . IV. 136. 182.

IV. miqsam(ah) (lit. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). . trimming (ST. qurnah – corner (MB. MB. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. 153. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. qirmah see VL\ T. index. DS. qa¦¦. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. 41). see also UA. JM. AA. 103. EI. 146. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. 80). IA. IB. al-qurnah al-yusrá). 59. 60. 393: not defined). miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. IV. 86. HT. 42.19. 181. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. 682. IK. reed pen (IK. EI. 69).

153). qa„m – syn. tin-based ink (UK. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. miqaÃÃ. 86). comp. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. 32). qa¦amah.116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. qa„ P DK. 154). 130. MP.

II. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. cutting (of leather. 102. 50. 72-74. the point itself. 109-110.. LM.) breadthwise (KD. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . KM. 93). leather (IW. I. KU. KK. sifr 4. nibbing. 2-463. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. IK. 153. – white hide. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). AA. etc.

42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. II. longer than the left’. i. I.e. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. 462. LL. LM. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA.

MJ. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. 154). qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. . opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. 2996. 1742. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. II. straight point of the nib (SA. II. 217). ivory. MJ. 217). 462). II.

IP. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. SK. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. MM. qaÃÑ al-thumn. II. IV. AT. 468.742. MB. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. 105: maqaÃÃ. 54. 62. 76. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. 65. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah. LS. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. qa¨¶ (pl. 133).GLOSSARY 117 etc. ND. MK. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. SA. 45.

42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. . piece of something (e. qi¨¶ah 1. VI. 475). principle of the interlace.g. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. 110).  irs (AG. piece of poetry) 2. calligraph (AC. decoupage (ER. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. piece of calligraphy.

format (of a book) (TL. taq¨ ¶ 1. 11. 475). SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. (pair of) scissors (IK. 90) 4. cutting instrument (DM) 2.. decoupage. 91). filigree work (IP. .  +'   T ÃiÑ. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. mishraÃ. comp. WS. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. muqaÃÃa¶ ). 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. 144. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. 21) 2. collage. papercut(s). 9. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. VI. AG. PA. 107).  (5 9.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

 26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

– clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. 377). .

AG. index. 14. 20). ST. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. taqfiyah – backing (TS. comp. qalb.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. 641). flat back (TS. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. AG. 107. 15. AG. 107). 15-17. 15. 107). 107). 15. AG. al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight.

  .  PRXOG 8.

83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. MK.3. 26.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. index. 26.19. LC. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. no. 14. ST.

FZ. folder (IB. miqlab SO PDT OLE. 214. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. 43). stamp (for book cover design) (IA. FI. 59. 88. 93) 4. JL.

7XUN PLNOHE.

– envelope flap (MT. 68). 26). 202-203). TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. 83. DW. qalam SO DTO P TLO P.

  76 .  SLHFH RI ZRRG ..

TC. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". 45-87. SA. i. 13 (AA. KU. 232. 44-465. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. reed pen. also qalam al-qa¦ab.e. IK.  calamus. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. copper pen. II. see TW.

38-39. 356. handwriting. 100). UK. MB. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. 71-75. 144. 133-134. 471) 3. AT. hand. . -50. IV.. MP. script. MB. EI. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . ductus. 59-64.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. see khaÃÃ.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. muqawwar. 335). I. 11-12). an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. used in talismans and amulets (IT.

al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. DO-mu¨aqqaq. 85). al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. al-thuluth. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. IK. 153. 145). 144).

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

. .$  Q...  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah.  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  . SA.  $.

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

II. For a list of words used for such containers see SL. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. 2565). chest (LL. 11. 49-51. WDTO P – paring. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. II. . trimming (a reed). I. KR. 43. 109). AG. 79). 85). 43. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books).

III. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. 37). muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. comp. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. 144). AS. 11. 144).120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK .

 qawl SO DTZ O.

MI. xiv. 238). II. tract 2. treatise. 155. TP. 190. short composition. passage. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. 154. PDT ODK 1. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. – quotation. XII. MU.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

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82. 83. 190. DF. 283. folio (folium) (MK. KF. 327. 86. KF. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. I. 377. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. III. I. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah.

 al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. .g. mDEV Ã. RN. PXVWDT P – upright. erect. 22). comp. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

– HQGSDSHU 8.U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 .  DPP DO-Ñ.

 al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq. qayd SO TX\ G.

committing something to writing.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶.. statement. – note. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . 17. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. composition (TE. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

 tying.. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. 62) 4. III. . sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. 113. IK. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . binding. IA.

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

153. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. no.187). N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. muqayyid 1. glossator (AM. – marginal note. N JKL¨. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). gloss (LC. 43). IB. author 2. 27).

waraq. IV. 419-420. al-N JKDG DO-. see waraq. AE. al-kalŒ . . etc. 136). comp. WS. WS.VO P . 77-85). 77) – paper (EI. 98-105. leaf (of paper) (AJ. al-5 P . N JKLGDK – sheet. SO NDZ JK Ã.

as in the beginning of w Z. in papermaking) (OM). 136. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. munkabb – inclined. 374). kubbah (pl. 85-86). ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. kubab) – ball (of fibre. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. WS.

8'  /0 .

40. 49-53. TS. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. NDE NDM 1.) 2. 169). KL. 416. 393). UA.) (US. AG. II. 440. kitbah (MH. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. 91. q. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. 416). WDNE V – pressing (QS. mikbas. II.v. CM. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. TH. II.107. mun¨anin. SD. comp. katb. Ranunculus asiaticus.

kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . NLW E NLW EDK – writing. composition. transcription. copying.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

CT. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. +. 45: ‘hence katabah.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. Turkish ketebehü. NI. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK.

. comp. scribe. scrivener 2. amanuensis (EI. mu¨arrir. 180). fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. IV.  VHFUetary. 554-760).

388: mukattab). tail (of a book or document) 2.) . 207-208). NH. VI.. letter.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . maktab – place designated for writing. 705. book. EI. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . 384). PDNW E SO PDNW E W. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. lin. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. 197-200). piece of writing. IV. spine (of a codex) (HT.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. 23. document. V. chapter in a book (SL. 86). archetype. copying (KK. codex (MA. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. booklet. NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. KD. maktabah – library (EI. 53. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). II.115). IK. I.

705). LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. 53). – piece of calligraphy. 51. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy.g. sifr 13. calligraph (DP. KD. muktib. 4. II. mukattib (e. KM. master calligrapher (KK. IV.

9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .  26 . .0 ..

IR. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). kuŒl – antimony. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). outlining. outline (of letters) (DH. pointing (of a wall) (FT. 393. kohl.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. no. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). 187). mikŒ O see mirwad. takŒ O 1. I. 414) 2. 230).

 RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. comp. 68). misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ.

OLQHV LQ .

142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK.

110: tak¨ O DO- irs.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 33. AG. 12. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.

 kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. 0. NDGK – thus. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . sic. 42). abbrev. 154. IB.  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’).

takarrur – graphic error. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). WLNU U. dittography (e. TM. 184).g. ditto- NXUU V DK. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. 162). 48.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. II. CI. passim.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. SL. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. TS. AG. IK. AA. KU. kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. SA. 60).9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . II. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. 700). II. 60). 84. 131. abbrev. reading stand (MD. NXUV – book cradle. quire (gathering). TS. 100. 132).92). comp. lin. 48. 468-471. KD. SK. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. x. 14. .0 .  . II. ra¨l. 107) 2.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .

P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P. QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH . mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af.

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

miksar SO PDN VLU. 363). kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH.

– fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. TP. I. DD. 389. 58). of bashr (LF. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 274. syn. 137. NH. IR. knife (for making erasures) (IR. 79. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. 391). 128). NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN.

kuÑ E.126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl.

dast. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. DM). 94). 406). NXQQ VK DK. 84. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. JL. passim. 109). AJ. 90). 61. comp. inlay (SA. KR. 92. 442. AB. FT. 109). 97. 95. rizmah. DE. kaff(ah). WDNI W – inlaying. 92. WS. 109. IA. 145. 39. tongs (MB. – spine (back of a codex) (MB. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. flat back (MB. II. 82). al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. usually 25 sheets (PT. 977. main de papier).

SO NDQ Q VK.

commonplace book (LC. HB. – 1. 25. .

al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . V. mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb).  kunyah (pl. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. 395-396).

I . originally and properly speaking. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . I 1.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-.

AV. 363.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. 27ff.g. 8-9. comp. 11-13. FN. OD). MV. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV.

76  $*  86 .

laŒaq (pl. SA. paint (UK. ultramarine. 119. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. MP. 114. 29. al¨ T OL¨ T. II. 478). 145. 85). 139). (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. JM. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. azure ink. 27.

mulŒaq – omission. . insertion (TP. ilŒ T.

IB. LC. 703). comp. JA.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. II. 154. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK.14). I. OL] T – paste. adhesive (KD.. 279). 42). 185. TM. 24. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS.128 GLOSSARY  .

II. II. I. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. n. 481.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. 230. IR.169. SA. book cradle (TW. 15. copyist’s book support. WA. 390) 3. AG.24. 107. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam).  76  11. 481) 2. 14. SA. 133. DD.

/&  /( .  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. where each gathering is numbered separately). abbrev.

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

$'  /( 137) 3. 25). HT. 132).109. lin. JL. LC. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. OLV Q (pl. 20. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. 119. index. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. 25. MM. ST. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. 90. 13.

 .

II. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. I. passim). 480. malediction. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. DM). 530). II. adhesive (SA. spool (DS. milaff 1. IR. 131. 230) 2. RA. DD. 181. stamping (HT. wrapper (DM). abbrev. alÁiqah) – paste. lin. laqab SO DOT E. mulaffaq. SD. 26).GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. lafŒ – tooling. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . or (MI. comp.166). 145. OL] T la¶nah – curse. 167. 391.

DD. I. . (pair of ) tongs. V. pincers. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. honorific title (EI. WDOT P – inlaying. – nickname. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. inlay (FT. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. tweezers (MB. 109) 2. 406). 618-631).

stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. lakk RU O N '* .130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. lak. 11. LM. 49).

varnish (AB. 140). law¨ W.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. namq. comp. lacquer. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. 109). glazed.v.). 16). copying (TE. AG. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. 11. q. burnished (e. ODPP ¶ – glossy. lamq – elegant writing.g. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨.

402).123. II. OM) 4. (Turk. MS. illuminator (HD. 58-59) 2.or tailpiece) (LC. usually framed). WDOZ Œ – marginal note. panel (in decoration). 124) 3. head. 25. 5) 5. 125). . 31) 6. 142-143. pasteboard (ST. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. MB. 24. lin. 29. HT. headpiece (FT. 11. gloss (DM). lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. wooden board (TS. 99.

also known as sarwah (q. see also nuqÃah) 3. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. 11. 109. central medallion (on a book cover). 31.v. 59. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). TS.). raÐs al-lawzah. 156. oval figure 2. mandorla 4. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. 44. IA.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. 38). AG. MB. IB. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. 105.

IR. II. 208). lawn SO DOZ Q. 478. 45. AT. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. – spatula. 133. MJ. 230. IB.

698-707. – colour. V. pigment.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. . AI. JA. tint (EI. 148.

 WDOZ Q 1. 27) 2. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. LC. 86. III. 11. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. WDO\ ¨ 1. see also the quotation under sha¨m). polychrome illumination (WA. tinting (of paper). shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. IK.

477-478. . 13. II. 702. 393) tow (wad. also PLO T (UA. tint (AD. BA.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. liyaq) 1. 160) 3. colour. 84. MP. 26-29. 26-29. 370). paper pulp (OM). wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. MB. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. III. 133). coloured ink (SA. n. 111-119. O TDK (pl. 55. AT. UK. 79-84. index. tuft of unspun silk. MP. II. 20. MJ. 203) 2. IK.

amliqah) 1. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 .132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. also PLO TDK (BA. III. 370) – compartment for ink (KD. II.

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

. %$ .. .

38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. 144. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. KH.

**** matn SO PXW Q. comp. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. muqawwar. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. muraÃÃab. such as al-thuluth.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. EI. V. II. 1. 843) 2. VI. text-column (MU.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. ¨ VKL\DK.

also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. II. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. (qalam) al-matn. 1. 214. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. 24. 568). SD. 109. 53). matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. 25). P WLQ – author of the original composition. TP. VI. 843) 4. . LC. Œard al-matn (HN. EI. MD. IX. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah.

121-122. 216). maŒw – ink removal. 238). or licking) (TP. 138-140. obliteration (by means of a cloth. blind tooling.) . amiddah) – soot ink. 58. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. 21. II. 89). comp. IV. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. 1031). 15-18. amthilah) – copy. SA. maŒ UDK (q. 36-37). TP. AT. JL. VI. UK. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. 127-131. 38. ink (in general) (SK. 67-71. UK. ¨ibr. ¨aÃÃ.v. MP. index.52. 90). al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. pl. tamŒ ¨ 1. n. 13.) . 79-90. 471-477. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. III. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. 38. IV. comp. PLG G (pl. comp. erasure. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. 134-135. MB. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. MP. KR. process of softening leather (making it flexible. KH. 79: dalk) 2. 55. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. MJ. III. 86.  madd. apograph (CD.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. MJ. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. 371). . EI. khirqah.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). AE. transcript. BA.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ).

103- 8$  . SK. pen knife (SA.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). mudan. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . II. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. 465-467.5  . 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). I  mudyah (madyah. midyah) (pl. midan) – knife.

 FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). WDPU „ see  abbah. ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M.

166. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . 114). 481-482. DD. 133. wiping (MB. IA. I. sackcloth (DG. masŒ – rubbing. 230. 202). mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. AT. 110. 391). see shar¨. coarse haircloth. SA. 60: misann almis¨) 2. II. . misŒ 1.

. FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð.

146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . 230).GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. copying. 116-117. 16) 3. mush¨ – comb (IA. elongation (of letters) (JA. hasty. IR. inelegant hand. mashq 1.. 55) 2. SK. AA. 60. scribbling (MM. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( .I. I. transcription (TE.

134: ÑDQ . 4. calligraphic hand (CM. elegant. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. copying from a model (TE. according to some opinions. 83) 5.’). KK. IK. KT. fine elongation. mashqah 1. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. MY. 151). is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. fine elongated stroke (SK. 16. 48.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. calligraphic exercise. 164) 6. calligraphic model (AD. for example. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq….

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

 P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. 183).

 . '' .

signing. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. autograph (DM) 2. signature.

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

AG. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. 107). 25. LC. 60-61). al-maghrah al-¶. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. 11. 27). II. also malasah – burnisher. 411). AG. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. milk – ownership (OS. 107) 2.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. Makkah (al-mukarramah. al-musharrafah. plane-like instrument (TS. ex-library. 88. I  mimlasah 1. etc.). also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. TS. LC. VII. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. ex-dono. 88. 478). FRPS QDÌar 3. EI. 8). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . 11. polisher (NH. 390. 31. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca.

 GLFWDWLRQ $. SDVVLP :6 -13. KF. work (known as al-DP O . 85-94) 2. I.

725-726. stamp (EI. VII. II. 48). passim. EI. famulus (AI. SL. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. 472-. 725-726). VII. GA. signet. muhr – seal. passim.VII. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk.

VII. 472-473). stamping (EI. FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. .

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

leaf (of paper) (SA. 50-52) 2. sheet. KM. II. 105-106. sheet. 8-9. (IW. AE. IV. WS. 472. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. II. sifr 13. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. 79-82.

63). mawzah – burnisher. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. 60. polisher (IA.

UD.$  maws. trimmer (TW. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK . – pen knife. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] .

 P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. 226. II. LC. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. V. 25).  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. 64).  1+  '' .

12. tilting (of a script). II. script) (UD. II. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. slanting (of the line. . 442) 2. inlaying (SA. 45). hence P µil – inclining. coating. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. gilt (SD). 403). WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. SA.

5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh).138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. remark (in the body of a composition). KM. IV. nota bene. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. copying (TE. WDQE K – note. 16. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). sifr 13. JM. 40). 146.

IB. naŒt 1. minjam – mallet (ST. 21. 43: P MDPDK). 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. 36). index. UD. trimming (of a reed) (IR. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. 232. paring.

. (MG. I. etc.g. copper-based ink (UK. ¨amdalah. 133-134. nuŒ V – copper. 482). basmalah. MP. e. 35).  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

II. 95. DM). munkhul – sieve (IR. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. 384). – anthology (EA. 230. KR. 94-95). 82). selector (DF. nasab SO DQV E. I. muntakhib – compiler. 97.

VII. etc. religious sect or school. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. 967-968). 53-56). VIII. ending in – (EI. pedigree (EI. nisbah (pl. genealogy. tribe. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. – lineage.

DO-PDQV E DK.

naskh-ta¶O T). KK. IV. transcription (TE. 17. KM.5. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. par excellence. 1124 (in Persia). In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. IV. 21). ER. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . see khaÃÃ. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. sifr 13. which according to the Mamluk tradition. naskh 1. (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. 696-699). belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. 57) 2. 1126 (in Turkey). PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. index. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. IV. 1127 (in Muslim India).

XVI. catalogue (AD. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. 138. 123. al-naskh al-mu¶W G. VIII. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. LM. 128. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’.in Turkey. 1127. nuskhah (pl. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. xiv). MZ. pl. al-makh¨ ¨ W. variant reading (varia lectio). al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. CD. IV. QDVNK 1. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC.in Persia.  0.      $5  $. badal) 4.171).in Muslim India). 89). IV. CI.12) 2. CM.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. I. 47. comp. 1123. but erroneously. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. copy (EI. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. 182. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. version. LE. transcript. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 149) 2. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. 141. 146. xv. archetype (LC. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . CA. I. list. 36.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. 26). LM. n. II. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. abbrev. commonly. nusakh) 1. personal) nature (CI. 1125./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. recension (MU. EI.

al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. 26). unicum. 26). archetype (LC. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

16. 348. 47). WB. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . TW. MA. scribe (TE. passim). muntasikh – copyist. 17. PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK.

g. I. epistolography (EI. LQVK µ – construction. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). no.. documents or state papers. III. . e. of letters. 1241-1244). style or composition. letter-writing. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. 9. layout (mise en page ) (FK.

WDQVK U. 67). TD. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. 136). 173. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. 94. nashr. 134. I. IK. I. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. 278. AI.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV. 76   $*  .

tanshiyah – pasting (ST. DD. 60. index. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). 390. 133. II. . OM. IA. 106. II. I. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). 136). minshafah – blotter (TD. IB. IR. starch paste (made of sorghum. SA. index. 230: minshaµah). compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. MB. nashan – wheat starch. starch paste (TS. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. dhurah) (OM). ST. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. I. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. 12. 21. 395). AT. 480. 50. 21). 13.

133. pallet-like tool (HT. 249. 240. ni¦ E 1.  . 137). 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ . 241.. . lin.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. straight line. handle (SK. the letter alif (IR. stroke.. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn.

also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. UD. 43. 103. 59) 3.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. up-stroke (SA. IA. LM. 59). 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. MB. 47. 156. IB. munta¦ib – ascender. III. 11. 101.

JL. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶.g. 88. medallion. FZ. 218. 93. ZM. na„ar – study note. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). e. 217. 43). reading note. III. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA.

) .  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .

XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I. un„ur – ‘see’. abbrev. FRPS PXà ODÑah.

nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

no. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. II. curator. I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. comp.170). 2812). shiÑr.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. versification. . na„m.

391: for sewing of quires). WDQT Œ. II. AT. naqr – inscription. IR. awl (SA. 392). awling (MB. DD. 481. IV. nafdh – punching. nafÃah) – pockets of air. MJ. IV. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). II.3. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. 133. QDTT U – carver. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. 5). no. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. engraver (KM. I. sifr 13. nafa¨ (sg. minfadh – punch. 208. 230. tanaqquŒ – correction. 23).GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. epigraphy (KM. revision (KF. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). engraving (on stone). passim). sifr 13.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

II. IK. 49. 471. 84. SA. naqsh SO QXT VK. 5). 469. sifr 13. IV. – ink (KK. KM.

MB. 63) 3. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. epigraphy (FT. 105. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. comp. illumination (EI. 156. naqr 2. painting. QLT VKDK 1. inscription. 931). VII. 29-32. 400). engraving. IA. TS.

.  0% 105. IA. 59). ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8.

266). 155. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. 159). III. miniature painter. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. 141. 931-932). WDQT VK – writing. IV. 5) 2. illuminator (PA. VII. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. designer. carver. sifr 13. engraver (KM.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. copying (FK.

haplography (TP. 58). 16-17) 2. letter-pointing (TE. naq¨ 1. III. naq¦. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. SA. nuq¨ah (pl. 16-17. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. 38). nuqaÃ. SA. III. TE. 151. KH. 160. haplographic error. III. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA.

  T OD .  GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.

59: nuqaà mudawwarah. naqalah) 1. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. extract. translation. 368). QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. 16) 4. calligrapher (TE. abbrev. 218) 2.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. MB. 68) 5. exact copy (apograph). nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). quotation 3. . HT. copying. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. numrah. nimrah – number. TE. XII. 33. IA. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. AW. 16. naql 1. quoting. figure. 105. copyist. 133. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). orthographer (LT. citing. 12. IA. translator. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . transcription (MU. Q TLO (pl. 137.

written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. 91). AM. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 .GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. 16. 62. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. copying (TE. embellished writing. SK. namq WDQP T – elegant. numbering. 53. 45. KK. 53.

 HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . NI. 45. Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC.

1). IV. embellished writing. namnamah 1. copying (SK. AA. copying (KH. 119. calligraphic composition (NI. 105) 2. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. compact writing (KM. 237). sifr 13. 181. 369. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. calligraph. AW. n. WDQP O – compact writing. elegant. II. painted illustration (KF. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). 38). QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy).

of mufatta¨. 26.v. 43). 22. – floral design. having an open counter (ant.) (LM. index. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . 44). IB. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. of maÃP V q. 69). used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. PXQ U – syn. IB.

498-450. 27). EI. KF. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. II. III.

IK. – inkwell (SK. 700. II. KD. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. 106.

termination. II. I. / / / (for intahá) (MW. II. 87. xi. CI. CI. SL. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. 110. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. 285). GA. xiii. LQWLK µ – end. abbrev.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

+   ID-NDWDED ODKX LQK ÐDQ I NKLU NLW E DO]DN K PLQKX. .

hud hud SO KDG KLG. hudb. **** DKG E (sg. hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. 36).

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

revision (DM) 2. LKG µ – dedication (FN.. correction. epitome (EA. .. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . WDKGK E 1. abridgement. I..  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). 23).

epitomist. 108) 2. muhall. IA. 483. 109. WDKO O 1. 69. 72. abridger. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. 73) 2. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. 181.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. author. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. compiler (SS. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. I. MG. X. 61). backing (MB. EI. rounding (of the spine).

 . VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9.

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

.   .  PDUJLQ ') ..

abbrev. gloss. /&  0. .  PDUJLQDO note.

glossing. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ . annotation (TT.  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn). WDKP VK 1... 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK.

 .  PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $.

annotated (TW. muhammash – glossed. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK.

IR. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. raÐV HJ 6$ . MH.. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. 4. 57. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah. 57. 90).. K PDK – head (of a letter). unpointed letters (TP. GL. 244).  K PDW DO-alif). syn. .

page (MU. 31.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). recto (of a document or leaf) 4.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. transcription in full. wajh al-hirr (lit. IV.. 25. face. 25) 2. 43-45).. wajh(ah) 1. epitome (DM). II. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . 31) 3. upper cover (TS. ¶alá al-wajh – copying. upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL.

Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC.. 6$ . 82). 109). al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG.. 29. MK. -92). al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al.

218). MK. KK. waŒy – writing. 29. 464. 82). waŒVK see sinn. SA. IV. 5. II. sifr 13. KM. . wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. 53). wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. MJ. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK.

piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK.73). DA). no. 95. lobed medallion (DH. waraq SO DZU T.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing.73). WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. no. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH.

such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. 85-. -195. WS.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

folio (folium). piece (of paper. waraqah 1.  $5  . parchment or leather) 2. leaf. abbrev.

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

AG. 29). (TS. 11. 109). wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 25).

I.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. DO-. 85). al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

French paper (PT. 77) 2. 378). 31). European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. DO-5 P 1. I. 75. al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. VI. paper bearing an imitation watermark. SA. Tre Lune) (PT. waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). 193. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. 30. 31). . OM).

150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. 32). al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O.

JL. – glazed paper (PT. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. SA. 35. 380). 87. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. pasteboard (JL. WS. WS. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . 394). II. 84). 32. 104) 2. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. 88. MD. cardboard (FT. 487. 107. 82). MS.

WS. 82. WR. MP. scribe (SL. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. 87. bookseller. 380). index. 22. 161). 495). MN. copying. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. bookbinder (QS. – marbled paper (DM. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. 9. 65). vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. WDZU T 1. maysam SO PD\ VLP. transcription (WS. IB. foliated arabesque design (ST. 16. 14. FI. LC. IV. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. 93. 81. 94). 28. index. 22. KF. II. 148) 2. 558-561). IK. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. I. stationer. EI. professional copyist. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). 88. II. 69. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. I. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. JL.

135). – tool. stamp (AB. mawsim SO PDZ VLP.

ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . 22. festival. – feast. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. washŒ – decorating. CI. 65). 10).g. II. MP. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. index.

stamping (of leather) (HT. 93) 3. 186) 2. writing. also WDZVK P – tooling. drawing (AD.125. . diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. lin.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

18. stamp (HT. wi¦l. – pattern (created by tooling). tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE.126). 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). washy. UK. lin. wa¦l. wu¦l (pl. awÁ O ZDÁO W.

110). 65) 2. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. NZ. vox reclamans (NM. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. collema (kollema) (WS. HB. 683. 812. knife (used by the waÁÁ O .  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. VI. 234. piece. 144) 3. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. darj). 88. 10. wa¦lah 1. SA. II. 90). leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll.

$' .

222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. 3132). wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. 12. arrangement (of a text) (MU. VI. comp. PA. 187. wa„¶ (pl. KF. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. aw  Ñ ) – composition. I. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 62. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’).

376). . author (DF. Z „i¶ – compiler. IV.

proem (DM). P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G. prologue.152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface.

192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $.  . 56. – collation session (TP. TM.

ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. awÑiyah) – 1. 575) 2. 19. 87: ZDT ¶ah. box (MS. case. wifq SO DZI T. 16. ME. container (OM). DA). wi¶ µ (pl.

 . 100. IV. 10) 2. stamp (IK. P IDT – seal. signature (EI. 189). 28. 96). sifr 13. LC. 69. 392. writing something down. al-WDZ T ¶. KF. 189. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . taking something down in writing (SL. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. X. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. KM.. 28. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. decree (EI. 108). LC. motto. I. apostil (usually signed) (AD. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. gloss. 125) 4. 124. WDZT ¶ 1. autograph. 392-393) 3. royal edict. I. AD. X. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ).

tashÑ U W.GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines.

JM. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. reading.) (BL. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. 1125. 428-442). also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH. 63).in Persia. 43-46. PDZT I 1. 90). al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf).v..9 1123. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. (AS. WDZT I (KF. KF. 69). (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. II. LM. 100. 441).in Turkey). 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. III. 146). II. LM. KH. 146. LM. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. . AS. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). WDTU Ì (q. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . wakf 3. waqfiyah. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. 90. 146. 187). KF.g. LC. bequest note (OS. 73-77.g. 38) 2. II.g.29.. unfinished stroke (e. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. 146. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. waqf 1. 61. endowment.

AA. 28). comp. 95. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. error (IK. wahm – mistake. . logograph. taÐammul 2. wakt – letter pointing (KM. 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). 123). IV. 122). sifr 13.) (LC. 55). AA.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. K P – omission (IK. overlining (TP. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. 95.

96). al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . III. III. SA. III.154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146). 95-96.

ray¨ Q QDVNK. DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. maÁ ¨if.

\ ELV – rectilinear. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. 144). ant. al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 6$ III. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah.

6$ ..  8'  $6  /0 ..

yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ. FRPSPDEV Ã.

\DU ¶(ah) – reed. – hand. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. DM. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. UA. II. I \DG. . 42). reed pen (IK. 393. 86. in the hand of) (OT. KD. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ).

CM.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. no.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.g.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK. .. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &.

 .

AG = Adam Gacek. AE = Adolf Grohmann. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Ivanov. “The art of illumination”. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. “Das arabische Papier”. 1923. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. Fagnan. ±aydar Ghaybah. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. transl. Arabische Paläographie. Al-.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 2 (1989): 37-53. AF = Oleg F. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 1989. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . von Karabacek. ed. Wien. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes.VKE O LQ KLV µ. Damascus. AI = ÑAbd al-. Paris/ London. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. A. The arts of the book in Central Asia. Gray. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. Vol. AC = Adam Gacek. ed.1. ed. Beirut. Akimushkin and Anatol. 1414/1994. Max Weisweiler.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. AD = E. 1981. Algiers. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. AJ = J.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. Riyad. 1979: 35-57. 1967. B.ABBREVIATIONS 1.

. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. 382-398. decoration. AL = . AW = Nabil F. AS = Adam Gacek. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. London/Oxford.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. ed. New York. Ars Islamica. no.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. 1.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. nos. AP = Nabia Abbott. London/Oxford. Safwat. London/Oxford. “Arabic numerals”. 1992. 1996. AQ = David James. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 4 (1989): 144-149. binding and paper”. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. AV = François Déroche.D. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . 2 (1987): 45-67. AN = Richard Lemay. McGill University. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. AO = Adrian Brockett. Descriptive catalogue. 8 (1941): 65-104. Manuscripts of the Middle East. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries.4 (1986): 131-137. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. 1992. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. 15. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Montreal. 1996. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. 1982: 1.

Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. Oriens. CD = Arthur J. 4 (1991): 35-53. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. CI = Adam Gacek. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . CL = Jan Just Witkam.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. 1982 . CM = Adam Gacek. Dublin.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. 1958.. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. Montreal.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. MacKay. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. Arberry. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. London. Leiden. 1991. CT = Pierre A. The Chester Beatty Library. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. 1984-85. -CCA = Adam Gacek.

no.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. 1960. Chouémi and C. CW = A.S. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. Paris. -DDA = A. Iskandar. Dictionnaire . DB = R. Blachère.4 (1971). M. Dictionnaire arabe-français.Z. Denizeau. London. N. 1967. 61. De Biberstein Kazimirski.

DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. 1989. ed. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. 4th ed. Archeological studies. 1967.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. J. Ithaca. Paris.2 (1938): 141-151. Beryus.1986. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Frankfurt. Revue des études islamiques. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. Cowan. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S.1 (1937): 69-110.M. ±amd al-. 5.D. Paris. . DT = Tawfik Canaan. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. de Premare.. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. 1993 . DQ = François Déroche. Beirut. ed. 1994. fasc. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. DG = Werner Diem.. Little. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. 59 (1991): 229-235. DC = A. DR = Donald P.-L. ed. NY.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. 4. 1984. 0DPO N studies review. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. Kuwait. DM = Hans Wehr. Wiesbaden. fasc.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. DP = Adam Gacek. 4 (1989): 44-55. 2 (1998): 93-193. 1994. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. .

LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”.EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. Calif. -EEA = J. 1995: 17-57. E. ed. London (later Costa Mesa. -FFD . The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. 1960 . Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá.S. Starkey. eds. Cairo. Leiden. 5 . n.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus.. Yarshater. Al-)XQ Q DO-. à W´ Al-Mawrid.EU K P . 1998. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. New York. transl.). ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. 1986. 1999.. Istanbul.S. 1979. London. London. Dimand. 1997. FM . FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. London/ Oxford. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Baghdad. Meisami and P.VO P \DK. New ed. 1982 .160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. EP = François Déroche. 1995: 93-101. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. 1993. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”. Part 1. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation.d.

HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. Cambridge. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. 1966.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. A Grammar of the Arabic language. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1987. Cairo. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. . 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). 1992. 1987. HT = Adam Gacek. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. Fischer. 1982. herausgegeben von W. HN = Ñ \LGDK . kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. Wright. Cairo. 50-99. 1994. Istanbul. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. FT = Oktay Aslanapa.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . 6 (1991): 41-58. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. Kaziev (Gaziev).EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.U. HD = A. ³. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. 1967. Baku. ed. GL = W. Rabat. Wiesbaden. 3rd ed.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. transl.

Univ. ed. à W´ Al-Mawrid. Beirut. J. 1319 A. IB = G. F. A¨mad ‚aqr. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990]. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. no. Carswell and G. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. 8. ed. 1973.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. Bosch. of Chicago.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-.2 (1979): 221-284.1981. Cairo. IM = Ñ. May 18 . Chicago. Petherbridge. Richard.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. )DKP 6DÑd.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Qum. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. 1983. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì.1987? . . Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q . 1995: 123-136. Déroche and F. Cairo/ Tunis.H.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. Damascus. ed. 1389/1970. Beirut.August 18. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-.. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. 1997: 57-63. The Oriental Institute. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. London. Paris. 1981. IJ = Jan Just Witkam.

. s. .ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. 1962.XOO \DW DO. ed. Beirut. Algiers. University of Michigan. no.D. Qum. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. Riyad. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. 1982. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . 1962.1961. Ph. 1969. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU .KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. Damascus. 1983. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . 0DMDOODW . [Tehran?].1 (1958): 81-106. 20.. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I . 38 (1989): 7-103..G E (Cairo). ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð. 1985. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). ed.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. ÑIzzat ±asan. Al-0DQ KLO. 6 pl. Baghdad. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). Cairo. 1997.l.G E DOV PLÑ. S. 1363 [1984].EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”.n. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD.

1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue. 1 (1963): 26-48.H. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”. 2 (1946): 9-18. 1937: 125-161. “Al-.LW E. 2.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. 1316-21 A. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. no. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³. 1981. 1. ed. 1. KS < VXI DO-. no. Á KL = G. by Arthur Jeffery. Fehervari and Y.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”.3 (1964): 1933. ed. 1978. Cairo. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo).VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK .164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. no.240 (1984): 61-68.VO P .VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. Al. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. RDVK G DOÑ. no. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q. London.2 (1973): 43-78.H. Safadi.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ.DWW Q  ³. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . Leiden.

Raif Georges Khoury.XZDLW 1977. ed. . . .LW E DONXWW E. ed. Wiesbaden. 1976.LW E DO-zuhd. . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  .

500). Manuscripts of the Middle East. Samarrai. van Koningsveld and Q. Cairo. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . 48 (1989): 21-29. 1978 (catalogue no. Revue africaine. ed. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. 1984. 5 (1990-91): 123-136.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. 1929. Arabic-English lexicon. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. LB = Jan Just Witkam.J. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. MELA Notes. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. LC = Adam Gacek. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. LE = M. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1790-1930. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. Cambridge. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”.S. 1911-1931. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. LD = P. Rev. Brill. ed. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. LL = Edward William Lane. 2 (1987): 68-87. 1992. Ben Cheneb. Leiden. Baghdad.

no. Beirut.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. n. Damascus.OP DO-Ñ. 1992.d. Beirut.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. 20 (1970): 88-137. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. 1992. Damascus. ed. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. 15. 1972. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . . ME = A. MC OL¨ \DK . Lamare. 1995. 1391/1971. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. ed. Cairo. 1980. 1349 [1930]. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK.G DO-Mawlá.U T . MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. Journal asiatique. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut.4 (1986): 185-248. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. 230 (1938): 551-575. MK = Etan Kohlberg. ed. Beirut. Leiden. 1913. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . Beirut.

Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. 14. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. Revue des études islamiques.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379. Al-Mawrid. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée.4 (1962). MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. 52. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . 18. pt. . 32 (1987): 105-114.6 (1993): 641649.2 (1989): 201-203. ed. 1992. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. 1976-87. MP = Martin Levey. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. MV = François Déroche. MT = Adam Gacek. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. no. N. MY = François Déroche.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ .. Cairo. London/Oxford.S. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. 1936-38. MW . no.1 (1969): 3-47. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. 15. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. no. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries.

“Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Sadan.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. NC = Adam Gacek. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. 1367/1949. NO = Dimitri Gutas. Manuscripts of the Middle East. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!).3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. 1418/1998: 341-393.A. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. NS = S.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. Cairo.VO P  . 2 (1987): 126-130. NH . Damascus. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. 1928. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. 13. 2 (1987): 8-17. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos. ND = J. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . Bonebakker. 1. London.EU K P 6KDEE ¨.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. Cairo. 1342/1923 . 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194.2 (1992): 679-683. 45 (1977): 1-87.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. Revue des études islamiques. no. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI .. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. 1 ILPELU  HG .EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ.

Paris/Teheran. M. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. Derek Latham. 26 (1976): 199-212. “O. PT = Terence Walz. 10 (1998): 41-63. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. 1994 : 75-81. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. 2 (1987): 88-95. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 1992. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. New York. OM = Adam Gacek. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. OS = Adam Gacek. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane.W. Daly. . PK = S. 1985: 29-48. ed.H.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . -PPA = Yves Porter. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Rabat. 5 (1960): 124-143. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). OH = J.

1938. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. Bookbinder.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. SD = R. SL = Nabia Abbott. . Hanaway and Brian Spooner. 1967. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. 1995. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. RI = W. Beirut.4 (1986): 259-270. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 1410/1990. Paris. 195772. Cairo. 2 (1956): 339-372. Costa Mesa. no.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . Beirut. Chicago. SJ . Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. -RRA = William L. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Paris. Dozy. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. a new direction”. 1973. 15. Bull. RN = Nabia Abbott. Chicago. 1 (1987): 21-38. 3rd ed. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. 1960. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). ed.

1 (1997): 55-90. Ricard. 1925.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . arabe 6844). ed. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. Paris. 1994: 11-32. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. 1965.VO P . TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. 1997: 135-150. Bibliothèque nationale. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). 1995. Beirut.DWW Q  .K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.H. MELA notes. François Déroche. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN.H. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”.Q Q  London. . TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. Damascus. P.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. 41. ed. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. Rabat. 1989: 49-50. 50-51 (1990): 13-18.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. Rabat. no. Damascus. ed. 1346-49 A. 1303 A. TE = Adam Gacek. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Paris/Istanbul. MS (Paris. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”.

Déroche. F. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. Rabat. n. ed. ±amd al-. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. 1949. pl. 1991.d.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. Kuwait. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. Jedda. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. 1989: 51-60. TS %DNU LEQ . HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Ñ$EG $OO K . Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. Paris/Istanbul. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. Damascus. TP = Adam Gacek. Hyderabad.EU K P DO-.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. ed.VKE O  ³. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. . [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. xx-xxxii.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. 1982. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. 1353/1934.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum.

no. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Hildesheim/New York. 1992. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. Graz. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. DaÑwat al-|aqq. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. 16. DaÑwat al-|aqq. 23. Chester Beatty Library. Beirut. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan.10 (1975): 80-92. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam.2 (1977): 45-56. 1983. no. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. 1980. Beirut. 18. 1981-83. . no.4 (1982): 10-24. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Dublin. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. 1 (1986): 49-53. 17 (1971): 43-172.

XOO \DW DO. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW . 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).Oá / -XP Gá al. 6 pl. 17.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. no.1 (1955): 43-48. 2. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al. Tehran.NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O.G E (Cairo).

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal.

 ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah). numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P.

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

Áa¨ ¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. Á ¨ib. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX.

‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ra L\D $OO K .

ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).  abbah (ta E E.

Ñ UL a. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. rajÑ. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. = Ãurrah.

/ = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu). fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V.

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . tamma. NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). aÁl. malzamah. ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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Jerusalem. . 1990. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian.1. It does not. ed. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Bernhard. Cambridge. Gruys and J. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. 2 vols. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Vatican City. Toronto. Indeed. Leiden. A. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Les manuscrits. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. Beit-Arié. Paris. Bischoff. Maniaci and P. Boyle. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Gumbert. 1997. 1988. Malachi. Carla. 5th ed. Munafò. Bookbinding. Bozzolo. ed.P. Dain. 1976-1980. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. Alphonse. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Transl. 1993. 5 vols. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. Leonard. 1984. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. London/New York. 1983. 1953 (repr. however. Paris. 1979). reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Cockerell. 1993. M. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Paris. 1976. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. Sydney M. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. Paris.

Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. 1977. Roberts. Edward. Italo. Gallo. 1 (1976): 84-90. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. John E. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. Codicologica. A.G. . Gruijs. Paris. 1989. Murdoch. Paris. 1983. Maniaci. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. peinture. “Paléographie. ed. Paris. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). Introduction à la codicologie. Encyclopedia of the book. M. Albert. P. Writing & illuminating. T. New York. Lemaire. 1953. Del. and Wilson. enluminure. Delamare. 1984. Hoffmann. M. 1998. The birth of the codex. Kristeller. 1985. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. Bernard. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex. 1985. N. & lettering. Paris. “The codex”. études historiques et physico-chimiques. Blanchard. C. Glaister. Diringer. Greek and Latin papyrology. The hand-produced book. and Skeat. 1990. C. Reynolds. codicologie et archéologie du livre. David. Denis. 1996. 2nd ed. 1986. Johnston. Rome. London. London/New York. 1996. 40 (1954): 169-204.C. New Castle. Louvain-la-Neuve. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. Dukan. Muzerelle. Oxford. Jacques. 1974. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. 1983. François and Guineau. Le livre au Moyen Age. Glenisson. New York. Paris. Paris. Roberts. Geoffrey Ashall. Paris. L. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. 1974 : 19-25. 2nd ed.D. Paul O. 1989. 1988. M.. ed.H. Turnhout. Jean. Les matériaux de la couleur. H. 1999. Paris. Proceedings of the British Academy. Paris. London. 1988. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. 11-13 septembre 1972.

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Moskva 916 avgusta 1960 g. 10: 257-302. xiv. nos 2-3 (1407 H): 164219. 374-377. 1963: 2. $OLþ 6DOLK + ³3UREOHP NUDWLFD X DUDSVNLP UXNRSLVLPD VD VSLVNRP arapskih kratica iz 16. Rosemarie. Lajos..1-2. Ma¨I Ì. Wiesbaden. London. al-6DPDUU Ð  . 2. 26 (1976):199-212. “TaÐU kh”.. Adam. Fekete. 1961. 18 (1972): 151-158. Abbreviations “Abbreviations”. IV.1 (1963/64): 23-27 [436-451]. Trudy Dvadtsat’ pjatogo Mezhdunarodnogo Kongressa Vostokovedov. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. 50 (1998): 191-222. Moscow. Revue africaine. Also: Baghdad. “MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-al-LVK U W´ 7XU WKXQ . Gacek. fasc. . 2.1 (1407 H): 159-171. Prilozi za orientalnu filologiju.PLÑ alÁDJK U¶´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. EI. ±usayn Ñ$O  “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐDOOLI Q DOÑ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨aG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. no. MaÃbaÑat al-MaÑ ULI 1964. new ed. p. 5. 1984-1985: 2. new ed. 32 (1987): 105-114. M. EI. ——— MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-al-LVK U W %HLUXW ' U DO-MuÐarrikh alÑ$UDE   Quiring-Zoche.EU K P ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-WXU WK DOÑ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ .212 BIBLIOGRAPHY Tabellen zur muslimischen und iranischen Zeitrechnung mit Tafeln zur Umrechnung orient-christlicher Ären.302-303 (1920): 134-138.2. “Tamma und seine synonyme”. al-0 PDT Q  0X¨mmad Ri á. Ñ$ODZ Q 0X¨DPPDG % TLU ³7KDO WK DU M ] I UXP ] µDO-.. no. “How al-Bu© U ¶V µ‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]¶´ Bulletin d’études orientales. vjeka)”. Ben Cheneb. nos. suppl.

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F. Oriens. 1947. ——— “TaÁ¨ I´ EI. no. al-6DZ ¨LO  $¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá. 15. Leiden. al-< V  DO-±asan ibn MasÑ G 4 Q Q \DVKWDPLO Ñalá a¨k P DO-Ñilm wa-a¨N P DO-Ñ OLP ZD-al-mutaÑallim.Q \DW DO-mu¨DGGLWK Q EL-WDZWK T DOPDUZ \ W ZD-DWKDU GK OLND I WD¨T T DO-makhà à W.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad. new ed.6 (1993): 641-649. A¨mad Mu¨DPPDG 1 U Ñ. no. %HLUXW ' U DO-. Maktabat al-Malik Fahd al-WaÃDQ \DK  ——— “Naskh al-makhà à W´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. ³0DIK P DO-taÁ¨ I GLU VDK I WDÐÁ O DOmuÁÃala¨”. 17. no. 6K NLU $¨mad. no. herausgegeben von Max Weisweiler. TaÁ¨ ¨ al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah waND\I \DW  abà al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib... 7: 490-491. Rome.O  :HLVZHLOHU 0D[ ³'DV $PW GHV 0XVWDPO LQ GHU DUDELVFKHQ Wissenschaft”.H. 1989: 2. 1310 A.1 (1996): 29-33. malzamah 24: 1-7. new ed. 1952. “Min qa  \ DO-¨arf al-Ñ$UDE  DOtaÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. al-0DVK NK  Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q $QP à al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à alÑ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ al-KLMU . Rosenthal. 10: 347-348.. al-6DU TDE  :DO G 0X¨ammad. Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. Ñ ODP DO-kutub. ——— “ TaÑO ¯”. ——— The technique and approach of Muslim scholarship. [Contains a translation of Chapter Six of al-MuÑ G I DGDE al-PXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G by ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ @ al-SamÑ Q  ÑAbd al-. EI. Riyad. 10: 165.IUDQM I GK OLN. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  Rabat. 349-360. 17901930. al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. new ed.3 (1994): 322326. Ayman FuÐ G ³0DQ KLM DO-ÑXODP Ð al-0XVOLP Q I DO-ba¨th PLQ NKLO O DO-makhà à W´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DOÑ$UDE \DK. . 43.2 (1999): 99-131. Fez. ' U DO-MaÐP Q OLO-7XU WK  Sayyid. Damascus.214 BIBLIOGRAPHY makhà à W DO-nuqaÃ. (lithographed). “Mu¯ EDOD´ EI. BeirXW ' U DO-. Sayf. 4 (1951): 27-57. 14.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE   ——— Die Methodik des Diktatkollegs (Adab al-LPO Ð waÐl-LVWLPO Ð ).

1. 1993.. Oriens. 32 (1970): 255-264. The transmission of knowledge in medieval Cairo: a social history of Islamic education. Princeton. Leder.J. The calligraphic state. Stefan. Brinkley. George. 8: 545-547. 1990. “Oral transmission and the book in Islamic education: the spoken and the written word”. Studia Islamica.1 (1992): 1-14.. 1981. new ed. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE V. Messick. ——— “Madrasa and university in the Middle Ages”. 31 (1988): 67-81. ——— The rise of humanism in classical Islam and the Christian West with special reference to scholasticism. Berkeley/Oxford. ——— ³5LZ \D´ EI. General studies Berkey. Seyyed Hossein. Edinburgh. 1992. Stefan. no. Journal of Islamic studies. Edinburgh. Jonathan Porter. 3. “Authorship and transmission in unauthored literature”. Reichmuth. Makdisi. Nasr. Textual domination and history in a Muslim society. “Murta  D]-=DE G G. N. The rise of colleges: institutions of learning in Islam and the West.BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 V.

——— “Weiteres zur Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im Islam”. 39. Sellheim. Beirut. Schoeler. Der Islam. Der Islam. 66 (1989): 38-67. 1972. Gregor. 6L]N Q 6H]JLQ. Al-ÑIlm wa-al-ÑXODP Ð I ÑuÁ U DO-NKXODI Ð. LQ ELRJUDSKLFDO DQG autobiographical accounts: glimpses of Islamic scholarship in the 18th century”. no.1 (1999): 64-102. Die Welt des Islams. “Die Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im frühen Islam”. 62 (1985): 210-230. R.

“De la transmission orale du savoir dans l’Islam traditionnel”. by FuÐ G 6L]N Q Frankfurt am Main.VO P \DK´ Mu¨  DU W I WDÐU NK DO-ÑXO P DO-Ñ$UDE \DK wa-al-. . N. 1983. ed. 4 (1975): 2-8.VO P \DK (= Vorträge zur Geschichte der arabischislamischen Wissenschaften). London. Vajda. L’Arabisant. Georges. Cottart. 1984. )XÐ G ³$KDPP \DW DO-LVQ G I DO-ÑXO P DO-Ñ$UDE \DK wa-al-. ——— La transmission du savoir en Islam (VII-XVIIIe siècles).

KDWDP W ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Quiring-Zoche. “Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bu© U ’s Traditionssammlung”. 4 (1957): 304-307. Vajda. Georges. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Joseph. Leiden. 244 (1956): 433-437. 92 (1938): 60-87. “Deux éditions inconnues du ‘MuwaÃÃaÐ’”. 2. Rosemarie. Transmission of individual works Fück. “How al-Bu© U ’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]’”. E. 1956: 2. Studi orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida. 477-492. Johann. Rome. ——— “The transmission of Muslim’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’”. 14 (1952): 579-588. ——— “La transmission de la mašya©a (Ansal al-PDT Áid wa-aÑdab alPDZ ULG. 50 (1998): 191-222.216 BIBLIOGRAPHY V. Lévi-Provençal. 240 (1984): 61-68.DWW Q  < VXI ³. University of London.PLÑ’”. 202 (1923): 209-233. (1949): 46-60. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. ——— ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ LI 7LUP GK ’V µ. “La recension maghribine du ‚a¨ ¨ d’al-Bo© U ´ Journal asiaique. al-. 1995.LW E GH 6 EDZD\K. ³/D WUDQVPLVVLRQ GH OD µ. University of London. 16 (1954): 258-270. Bulletin d’études orientales. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.LI \D I PDÑrifat uÁ O Ñilm alULZ \DK¶ G¶DO-Haà E Dl-Ba G G ´ Arabica. /HV YRLHV GH OD WUDQVPLVVLRQ GX . Humbert. Schacht. ——— “La transmission de l’éloge de Zayn al-Ñ ELG Q´ Journal asiatique. 5REVRQ - ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI $E ' Z G’s ‘Sunan’”. Geneviève.

ilá . 48 (1973-74): 55-74. 9  . Rivista degli studi orientali./10 m.M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h. G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-..M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad.

nos.J.] Ebied. and Young. Islamic quarterly. R. 87 (1974): 445-465./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. [Vol. 1967.1-2 (1974): 3-7. M. Le Muséon.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.Y.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . Leiden. Ben Shemesh. 18. Taxation in Islam.L. 4 (1981): 82-103. A. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W.

35-36 (1414 A. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). Gérard. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ .1 (1997): 55-90. 326 (1997): 97-102. 26 (1994): 75-96. 1974:92-110. 1998.H.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-.] Lecomte. “Al-. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. ed. . Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. Amsterdam.): 270-372. -DOO E ±asan.S.H.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. Koningsveld.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. Les . Amsterdam. van. Studies on Islam. no. Iran. . P. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. 32 (1994): 115-123. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles. 41. 18-19 October 1973.

——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W. Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K.

Damas: Institut français. 1996 – . Pierre A. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. Suppl.”. Stefan./12. Oriens. 34 (1994): 57-75. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.1. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . Leder. Jhdt. 550-750/1155-1349. MacKay.

M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ . Hamdard Islamicus. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101.. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . 3.H): 107-114. Sayyid.1 (1985): 7-20. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ. no. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”. Hespéris.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ . al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”.H): 172-182. al-Munajjid. ——— “Al-. “Al-.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. no.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 4 (1924): 345-355. 8: 1019-1020.2 (1406 A.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.H): 115-117.1 (1408 A. 1.1 (1407 A. 61. 7 (1989): 238-252. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”. no. EI. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. no. ed. 2. n. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. “Al-. no. 8. 1. new ed.4 (1971.s. no. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”.1 (1955): 232-251..

 5DPD  Q ³$KDPP \DW Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q DO-ÌDKU \DK.

VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-.Q Q  London. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. 1997: 179-196. .

1981. Hildesheim/ New York. 1.Q Q  London. “The human element between text and reader. 1. SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY VI. 1983: 85-92. The LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. E. Zwölf arabische Schrifttaffeln. [Also in: idem. Witkam. Georges. Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. London.10.UDQ. 1957. Arabica. VI. 3: 1020-1021. 1997: 163-177. no. 1995: 123-136. ——— “Un opuscule inédit d’as-6LODI ´ La transmission du savoir en Islam (VIIe-XVIIIe siècles). Wilhelm. vol. ARABIC ALPHABET.3 (1954): 337-342. Yarshater. Jan Just. Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. ——— “Idj ]D´ EI.] $P Q  )DNKU DO-' Q 1DÁ U  *DQM QDK-Ði khuà Ã-i ÑXODP Ð-i aÑO P YD G QLVKPDQG Q-L NLU P YD VKXÑDU -yi ÑiÌ P YD NK VKQDY V Q-i FK UDKGDVW YD PXÑ ÁLU Q 7DMU VK . Berlin. new ed. ed.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. London.. ——— “Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris”. Paris. Vajda. 1899. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 SteZDUW 'HYLQ - ³(M ]D´ Encyclopaedia Iranica. 8: 273-275. Albums and exhibition catalogues Ahlwardt. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. 1993.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. ——— “Al-ÑUnÁ U DO-EDVKDU ED\QD DO-naÁÁ wa-al-T ULÐ: al-LM ]DK I DOmakhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-.

1939.J. >&KHLNKR 6KD\NK . Specimens of Arabic and Persian palaeography. A. London.  > RU @  YROV Arberry.

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Yusuf Ibish and George Atiyeh. Yusuf Ibish and George Atiyeh. “Conservation of the manuscripts”. 11. “Ion-beam codicology. British Library conservation news.VODPLF +HULWDJH )RXQGDWLRQ th-19th November 1995.264 BIBLIOGRAPHY Dreibholtz. 7XUNLVK WUDQVODWLRQ E\ $ <D\FLR÷OX Kebikeç. [Persian translation E\ 1 VK IU Q $QÁ U 0X¨aqqiq). and parchments”. ——— “Treatment of early Islamic manuscript fragments on parchment. “Developments in the conservation of Oriental (Islamic) manuscripts at the India Office Library. “The conservation and preservation of Islamic books. 1996: 7-14. Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-)XUT Q . The conservation and preservation of Islamic manuscripts. 33 (1991): 3. . ed. Raik. London. papyri. “Developments in Islamic bindings and conservation in the Oriental and India Office Collections of the British Library”. London.VODPLF +HULWDJH )RXQGDWLRQ th-19th November 1995. Jarjis. Barbara. The conservation and preservation of Islamic manuscripts.LW EG U . Jacobs. Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-)XUT Q . MaÁ ¨if ‚anÑ Ð. ii (1990): 110-138. Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-)XUT Q . The conservation and preservation of Islamic manuscripts.VODPLF +HULWDJH Foundation 18th-19th November 1995. Ursula. Jacobs. 1996: 119-130. Jacobs.] Hegazi. London. ed. London”. papers. “Conservation and preservation policy at the 1DWLRQDO /LEUDU\ RI (J\SW ' U DO-Kutub)”. David and Rodgers. Yusuf Ibish and George Atiyeh. Yemen”. “A simple book support for Islamic manuscripts”. David. 1996: 131-145. 5 (1997): 5-8. The conservation and preservation of Islamic manuscripts. 1985: 24-30. Nasry.VODPLF +HULWDJH )RXQGDWLRQ th-19th . A case history: the find of SanaÑa. Yusuf Ibish and George Atiyeh. Restaurator. Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-)XUT Q . 14 (1989): 5-12. Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-)XUT Q . its potential in developing scientific conservation of Islamic manuscripts”. ed. 1996: 81-92. Barbara. ed. 8. 2 (1987): 49-53. David and Rodgers. The conservation and preservation of Islamic manuscripts. London. Kuwait. *DFHN $GDP ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDM¶ LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Mahmoud F. Iskander. manuscripts.VODPLF +HULWDJH )RXQGDWLRQ th-19th November 1995.

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5 vols.D. Basra.H.LW E DO--DG G -82. ./17th century A. al-MuÐassasah alWaÃDQ \DK OLO-Tarjamah wa-al-Ta¨T T ZD-al-'LU V W  al-Munajjid. Cairo. 2 vols.VK U W LOá asm Ð al-UDV Ðil alP GDÑDK I EXà Q DO-PXMDOODG W ZD-al-PDMDOO W 5L\DG ' U DO‚umayÑ   al-'DNKO  ÑAbd al-:DKK E Al-. Tunis.VK P DO-7 QLV I WD|T T al-WXU WK DOmakhà Ã: fihris ta|O O EL-al-PDQVK U W DO-mu|DTTDTDK I 7 QLV wa-al-Á GLUDK NKLO O DO-fatrah 1860-1988. 5 vols.BIBLIOGRAPHY 269 all printed works written by Arab authors from the advent of Islam to the end of the 12th century A. MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK -1995. O 6DOP Q 0DVKK U ±asan Ma¨P G Al-. ‚ OL¨ \DK 0X¨ammad Ñ Vá. 198183. Al-MuÑjam al-VK PLO OLO-WXU WK DO-Ñ$UDE DOmaÃE Ñ.). ‚DO ¨ al-' Q MuÑjam al-makhà à W DO-maÃE Ñah (19541980) %HLUXW ' U DO-.

ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. K. 2nd ed. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. 1994.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. Spiel.Lagarde. J. Tanz und verwandten Themen. 1996. Orthography. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. Hunwick. 1995. Ibrahim. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. 1994. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . S. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. Mosak Moshavi and B. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. J. Abu Salim. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. 1996. 2: Ab-bildungen. Manuel de recherche. A. und Herb. 1995. Hamidu Bobboyi. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. 1994. and Peters. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets.). Band 22 . Vikør. V. 1994.). ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 .F. Compiled by John O.C. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. 1995. Numerals. E. Y. N. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. (eds. H. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. V. Arabic Literature of Africa. Bd. J. S. Porten.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . 1995. J. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. 1994. M. With Full DefiniKinberg. V. Materials for a Reconstruction. Steiner. V. S.1: Text. (ed. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. Compiled by R. M. and Jongeling. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar.). ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. Hofheinz. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. 1994. A. A.). und Sardshweladse. L. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . (ed.). Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. 2 Parts. with the assistance of M. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. Roman Loimeier. M. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. B. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. W.T. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. R. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. ISBN 90 04 9820 8.L. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. R. S. (ed. Radtke and K. K. Nouns. (eds. 1994. (éd. 1900. and Stolbova. O. Jagd. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. Volume I. 1994. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. With appendices by R. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary.). Phonology. 1996. M. I. S. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. O. O’Fahey. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Marín. and O’FAHEY. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. 1980-1993. References and Index of Texts Cited. Bd. Chief consultant to the editor. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M .

ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. D. F. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . 2 Volumes. Mesopotamian Lexicography. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. D. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. 1999. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. 1997. 1999. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998.1: B. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Translated from the German by M.H. T. 1999. H. J. 1999.E. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. 1999. A Bibliography. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. 1: A. and Healey. and Wyatt. J. W. 1. G. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. 1997. 1997. Terms and Topics. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner.1.F. 1999. 1999. Index of Names. The Kingdom of Kush. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. III. N. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. 1998. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. Vol. J. H.2. and Sou‘ek. B. J. 1996. W. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. Religious Perspectives 1999. and Pingree. J. 1998. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. 1997. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. 1999. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. 1999. 1999. and Porten.J.L. The Rise of the Fatimids. The Mishnah. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. H. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. Social Perspectives 1999. 2000. M. 1999.W. J. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. V. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. A. L.J. R. H. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. Bonner. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. B. H. M. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. Vol. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. R. G.G. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. J. III. and Neusner. 1997. van. Vol. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. 2: 1988-1992. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. The Mishnah. The Empire of the Mahdi.Band 26 Halm.

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