THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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................................................................................... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ............PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ............ XI Preface ..................................................................

......... 156 1............ 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................. 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ........................... ................................. 177 I..................... 181 Periodicals ........................................................................... 1 Abbreviations . 156 2................... 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ............................................................................................... Sources/References ........................................................................ GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES . 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK.. 181 Bibliographies .......................................................................................... 182 General studies and surveys ................... Technical terms in the glossary .........................................................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

................................... 242 a) Bibliography..................... 247 1..... General studies .............................. 239 Lacquer ............... etc......... 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries .................. VIII.......................................................................... 238 a) Drawing....................................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration .................................................................. 241 Bookbinding ........................................................................................................ 8.......................... 238 b) Other studies ....... 3........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ................................................... 4.......................... 242 c) Other studies..... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues ......................... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments.. 2.................. 7...................... 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ............................................ 256 1............... 243 2......................................................................................) ......... 259 ............... 240 Papercuts .................................. 226 Calligraphy .................................................... 4............ 236 Painted illustration ...................... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works.............................. 5.. 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship ........ 247 Later QurÐans.. 256 Some specific cases .......................................................... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ................................. 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ....................................................... TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ............................... 6........................... 3............. 2......................... 255 IX...................... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper... Exhibition catalogues................................................................................ ..... 251 Facsimile editions .......................................................................

... 261 XI.................................. 3................................................... Catalogues of edited manuscripts .. PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION ................X CONTENTS PREFACE X....................... Catalogues of catalogues ............... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts .............. ETC................................ 266 1..... ................ 5. Descriptions of collections and catalogues ............ CATALOGUING................. 2............ 263 XII............. COLLECTIONS................... 266 266 267 267 268 .......... CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS.. 4...............................................

François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave. Last but not least. David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. . My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text.

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Arab authors. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. both religious and scientific in nature. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. scholars. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. papermaking and bookbinding. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. the preparation of inks. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. 2). Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. Along with this manuscript output. VII.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-. DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.10/16th cent.).VKE O G 1231). the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7.

RI .EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO.

the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. Furthermore. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials.

as well as on the collation and correction of books. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). which deals with the preparation of inks. lineation). also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. Finally. included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette.984/1577). al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). who in his work on education.

* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. bound and decorated. as it were. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). book lovers and cataloguers. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. . even in its present form. this chapter has been omitted. To translate. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. which spans almost 14 centuries.g. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. could be very misleading. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. as well as extant specimens. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). some of the most important research in this field published to date. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. It brings together. medieval and postmedieval texts. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). Some terms. especially those relating to book formats. writing surfaces and implements used. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. for the first time. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. respectively. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. corrected. Nevertheless. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. The glossary is a by-product. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. e. contemporary studies and catalogues. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E).

upper margin. Thus. recto. for example. We do not. fore-edge. for example. case (box). serif. on the other hand. Some. and V TLÃah (Yemen). OLV Q (‘tongue’. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. been largely omitted here. marjiÑ (Morocco). raÐs (‘head’. recto. raddah (Levant). having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. may have been used exclusively in those circles. wajh (‘face’. envelope flap). miqlab (Levant. great caution is in order. OLV Q (central Arab lands). flap). Thus. inkwell and the like. The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). upper cover). North Africa). Here we find.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. however. however. Here. Therefore. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. Áadr (‘chest’. incipit. fore-edge). Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. Ñaqb. as yet. catchword). period and/or region in which they were employed. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. udhn (‘ear’. lower margin. and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. khadd (‘cheek’. Ñaqib (‘heel’. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). catch- . catchword. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. outer or inner margin). book cover). for example. medallion. flap). Iraq). This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex.

Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. Most words are traced to a source. either contemporary or earlier. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary.XVI PREFACE word). an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. On the whole. Due to the limitations of the computer program used. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. As far as transliteration is concerned. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script. .

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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SA. ebrû. 18-19. SD. IA. AG. 215. muµabbar – sewn (KC. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS.) (DD. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. 107.). ST. miµbar 1. I. 12. 60.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. DB. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. 2: ibrishmah). 103. 8). 59.v. index. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. ibar) – needle (UK. 182). I. 97-98. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. needle case (DM) 2. syn. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. III. II. 9. GA. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq.  EU  ZDUDT DO. from Pers.v. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. 107. 392). RN. I. 97. among other things. I. 176-178) 2.EU . 8). of minfadh (q. 13. AG. GA. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. I. 154. 104. TS. MB. ibrah (pl. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar).

 .

LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP. LEU VLP.

DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). ilá NKLULK – et cetera. (DB. abbrev. explicit (TP. I. – closing matter of the text (composition).14). n. 53). taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. 62.

udum) 1. AE. DG P (pl. tanned red leather (DB. I. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. scribal etiquette 2. I. IW. MF. – etiquette (EI. adam(ah). 175-176). 71-72. 106-108) 2. leather (UK. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. 63. 52). passim. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á.

84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. XIV. \XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. MU.

comp. DGG P – tanner (DM).. jild. DG K SO DGDZ W.

implement. – V\Q ODK (EI.g. e. instrument. tool. 345). DGDZ W O W. I.

103-105) or DGDZ W O W. writing MB. 153-156. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. 250). JKXU E – the last hour of day. VI. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.

al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).Oá (al-uwal) (1-10). alDZ NKLU .NKLUDK DO-ukhar. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al.

li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. e. VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month.g. 248-249). -30) (SA.

al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. 235). e.DP O 3 VK 73  CI.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . 106. 244-248). EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. II. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW .g. 244-249). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. 178).VI. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK .EQ .EQ . al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. VI. nos.

 -248). al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9.

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

1st 5509 B. taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. (EI. 22. IV. ER.C. FZ. taµU NK-L PDODN . ar„ \DK – background (LC.D. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. X. 262. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . JL. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. 670). 6$ 9.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 218: ar  \DW DO-matn.

 .

713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. II. XVK UDK.

10: ishfah. KM. 90. a¦l (pl. IB. 103. IK. IA. ST. 115). MB. sifr 4. 15. I. 107. punch (TS. uÁ O. – awl. AG. 11. 43: VKDI . 59.

..  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9. .

MH. 27) 3. original (main) text. II. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). exemplar. MU. 26. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. VIII. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. SD.

136). but also 0= . XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. . 2024. MI..

126. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 23) 4. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. SM. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. major work (TM.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

frame (within a border) (TF. 27) 6. ià U W XÃur) 1. 24. DB. 145). 29) 5. UI. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. I. 928). headpiece (LC. KR. textual surround (LC. i. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. 24).e. 24. rectangular panel (LC. . rule-border. border (of a book cover) (LC.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. tabula ansata (UI. rules. FT. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. 402) 2. 25. 80) 3. 24. . i¨ U (pl.

according to other sources al. 32). taµO I DK. DIVK Q (Pers.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. 6.8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-. 581-582). ER. 46). writing circa 1375’ (DW.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO. I.

(pl. taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W.

muÐDOODI W. muµallaf (pl.

1 . compilation. umm. 360). X. muÁannif. EI. 33. – composition. comp. taÁQ I muµallif – author. writer. comp. . work (of prose or poetry) (SD. ummah . I.

SO XPPDK W.

SD. . 35. 26. copy. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. I. archetype (LC. I. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. . exemplar. transcript (from which another copy is made).  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. original (main) text. TM. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. 26). 29). shar¨ (IN. umm al-NLW E 1. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. used in mosques (KN. 246) 3. 130) 4. as opposed to a commentary.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

II. textus receptus (NT. archetype. II. KF. Umm al-EXOG Q. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. 37. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). Umm al-qurá. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. 294). II. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. LP P – exemplar. 39). . 99.

taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). II. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. 99). comp.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. 2812). tadabbur. II. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. abbrev. xiv. I. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. (CI. LL.

 . . or /'    $'  (.

XQE E DK. FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã.

SO DQ E E.

370. III. – unpared. LQV see sinn. LM. III. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. 370). BA. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. 31. KU. II. unnibbed reed (FN. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). 31).

incipit. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). JA. 52. initia. AA.14. I. n. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. (TP.

 .

taµZ O (pl.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taÐ Z O.

taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q. – interpretation. explanation (e.g.

bu¨ U. acephalous. incomplete (of text) (KC. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. baŒr (pl. 34). imperfect. passim) 2. **** PDEW U 1.

– panel on a book cover. AG. cartouche (TS. . 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . JL. 33. 110.

 . badal. tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. WDENK U – fumigation (TS. 355). bidl '% . 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah).

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &. . [LLL..

alteration (CL. fasc. conjectural substitution. 153-154. 59-60. 412) 2. MZ. stitution. 100-103).3-4. conjecture.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. also WDEG O – subal-matn. EI. 296). EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. 49. RU badal respectively (KG. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. . fasc.3. wifq (US. II. I. SD. DT. suppl. comp.

sifr 13. VIII. 60. DD. EDUG \DK – papyrus. lin. I. II. qirà V mibrad – file.84. 390: for trimming). EI. LEU ] – bringing out (a book).GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . QS. 64-66). 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. 521-522. papyrus sheet or roll (DB. rasp (HT. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). I. publishing (KM. 407. WS. IA. IV. 417. comp.

EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . 545). LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. I. barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. .

EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . IB. – endband (headband) (ST. 17-18. ST. EDUVK P. 81. n. 8. index.148).

 al-PXE UDN DK.

ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.

 DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. ELUN U SO EDU N U. nuskhah. etc.

  '0. – compass.9. III. (pair of) dividers (SA. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 .

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

12. Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS. . 18).

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

PLEU K SO PDE ULQ.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ).  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. SA. 232. 49). 455 6. 85.v. trimming (of a reed ) (IR. KK. ELU \DK – paring. 154: IK. EDUU \DK. bary.). EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. III.

I.   $6 . flattening (of a letter). DA: mibzagh.. 81). – pen knife (AA. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. 8. MP.. mibzaq – lancet-like knife. index. 90. IK. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . 64. bas¨ – spreading out. 88. 591). I. DB. SD.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. syn. 87) 3. jazm (IK. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. KH. comp. AS. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. rectilinear (of a script. line (KU. PDEV ¨ 1. original (comprehensive). mukhtaÁar. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). 120) 2. horizontal stroke. 34. unabridged work. 144) 4. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. III.

365. 13. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. 322). basmalah SO EDV PLO. TW. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. 144). 47. maÁ ¨if.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

piece.v. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. lin. index. slip (of paper) 2. 12). erased. ba¨n (pl.111) 2. HT. buà Q. baà Ðiq) 1. I. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). 145). 23-24. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. 58. paring. AG. 1084-1085). 78. 9. register (AD. LF. and opening a composition (TP. MP. 155). bi¨ TDK (pl. bashra¨ 1. catalogue. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. 58. ST. 52. 78: ‘racler. lin. LF. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. PDEVK U – pared. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. 109. TS. bashr 1. silk endband (headband) (HT. dressing (of leather) (UK. 161. ratisser des peaux’.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. EI. also known as al-JKXE U (q.97.) (AS. IA. 63.

 E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. al-NLW E. flesh side (of parchment). ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. inner cover.

117. lin. 408) 2. IV. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. 23. pasteboard (UK. 60. paste-down endpaper. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. HD. endleaf (ST. 112). doublure (LC. 159. IB. MA.73-79) 3. 22-23. – inner cover. 102. HT. 49. AG. endpaper. lining (FT. 47. baà Ðin) 1. doublure (TS. MB. bi¨ QDK (pl. UK. 89. passim. IA.

 EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . 92). .

9. lining of the insides of book covers with paper. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. leather or silk (ST. MU. index.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. XIV.

) from the reed (IK. abbrev. 87). bary. comp. /( . 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. MB. 370). paring (of the calamus) (KD. removal of sha¨mah (q. BA. 61.v. used for a transposed word. II. ba¶du – after. 2. III.

also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. n. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. 53. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. separation (MM. tab¶ „ – word division.20).

60. (MB. 103. – compass. 59. measuring distances. 105). also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. IA. 153. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. 103. MP. 44. 156. MB. IB. biUN U WDEN U. TU. 101. 104. (pair of) dividers (UK. 58. comp. etc.

380. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. DD. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. 59). UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. MB. 391). comp. IA. IB. 42. 153. I. 103. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah.

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

9 SO. 56. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin. CT. TP. JA. 268. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O .119. E OLQ – worn. comp. I.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . damaged (TS. 45: EXO JK).  EDO .

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

kha¨¨L E KDU. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). E E SO DEZ E. 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. 36). EI. IV.

abbrev. . – chapter. 0.

609. bayt SO EX\ W. 53. mubawwib – compiler (DF. comp. murattib. TP. IV. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF. n.20). 376).

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

110). frame (as part of the border. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. AG. AG. 110) 4. 33). 82). 95. Bayt al-Maqdis. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. . 32. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 31-33. 97. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. KR. Ãurrah) (TS. 31. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. compartment (in such a box) 3.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

tibr – gold. 82). 110). 95. also TS. gold dust (AQ. 30-31. KR. W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. AG.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 97. . 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // .

 takht SO WXNK W.

WXU E – dust. wooden pressing board (TS. 82.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. TD. AG. sifr 13. 9. IV. 94. HT. KM. index. I. sand. 127-. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. index. 107) 3. 6. IB. 42. 120). also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. 156. 22. lin.  . KU. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. 24. earth. 9).

 FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox. compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY.

6$ II. 478-480). tarjamah SO WDU MLP.

28. title (of a book) (LC. AH. 165).  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 28) 4. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . indicating its contents (DB. 122) 3. detailed title of a book. chapter heading (IN. II. key word (LC.

medallion) . 27) 8. 27) 6. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. disc) or margins (e. headpiece or tailpiece (LC. paragraph (LC. 27) 7.g.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC.g.

II. interpretation. explanation. II. 270). X. exegesis (DB. tirs.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. 28. 29-31. 1021) 13. also mutarjam (e. biographer 2. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. translator. 186. biography (EI. turs SO WXU V. 224) 12. 260. 224) 10. biographical note. mutarjim 1. DB. X. IT. cryptography (AA. translation (EI. ‘QaÁ GDW . 1021). 30) 9.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. illuminator (TW. 29.g.

– principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. turunj(ah) 1. illuminated oval medallion. 15). rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. KR. PA. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 9. corner-piece (ST. 69. index. 82). 28) 2. execution. 44) 3. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. comp. IB. shamsah. 95. 97. rosette (HD. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. IP. 103. writing tamma (lit. 145. LC. WDWP P – completion. oval. 116). taftar see daftar.

. WDP Ðim) – amulet. used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). comp. abbrev. 177-178). &. xiii). comp. [LLL at the end of the colophon. ¨add. supplement . talisman (EI. X. WDP PDK (pl. finish. II. . often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. tatimmah – supplementation. 46). WDP P – end. RU CM. continuation and end (of a composition) (DM).

FK. copying (MH. no. 100.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. 101. II.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing.

 XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’. thabat (pl. atKE W.

157) 2. document. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. 288: syn. written testimony (SD.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. record of attested study (HB. muÑjam. I. GA. 234.

LWKE W 1. vocalization (AD.  WDEOH RI contents. authentication (formula). usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. also WDWKE W – attestation. 157). WKDE W – signature (SD. I. 18) 2.

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

289). RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP. 53. CT. GA.25. 45. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. muthabbit. n.

mithqab SO PDWK TLE. 45). 101. I. 330). writer of the audition note (MH. CT. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶.

AG. ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. 107). 147). . AS. 11. III. WKDT O (lit. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS.

106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. 1125in Turkey). TU. (TN. I. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points. 349). al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ.9 . T OLE. JM. abbrev. . 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G.in Persia.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. 51). hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. III.

DO-thumn. 795-. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. octagon (EI.VII.

VI. MZ. Taf. see also mashÐalah. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points). 102). 361).  RU &. .. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. . 12. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM). [LY )0 167. 361). no. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. abbrev. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. MI. 232-234) . SA. I. VI. I. 232-234.13.

258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. decorative medallion or panel. either illuminated or stamped (KI.

JL. 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . 87.  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 88.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK .

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

87). 141). WDMG G – repair. braid. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. PDMG O SO PDM G O. restoring manuscripts. 99). mending. interlace (TF. repair (SJ. 99. nos. 83. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion.41. restoration (KR. corner-piece (JL. jabr – repairing. 43). dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. 100).

diagram. table (LC. 33. no. thong (KC. 50. KC. . 63) 3. mujadwal – ruled (LC. 24) 4.6/2) 6. TW. 160) 2. II. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. 32). ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. talismanic seal (EI. 56. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). rules. 175) 5. 42). mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. 148. 370. creating rule-borders (WB. magic square. DT. 108). chart. table of contents (CM. 26). column (of text) (SD. I. – leather strap.

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

   . jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ ... FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah.

II. KF. register. 107. inventory (SD. 112. 184. extract. 27). I. scraper (MB. mijrad(ah) – file. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. 183). MDU GDK – list. DG. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . I. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. I. abridgement (SD. jard al-matn see matn. WDMU G 1. DD.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT.

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

jirm wasaÃ. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. majran SO PDM ULQ. HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. passim).

jazz – trimming. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . IA. 62). passim: Œazz.8 154). shaving (MB. MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W.

rough copies 2. 19. VII.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. KF. I. . n.2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. 132. 103). MU. inset (UI.

booklet. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. AI. 79. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). single-quire codex.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1.

90). usually not more than a quire (IJ. tomaison) (SJ. VII. II. independent. DEEUHY RU (CI. xii) 4. I. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. 128). small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. 711). juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. 128) 6. small piece of writing. tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. 705).

LL. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 89. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. 99. MB. MP. 87: qalam jazm. 421). I. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. IK. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. 7-9. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. jazm – reed pen. 90). 38). jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. 143.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. for other signs representing jazmah see GL. 13). . LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. – background (UK. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). 23).

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

.  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ .. )1   .. .

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

1123). . IV. III. WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. G Z Q MDO (SA.

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

26). 123 and IX. LC. VIII. majlis SO PDM OLV. 416-417).GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. 47. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. II.

sitting. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. 1020).  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. VIII. . majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. – session..

julfah – nib (of the calamus. 459-460. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). KU. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). jalam SO DMO P. II. the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA.

91-92.NKLU.Oá. -XP Gá al. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. CM. II. – (pair of) scissors (DS. -XP Gá al. 230). 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. abbrev. / / (OS. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). IR. CI. IK. no. 89.NKLUDK DO.

34) 3. abbrev. compilation. / (OS. rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. III. contraction (of letters) (KU. 126. composition.9 . 89). M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2. SA.

  FN. major original compilation. 352). the QurÐ Q 8.g.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . . e.

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. II.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. III. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ).

217. 393) 1. 106. 233. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. codex compositus (LC. 37. inkwell 6' . 380). case. 52. 12. AG. 683) 4.  composite volume. writing case. NH.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). TM. mujamma¶ (UA. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. escritoire (TW. jumal. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). SD. DG. I. case with compartments (TS.  '' . box (NM. 25). 32) 2. 13) 3. tool box. 52.

10). M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. IA. 107: for cutting gold leaf . xiv. index. ST. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. MDZ E (pl. MI. (CI. MDQ Œ (pl.111). – book cover (ST. index. 110. ajwibah) – responsum. AG. 10). 11. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. IA.v. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. 109. better known as al-JKXE U (q.) (AS. knife (TS. II. 61. 145). abbrev.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

licence. VIII. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. 126-130. 27. 273-275. – authorization. 1020-1021. LB. III. ER. IJ). diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. 24. certificate of transmission. EI. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK .

 . LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ. (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (.GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. 181).9 . LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI.

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH. OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license).

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

179. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. DS. LQNZHOO (HI. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 154: wa-al-M EDK . SA. II. 381: jawn. KU. NH. 468. AT. 133.

(al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . also known as waqabah. see also the quotation under miqlamah). DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq.

a¨E U. **** Œibr (pl.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

101-110 and MB. IV. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. 18-21. MP. KM.53. UK. n. -100 and MB. Œibr al-raqq. IR. 13. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. 6: wa-al- . MP. MJ. sifr 13. 8. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks.

349. 134-135. MR. I. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. AT.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. see LL. MA. LM. 127-131. IV. SA. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. AE. IK. IK. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . II.

embellishment (DB. ma¨ ELU. 2016). Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. III. 354). miŒbarah (pl. FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish.

III.  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: . 372. II.. SA. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ .  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA.

SA. 443.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. 468-. II.

87. elegant. 119). mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. compiler (SS. SA. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. inking. SK. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. transcription (TE. muŒabbir – author. a¨E V. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. II. Œubs (pl. inscribing in ink (SM. 15. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). taŒE U 1. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. WR. embellished writing (composition) or copying. 89). I.

 taŒE V (pl. ta¨E V W.

154.. IA. 104 ff. 109. stitching (of a book) (TM. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). TS. MM. 18-20. 157. sewing. also Œabkah – endband (headband).. n. waqf. bequest note (LC. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . MB. decorative endband (UK. AG.. endbanding with silk 2. Œabk 1. comp. 132) 3.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. 62.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. . 28).

 VSLQH 74 .

3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 19. AG. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. 109. 109). AG. 19.

 .

bookbinder (IB. I. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. n. AG. AD. 19. 246). 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. 19. 19. 109). 109). 28). 11. ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. AG.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 478).

Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). 60). ma¨ MLU. hone (TS. miŒjar. amulet (DT. ŒLM E (pl. Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. 69). (OS. 10). Œajar al-misann – whetstone. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. ajar al-¨XP ¨im). 89). ¨ujub) – talisman. maŒjar (pl. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. abbrev.

counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. index. UK. 36) 2. 36). 142: 12.10. ST. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . AG. 99. MB. MP. 107. 38.

$ . .

 (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U. FN. 2733.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV.H.

 FRPS . I .

30 GLOSSARY Œadd. ¨XG G. II. Œadd (pl. 711). honing (of a knife) (KD. taŒG G – whetting.

end. – limit. ŒDG G DK. used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih).

¨XG U. 105. 59. 393. TS. MJ. 59). mustaŒadd – knife (UA. 188). ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. 31. MB. MP. 10. AG. 138). 109. Œadr (pl. IA. (pl. 29.

AG. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. 145. PA. 2408. e. calligrapher. MU. comp. IV. muŒarrir – 1. IV. taŒU U 1. terminal of a letter) (AA. compiler (SS. IV. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. IP. 214) 8. SK. muŒarrar (pl. 16. 64. – descender (down-stroke. author. 119) 2. 15) 3. DB. editing (of a manuscript text). XVII. AQ. revised version (edition). ER. mu¨DUUDU W. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. 246) 7. 16) 5. 701. AF. secretarial style of shikastah script. 15) 4. redaction (CM. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. editor. ŒDU U – silk (ST. fair copying (TE. 109. 58. 215-227). composition (GA. TE. penman. with black ink (TE. frame. ÁaÑd. TE. 38. elegant writing. EI.g. 15. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. 286). outline.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . 1124. 73) 2. 10. 48. 16) 6. index.. transcription (TE. 50). copying. 52. 50. ornamental surround. 13. III.

Œard al-matn see matn. – piece of calligraphy. calligraph (DP. 53). .

a¨U ] ¨XU ].GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl.

MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. 69). e. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. amulet (DT.g. maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. – talisman. IV.

¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. error.. trimming (HT. taŒU I 1.80-86).' . LM. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. miŒra„ah. e. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. II. Œarf (pl. LL. sharp edge (of a knife. 549). variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. III. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. border. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word.  . al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. DS. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). 596-560). 39-42) 2. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . letter. cutter). distortion.9 . Œarf (pl. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. 230. 463. II. I. lin. ¨iraf) – edge.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. KK.g. word 2.

. FRPS TLU Ðah.

falsification (of a text). al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. MJ. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. MQ. Œarakah (pl. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. 59. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). comp. 57.32 GLOSSARY  08 . 224). III. ¨DUDN W.

704. 65. II. MB. vowelization (DM). MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. 8). 393). taŒU N – vocalization. UA. shakl. comp. miŒU N – spatula. – vowel (GL. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. Mecca and Medina. 112-113. KD.

al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q.v. (OS. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. Œizb (pl. 89). a¨] E.). abbrev.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

. ST. ST. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. 11). 28. Œazm . 11. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. index.

ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. chronosticon (TP. . III. 54: EI. 468). computation. ŒLV E – calculation.

¨DZ VKLQ. see SA. II.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . 302). abbrev. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. 269-270. VI. EI.

118. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. IA. 63) 2. MB.112. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. IA. marginalia. 63. lin. margin (of a page) 4. FZ. often abbreviated as or . border (on a book cover) (MB. collection of glosses.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. scholium. 119. 109) 3. apostil. MD. 217-219.

DB. interpolation.54. 89-90). 1820). 268-269. Œashw(ah) 1. 63. ¨DZ VKLQ. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 110. Œ VKLQ (pl. 73  00 139. JM. IX. gutter. 222. FT. 977). 71) 2. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. III. FI. 412. 30. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. EI. AS. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. 145. 60. pl. parenthesis. AG. 65. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. IV.

III. 332). 34). 296. CI.74. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. glossed. AD. xi. nos. trimming (of a reed) (BA. abbrev. 26. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . taŒshiyah – glossing. (MI. II. gloss (AM. . muŒashshin – glossator. 322. Œa¦ramah – paring.

546).89. taŒ¦ O – copying. I. no. transcription (FK. .

).v.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing. 118: mikhaÃà (!). I. 34). often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. IB. n. 107. AG. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. 5. IA. smoothing leather (ST. 60. 29. MB. TS. polisher (KM.31). comp. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling. 6. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. sifr 4. burnisher. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. ÑDU T W.

35. I. KH. frame (SD. Œa„ UDK (pl. surround. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. headpiece (LC. 34. 302) 2. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . RN. 24).

II.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. Œif„ – learning by heart. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. ŒLI „ (pl. miŒfa„ah – case. preservation. memorization (TP. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. a¨fiÌah). 55. small box (DG. 51). 44) 2. box (KC. NT. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO .

103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . critical edition (of a text) (MH. MR. text editing. 89. FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text.

 muŒaqqiq – corrector. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1. editor.

III. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . 12.U T and alZDUU T (FN. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. 13) 2.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF.in Persia. 1123. TU. LM. IR. III. 78. IV.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. comp. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. 1125.in Turkey). EI.

 miŒakk(ah). MM. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. IA. 59) 3. effacement (TP. pumice (MB. 62) 2. mibrad (q. NH. Œalqah (pl. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. I. ¨alaq.v. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). miŒakk al-rijl 1. ¨DODT W. erasure. 31).) (UK. scroll (in design) (UI. 104. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. 141) 2.v. syn. 137). IA. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo.) (DD. 392. 58. syn. 112. Œakk – rubbing out.

ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. study circle. III. 372) 2. 27). ma¨ O T. scholar’s circle (SL. AI. II. 48. part of a clasp) (BA.

– tendril (FT. . 139). 136. 422. AB.

Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. 150-151). 204-209). taŒP G DK. embellishment (KT.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah. Œilyah.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. taŒliyah – decoration. 416).

red colour. 38. TP. rubrics (CM. TB. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. n. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. Œumrah 1.20. III. 122-123). 53. EI. red ink (LC. 24) 2. rubrication. 95).

24. codex (MA. exemplar. 24). IV. also miŒmal. book cradle (TC. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. 29). ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. 169. sifr 13. 566. TW. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. 56-57. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. TP. ME. 286. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. LC. 55). 15. 69). 51). 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. WA.  ‘pupitre’). IV. TP. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. ÑUthmanic canon. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . taŒQ VK (pl. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. maŒmil 1. amulet (DT. ta¨ Q VK. ŒDP ODK (pl. 86) 3. archetype (KM.

143) 3. compass. . (pair of) dividers (IB. index. interlace (TF. rope work. 58. 138.) (MP.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. 44). ST. 11) 2.

GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. 700).  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O. II.

miŒwar (pl. ma¨ ZLU. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah).

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

 FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). 144). as opposed to the border (TF. maΠU DK. 138.

171. 665). 149-150). Œ µil. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. MH. 58: as a means of cancellation. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). 99. II. ¨awr (LL. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. Œawqalah. TP. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. 97. 109. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. TP. 104-105). 483). often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. I.

abbrev. RQH LVQ G from another. 73 .

 .

sealing. stamping. 31). stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. colophon (TM. stamp. panel (in decoration) (UI.g. 3. khatm 1.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. tool. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . seal. 214) 3. 35). **** NK QDK – compartment. tooling 2. 24. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. MI.

RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS). khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' .

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. – 1. complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .9 .

 NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P . ..

NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). talismanic seal (DT. OS) 2. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. DT. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). 109. 34. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. 144). I. AG. e. 108) 3. CI. 110.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. . 63).9 1105. 169. IA.g. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. 29. 130.

tailpiece (HD. conclusion. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. FT. . 52. n. explicit.14) 3. colophon (UI. 5. 108). 396) 4. epilogue 2. LNKWLW P 1. 8.

GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl. khXG G.

– inner or outer margin (IM. 165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ .

210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. takh„ ¶ – rounding. backing (of the spine) (HN. also LVWLNKU M (TW. 385).

RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

la¨aq (TP.0 .  omission. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . 187-188. ) 4. TM. 58. comp. insertion.

insertion 2. 169) 7. omission. pl.) . reference mark (signe de renvoi). WDNKU MDK 1. 718). or a caret. 606) 6. copying. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK. extract from a book. I. ÑaÃfah. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. I.. transcription (TW. quotation (TM. n. 58.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8.73: in the form of a curved line. KF.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

 mukharraj. mukhraj – insertion (MH. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK.

catchword. II. IV. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. 683). 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. mustakhrij. copying (DM) 2. 384. LVWLNKU M 1. mukharrij – compiler. TW. 126130). 39). excerpting. NM. vox reclamans (MA. selector (DF. .

al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. 35. DS. 59). 181). 99. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. MP. index. OM).40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). II. 12. ST. punch (SA. 481.

khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK. 70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94).

 FDUWRXFKH ).  )7 .

à P. khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. comp. palmette (KH.  DQVD roundel. Ãurrah. 36).

76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. blank. 347. II. 15. IA. MI. scrap (of paper) (DM). MB. 157. MP. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. lin.166). undoing the sewing (ST. sewing (of quires) (UK. 154. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. khiraq) 1. 60. 27. comp. 17. 481) 2. 12. khirqah (pl. 59) 3. 459). polishing cloth (MB. kharm 1. MB. 114. SA. 104. gap. HT. lacuna (SJ. II. 109) 2. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. index. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3.

 .

26). en vrac.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. 233: feuillets décousus. KF. TC. fragments (HB. incomplete (TC. munkharim – imperfect. 26. PDNKU P.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex.NKLU. II.

khazz SO NKX] ]. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. II. 527). kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). sifr 13. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. IV.

536-540. abridgement. EA. 25-26). AD. 23-24) 3. I. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. – silk. AG. 14-15. 27. . comp. NKL] QDK. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. 159-160. xiii-xiv. 55-56. suspension. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. kharm and ¨azm. 46). epitome (EI. maktabah. library. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 107. 119). abbreviation (contraction. siglum. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. comp. TP. VII. II. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. GL. 107). each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. AG.

calligraphy. stroke. mark. writing.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. script. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. sign. khuà Ã) 1. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . penmanship (ML. 34-38) 2. handwriting.

which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . copied by (e.. 83. IV. al-DTO P DO-sittah. EI. III.g. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. scriptio plena. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. 887: ER. script (text) see also Ñajam. khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . comp. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). scriptio defectiva. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. 103). I. 681). AS. comp. 358). al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. CI. LM. 114.8  51  $6 . yad.EQ 0XTODK 6$ . 41. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. 144). also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P .. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK.

 khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .8  $6 .

mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. no. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. calligraphy (WR. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. comp. I. paleography (KJ. penman. 380).1. makh¨ ¨ (pl. makhà à W. 26). 80).

60. LL. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). I. writing. tracer (ME. mikha¨¨ 1. UA. MB. 103. ruling (of lines). I. reed pen. manuscript codex. 61) 2. straightedge (LL. index. . tracing. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. 118. takh¨ ¨ 1. calamus (AA. 555. drawing (MB. 12). mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. 110.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. 98. IA. 760). 760. 110) 2. implement (made of wood.

letter.g. khi¨ E (pl. honorific (e.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM. address. speech 2. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. IV. akhÃibah) 1.1). sifr 13. note. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q.

109).  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. abbrev. 59. 156. n. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. IB. MB. 105. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. AG. NKDI I (lit. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. 123). 25. epitome. extract. pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. TP. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. mukhtaÁar. 14). X. RIWen unpointed) (GL. preface (LC. 53. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. 145). NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. abridgement.20). takhallu¦ – pseudonym. comp. 44: ornament). trimming (TS. IA.g. 18.

g. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. 52. varia lectio (e. XVII. XI. LNKWLO I – variant reading. 58). 46. TP. 95. 273. MH. XII. . MU.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

 al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 126.

 SO WDNK P V.

97). 95.). al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. AD. EI. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 123-125). – pentastich amplification of a poem. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. pentameter (SD. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT.v. 50. 405. I. 401). X. LNKWL\ U.

MB. 12. – anthology (EA. I. 107-108).e. 43. index. 94-95). mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. index. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). thick needle (ST. endbanding without silk (TS.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. IB. index. 12. 19. i. IR. 12). 109). AG. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST.

 .

250). G E M SO GDE E M.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA. VI.

84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. XIV. – silk brocade (MU.

preface. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY. G E MDK 1. exordium.

PA. 65. composition (of a text) (DM). WDGE M 1. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. frontispiece (MD. 259) 2. GLE JK DK.v). TW. adorning something with arabesques. 52. tadabbur – consideration. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. 115). reflection. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. headpiece. creating headpieces (AD. /& ) 2. 127.

114-115. EI. 60). suppl. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. fasc. IA. I.3-4. 140-143.. 63. – tanning (MB. 172). MP.

  IR. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.

darj. dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr.

SO GXU M DGU M.

I. rotulus (IK. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. SA. 68. 138: al- . I. 138. 868: also daraj. 141.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. IK. LL. roll. parchment or paper (AJ.

$  Q.46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

punch (IA. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. 107). 60). 13. darmak – farina. AG. 142) 3. dast(ah) SO GXV W. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. 287). dirafsh – awl. 432). inset (SD. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. I.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

MB. 81. 156. 145. 44). comp. wide polisher. IV. GXVW U SO GDV W U. 524) 2. IA. 96. 92. 39. SD. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). 92. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. IB. 105. MA. PT. burnisher (UK. WS. AB. rizmah. kaff 3. 94. I. 59.

.) .  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP .  KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN.  .

29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. holograph (LC.  DXWKRU’s original. 23) 3. I.

357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. HB. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). II. book consisting of loose leaves (KF. . dasht – loose leaves. unbound book.

  . assimilated (KU. hence mudgham – contracted. 617-618) 2.g. ‘prayer of request’ (EI. TP. AA.. adÑiyah) 1. daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. 150-156). formula of benediction. etc.. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu.+ 35). 54. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). (see e. supplication. pious invocation.GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. II.

index.Oá (ST. book cover. al-daffah al. 13). 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. 104) 3. also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. index. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. 13). 13. ST.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. pasteboard (ST. index.

SO GDI WLU.

108.g. volume (IK. II. 77-81. 40 x 14 cm. 48. 14 leaves. 60) 2. IA. Daftar kutub. I.18) 3. register (EI. . QRV  096) 3. 321. fine writing (TM. 22-25. 4. SL. 481). pounding (MP. notebook (e. 192). taftar (SK. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). KK. rubbing. 63. see LS) 2.. . account book.. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. n. bound or unbound codex . 29. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). daqq 1. pen wiper (SA. II.

118. 461).163. AG. 85. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. burnishing. FJ. midlak – polisher. 87). 217. 11. 48-50. lin. I. 13. OH. KM. 110. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. SD.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). GDON WDGO N – polishing. 139). MB. 23. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. 107). I. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. NH. glazing (ST. sifr 4. KR. waraq damghah see waraq. index. HT.

– fat. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. mudhun – container for oil (IR. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. 905-906).KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. 927). ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. Tabriz. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. . grease. Herat. ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . 230: LL. midhan. oil. I. Isfahan. ' U DO-.E GDK – Yazd. ' U DO-¶.

  73 .GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1. circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .

disc (UK. (5) 4. straight. roundel. medallion. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. i. TS.g. 56. MB. UD. 59) 5. 156. 30. even (as opposed to oblique. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. JA. ta¨U I.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. e. WDGZ U 1. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value.e. I. 105.

LM. 22. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. LM. hence PXVWDG U – round. 35). 10. rounding (of the spine) (IA. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q.g. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). 61) 3. 39-40) 2. RN. curvilinear (e. 9.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

collection of poems written by one author (DM). collecting (collection). office. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. 323). IV. UHJLVWHU account book. SA. sifr 13. chancellery (KM. 323. WDGZ Q 1. II. 129. I. EI. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. writing down (of ¨DG WK. I. EI. II. 90) 2.

(. .  73 .

15. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . TE. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. transcription (LC. copying. 28. UI.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

IURP which it is derived (EI. 1125-6). IV. GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ.

154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. 370) 2. BA. escritoire. KU. 169-170. . -85. III. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens.  LQNZHOO ..

713. suppl. dhabr. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. II. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. 137-139). X. III. descender (of a letter) (AA. MB. 53). GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. memorandum. DG. 372) 2. tadhkirah 1. EI. 73). midhbar see mizbar.50 GLOSSARY ruler.132-133. VII. 77. AT. 54. 65. II. aide-mémoire (EI. fasc. 203-204. UK. ER. 53) 2. GDZZ µ.v.3-4. ND. wiper and sand) (SA. FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. 440-443.

 X. +%  (. dhanab SO DGKQ E. 53).

I. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. UK. paint (MU. 59). WDGKQ E – appendix. 25. ¨arf (SA. 13). 983: ‘water-gold. 21). 151). UD. index. 226. 130-132. etc. 24. III.’).V. 477. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. I. LL. supplement (AD. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. LC. MB. dhahab. 89-91. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . SA. II. – tail (foot) of a letter.

145). chrysography (LC. AS. 27. WDGKK E 1. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. IX.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. writing with liquid gold. 15. KA. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. gilding. TE. 222.

 SO WDGK K E.

141). WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. mudhahhib – gilder. 490). 15). LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. 385). PA. MU. TE. 27. JLOW REMHFW 6' . chrysographer (AB. 132. dhayl SO GKX\ O. XV. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq.

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. lower margin. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. 23). 206).  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. ruÐ V.

raµs al-NLW E).g. 108. 14.g. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. 107. III. envelope flap (MB. fore-edge of the codex. 26). (qalam) al-riµ V . 109. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. raµs al-¦afŒah. page or book. LC. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. character. SA. sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. IA. 172). upper margin (TS. i. IA. TM. 26). beginning of something. e. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. 109). one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . frontispiece (LC. 136. 26) 2.e. 24. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. e. 61) 3. as opposed to the spine (MB.  KHDG RI D letter. 62) 4. raµs al-waraqah. ruµ V DOsu¨ U.

84. 226.. 30. 13) 2. MO.. FZ. 146. 12. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. HI.202/817-8) (FN. 37. WDUZ V 1. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. U EL¨ah – catchword. 65). JM. 126. script akin to a large naskh. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. RN. 33.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 83-84. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 144. 100). KH. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). 215). 100. AQ. TU. 213. 236. AS.5 -242. vox reclamans (NZ. 35. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ .

5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. DO-rub¶.

abbrev. 5DE ¶ al. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . – the third month in the Muslim calendar. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). CM. 89. / / (OS.NKLU (al-PXE UDN.

– the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl. rabaÑ W.

 .  VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  6' .  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. nos.21. 51. MS. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +. 48.  &$ .

128). stalk (?) (TS. 109). al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. lin. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. 11. AG. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting.

51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. I. AM. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . no. composition (MU. 50. arrangement (of the text).GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1.170) 2.

72). 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. mubawwib.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP.20). murattib – author. 384. compiler (DF. copying (KM. comp. compact writing. sifr 13. IV. 53. SS. II. ratm – close. n.

abbrev. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar. Rajab (al-murajjab.  26 . al-aÁabb. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm.

1 . . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). VIII. raj¶ (pl. XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. 376).   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . didactic poem (EI.

17. KM. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). 109). I. 99. IV. 28. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. MJ. UXM ¶ – reference. writing in bold characters (TE. 17) 2. III. retouchage (of a letter). retouching. FRPS SD. 513: ‘barrage. 252). AG. muÑallaqah. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. polychrome illumination (TE. sifr 13. I. WDUM ¶ 1. source (in a text) (IN. comp.

epilogue (AD.  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. 62). .

index. index. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. 13). 137. index. book support (MD. RI. 31: MD.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. n. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. ST.185).% 81. 13).13.

VA. 1055. UXNK P DK. comp. 3099. 419. 1223. abbrev. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. 1035. 584. 3185). 1062. numrah) (TP.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 2152. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. 294. 54. 1038. nos.

107. IA. ST. XXIB). TP. 59. . TS. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. AG. raddah – envelope flap (TM. OM). 14. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. 11. pl. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). 103. . 10. marble slab (MB.

145. rizam) 1.v. AJ. ream (of paper). dast (q. AB.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. consisting of five quires.) (PT. 92. 39. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . WS. .

524: ‘cahier’). letter. ULV ODK 1. I. dast 2. FRmp. 532). LUV O DK. treatise. epistle 2. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. tract. monograph (EI. VIII.

. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð.. LM. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH.

14) 2. execution. e. marking. epistolography (DM).VIII. 100. drawing. 45) 3. MB.g. 101. making a mark (ST. rasm 1. writing. rasm al-muÁ¨af. 451-. 100. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. EI. 561. index. tarassul – art of letter writing. PA. sketching (ME. designing. copying.

 SO UXV P.

I. line (traced with a pen) (SD. chapter (in a composition) (SD. designer. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. unpointed letter or word ( NO. 527) 7. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. 528). I. 527). I. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. – stroke. 15) 6. 527) 5. comp. I. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. 560. faÁl. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. SD. painter (ME. bi-rasm see mustanad.

129. – woodcut. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. 137). rasm) (ST. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. III. lin. 14) 2. tooling (HT. wood block (AB. 14). 164) 3. index. index. 370). . calamus (BA. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. marking (syn.

marshim. 532). marsham SO PDU VKLP. rizmah. ream (of paper) (SD. mark (TS. 18) 2. I. comp.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1.

tar¦ ¶ 1. 125) 2. 532). decoration (MS. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. illumination. hot iron (SD.  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. 135). I.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

TE. gilding the inside of the surround (outline). covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. 103.3 145. . ta¨U U TY. 126). decoration (with liquid gold). 17) 3.

$) .

joining letters together (AP. tar¦ I 1. 140. writing. SA. III. ra¦f. 79. composition (NS. KH. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. 35) 2.

tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’.    73 54. SL. 35. MI. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. used for the companions of the Prophet. 15. 125). abbrev. 89. tar„iyah. AR. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. KH. 34. II.

 FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah. DQW RI \ ELV.

24). . – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. 15. 144). statement (LC. AS. 19. istir¶ µ \DK – note. 14. 16.

133. ND. support (for an inkwell) (AA. 111-112). 44. riqq SO UXT T. lin.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. book cradle (IN. 231.11. 230. raqq. book support. 70) 2. 137). KK. mirfa¶ 1. I. n.

EI. 269). KR. I. 407). 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. I. AK. 105. 53. 1135) 4. 93. KK. IK. 53. 17. IV. EP) 2. calamus (IR. raqshah – pointing. diacritical pointing (TE. paper or other writing surface (MU. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. elegant. 17. arabesque decoration (KA. 230). UDTT ¦ – catchword. UDTT JKD] O see jild. SK. -485. al-raqq al-a¨mar. WS.67). sifr 13. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. parchmenter (DG. 74-75. copying (TE. vocalization by means of points. LL. AE. 407-410. making something multicoloured (LL. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. KJ. VIII. 105.1. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. 353). piece (slip) of leather. 85). parchment leaf (ND. n. mirqash – reed pen. AA. no.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . I. KM. 119. vox reclamans (NM. embellished writing. 60-63. VIII. 683. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. IW. 1135) 3.. diacritical point (JA. 108-111. I.

 OHWWer. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. note. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. brief message.

IV. DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. . 1126).

WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. patchwork. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. often sewn in). writing (KM. sifr 13. EI. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. 139.v. IV. VII. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI.in Turkey). LM. 1123. 602-603). passim. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. MN. IV.) script (AS. 78-82. inset (MK. 146. raqm 1. 86).in Persia.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. JM. 1125.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

calligraph (AC. AW. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. DP. 41. NI. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. 266) 4. 54. – piece of calligraphy.

  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ.. .

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

– abbreviation. IK. I. 30). 183). no. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. TE. sifr 13. 82. GA. IV.76). 17. BA. calamus (TE. 230. 1140). 147. mirqam – reed pen. 2. 383.3. 160). also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. 17. 45. IR. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. GA. raqn – compact writing (KM. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. UDT P – inkwell (KM. 141. III. AM. LL. 154). 387-388. 372. 183. no. IV. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. III. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. arqam. SK. 5. copyist (AC. 106). WDUT P – punctuation (AH. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. siglum (CL. KJ. sifr 13. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. AW. fasc. 468-9: AN. 244.

 .

writing) (KM. sifr 13. IV. embellishing ( a text.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). UA. index. (Turk. III. 78) 3. AG. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). MP. 681) 2. SA. 389. 50. ¨ibr 2. hybrid (of a script) (LM. 109. ¨ibr. linking (joining) one letter with another. murakkab 1. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. WDUN E 1.g. 24-27.g. comp. ST. HT. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. 58. ligatured. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . IV. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. on the line) (MY. ligature (e. 45). 83). 14. comp. markaz SO PDU NL]. boarding (TS. I. 393). lin. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. 60ff). composition of letters and words on the line (ER.73. e.

UXN ¶ . – support (for reed pens) (UA. rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ).

406). EI. VIII. DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. 36. rukn SO DUN Q.

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

5 . .

69). rakwah (pl. IB. 107) 3. . ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. 31. 703). II.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. corner piece itself (ST. AG. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). index. 30. 14.

restoration (DM). murammim – restorer.60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair.0 . ramz SO UXP ].9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada). WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .

 DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. 55. VIII. 159) 3. code. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. 428) 2. VIII. chronosticon (EI. III. cypher. secret alphabet (EI. TW. 468. WB. 427) 4. chronogram.

209. . KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. V.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU.

 Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. UA. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). II.  '' . al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. 393).  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. 127136). 478- $7  6' . TD. I. 86. . I.

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

1186. LL. 393. syn. UXZ K. DM). U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. mik¨ O '' .  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. I. – little stick for the application of kohl. UA.

– transmitter.v. tradition (traditio). transmission. VIII. 417418 and 500-501) 3. 94). variant reading. also known as sanad (q.) (TP. varia lectio (MR. 109-111). 53). recension (recensio) (LC. ULZ \DK 1. 545-547) 2. EI. II. link in the chain of transmission (TP. 26. version (versio). LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. 53. XII. KF.

v. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI.) script (AS. JM. 43: wa-T OD . (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. VIII. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. 1125.EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. MP.in Turkey). LM. 73-77. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. 1123. 38. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. MB. 146. 545-547). IV. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). 144.in Persia.

sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. CI. I.). inscription on stone (KM. IV. transcription (TE. ]DEU WD]E U 1.v. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. q. ¨ibr. copying. sifr 13.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. 18. also dhabr – writing. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2.

ND. work (SA. zubur) – composition. 444. zab U (pl. ND. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. 80. IK. KK. 18. 80. II. copyist (TE. 92). 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E.

TE. polychrome illumination (TE. 53. elegant. 18). IK. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. elegant. copying (KK. 85. TE. embellished writing. zakhrafah 1. calamus (TE. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. SA. 444-465. 230). 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. IR. copying (KK.18. 18) 2. II. embellished writing.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

87). zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. 80). decorator (WR. muzakhrif – illuminator.  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR.

– knob (of a clasp) (TS. Ñurwah. 110. 135). comp. 25. AG. . 34. KT.

25. lit. ST. 109). 360) 1. AG. I.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). zulayjah (]DO MDK. IV. index.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. 19: in 12). 689). ER. ‘curl’). see DC.. zalf (MN. fastener (TS. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. 35. zulf (Pers. 69. 1222). ]XO \MDK. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . 682. ]LP P DK. ‘hair lock’. V. decoration in gold and colours (LL. MN./Turk.

127. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. register (IK. account book. list. 95) 2.9. I. 222: al-WDUP N . 181). WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. pt. catalogue (SD. azimmah) 1. NA. GA. (pl. 383-385. 601).

II. zinjafr – cinnabar. 315. KF. 145. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. . II. 320). KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. vermillion ink (SA. 478). MB. 101. comp.

91). 44. hence muzahhar. box (DG. WD]K U – floral decoration.1.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. 38. zawj SO D]Z M. no. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). floriated (KJ. KR.

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

VII. 73). 90-100). 391). AD. 825 and VIII. 107). also WD]Z UDK – elegant. I. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. 283. forgery. 18) 2. AG. WD]Z U 1. copying (TE. conjugate leaf (AG. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. GA. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. f. 73. 408-409. 107) 2. 409). embellished writing.120b. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. falsification (UI. TK. 376). 6. X. muzawwir – forger (EI. X. EI. X. ER.

 HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ . ..

writing. multi-colour illumination (HT. n. 11) 3. MS. 12). 560. lin. . painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. WA. 105). miniature painting (WA. ]DZZ T – illuminator.  decoration. miniature painter (ME. ]LZ TDK – art of illumination.4. 4).102. 560) 4. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA.

superfluous. ]L\ GDK 1. 60. also takht al-]L\ U (ST.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. 184) 2. 136). index. 73). addition (CM.GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. corner. index. MI. 9). addition (TP. post-scriptum (AD. 127) 2. 111. dittography (TM. square (an implement) (MB. angle 2. 98) 3. 9). ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. interpolation. IA. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . 62). MH. 52. interpolation. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. 59. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. abbrev.

 FRPS TDUU Á. elegant. embellished writing (SK. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK .

 HPEHOOLVKPHQW GHFRUDWLRQ '0.

abbrev. quodlibet. jaw E (CI. II. comp. 128) 2. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. . xiv. MI. preamble to a fatwá. asÐilah) 1. suµ O (pl.

3214) 2. used after the word All K 73 . 461.20. 1853. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. 53. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. n. nos. 696. VA.

al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. 637).) (SD. lapsus calami (DM). mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. 11-12). etc. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. IB. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). 13. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). parchment) (IB. I. n. 81. piece (of poetry.185). index. siŒ µah – piece.

83). . plug (in the inkwell) (IK. 17). asiddah) – stopper. transcription (TE. WDVG G – copying. VLG G (pl.

40. punch (SK. Áurrah. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. misrad – awl.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. recital. n. punching (SK. KM. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). 1347). center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. I. 122. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. 39. LL. 1347).52). comp. prelector (TP. awling. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. hence V ULG – reader. sifr 4.) 1. I. 56. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. 122) 2. 115. I. reading.

82). horizontal stroke (UD. munsa¨iŒ – flat. AF. 36). 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ . KR.  frontispiece. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design.. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. 97. 95. . 27. MD. also known as lawzah (JL. 127..

asÃur. sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U.

– line (KD. line of writing. . 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). II.

designing (UK. IA. SDVVLP 6$ . 15. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. IN. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. lining. 28. tas¨ U 1. 59). TA. TS. 59).  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. WR. 17). 18. 155. 73. 174) 3. stencil (AF. 155. TS. 17. 59). LC. 77). 12. folder (UK.. ruling (of folios). geometrical design (polygonal interlace). straightedge (UK. WA. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. 104. 28) 5. lin. ruling. 28. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. 105. 155. MB. IA. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. 104- 7. TM. ff. WS. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. MB. 155. 13. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. 91. number of lines per page (LC. 25) 3.%  Q LC. number of lines per page (TK. lineation. index. 87). ruling board (ST. writing. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. 113) 6. creating a line (of writing) (SA. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. 103. (grid of) guidelines. 86. copying (TE. I. V ¨ir. III. 104-105). ruler. KA. 155). 104. composition (AD. MB. 155). 43). 50. 134) 4. 247) 4. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. lineation (LC. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. IA. redaction.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. 78. IB. pasteboard (HT. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". 48) 5.

DM: snuff box).5  // . 1364. . .

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. book.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. codex. MS. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild.

 FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.

safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 . V ILU (pl.9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU.

ST. bookbinding (e.g. WDVI U 1. index .

 SO WDV I U.

oblong format (of a book) (MD. – book cover (MB. AG. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). AG. EI. index. spine (of a book) (UK. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. 742) 2. 110). 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. end of a letter or book 2. TF. 109) 2. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. IV. VDI QDK 1. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. 150). VIII. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). tail (of the page). lower margin. 11. 78). al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. 660. lin. 15. AD.115. . HT. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 31. MB. 97. I. passim). 158.

238) 1. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 87) 2. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. XII. 97). saqa¨ (MU. KR. 58. also LVT ¨ – omission.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. see above) (JL. 88). 95. MH. 97. haplography (TP. 95.

148. 60). IA. 107. circle-like tool (HT. 482. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. jazmah 2. 133.133. WS. IR. 230). 80). lin. comp. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. ÑLO M PLVT K. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. AT. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. 118. VXN Q 1. comp. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. 137). II.

– knife. 103-104.$  8. 90-91. II. 248). VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 31-33). SA. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. 115- . AA. KD. SK. 711. silsilah SO VDO VLO. pen knife (IK. II. 465-466. VI. LM.

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

 VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. stemma codicum (AL. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . silsilat al-nasab – stemma. I. 27). IX. 611).

GLOSSARY 71 146. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. 107). IV. 15. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. AG. 5863. EI. VDO P. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. 1124). JM. KK.

xiii. 128). PLVP U (pl. CI. 2211. no. 54. MI. I. VA.1830. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. mas P U.

peg (part of a clasp) (BA. – nail. TM. III. 372.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

TP.. MU. LC. auditor. 27. 267.. 69. 53. II. VIII. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. X.25. 53. 485493). . EI. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement. 278. certificate). TP. 1019-1020). abbrev. (CW..g. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . MU. KF. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. XVII. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. n.

45) 2. certificate (JA. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. audition note. I.

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

45). certifier (CT. authoritative commentator. FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. audition leader (master).

comp. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ. ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ. PDTU Ð.

IV. proper name (EI. 179-181) 2. . title of a book (ism al-NLW E). 1.

the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q. tasmiyah 1.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. 28) 2. n.) (MH. 100). 53.v. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. title (of a work) (LC.20) 3. TP. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. sinn SO DVQ Q. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. 28.

  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit. shaqq ) (UK.

9  LQV – left side..  (. 6$ . . . waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // .  ..

103. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. MB. 153. 60: misann akh ar. IA. misann ÃXOD\O ". hone (UK.

5  6$ .. NH. AG. . 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . 107. TS.  $7 133. 10.

q. musannanah – chevron (FT. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).). 395). misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. sanad SO DVQ G.v.

56). DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. 53. musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G.

. .   (.. 6/ . 9.

692). 5. TW. 365. FN. 704-705). sifr 13. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . 14. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. 8. EI. 47). al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. FRPS muÁannaf. RN. 2. (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. VII. IV. I. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD.

GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. 88. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. 232). CM. II. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. VI. 264-265. OS. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA.

al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK.). comp. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A. 252). and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end.D. VI.

black ink (LC. 384. SK. 388). – Muslim era (DD. AI. VDZ G 1. 27. 320. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. I.

7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 .  DOVR musawwadah – draft. XIII. rough copy (LC. MU. 27. MU. 161. MU. VI. 126.9 . XV.

marring (of a text). 18). also LVZLG G (!) – writing. 50A) 3. 237). preparation of a draft (TE. calligrapher (AW. vox reclamans (NZ. making it difficult to read (MH. musawwid – copyist. FRPS PXED\\D ah. copying by an apprentice (TE. 98) 4. copying (TE. 45. 18) 2. WDVZ G 1. nos. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH .IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. AM. 18. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. 97.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

. – woodworm.

50. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. comp. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. 463. trimming the textblock (TS. 702). (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. 17-18). damage caused by worms (LC. II. KK. II. SA. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. KD. musawwas – worm-eaten. 105. 28).

1125. RA. was known as qirmah (GA. 178-180.in Turkey. A variety of this script. DR.in Persia. IV. sayr SO VX\ U. 1124. used in Ottoman Egypt. 24-24). NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. 183).

$ .  VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .

sayf SO VX\ I.  endband (headband) strip (ST. HT. 16. index. MB. lin. 114.96).

cutter (UK. 154. 104. MB. IA. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. 103. – trimming sword.

also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. WDVK E N. 73). 33. 407. lin. endband (headband) (HT. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. nos. **** VKDE NDK 1. 19. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. (pl. 20) 2.88-106. DH. 115. WDVKE N 1.

– interlace (TF. . passim).

GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. 406). PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. Ã VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV.

shajjah SO VKLM M..  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ . . jilfah..' .  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). comp..

honing (of a knife) (KD. DH. WDVKG G DK. WDVKM U 1. LM. 87. arabesque decoration (WR. 967) 3. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. composing a text in a schematic. stemma (SL. shaŒm(ah) – pith. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). tree-like way. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . UD. 27). 35-35). I. stemma (AL.73) 2. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. hone (DD. white interior substance of the reed (IK. EI. also mushajjar – foliated design. shaŒdh – whetting.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). 86. no. II. 711). VII. 390). mishŒadh – whetstone. creating a genealogical tree. I. shajarah – genealogical tree. 14. I. shaddah. 9.

doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. shidq SO DVKG T. 14). – doubling (of a consonant).

case binding (TS.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). book cover. 27. .

comp. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. sharaj SO DVKU M. 109). fakk 2. 369).76 GLOSSARY AG.

sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W. sharŒ (pl.v.) (BA. III. 372). – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

&. shuraÃ) – line. comment-text book. also VKLU V. IX. MD. OM). 5051). 60. (LC. I. MI. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. ashriÃah) 1. NH. VLU V and V U V (DM). IB. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. [Lv). 106-107. stroke (DM). 139. cutter (IA. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . rule-border (LC.0 . al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. 217. shar¨(ah) (pl. comprising the text commented upon (matn). VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). 385. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. decorative band (UI. 174-175). . 392: for opening sealed documents. shars – pasting. DD. EA. 397-320. I. EI. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. 27) 2. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. 100. abbrev. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. 109) 3.. al-VKDU I DK. 401). MB. long commentary.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. 29) 4. rules. 158. II. fillet (in decoration) (FT. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). xiv. CI. 60. abbrev. FZ. 27. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. MM. IA. paste (MB. mishra¨(ah) – knife.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT.). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. ligatured Maghrebi script. 47. TW. nuskhah and the like. 365. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. VI. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af.v. 322). 250).

)'  .

AG. sha„ \DK (pl. cancellation (LC. 756). FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. I. shaqq. comp.  arb. 251). eraser (TS. I. 28: IN. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. duster. 11. 113) 2. mish¨ab – 1. burnisher. whisk (?). polisher (NH. shaÌ \ . 390).

36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. III. 13) 2. à Ð \ Ð.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. 88. serif-like stroke (LM. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. AA. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . 35. also tash„ \DK – line.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . KH. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA.

al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam. al-mukarram.

– the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

 .

78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. ashÑ U. shi¶r (pl.

CI. CI. 12. 116). versification. – poetry. no.g. scribal verse (see e. 81. 82. nos. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. I. II.

222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . lin. outlining. 91-93. III. outline (KF. NA. 59) 3. 9. II. JM. AI. 16. scraper (ST. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. WDVKI U – trimming. tash¶ U 1. paring knife. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. IA. shafrah 1. 58). pt. IP. 103. AG. shaqq SO VKXT T. 145. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. 11. parer. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. index. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). 109). 153. UK. al-musha¶¶ar.159). design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. bookbinder’s sword. III. cutting edge (SK. shaving (HT. LM. 45. illumination in gold. lin. SA.83. 112. MB. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. 59. 224). al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. 144. 250). 127. MJ. VI. AF.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. 161) 2. 50) 3.104. 161). 104. trimmer (HT.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

8' -12: SK. 117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK.

154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. IM. MH.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. 97. 460-462). slit (of the nib). splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. II. 171) 3. 59. . SA.

1. no. ER. punch (UA. 699-702). awl. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. 43. 694). 1124. IV. sewing endbands (headbands). 62) 2. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. IV. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. IV. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. ER. IV. 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. 393).- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). WDVKN ] – 1. 1124. preliminary endbanding (IA. .

vowel marks.g. GL. vowelized (for various practices see SA. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e. III. SA. comp. 81). 160-167. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. IM. diagram. 36). 125. shaqq. 150).  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. III. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. KH. 12) 2. hence mushakkal – vocalized. 59. III. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. vowelization.

.+  8'   .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

 FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK. 156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .

sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. 51). 27. rosette (LC. 118. 63). WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. 135). passim. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. AF. MB. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. IA. 110. PA. 116).  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

g. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

n. 53. document (DM). 201 and X. EI. IX. 340-. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. – copy of a letter.20.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. Mashhad (al-)´usayn. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . 90).

– . al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas.HUEHOD .DUEDO Ð). al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU.

). month (LL. II.v. 1612). usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. – new moon. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. shuhrah. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q.

 . .. EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &.

 .

GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram. al-PXE UDN.

abbrev. – the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 .

386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. fihrist. comp. . 250). VI. fahrasah. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. pt. 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. 118).) – endband (headband) (LA. 725). aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. 117. 8.). ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD.v. VK U ]DK (Pers. VI. 19-20. PA. KH. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. RN.5. i¦E ¶ (pl. mashyakhah (pl.

emendation 2. dye. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. 29-32. mara  and saqam). 63. 136. 370: Áabgh al-waraq. MP. correction. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. LE. VIII. MH. AR. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. QS. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). sic. 35. attestation (of correctness in transcription). IA. I. 267-268). 120-129. II. 114-118. tint (UK. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). 45). CT. thus (JA. ¦LE JK – pigment. 285. (KG. NW. 671-672. MB. tinting. abbrev. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. abbrev. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. 73  . NH. writing word in the text (GA. 473.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. ¦ Œib (pl. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. editor. n. preparation of a critical edition. aÁ¨ E. comp. signing (a document) 4. 53.25).

owner (OS). abbrev. . 0.  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). isti¦Œ E – ownership. possession (OS).

Áu¨uf.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. small pamphlet. ma¦Œaf.. maÁ ¨if) 1. often leather. I. I. BA. 9. 24). mi¦Œaf (pl. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (.. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an.  parchment. mu¦Œaf. . sifr 13. 22. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. folio (folium). sheet of writing material. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). IV. II. III. papyrus or paper (KD. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. leaf (TC. -835) 2. notebook (SL. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. IK.. 22) 3. page (DM) 4. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ .

AG. n. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. MS. 25. 17. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. 107. 146. MS. AG. volumes) (EI. AG. VII. parchment textblock (TS.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. 107. 17. 16). 25. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. JM. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . 54-57). sometimes two. II. 17. KF. 316. 107) 3. 668-669. 16).4). al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS.GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6.

distortion.g.  . error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. ta¦Œ I 1.  .

04  6$ ..  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK.

 FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). syn. ta¨U I TY.

bookbinding (LA. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. .5. pt. (.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. -348) 3.

9. 13. 11. ÁXG U. 118) 2. bookseller (QS. II. 269-270). ¦adr (pl. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. ¦aŒŒ I 1. IB. II. HD.

preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. also ta¦G U – incipit. ¦DG UDK 1. preamble.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

wajh (SA. fore-edge flap (TS. 156. IA. 27) 4. fore-edge (TS. 107) 6. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. 464. MJ. 105. MB. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). 218). 44. IB. II. 15) 5. AG.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. as opposed to inner side. 59). 16. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . known as ¦adr alE ] (UK.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

99. 109. 83. ÁuÑ G. ¦urrah – center-medallion. surrah. JL. MD. mandorla (FZ. 110). ¦a¶d (pl. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. comp. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM).

34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. TU. 50. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA.

AG. FN. siglum) (TP. 30. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. II. 27). 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. vox reclamans (TT. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. verso of the first folio (LC. 192). 11. 371. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. 227. ta¦I Œ – catchword. ta¦affuŒ – examination. II. KD. study (KF. 58). ¦DI Œah (pl. 107).

al-PXE UDN. iafar (al-khayr. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). al-Ìafar. al-muÌaffar.

– the second ¦ifr (pl. aÁI U.

month of the Muslim calendar. 59). 89). abbrev. – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. . (OS.171. TP.

maÁ ILQ.GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl.

¦aql – polishing. strainer. 134). KA. maÁ TLO. sieve (UA. burnishing (MB. passim. 393: for ink). – filter. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl.

DD. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). I. MB.  DS. – polisher. ¦ulb (pl. 149. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . 142. 105. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. IB. 149. aÁO E. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. aÁlub. IA. 99. 156. 44.. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK.

i¦O Œ 1. 27) 2. 62) 3. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. . LC. 1712. II. MB. IA. no. 27). comp. bookbinding (IA. II.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . 62). 111. correction (FK. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. 59). ta¦O E 1. making pasteboards (MB. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. original text (LC. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. 119). main.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. 166. matn. text-column (LL.

 UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .&   7: .

139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. MM. no. siglum) (TP. suspension. CI. II. 191. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. 55-56. i¦¨LO Œ. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq.

 .

     73  Q 73  &. -359). . [LLL (. .86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. abbrev. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad.

stopper (in the inkwell) (IK.v. ¦LP P – plug. ÁDQ G T.). sketching (MO. 83). ta¦P P – design. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q.

– wooden chest. box (for copies of the QurÐ Q.

0'  7% -94). ¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  .

taÁ Q I. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). ta¦Q I (pl. ¦un¶. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. Ñamal.

III. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. – composition. work (MU.

EI. 662663. work. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. II. often the author of the original text PDWQ. compiler. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation.v.) (SL. mu¦annif – author. 39. VII. 705). as opposed to musnad (q.

craft (EI. art. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). 625-626). duction by artisans. abbrev. (CI. I. IX. E\ $E +LO O. xi).

 .

¦ UDK (pl. 225. microfilming. ¨ ¦awn. I. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. comp. MU. X. apograph (TP. 361. ta¦Z E (pl. illustrator (PA.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. 559). Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. 121.  LE E. DH. Áuwar) 1. taÁZ E t) – correction. comp. 361-363) 2. „abbah (pl. 57). used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. ta¦Z U 1. correctness. copy. **** LI Ì. XV. IX. box (NT. TP. ¦LZ Q (pl. 56) 3. no.g. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ.212). exact copy. XVI. painted illustration (EI.141: ‘portraitiste’). ME. miniature painting (MU. taÁ¨ ¨. 889892 and X. mu¦awwir – painter. aÁwinah) – case. example (JA. transcript (e.2. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. 136. preservation (DM). 143. 268) 4. EI. pt.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

also known as WDPU „. 57.64. 95-96). ta„E E. 57. 95-96). n. sic. i„barah (pl. DEEUHY 73  AR. marking the word with a  abbah (TP. thus (TP. 30) 2. MH. a  E U. MH.

a number of leaves or sheets put together. bundle of documents (IK. „LE UDK 1. KM. a„barah. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. IV.. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. sifr 13. quire .

120a-b). „ EL¨ 1. 112) 4. (pl. 44. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. specialist in  abÃ. 16. (pair of) dividers (TS.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. 13. AG. 5) 3. ta„E U 1. AG. 19. 107) 3. orthographer (MH. TK. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . 11) 2. n. index. 18. 17..16. IB. 97) 2.) .  DZ ELÃ) – compass. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. collation (of quires) (TS.177). 12. 26.) . AG. 388). 29.  XU E. f. 107.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O . 18. album (FT. II. textblock (TS. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. ST. binding (IB.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl).

small tool (resembling a drum stick. – cancellation. 109) 2. „irs (pl. 62). erasure (MF. II. stalk?) (TS. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. KF. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. a U V  XU V. 11. 59). AG. mi„rabah 1. mallet (LF.

AG. interlace (TS. 32-33. AG. also TS. „i¶f (pl. 12. a Ñ I.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. 109-110). 109) 2. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah.

ta  Ñ I. ta„¶ I (pl.

MU. interline (LL. XVII. – space between lines..  /& . 1792. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . II.

 .

217). 32. e. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. interlace (TF. 33. 413) 2. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. 11.g. 44. „DI UDK (pl. ‘eye’ (of a letter). ma„I U – plaited. 45). III. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq.  DI Ðir) 1. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. „awµ (pl.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. Á G à Р. polygon. AG. plait. 110). passim). 12. braid (FT. AG. (SA. 107). interlaced (FZ.406). 30. a Z Ð) – counter. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. 44).

76   $* .

134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ).  ODUJH stamp (for a center. ¨ EL¶. mi¨ba¶ 1. ¨ ED¶ (pl. 96). .medallion) (HT. seal. signet. ÃDZ ELÑ ). comp. stamp (IK. lin.

90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl. aÃE T ÃLE T.

roll (AJ. .  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. WS. 144.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). comp. qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

tirs. (KU. 83.5 . 154. sarwah) (JL. 2019) 4. center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. 979) 5. DB. III. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK .

 ¨abaqah (pl. ÃDEDT W ÃLE T.

Taf. 73  Q $. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). 109) 2. 102). audition note (EI. IA. ¨LE T – large sheets. 107. I. Ãurar) 1.7. gloss.120a) 4. VIII. AD. margin (LC. 372). AG. . f. 28. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. 113. edge. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. 21. border (on a book cover) (TS. 1020. 60). abbrev. leaves (of paper) (NH. marginalia. MZ. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). 110) 3. ¨urrah (pl. turn-in (TS. TK. AG. marginal note. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

address (ÑXQZ Q. ML. 46. margin (TP. SD. VI. 58. II. 29) 6. SA. 313.

TP. 36) 12. KH. f. 28) 13. comp. tailpiece (LC. n. IV. 58. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. . disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC.67). 16). al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. Ãughrá 7. lin. ansa. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. X. annotation (WA. 28) 10. 689). 16). f. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC.85). HT. ta¨U U – glossing. 28.120a. palmette (LC. 682. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. illuminated headpiece (LC. 28) 9. 28) 11. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. 57. 28) 8. mu¨arrar – glossed.120a). annotated (WA.

GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. draftsman (AB. MB. ta¨U Œ – sketch. 141: ‘dessinateur. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. 159: ‘dessin. Ãar¨’) 2. sketcher. ÃXU V DÃU V. manuscript restorer. PA. 118. ¨DUU Œ 1. outline (HD. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. 103). al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. HD. 133). 118. composition’). 132. ¨irs (pl. celui qui fait le tracé initial. ÃXU ¨). PA. 69. 101. 61.

1840).  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. IW. IK. 408. EI. 63-64. 93. comp. LL. VIII. II. 75-76. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU .

HJ µ. 140. IV.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . aÃU I. ¨araf (pl. LF. sifr 13. III.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). effacement (of the original writing) (KM. 371). ta¨U V – obliteration. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. BA. 8.

AG. AG. 107). IA. hammer (TS. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. 109). mi¨raqah – mallet. 15. 166. TH. . 60). 38. 87). 30. – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. AG. 31. 11. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. 107. 11. 57.

ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. 595-598) 3. 134. inlay work (AB. X. ta¨¶ P – inlay. headpiece (LC. 11. erasure (KM. 406). X. à ¨ughrá. 109). FT. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. 28) 4. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI.) 2. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. IV.v. AG.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. sifr 13. ¨XJKU µ (pl. (MU. 28).

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. 147. leaf (of paper) (TS. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. 483). WS. SD. I. 27. 145. ¨alŒ. 92. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. UK. AJ. ÃDO ¨ \. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. 83). 52). II. ¨alaŒ – sheet.

SD. II. – sheet (of paper from the mould). 52). ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). 87: al-darj. roll (WS. .

82. NH.) (pl. 63. syn.0 . ta¨O V – obliteration. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. Ãirs. ¨ilsim.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . ¨ilsam. ÃDO VLP. IV. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. comp. NH. 373: ¨ulsah). LL.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). II. ¨alsah. thus differing from Ãirs’). erasure (ND. 373: ¨als. sifr 13. ¨ilsim (etc.

also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. X. 258). beginning of the text. incipit (WA. iÁE Ñ (q. 56). 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. WB. ascender (of a letter). naÌDUD ZDTDID. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. 500-502). ¨ OL¶ (pl. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa.) (KH. 11. headpiece (TW. – talisman. tion of words (EI.v.

/&  26 .

. III. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . III. popular class of scripts’). SA. 29: ‘common. RN. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. naÌar. MJ. 224). al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. FRPS WDTU Ì. 59. 144. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ.

94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. pasting (MB. gilding (SD. obliteration. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. KD. daubing. ¨ams 1. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. 136). I. 110). 58. II. erasure (JA. passim) 2. coating. II. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. DG. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. 278. of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. gilt and the like (MB. ‘eyes’.

6$ . -47. KH.. IR.. 36. 242. AS. 144). ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶.

a¨Q E (sg. 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter).

pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. xviii). 157. 31. abbrev. / / / (CI. sheet (piece. 110). 109. mu¨awwal – original. . 111. MB. cartouche (LC. 26). 17. 61). rule-border (LC. comp. AG. MB. rules. ¨ TDK 1. AG. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. I. unabridged work. 35. 120b) 2. musta¨ O 1. rectangular panel (AB. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. strand (UK. 32. TK. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). Áilah. IA. layer) of paper (TS. 62. 135) 3. f. ¨DZ O – long. 107. IA. 26) 2.

.%  $-  .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U.GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .

IV. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. KM.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. sifr 13. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK.

11. In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. ÃDZ P U. (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. 12). 49-57). III. It was written with a reed pen.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

 .  0. – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK. person. abbrev. f.120a).

206. misk) (e. musta¨ E DK. MJ. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. 212).g.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

3. II. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K.g. CM. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e. CI. 18).

inset (EM. 98. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. WKDU KX – requiescat. ÌXU I. AH. **** „arf (pl. 182).

 UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ . ..

 FDVH ER[ /& 29. ME. LL. . 575). II. 1910.

aÌI U.v. al-„afar. „ufr (pl.). 495). al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. II.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS.

ta„O O (lit. ‘shading’) – outlining. no. 29). 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132).3. usually the thumbnail) (TM. outline (KJ. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails.

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. 29). 57. baÃn. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). GA. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. 59) 2. abbrev. 29. comp. I. (TP. hair side (of parchment). 29). – conjecture. II. front of the textblock (LC. n.64. „ahr – back. xv. „DKU \DK 1. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. blank reverse of a letter (LC. 285). CI. back of a document. verso. SL. placed in the margin.

„ KLU (lit.Oá). comp. obvious. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. 11. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. AG. 8 and II. 109). . 88. ‘alleged. ‘external. evident’. abbrev. I. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture. ME. II.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . first page(s) of the textblock (KF. 473: wajh al-waraqah al.  IO\-leaf (SD.

 .

147. MP. ¶ajuz (pl. 40. ¶ajz. 148-149. AJ. aÑM ]. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. 80-82). WS.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

14). V.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-.P P DO-0DKG . TP. n. 21-22. 52.

 . DEEUHY MI. 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2.. treatise. sifr 13. vocalization (KM. IV.  (. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' .. RA. diacritical point 3. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract. 26). 146. III. 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). .

i¶M P WD¶M P 1. ¶ajm. 57). FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. . SA. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. 90. pointed letters (TP.

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

taÑ U M. (pl.

ÑXU VK. – curve. curvature (of the descender) (SA.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). 30). III. ¶arsh (pl. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI.

al-sa¨r – base line (TW. 230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U.

 ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1.9. SA. KU. JA. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl. 464. III. lattice-work (AB. taÑ U T. 202). 45). SA.. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. 25. ¶ar„(ah). mu¶ UL„ – collator. II. ¶LU „(ah).  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. reciter (CT. 136).  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. 56. trellis (FT. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. 218. LC. TP. 29).. abbrev. I. 423) 2. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . MH. 45).

36. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. KH. III. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 40. 50. 37. KU. 11. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. SA. 22.

(al-kha¨¨) al-¶. 11).U T see mu¨aqqaq. ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. . FRPS PXÑaqqaf.

GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl.. 34. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ . 25.. AG. 110. KT.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. Ñuran) – thong.

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

aÑVK U. DEEUHY / (CI. xiii). ¶ashr (pl. I.

 ¶ VKLUDK (pl. ÑDZ VKLU.

 . decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   . ¶ VKLU \DK – mark.  6' .7  // .  8...

 al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. ta¶VK U 1.

7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. 11. 109). stamp with vegetal design (TS. 109) 2. 116: gha  UDK . AG. AG. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . 108. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. ¶ushar 1. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. ¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 109).

IK. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 155. IB. mi¶¦arah (pl. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. 134). 154-155. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. 154. 154). II. 42). SD. 84). . mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK.

107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT.100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. caret (MR.130) 2. curved line (used as a reference mark. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB. signe de renvoi). lin.

147. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K. 145. MI. 35. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. connection. 36. abbrev. 37) 4.).  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. introd. / / / (AR. AM.

176. MR. 00 132. 93. TM. TP. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY. 54).

LL. 19). II. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ¶af¦ – galls. 83. margin (ST. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . ST. index. ¶LI ¦ – plug. 17. 16. ¨ibr) (MP. 2091).

38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . ¶aqb. ta¶T EDK 1. comment (LC. catchword. aÑT E.+  10  SJ. ¶aqib (pl. 27) 2. 344). vox reclamans (TN. note.

58. lower ¶uqdah (pl. KH. 36) 2. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. counter. Ñuqad) 1. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. knot-like tool (TS. 46. 11. III. 109). 47. AG. . – end of the text (matn) on a page.

mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. la¶allahu (lit. 126). taÑU T ¶allahu. ‘perhaps.GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. comp. 37).

 WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0. .

 RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB. WS. 90. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.Q DO-ÑLO M.

133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . copy. transcript (AD. writing. transcription. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. copying (TE. 124).9 . script. ligature (KU. 15) 2. 119) 3. composition.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

. .) .

abbrev.  (MI.  DOVR ta¶O TDK. taÑ O T WDÑO T W. 107) (pl.

– marginal gloss. LC. II. IV. in the Turkish/Arabic context. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. X. 26). MU. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. scholium. 1124. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. ER. IX. explication (TE. EI. 71. 694-696) 2. name often given. 162). comment. 165) 6.v. 27. IV. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. 15. It is characterized by numerous ligatures.).

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

77). 104). FRPS U MLÑ. 26. . AG.. also TS. al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ .102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn.. III. 28.

 mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . III. 371.

 ¶alam (pl. aÑO P.

381). – decorated border (LL. marking. II. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. XII. 164. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. 22). TS. book mark (e. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. autograph (LC. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. ta¶O P 1. 164). II. SD. ¶DO PDK – 1. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. 2140). signing a document (AA. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. signature (SD. marking quires before sewing (ST. 352) 4. 18) 2. I. EI. 27) 2. motto. II.g. mark. index. 135.

39). no.DUEDO Ð) (CM. ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.¶  0. al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI . 100).HUEHOD .

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

III. . a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. 372). abbrev. ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA.

¶amal (pl. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. aÑP O. II. 2153: ‘text of the book’).

VII. compilation (MU. 256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ.  FRPSRVition.

colouring. main work of a painter (PA. ta¶miyah 1. taÑZ U 2. 229. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. etc. cryptogram. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. q. SA. FRPS ÁanÑah 2. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. painting. (SJ. chronosticon (TI. used in opposition to Ãar¨. TC.v. IX. writing. 123). 30) 3. EI. i. 257-258). laà I DO-Ñamal. 47-48. comp.e.). VII.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

PK. ¶XQZ Q (pl. 16. ÑDQ Z Q. 110. EI. 260-261). I. VII. SL. 211. (MW.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. EI. section heading (LC. 29). X. comp. 116. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. . 870). tarjamah 2. chapter. EI. EI. 29. 871-872) 3. 2183). 66. 870-871) 4. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. II. X. PA. title (of a book) (LC. X. 29. 36.

al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah. 200-203). VWURNH. curved (of a line. i¶ZLM M – curvature. I. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI.

taÑ Z GK. 12. e. 726). ta¶awwudh.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. repetitor (EI. . 14). 13. UD. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. 7). 74). I. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. collation master. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. 230). collation session (MF. VII. IN. X.g. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus).

Ãams. 123-124). of letters) (AP. KU. ‘eyes’. 69). ¶ P (pl. – talisman. comp. amulet (DT. aÑZ P. 114. 95. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters.

comp. sanah. comp. – year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. VI. Ñuqdah. 252-253). ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. ¶ayn (pl. 194. LM. 43). .

aghriyah) – paste. 97. MP. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. 1124). JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. 90. 199). (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. taghriyah 1. 37. 47). MP. 145). 250). 244). IB. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. adhesive (TS. 233. rasm al-JKXE U. 32-34. NW. 88. HT. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. 97. VI.60-72. DW. 74). and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. NW. 141. AG. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. MB. 58-63. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. 12-13.18) 2. 41. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. MB. 19-23. sizing (of paper) (AB. VI. 250). 46: taghriyat al-waraq). red and black colours (SD. VI. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. OD. 145. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. IB. 45-47).289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. 74. II. EI. North Africa. n. IB. NW. 47. 37. IK. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. 141. index. JM. 107. ghubrah – mixture of white. AS. pasting (ST. 73). lin. MP. 42. IV.

 FRPS .IU T  .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

554. JKLVK µ (pl. passim). 35. ME. box (SD. covering of the board. JKD] O see jild. 214. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. binding (TS. 36. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. case. KC. II. aghshiyah) 1. 564) 2. book cover.

 ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. pl. CD. III. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK.

 ODVW SDJH V.

LVWLJKI U DK. I. 257). binding (IN. I. 473).) . taghshiyah – book covering. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF.

ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ ....  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ. 217) 2. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' .

bold character. abbrev.  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). 150). ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). a word) (MI. mistake. . 192). OHWWHU 6. WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. ghal¨ah – error. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„.

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

mughallif – bookbinder (DG. JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. 108). 214. 132). WDJKO I – book covering. 213. AB. 157). binding (FZ. – book cover (MD.

VIII. also iftit Œ. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1.Ñuqdah. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. comp..) .  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal).). SA. 128).v. – WDLOSLHFH . 114. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. III. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ. **** I I U – papyrus (EI. 261). 47. 46.

. LQFLSLW 08 . prologue. 23) 2.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. proem (MU. preface. XV. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& .9. LC.

 KHDGLQJ (e. LC. II.g. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar. 23) 4. headpiece (KF.

muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. press screw (MB. IA. 109) 2. AG. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. TS. VI. . 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. 245). 104. IA.18. 59). IDW ODK 1. 62.

VI. leaf (of paper) (SA. 249). SD. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. comp. 189. II.

28). al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. conjugate leaf.). LIU G – letter in its isolated. – one of a pair. WDUN E TY.v. one half of a piece of leather (TS.

6$ . ...

DD. I.g. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. AT. 154). 83). 390). fur„ah (pl. IR. 60. shaqq (q. 133. far„ al-qalam – syn. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. SA. 481. 230.) (KU. MY. II. III. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA.v.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

// .. .

apograph.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. 23) 2. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK .18). mifra¨ – cutter (ST. most probably a variant of PLTU „. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. LC. index. witness (MR. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. note. annotation (TM.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

87. application as opposed to theory. 93.) (UD. 15.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. KR. scroll (FI. JL. (AD.v. 88. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. 82). argument resulting from a legal point. IDU JK SO IDU JK W. 131). abbrev. 269) 4. aÁl. SM. q.

 DOVR WDIU JK (MO. completion. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W. execution. 41) – end.

blank. also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. 26. 23). farkah (MN. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. lacuna (LC. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. 289) 3. 23. GA.+  /0 .

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

1. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. comment. explication.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

5 . 23. mufassir – commentator. from Greek into Arabic (EI. commentary and/or translation.g. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. 351. 83). MS. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. AK. disc. e. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . fa¦¦ (pl. III. paragraph mark (TP. SA. three dots. X. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). 55. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. LC.

 .

fuÁ O.110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl.

 QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. 55. . word division (in a text). spacing (TP. III. space between words or passages. 134. 145-146) 2. taf¦ O 1. MM. SA. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). 138.

or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ .  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. 33). 37. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 92. 130-133. comp. TP. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. silver-based ink (UK. MP.. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. n. 271).  FKDSWHU 6' II. MB.. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. 53.20).

SD. abbrev. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. AK. 273. paragraph (LC. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. fiqar) – passage. 23. xiii. II. comp. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). section of a text. I. 351). DM). fiqrah (pl.

III. – book cover (HN. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. 385. BA.

 FRPS VKLGT .

45). IDQ T (pl.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). funuq) – case. fihrist (pl IDK ULV. box (KC. disbound (e. fihris. mufakkak – loose.g.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

49. nota bene (notabilia). AR. (CA. cataloguing. mashyakhah 2. 207. abbrev. EI. II. marginal note. comp. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. 286. catalogue (SD. II. II. RU &0  RU 66. bibliography. record of attested study. 293) 2. 743-744) 4. gloss. 149. LC. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. 36). list. abbrev. fahrasah 1. 23. also I µidat al-a¦l. 50).

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

15). Qubbat al-. . Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. 107). 76  AG. WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS.

302). AG.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. qub¨al. lit. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. 471). SD. abbrev. . straightedge (TS. qabr. qabla – before.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. 107. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. IV. II. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah.

490492). corrector.52. collation note (statement). VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. muÑ UD ah 2. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. comp. PXT ELO – collator. n. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR.TP. II. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . VII. 56. EI. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. MH.

24. / / / / / (TP. etc. CI. comp. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. AG. 701.37. xiv). AA. qaÃÃ. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather.xiii. FRPS ] Ðidah.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. 109). I. 107). CI. II. 10. II. 54. aqudd) – strip (of leather). . abbrev. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. 11. 18. n. qidd (pl.

TP. abbrev. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. 107). MI. 17. VII. 173). 26.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. 120. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. AG. comp. also TS. 59. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. introduction (EI. fore-edge flap (TS. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. preface. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. 52. muqaddimah – forward. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 495-496).

– marginal note. 139). T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. reading. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. gloss. prelector. recitation (LC. variant reading (varia lectio). manner of recitation. commentary (AD. reciter. 9 -129) 3. 26) 2. collection of glosses. TLU µah 1.

  73 . $/ .

25. KF. II. FRPS ¨arf. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. 53.g. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. FRPS VDP Ñ. TP. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. 494-498). n.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

sleeve case (TS. 35-36. 104. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. 110). AG. SA. 36. aqribah) 1. 110). . 466) 2. 36. II. AG. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. 110). AG. TLU E (pl. sheath (SK.

screw press (MB. 18. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. index. 91-92. IK. IB. compact writing (KM. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. qar¦a¶ah – fine. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. 103: PLTU   (!).19. 44). qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. putting something into a press (ST. 20). AG. QS. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. AG. sifr 13. 19. IB. MP. IV. IK. 21. 107. 94). IA. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. 47). ST. 417). elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. 19. 107. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. 63). MP. 10. 59).114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. 44. 60). index. ST. II. index. 63.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

UD. VIII. V. AE. 407) or paper (SA. 17). 261. IW. AE. VIII. comp. II. parchment (AE. 66-76. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. 173-174. 98. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. WS. EI. 50. EI. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. I. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. 66-93. 108. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). 82-91).

often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. . – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. XIV. 335- WDTU   W .

313). muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL. compact writing (KM. qarma¨ah – fine. 186). sifr 13. 143. 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. comp. %/ $0 QRV     122.  qarmadah. 136. IV.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . 182. muà ODÑah.

qa¦¦. index. trimming (ST. IV. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. IB. . qirmah see VL\ T. 86. AA. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. al-qurnah al-yusrá). 80). DS. 60. JM. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. MB. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. HT. 41). qurnah – corner (MB. 69). 146. reed pen (IK. see also UA. IV. 103.19. 682. 153. EI. miqsam(ah) (lit. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. 42. EI. 59. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. 181. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). IK. IA. 393: not defined).

qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 86). 32). tin-based ink (UK. MP. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. qa„ P DK. 153). miqaÃÃ. comp. 154). 130.116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. qa„m – syn. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. qa¦amah.

sifr 4. cutting (of leather. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. LM. 102. KU.) breadthwise (KD. – white hide. KK. 109-110. nibbing. 50. 153. etc. 2-463. AA. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ .. KM. 72-74. the point itself. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. II. IK. leather (IW. I. 93).

having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. longer than the left’. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. LL. LM.e. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. 462. II. I. i.

miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. II. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. ivory. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 217). 2996. . II. MJ. II. MJ. 217). al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. 154). 462). see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. straight point of the nib (SA. 1742.

468. qa¨¶ (pl. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah.GLOSSARY 117 etc. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. IP. 65. IV. SK. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. 54. 45. AT. ND. MM.742. LS. 62. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. MB. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. MK. qaÃÑ al-thumn. 133). 76. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. 105: maqaÃÃ. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. II. SA.

475). al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. calligraph (AC. qi¨¶ah 1.g.  irs (AG. piece of calligraphy. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. 110). FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting. piece of something (e. . piece of poetry) 2. VI. principle of the interlace. decoupage (ER.

90) 4. 144.  (5 9. format (of a book) (TL. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. 107). VI. . muqaÃÃa¶ ). (pair of) scissors (IK..  +'   T ÃiÑ. papercut(s). tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. mishraÃ. decoupage. comp. instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. PA. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. 9. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. collage. cutting instrument (DM) 2. 475). 21) 2. taq¨ ¶ 1. 11. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. WS. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. 91). AG. filigree work (IP.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

abbrev.  26 . – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

. – clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. 377).

107). al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. 107). qalb. 20). ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. comp.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. 15-17. 15. flat back (TS. 641). taqfiyah – backing (TS. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. AG. 107). 107. 15. AG. 14. AG. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. 15. ST. AG. index.

 PRXOG 8.  .

14.3. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. ST. 26. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. MK. LC. index.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ.19. no. 26.

FI. 93) 4. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. 88. 59. JL. miqlab SO PDT OLE. FZ. 43). 214. folder (IB.

7XUN PLNOHE.

68). TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. 202-203). 26). – envelope flap (MT. 83. WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. DW.

.  76 .  SLHFH RI ZRRG .

i. also qalam al-qa¦ab. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. 232. 44-465. 45-87. 13 (AA.  calamus. TC. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. KU. IK. reed pen. copper pen. SA. II.e. see TW. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ".

59-64. . 38-39. script. MP. 133-134. UK. IV. 100). ductus.. AT. MB. 71-75. 144. 471) 3. MB. -50. EI. handwriting. hand. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. 356.

al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. see khaÃÃ.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

muqawwar. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. I. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. used in talismans and amulets (IT. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script. 11-12). 335). al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE.

miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. 153. 145). 144). IK. 85). al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. DO-mu¨aqqaq. al-thuluth. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. and used extensively in the main Arab lands.

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah.$  Q.  $.. ..  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  . . SA.

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

For a list of words used for such containers see SL. . chest (LL. II. 2565). 85). WDTO P – paring. 79). 109). 43. 11. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. 49-51. I. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. AG. II. KR. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). trimming (a reed). 43.

al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. 144). 11. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . 144). III. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. 37). AS. comp. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

154. 190. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. MI. XII. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. PDT ODK 1. II. MU. 238). short composition. tract 2. TP. 155. passage. treatise. – quotation. xiv. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

I. folio (folium) (MK. 283. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. III. I. KF. 190. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. 86. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 327. DF. 83. 377. 82. KF.

erect. comp. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. mDEV Ã.g. . 22). PXVWDT P – upright. RN.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 .  DPP DO-Ñ. – HQGSDSHU 8.

 al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq. qayd SO TX\ G.

– note.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. committing something to writing. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . composition (TE. 17. statement. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk.. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

113. III. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. binding. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. IA. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA.  tying. IK. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // . 62) 4.. .

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

153. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). 27). N ]DQ – mallet (UK. glossator (AM. gloss (LC.187). N JKL¨. no. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. – marginal note. author 2. 43). muqayyid 1. IB. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP.

comp. IV. see waraq. 136).VO P . leaf (of paper) (AJ. SO NDZ JK Ã. 77) – paper (EI. 98-105. etc. al-N JKDG DO-. al-kalŒ . al-5 P . 419-420. WS. waraq. . AE. WS. N JKLGDK – sheet. 77-85).

WS. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. as in the beginning of w Z. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. in papermaking) (OM). 136. munkabb – inclined. 374). kubbah (pl.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. kubab) – ball (of fibre. 85-86). ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy.

8'  /0 .

talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. 416). 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . NDE NDM 1. TS. AG. TH. Ranunculus asiaticus. 40. CM. 393). mun¨anin. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. II. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. UA. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS.) (US. KL. 49-53. katb.107. 169).v. 416. 91. SD. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. q. mikbas.) 2. WDNE V – pressing (QS. 440. kitbah (MH. comp. II. II.

kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . composition. transcription. copying. NLW E NLW EDK – writing.

FDOOLJUDSKHU. used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist.

wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. +. CT. 45: ‘hence katabah. Turkish ketebehü.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). NI.

comp. scribe. . amanuensis (EI.  VHFUetary. 180). IV. scrivener 2. 554-760). mu¨arrir. fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI.

PDNW E SO PDNW E W. IK.. 705.) . I. piece of writing. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . tail (of a book or document) 2. 384). lin. 53. 388: mukattab). copying (KK. KD. maktab – place designated for writing. document.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. NH. VI.115). NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. V. archetype. codex (MA. spine (of a codex) (HT. letter. 23. booklet. chapter in a book (SL. IV. maktabah – library (EI. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). 86).   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 . al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. EI. book. 197-200). II. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. 207-208). wa-majallah wa-wa¨y.

53). KM. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. mukattib (e. – piece of calligraphy. IV. 705). master calligrapher (KK. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. calligraph (DP. 51. II.g. KD. sifr 13. muktib. 4.

  26 .9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .0 . ..

kohl.383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). mikŒ O see mirwad. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). kuŒl – antimony. 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). 414) 2. I. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. no. outlining. 187). akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. 230). outline (of letters) (DH. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. takŒ O 1. pointing (of a wall) (FT. IR. 393.

comp. 68). RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ.

OLQHV LQ .

124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK. 142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.

tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 12. AG. 33. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs.

 kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK.  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). 42). NDGK – thus. 0. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . sic. IB. 154. abbrev.

g. dittography (e. 184). ditto- NXUU V DK. WLNU U. 48. mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). 162). TM. takarrur – graphic error. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

60).9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . II. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. x.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. II. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. 14. . lin. NXUV – book cradle. AG. 107) 2. KD. reading stand (MD. II. KU. IK. SA. 60). quire (gathering). CI. abbrev. 48. 468-471. TS. 132). comp. TS.  . 131. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. SL. 100. AA. 84.92). 700). II. ra¨l.0 . passim. SK. kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .

QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH .P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P. mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af.

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

363). kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH. miksar SO PDN VLU.

128). syn. of bashr (LF. 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). I. DD. 79. 58). IR. 274. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. NH. 389. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). 391). al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. 137. TP. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. knife (for making erasures) (IR.

kuÑ E.126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl.

39. dast. 109). al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. main de papier). FT. JL. passim. 109. kaff(ah). 442. – spine (back of a codex) (MB. 95. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. WS. 109). NXQQ VK DK. DE. usually 25 sheets (PT. 90). 977. KR. 61. 92. 406). comp. 97. WDNI W – inlaying. flat back (MB. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. 145. inlay (SA. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. 82). 84. 92. 94). AJ. AB. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. II. IA. tongs (MB. DM). rizmah.

SO NDQ Q VK.

. commonplace book (LC. 25. – 1. HB.

 FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb).  kunyah (pl. mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. 395-396). al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. V.

originally and properly speaking. IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . I . I 1.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-.

363. FN.g. 27ff. 11-13. MV. AV. 8-9.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. OD). ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV. comp.

76  $*  86 .

JM. laŒaq (pl. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. al¨ T OL¨ T. azure ink. 119. 29. 27. 114. MP. 478). WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. ultramarine. paint (UK. 85). II. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 139). SA. 145.

 ilŒ T. mulŒaq – omission. insertion (TP. .

JA. 42). IB. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. 154. OL] T – paste. LC. comp. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK.. 24. 703).128 GLOSSARY  . 279). adhesive (KD.14). 185.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. TM. I. II.

15.24. n. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). malzamah SO PDO ]LP.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. II. I. 133.169. AG. IR. copyist’s book support. 230. 481. DD. book cradle (TW. 107. SA. 481) 2.  76  11. SA. II. 390) 3. WA. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. 14.

where each gathering is numbered separately). /&  /( .  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. abbrev.

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

HT. JL. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. LC. 132). 25. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. lin. $'  /( 137) 3. OLV Q (pl. MM. 119. 25).109. 20. index. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. 13. 90. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. ST.

 .

malediction. milaff 1. DM).GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl.166). 131. alÁiqah) – paste. or (MI. mulaffaq. I. II. stamping (HT. 230) 2. 480. laqab SO DOT E. adhesive (SA. IR. 181. spool (DS. 26). lafŒ – tooling. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. OL] T la¶nah – curse. RA. wrapper (DM). 530). SD. DD. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. lin. 391. abbrev. passim). the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . comp. II. 167. 145.

(pair of ) tongs. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. honorific title (EI. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. I. WDOT P – inlaying. DD. 618-631). V. inlay (FT. pincers. 109) 2. 406). tweezers (MB. – nickname. . milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1.

lak. 49).130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. LM. 11. stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. lakk RU O N '* .

lamq – elegant writing. copying (TE. AG.g. 16). 109). glazed. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS. namq.).  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. ODPP ¶ – glossy. q. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. 140).v. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. 11. law¨ W. lacquer. burnished (e. varnish (AB. comp.

panel (in decoration). 99. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. HT.or tailpiece) (LC. 11. . 5) 5. 24. 124) 3. 58-59) 2. II. 142-143. wooden board (TS. 25.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. 29. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. 31) 6. MS.123. pasteboard (ST. (Turk. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. MB. 125). levha) large panel (of calligraphy. lin. illuminator (HD. gloss (DM). illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. headpiece (FT. head. usually framed). OM) 4. 402).

105. IA. 38). AG. 109. see also nuqÃah) 3. mandorla 4. TS. also known as sarwah (q. central medallion (on a book cover). 59. raÐs al-lawzah. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. MB. 44. IB. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. oval figure 2. 11. 31.). PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. 156.v. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK.

IB. 45. – spatula. IR. 133. 208). lawn SO DOZ Q. II. AT. MJ. 230. 478. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA.

AI. pigment. V. – colour. 698-707. .  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. tint (EI. 148. JA.

370: qishr al-qaÁab. LC. IK. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. 11. WDO\ ¨ 1. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. 86. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. polychrome illumination (WA. WDOZ Q 1. tinting (of paper). 27) 2. see also the quotation under sha¨m). III.

II. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. BA. AT. index. II. 26-29. 133). O TDK (pl. 26-29. n. MP. also PLO T (UA. tuft of unspun silk. 160) 3. liyaq) 1. 79-84. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. tint (AD. MJ. 20. 393) tow (wad. MB. . 111-119. coloured ink (SA. IK. 203) 2. 702. MP. 55. 370). 477-478.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. 13. 84. III. paper pulp (OM). colour. UK.

III. amliqah) 1. II. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 . also PLO TDK (BA. 370) – compartment for ink (KD.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl.

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

%$ .. ..

 layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. KH. 144. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U.

muraÃÃab. **** matn SO PXW Q. such as al-thuluth. muqawwar. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. comp.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . VI. 843) 2. text-column (MU. EI. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. 1. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. II. V.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

¨ VKL\DK. shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary.

843) 4. . SD. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. 25). 109. P WLQ – author of the original composition. LC. VI. 53). TP. 568). central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. II. 214. MD. EI. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. (qalam) al-matn. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). Œard al-matn (HN. IX. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. 24. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. 1. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA.

IV. IV. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. khirqah. ¨aÃÃ. 216). 15-18. erasure. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. II. JL. 238). 89). MB. maŒw – ink removal. III. KR. or licking) (TP. 58. tamŒ ¨ 1. III. TP. 67-71. n. 79: dalk) 2. AT. process of softening leather (making it flexible. 38. KH. 138-140. 121-122. obliteration (by means of a cloth. MJ. 371). 127-131. apograph (CD.52. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. 90). pl. comp. amiddah) – soot ink. 38. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. MP. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. ink (in general) (SK. comp. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. 86. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq.v. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. ¨ibr. . AE. UK. 36-37). blind tooling. index.) . 1031). VI. 55.) . 79-90. MP. amthilah) – copy.  madd. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. BA. EI.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. 13. maŒ UDK (q. 471-477. UK. 134-135. transcript. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. SA. MJ. PLG G (pl.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). 21. comp.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ).

0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM).134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). I  mudyah (madyah. midyah) (pl. midan) – knife. 103- 8$  . pen knife (SA. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . II. mudan. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. 465-467.5  . SK.

 FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M. WDPU „ see  abbah.

masŒ – rubbing. 114). see shar¨. 481-482. SA. 133. sackcloth (DG. DD. AT. . 110. 60: misann almis¨) 2. IA. coarse haircloth. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. II. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. 166. 391). 202). I. 230. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . wiping (MB. misŒ 1.

. FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð.

inelegant hand. copying. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . 230). 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. mashq 1. transcription (TE.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . AA. hasty. 60. scribbling (MM. mush¨ – comb (IA. 116-117..I.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. SK. IR. 16) 3. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. I. 55) 2. elongation (of letters) (JA.

calligraphic hand (CM. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. 134: ÑDQ .EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. copying from a model (TE. calligraphic exercise. MY. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. 164) 6. 151). 4. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. mashqah 1. according to some opinions. calligraphic model (AD. 83) 5. fine elongated stroke (SK. for example. elegant. IK. 16. KK. KT. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. 48.’). fine elongation. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq….

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

183). P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG.

 . '' .

 FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. autograph (DM) 2. signing. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . signature.

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

27). ex-library. 8). 60-61). 107) 2. I  mimlasah 1.). LPO µ SO DP OLQ. 411). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . AG. II. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. 478). milk – ownership (OS. polisher (NH. plane-like instrument (TS. 88. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. 31. 390. also malasah – burnisher. 11. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. VII. 88. AG. FRPS QDÌar 3. LC. 11. LC. 107). TS. ex-dono. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. 25. etc. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. al-musharrafah. al-maghrah al-¶. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. Makkah (al-mukarramah.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. EI.

KF.  GLFWDWLRQ $. 85-94) 2. work (known as al-DP O . SDVVLP :6 -13. I.

48). 472-. GA.VII. stamp (EI. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. 725-726. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. famulus (AI. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. VII. EI. 725-726). II. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). muhr – seal. passim. signet. VII. SL. passim.

VII. . FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. 472-473). stamping (EI.

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

105-106. II. WS. IV. sheet. (IW. sifr 13. 79-82. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. 50-52) 2. leaf (of paper) (SA. AE. KM. sheet. II. 8-9. 472. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3.

polisher (IA. 63). 60. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. mawzah – burnisher.

– pen knife. UD.$  maws. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] . 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK . trimmer (TW.

II. 64).  1+  '' . V. P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. 226.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. 25). PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. LC.

gilt (SD). WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. tilting (of a script). LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. coating. hence P µil – inclining. II. slanting (of the line. script) (UD. 442) 2. 403). . inlaying (SA. 45). SA. II. 12.

138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. 40). 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). copying (TE. JM. sifr 13. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. nota bene. IV. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. remark (in the body of a composition). PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). WDQE K – note. KM. 146. 16.

232. trimming (of a reed) (IR. paring. IB. UD. 21. naŒt 1. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. index. minjam – mallet (ST. 43: P MDPDK). 36).

MP. 133-134. I. copper-based ink (UK.g. e. nuŒ V – copper. (MG. . ¨amdalah. 482). 35). etc. basmalah.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

KR. munkhul – sieve (IR. II. muntakhib – compiler. 230. 384). 95. 97. nasab SO DQV E. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. DM). selector (DF. I. – anthology (EA. 82). 94-95).

tribe. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. VIII. nisbah (pl. etc. VII. ending in – (EI. pedigree (EI. genealogy. – lineage. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. religious sect or school. 967-968). 53-56).

DO-PDQV E DK.

(qalam) al-naskh – book hand. transcription (TE. par excellence. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. which according to the Mamluk tradition.5. IV. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. KK. 21). 57) 2. see khaÃÃ. naskh-ta¶O T). In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . sifr 13. index. IV. 1127 (in Muslim India). a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. IV. 696-699). 1126 (in Turkey). ER. 1124 (in Persia). 17. KM. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. naskh 1.

al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. commonly. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. pl. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. II. archetype (LC. abbrev.12) 2. EI. 26). al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. I. 1127. 141. 36.in Persia. 123. al-makh¨ ¨ W. CD. 1125. 146. version. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. al-nuskhah (al-kutub. QDVNK 1. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK .      $5  $. VIII.in Muslim India). CA. IV. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. copy (EI. nuskhah (pl. 89). al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. CI. 47. XVI. LM. recension (MU.171). CM. 149) 2. badal) 4. 138. I. xv. n. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. comp. IV. transcript.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. but erroneously. list. nusakh) 1. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. xiv). MZ. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. variant reading (varia lectio)./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. personal) nature (CI. catalogue (AD. 128. al-naskh al-mu¶W G. 1123. LM.  0. 182. LE.in Turkey.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar.

Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy. unicum. archetype (LC. 26). 26). al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

16. scribe (TE. 348. passim). ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . TW. WB. 17. MA. 47). PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. muntasikh – copyist.

 9. . 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). no. epistolography (EI. of letters. III. style or composition. letter-writing. 1241-1244). layout (mise en page ) (FK. LQVK µ – construction. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (.g. I.. documents or state papers.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. e.

WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. I. 134. 67). 94. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. I. 136). AI. WDQVK U. TD. 278. 173. IK. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. nashr.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV. 76   $*  .

AT. 395). starch paste (made of sorghum. minshafah – blotter (TD. ST. 230: minshaµah). dhurah) (OM). . IR. 136). PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. II. 13. starch paste (TS. OM. IA. I. 133. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. index. index. 21. 50. 106. DD. SA. 390. I. MB. II. 60. 480. 12. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). tanshiyah – pasting (ST. 21). nashan – wheat starch. IB. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT.

lin. 241. stroke. the letter alif (IR. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2.. 249. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ .142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. straight line.. ni¦ E 1. handle (SK. pallet-like tool (HT. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn.  . . 137).133. 240.

IA.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. up-stroke (SA. 101. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. UD. 59). 11. III. 47. 59) 3. 156. LM. 103. MB. IB. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. 43. munta¦ib – ascender.

217.g. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. 43). min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. e. III. 93. reading note. medallion. JL. ZM. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). 88. FZ. na„ar – study note. 218. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI.

) .  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .

XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I. abbrev. un„ur – ‘see’. FRPS PXà ODÑah.

nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

versification. I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. shiÑr. .170). na„m. no. II. 2812). comp. curator. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2.

tanaqquŒ – correction. 208. nafdh – punching. IR. IV. engraving (on stone). al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. 481. DD. naqr – inscription. IV. I. 5).3. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). sifr 13. 133. II. AT. revision (KF. 23). nafa¨ (sg.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. awling (MB. QDTT U – carver. passim). awl (SA. minfadh – punch. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. nafÃah) – pockets of air. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. no. 391: for sewing of quires). epigraphy (KM. II. 392). WDQT Œ. engraver (KM. MJ. sifr 13. 230.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

IV. 5). naqsh SO QXT VK. sifr 13. II. SA. – ink (KK. 84. KM. 49. IK. 469. 471.

illumination (EI. 105. 400). 156. 63) 3. VII. IA. TS. 931). inscription. comp. QLT VKDK 1. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. painting. naqr 2. 29-32. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. engraving. epigraphy (FT. MB.

  0% 105. 59). . ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. IA.

QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. engraver (KM. WDQT VK – writing. 931-932). IV. 5) 2. III. VII. designer. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. 159). 266). illuminator (PA. miniature painter. 141. sifr 13. 155. copying (FK. carver.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1.

SA. 16-17. naq¦. 160. nuqaÃ. III. 16-17) 2. 151. 38). nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. haplography (TP. nuq¨ah (pl. KH. haplographic error. III. naq¨ 1. 58). III. SA. letter-pointing (TE. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. TE.

 GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.  T OD .EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.

TE. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). quotation 3. MB. naql 1. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. HT. 12. 68) 5. nimrah – number. 133. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). figure. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). XII. IA. translation. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. translator. 368). transcription (MU. 105. extract. abbrev. naqalah) 1. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. Q TLO (pl. quoting. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . exact copy (apograph). IA. AW. citing. 137. .  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. copying. calligrapher (TE. 16) 4. 218) 2. numrah. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. orthographer (LT. 16. copyist. 33.

WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. numbering. 16. copying (TE. namq WDQP T – elegant. 62. 45. KK. 53. 91). embellished writing. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. 53. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . AM. SK.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark.

 HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). NI. 45. 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC.

119. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. copying (SK. sifr 13. IV. embellished writing. namnamah 1. 105) 2. WDQP O – compact writing. 38). calligraphic composition (NI. AW. painted illustration (KF. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. calligraph. elegant. compact writing (KM. copying (KH. 369. AA. 237). II. 181. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). n.1). 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu).

IB. 43). of maÃP V q. IB. 22.) (LM. of mufatta¨. having an open counter (ant. 69). index.v. PXQ U – syn. 44). arabesques (on book covers) (LC. – floral design. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the . QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. 26. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST.

Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q. II. EI. 498-450. III. 27). 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. KF.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF.

700. IK. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. 106. KD. – inkwell (SK. II.

110. I. xi. abbrev. II. LQWLK µ – end. / / / (for intahá) (MW. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. 87. 285). CI. SL. II. xiii. GA. termination. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. CI.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

+   ID-NDWDED ODKX LQK ÐDQ I NKLU NLW E DO]DN K PLQKX. .

hud hud SO KDG KLG. 36). hudb. **** DKG E (sg. hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

abridgement. correction.  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). ... epitome (EA. 23). 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . revision (DM) 2. LKG µ – dedication (FN.. WDKGK E 1. I.

al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. abridger. compiler (SS. IA. author. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. 73) 2. WDKO O 1. rounding (of the spine). 69. MG. 109. 61). X. I. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. 72. muhall. 108) 2. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. epitomist. 181. backing (MB. EI. 483.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1.

VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9. .

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

 PDUJLQ ') ...   .

abbrev. /&  0. . gloss.  PDUJLQDO note.

193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ . glossing.  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn). WDKP VK 1.. annotation (TT..

 PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $. .

102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. annotated (TW. muhammash – glossed.

GL. 57. IR. 244). . al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah. raÐV HJ 6$ . al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. MH.  K PDW DO-alif).. 57. 4. syn. unpointed letters (TP.. K PDK – head (of a letter). 90). LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP.

¶alá al-wajh – copying. transcription in full. 43-45). upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . 25) 2. page (MU. 31. 25. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. wajh(ah) 1.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement. 31) 3. face. II. IV.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah)... upper cover (TS. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . epitome (DM). wajh al-hirr (lit.

82). al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al.Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. 109).. -92). 29. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. MK.. 6$ .

82). – verso (of a leaf) (LC. sifr 13. . 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. KM. waŒVK see sinn. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. 29. II. IV. KK. 218). MK. SA. 464. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. waŒy – writing. 53). MJ. 5.

piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. 95.73). WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. lobed medallion (DH. no. DA). al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH.73). waraq SO DZU T.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. no.

such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-. -195.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. 85-. WS.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

 $5  . leaf. parchment or leather) 2. waraqah 1. folio (folium). piece (of paper. abbrev.

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

25). (TS. 109). khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. 11. wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 29). AG. al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. I. DO-. 85). al-waraq (al-N JKDG.

French paper (PT. 378). al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 77) 2. DO-5 P 1. European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. I. 75. 31).

al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. paper bearing an imitation watermark. VI. OM). waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). 193. SA. Tre Lune) (PT. . 30. DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. 31).

150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. 32). al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O.

380). JL. pasteboard (JL. WS. 88. 104) 2. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. 35. – glazed paper (PT. 107. SA. 82). 394). 87. WS. 487. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. MD. 32. 84). MS. cardboard (FT. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. II. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU .

vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. scribe (SL. 9. MP. KF. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. copying. 81. 22. 69. FI. bookseller. I. II. 87. I. 93. professional copyist. – marbled paper (DM. JL. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. 495). index. maysam SO PD\ VLP. stationer. 94). 161). (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. 148) 2. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. IK. LC. 380). 65). 14. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. II. MN. index. foliated arabesque design (ST. 82. WS. 22. 558-561). WR. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. WDZU T 1. IV. 16. transcription (WS. bookbinder (QS. IB. 28. 88. EI.

stamp (AB. 135). mawsim SO PDZ VLP. – tool.

– feast. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. CI. festival. washŒ – decorating. MP.g. II. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. 22. 10). 65). ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . index.

GLOSSARY 151 washm 1. writing. 186) 2.125. lin. drawing (AD. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. also WDZVK P – tooling. stamping (of leather) (HT. . 93) 3.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

stamp (HT.126). awÁ O ZDÁO W. wa¦l. washy. UK. wi¦l. lin. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. – pattern (created by tooling). wu¦l (pl. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). 18.

90). 683. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. HB. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. VI. vox reclamans (NM. SA. knife (used by the waÁÁ O . 144) 3. 110). 812. 10. 234. darj). 65) 2. collema (kollema) (WS. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. II. piece. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. 88. wa¦lah 1.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. NZ. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll.

$' .

I. VI. 187. wa„¶ (pl. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 62. KF. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). 12. PA. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 3132). comp. arrangement (of a text) (MU. aw  Ñ ) – composition. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD.

 Z „i¶ – compiler. . 376). IV. author (DF.

P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G. proem (DM).152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. prologue.

56.192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $. TM. – collation session (TP.  .

87: ZDT ¶ah. wi¶ µ (pl. case. ME. 16. DA). wifq SO DZI T. container (OM). 19. awÑiyah) – 1. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. box (MS. 575) 2.

LC. motto. sifr 13. IV. I. 124. royal edict. I. WDZT ¶ 1. 125) 4. P IDT – seal. AD. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. X. KM. 28. al-WDZ T ¶. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . apostil (usually signed) (AD. gloss. 189. stamp (IK. 96). writing something down. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. autograph.. KF. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. 392. taking something down in writing (SL. 28. LC. decree (EI. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). X. 108). 100. . 10) 2. 392-393) 3. 189). 69. signature (EI.

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. KF.in Persia. II. 428-442). KF. 146. 187). 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. II. WDZT I (KF. 441). also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH.in Turkey). KH. WDTU Ì (q. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. III. 69). waqfiyah.g. PDZT I 1.) (BL. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). 146. 73-77. JM. 146.. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. bequest note (OS.. 90). LM.9 1123. II.29. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. 473) – endowment certificate or statement.g. 90. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. 146). 43-46. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. WDZT I SO WDZT I W. unfinished stroke (e.v. LC. LM. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . 63). AS. reading. 61. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. endowment. LM.g. waqf 1. (AS. 38) 2. wakf 3. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). 1125. 100. .

6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). 95.) (LC. overlining (TP. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. K P – omission (IK. wakt – letter pointing (KM. AA. taÐammul 2. . IV. 122). sifr 13. error (IK. logograph. 123). wahm – mistake. which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. 28). 95. AA.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. comp. 55).

154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. III. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. SA. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . 95-96. III. 96). III. 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146).

DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. ray¨ Q QDVNK. maÁ ¨if.

97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. 6$ III. 144). **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. ant. of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. \ ELV – rectilinear.

6$ .  8'  $6  /0 ...

 FRPSPDEV Ã. yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ.

reed pen (IK. 42). . I \DG. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. 86. \DU ¶(ah) – reed. KD. in the hand of) (OT. 393. II. UA. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. DM. – hand.

GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.g.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. no. CM.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK. .. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &.

 .

B.1. Akimushkin and Anatol. AF = Oleg F. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. Wien. ed. 2 (1989): 37-53. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . Arabische Paläographie.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. AD = E. Vol. transl.VKE O LQ KLV µ. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. A. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. Algiers. 1981.ABBREVIATIONS 1. Gray. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. Beirut. “The art of illumination”. Max Weisweiler. Al-. AI = ÑAbd al-. Riyad. Damascus. Ivanov. AC = Adam Gacek.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. AG = Adam Gacek. 1989. Paris/ London. ±aydar Ghaybah. ed. 1923. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. AJ = J. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. 1967. “Das arabische Papier”.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. 1414/1994. AE = Adolf Grohmann. von Karabacek. Fagnan. The arts of the book in Central Asia. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. ed. 1979: 35-57.

AN = Richard Lemay. London/Oxford. AO = Adrian Brockett.D. no. ed. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library.4 (1986): 131-137. 15. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. 382-398. New York. Manuscripts of the Middle East.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. London/Oxford. . Montreal. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. Descriptive catalogue. Manuscripts of the Middle East. AL = .ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. 1996. “Arabic numerals”. AS = Adam Gacek. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . AP = Nabia Abbott. McGill University. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. nos. decoration. 1982: 1. AQ = David James. 1. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. 2 (1987): 45-67. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. Ars Islamica. 4 (1989): 144-149. 1992. 8 (1941): 65-104.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. Safwat. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. 1996. AV = François Déroche. London/Oxford. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. 1992. AW = Nabil F. binding and paper”.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. Dictionary of the Middle Ages.

1958. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. 1991. London. 4 (1991): 35-53. Oriens. 27-28 (1981): 177-196.. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Arberry. CL = Jan Just Witkam. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. The Chester Beatty Library. 1982 . A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. -CCA = Adam Gacek. CD = Arthur J. CI = Adam Gacek. Montreal. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. CM = Adam Gacek. Leiden. 1984-85. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . MacKay. CT = Pierre A.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. Dublin. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands.

S. CW = A. London. Denizeau. Iskandar. -DDA = A. Blachère. M. Dictionnaire . De Biberstein Kazimirski. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Chouémi and C. N. 1960. DB = R. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. 1967.Z. no. 61.4 (1971).´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. Paris.

Frankfurt.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. ±amd al-. fasc. . Wiesbaden. 1993 . Revue des études islamiques.1 (1937): 69-110.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. ed. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. 1967. 4. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Ithaca. Beryus. 1984.M.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. DP = Adam Gacek. 1989. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. 0DPO N studies review. 5. 4 (1989): 44-55. 2 (1998): 93-193. DC = A. DR = Donald P. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. DT = Tawfik Canaan. 1994. ed. ed. Archeological studies. DM = Hans Wehr. Dictionnaire arabe-français. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. Cowan. Little.1986. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. . Beirut.-L.D. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. DQ = François Déroche. Paris. de Premare. NY. Kuwait..2 (1938): 141-151. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. 59 (1991): 229-235. J. 1994.. 4th ed. fasc. DG = Werner Diem. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. Paris.

.S. Starkey.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. n. London. Baghdad. à W´ Al-Mawrid.VO P \DK.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. 1995: 17-57. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Part 1. New ed. ed. New York. 1998. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. E. Calif. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. Dimand. Yarshater.).EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168.d. Istanbul. 1995: 93-101. -FFD . -EEA = J.S. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. EP = François Déroche. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. 5 . Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. 1960 . Al-)XQ Q DO-. 1993. eds. London (later Costa Mesa. 1982 . FM . 1999. 1997. Leiden. London/ Oxford. 1986. Meisami and P. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. London.. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries.EU K P . 1979. transl. Cairo.

Baku. Wright. Cambridge. 6 (1991): 41-58.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”.U. 1982. . Fischer. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). Manuscripts of the Middle East. Istanbul. 1967. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. Wiesbaden. ³. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. 1987. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . Cairo. HT = Adam Gacek.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. HD = A. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. 1994. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. 1966. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. herausgegeben von W. 50-99. A Grammar of the Arabic language. Cairo. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. HN = Ñ \LGDK . Kaziev (Gaziev). ed. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. 1992. GL = W. Rabat. 1987. transl. 3rd ed.

M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q .August 18. ed.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. A¨mad ‚aqr. IM = Ñ.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.H. Qum.1981. ed. Damascus.1987? . 1973. Cairo/ Tunis. Chicago. Richard. à W´ Al-Mawrid. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. Paris. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. Beirut. Bosch. 1389/1970. F. no. 1995: 123-136. . 1983. Petherbridge. J. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. 1981. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990].\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. Univ. 8. 1997: 57-63. London. Cairo. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. )DKP 6DÑd. Beirut. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . IB = G. Déroche and F. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. May 18 .OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. Carswell and G. ed. 1319 A. The Oriental Institute. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. of Chicago.2 (1979): 221-284. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-..

1969. 1997.LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð. 1985. S. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G.n.. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I .. University of Michigan. 1982. 1363 [1984].EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. s. Al-0DQ KLO. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. Riyad. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . Qum. ÑIzzat ±asan. 1983.1 (1958): 81-106. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. Beirut.D. [Tehran?]. Baghdad. Damascus.1961. Ph.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). Algiers. 6 pl.. 0DMDOODW . 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . Cairo. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. ed.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. ed. 20.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  .G E (Cairo). -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). 1962.G E DOV PLÑ.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. . KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-. 38 (1989): 7-103. 1962.l. no.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð.XOO \DW DO.

1937: 125-161. Al. 1. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). 2. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U.H. Leiden.LW E.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ.3 (1964): 1933. “Al-.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. 1316-21 A. no. no.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. Cairo.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. 1. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . ed. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³. ed. by Arthur Jeffery. 1 (1963): 26-48.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.H. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. 1978. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . RDVK G DOÑ. no.VO P . Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q.240 (1984): 61-68. no. KS < VXI DO-. Á KL = G. London.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”. Safadi.DWW Q  ³. Fehervari and Y. 2 (1946): 9-18.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. 1981.2 (1973): 43-78.

. ed.LW E DONXWW E. . ed. 1976. . Wiesbaden. Raif Georges Khoury.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá.LW E DO-zuhd.XZDLW 1977.

-MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. LE = M. 48 (1989): 21-29. Arabic-English lexicon. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. ed. LD = P.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts.S. Ben Cheneb. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam.J. 1992. Rev.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. 1929. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East.500). 1911-1931. van Koningsveld and Q. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. Samarrai. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Baghdad. 2 (1987): 68-87. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. Revue africaine. 1978 (catalogue no. Leiden. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. MELA Notes. Brill. LL = Edward William Lane. ed. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. Cairo. 1984. LB = Jan Just Witkam. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. Cambridge. LC = Adam Gacek. 1790-1930.

MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. Beirut. 1995. Cairo. 1391/1971. Damascus. ed. ME = A. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . 15. 1992.OP DO-Ñ. Beirut. Beirut. . ed. Lamare. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE .O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 1980. 1972.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. no. Beirut. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”.G DO-Mawlá. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. 20 (1970): 88-137. n. MK = Etan Kohlberg.d. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . Damascus. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. 230 (1938): 551-575. ed. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . Leiden. 1349 [1930]. 1992. Journal asiatique. MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. MC OL¨ \DK . MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK.U T . Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. 1913.4 (1986): 185-248.

Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. MV = François Déroche. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée.4 (1962). 75/76 (1995): 81-90. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. ed. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. 52. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. 32 (1987): 105-114. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. MP = Martin Levey. 1936-38. Revue des études islamiques. 1992.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James.S.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . pt.. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim.1 (1969): 3-47. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379.2 (1989): 201-203. no. no. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. no. Al-Mawrid. 1976-87.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. MY = François Déroche. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. London/Oxford.6 (1993): 641649. 14. N. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. Cairo. 15. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. MW . 18.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. . MT = Adam Gacek.

ND = J. 1.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ. NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. NS = S. 1418/1998: 341-393. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. 1367/1949. Sadan. 1342/1923 . “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Manuscripts of the Middle East. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos. Cairo. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI .3-4 (1971-72): 180-186.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. Damascus. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. 1928. NC = Adam Gacek. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid..A. 2 (1987): 126-130. no. Revue des études islamiques. 45 (1977): 1-87. London.2 (1992): 679-683. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. 2 (1987): 8-17. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). Cairo. NH .EU K P 6KDEE ¨. NO = Dimitri Gutas. Bonebakker.EU K P 6KDEE ¨.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. 1 ILPELU  HG . 13.VO P  .

2 (1987): 88-95. OH = J. Paris/Teheran. 1985: 29-48. OS = Adam Gacek. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. Derek Latham. ed.H. 5 (1960): 124-143. 1992. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. 26 (1976): 199-212. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. Rabat. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. PK = S. “O. Daly.W. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. M.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). . Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. 1994 : 75-81. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. New York. -PPA = Yves Porter. PT = Terence Walz. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. OM = Adam Gacek. 10 (1998): 41-63. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche.

1973. Beirut.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 1960. -RRA = William L. Bookbinder. no. 2 (1956): 339-372. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). 1995. SD = R. Paris. Chicago. 1 (1987): 21-38. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. Costa Mesa. 1410/1990. Bull. Paris. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 195772. ed. 3rd ed. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. SJ . 1967. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. Dozy. RI = W. . -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. RN = Nabia Abbott. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. Studies in Arabic literary papyri.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW .PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Chicago. 15. 1938.4 (1986): 259-270. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. SL = Nabia Abbott. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. Beirut. a new direction”. Cairo. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW.

ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. P.VO P . 50-51 (1990): 13-18. 1997: 135-150. ed. 1994: 11-32. Rabat.H. 1346-49 A. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. Paris. TE = Adam Gacek.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. 1989: 49-50. Rabat. ed. Paris/Istanbul. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . Beirut. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). 1303 A. arabe 6844).VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Bibliothèque nationale. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. Damascus.DWW Q  .H.Q Q  London. . TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. MELA notes. MS (Paris. 41. ed. 1925. 1965. François Déroche. no. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN. Ricard. 1995.1 (1997): 55-90. Damascus.

Hyderabad.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. pl.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. Jedda. Damascus. 1949. ed. . 1982. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Ñ$EG $OO K . F. Rabat. TP = Adam Gacek. n.VKE O  ³. 1989: 51-60. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. xx-xxxii. Déroche. ed.EU K P DO-. Paris/Istanbul. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh. 1991. ±amd al-.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. TS %DNU LEQ . 1353/1934. Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. Kuwait.d.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim.

WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”.2 (1977): 45-56.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. 1 (1986): 49-53. DaÑwat al-|aqq. Hildesheim/New York.4 (1982): 10-24. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. Chester Beatty Library. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. 1981-83. 1992. DaÑwat al-|aqq.10 (1975): 80-92. Beirut. 16. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. Dublin. no. 18. . 17 (1971): 43-172. 1980. 1983. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. no. no. 23. Graz. Beirut. Manuscripts of the Middle East. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.

NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O. 2.Oá / -XP Gá al. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed). Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. no. 17. Tehran.G E (Cairo).XOO \DW DO.1 (1955): 43-48. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW . 6 pl.

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar).

numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P. ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah).

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. Áa¨ ¨. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. Á ¨ib.

‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ra L\D $OO K .

ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).  abbah (ta E E.

= Ãurrah. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. rajÑ. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. Ñ UL a. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann .

fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. / = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . malzamah. NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). aÁl. ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. tamma.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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Dain. Les manuscrits. apart from a number of entries in Turkish and Persian. and the care of books: a text-book for book-binders and librarians. Codicologica: towards a science of handwritten books. It does not. Bischoff. 5 vols. Latin palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. 1997. reproduce all the entries found in the bibliographies listed below in Section I. Paris. Greek and Latin manuscript traditions. Leonard. 1988. . ed. 1993. Toronto. Sydney M. many practices and phenomena connected with Arabic manuscripts are also to be found in the Hebrew. 5th ed. M. 1976. Gruys and J. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques. Paris. Paris. 1993. 1979). A. includes the research published in Arabic and European languages on various aspects of the Arabic manuscript tradition. Boyle. Leiden. Paris. Their usefulness for the study of Arabic manuscripts will be evident for anyone who consults them. Hebrew codicology: tentative typology of technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts. London/New York. Cambridge. Vatican City. Cockerell. ——— The makings of the medieval Hebrew book: studies in palaeography and codicology. Medieval Latin palaeography: a bibliographical introduction. 1953 (repr.1. Alphonse. Arabic manuscripts cannot be studied in isolation. however. The bibliography has been arranged by subject with the result that some entries are repeated in the various sections due to their broader coverage. Beit-Arié. 2 vols.P. Jerusalem.BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 The present bibliography. Carla. 1990. It is therefore appropriate to mention here a number of important references dealing with the codicologies and palaeographies of the latter. Gumbert. Bernhard. Transl. Bookbinding. Archéologie du livre médiéval: exposition organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et la Bibliothèque nationale. by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz. Maniaci and P. 1983. 1984. Bozzolo. Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au Moyen Age: trois essais de codicologie quantitative. Malachi. 1976-1980. ed. Indeed. Munafò.

H. “The codex”. M. London/New York. and Skeat.H. Paris. Albert. Paris. La paléographie hébraïque médiévale. Proceedings of the British Academy. Murdoch. 1985.. M. T. Paris. Italo. New York. “Tasks and problems of manuscripts research”. 1986. 1 (1976): 84-90. Maniaci. Paris. 11-13 septembre 1972. Paris. Rome. Hoffmann. Lemaire. 1953. Diringer. Johnston. The birth of the codex. Neuchâtel/Neuenburg. and Wilson. Denis. 1983. peinture. François and Guineau. 1988. Reynolds. enluminure. P. 1999. & lettering. 2nd ed. David.180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Les débuts du codex.D. études historiques et physico-chimiques. 1985. “Paléographie. Jacques. N. Roberts. John E. Les matériaux de la couleur. Gruijs. Gallo. London. L. 1996. Louvain-la-Neuve. 1977. Del. Encyclopedia of the book. 1974 : 19-25. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen-Age: teinture. C. C. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. Oxford. Blanchard. 2nd ed. Vocabulaire codicologique: répertoire méthodique des termes français relatifs aux manuscrits. Terminologia del libro manuscritto. 1984. 1989. La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age. New Castle. 1983. Paris. ed. 1998. . New York. 1988. Writing & illuminating. Jean. M. codicologie et archéologie du livre. Les manuscrits datés: premiers bilans et perspectives (= Die datierten Handschriften: erste Bilanz und Perspektiven). 1996. Paris. Le livre au Moyen Age. ed. Glenisson. Dukan. Edward. Codicologica. Delamare.C. Paris. Recherches de codicologie comparée: la composition du codex au Moyen-Age en Orient et en Occident. Album of science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. A. Introduction à la codicologie. Paul O. London. 40 (1954): 169-204. Geoffrey Ashall. Roberts. Greek and Latin papyrology. The hand-produced book.G. 1990. 1989. Questions de méthodologie et de terminologie”. Muzerelle. Turnhout. 1974. Bernard. Paris. Glaister. Kristeller.

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(1949): 46-60. 5REVRQ - ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI $E ' Z G’s ‘Sunan’”. “How al-Bu© U ’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]’”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. ³/D WUDQVPLVVLRQ GH OD µ. 1995. Rosemarie.LW E GH 6 EDZD\K. University of London.LI \D I PDÑrifat uÁ O Ñilm alULZ \DK¶ G¶DO-Haà E Dl-Ba G G ´ Arabica. Geneviève. 477-492. Bulletin d’études orientales.DWW Q  < VXI ³. 240 (1984): 61-68. Leiden. University of London. ——— “The transmission of Muslim’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 50 (1998): 191-222. 1956: 2. ——— ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ LI 7LUP GK ’V µ. Georges. Humbert. 244 (1956): 433-437. Schacht. 2. Lévi-Provençal. “Deux éditions inconnues du ‘MuwaÃÃaÐ’”. Vajda.216 BIBLIOGRAPHY V.PLÑ’”. ——— “La transmission de l’éloge de Zayn al-Ñ ELG Q´ Journal asiatique. 92 (1938): 60-87. 4 (1957): 304-307. “La recension maghribine du ‚a¨ ¨ d’al-Bo© U ´ Journal asiaique.KDWDP W ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. 202 (1923): 209-233. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. al-. ——— “La transmission de la mašya©a (Ansal al-PDT Áid wa-aÑdab alPDZ ULG. Studi orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida. “Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bu© U ’s Traditionssammlung”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. 16 (1954): 258-270. E. Joseph. 14 (1952): 579-588. Transmission of individual works Fück. Quiring-Zoche. /HV YRLHV GH OD WUDQVPLVVLRQ GX . Rome. Johann.

M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h..M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad. 9  . 48 (1973-74): 55-74. Rivista degli studi orientali. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-./10 m. ilá . G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”.

Islamic quarterly.] Ebied.1-2 (1974): 3-7. Le Muséon.L./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. Leiden. Ben Shemesh. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. 18. M. 4 (1981): 82-103. R.Y. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . 1967. 87 (1974): 445-465. and Young. [Vol. nos. A. Taxation in Islam.J. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”.

A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. Amsterdam. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. Studies on Islam. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ . 26 (1994): 75-96.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.S. . WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. P.H. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad.H. . “Al-.] Lecomte. 35-36 (1414 A. no. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. ed. 1998. van. 41. -DOO E ±asan. 18-19 October 1973. 1974:92-110.): 270-372. Koningsveld. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles. Amsterdam. Iran. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. 326 (1997): 97-102.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). Gérard. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies.1 (1997): 55-90. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. 32 (1994): 115-123. Les .M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq.

DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K. 21 (1968): 347-409. Bulletin d’études orientales.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. ——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W. IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”.

Jhdt. 550-750/1155-1349. Damas: Institut français. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. 1996 – . Stefan. Oriens.”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Pierre A./12.1. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. Leder. 34 (1994): 57-75. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. Suppl. MacKay. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE .

8: 1019-1020. 7 (1989): 238-252.H): 107-114. “Al-. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³. ed.1 (1985): 7-20. 8. 4 (1924): 345-355.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101. no. 3. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ. Sayyid.1 (1408 A. 61. Hespéris.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.s. no. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. no.1 (1407 A. 2. new ed.. 1. no.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ . no. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”. 1. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. Hamdard Islamicus. EI. no.4 (1971. n.1 (1955): 232-251.H): 115-117. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”.H): 172-182.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ .M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”.2 (1406 A. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. al-Munajjid. ——— “Al-. “Al-..

 5DPD  Q ³$KDPP \DW Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q DO-ÌDKU \DK.

AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ.Q Q  London.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. 1997: 179-196. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. .

Albums and exhibition catalogues Ahlwardt. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. Paris. ——— “Un opuscule inédit d’as-6LODI ´ La transmission du savoir en Islam (VIIe-XVIIIe siècles). 1983: 85-92. 8: 273-275. 1997: 163-177. Zwölf arabische Schrifttaffeln. 1995: 123-136. London. “The human element between text and reader..3 (1954): 337-342. Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. 1981. Berlin. 1993. ed.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. Arabica. Vajda.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. 1. 3: 1020-1021. Wilhelm. no. 1899. ——— “Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris”. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. The LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. Jan Just. Georges. Yarshater. new ed.UDQ. Hildesheim/ New York.10. London. [Also in: idem. Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. E.] $P Q  )DNKU DO-' Q 1DÁ U  *DQM QDK-Ði khuà Ã-i ÑXODP Ð-i aÑO P YD G QLVKPDQG Q-L NLU P YD VKXÑDU -yi ÑiÌ P YD NK VKQDY V Q-i FK UDKGDVW YD PXÑ ÁLU Q 7DMU VK .Q Q  London. Witkam. ——— “Al-ÑUnÁ U DO-EDVKDU ED\QD DO-naÁÁ wa-al-T ULÐ: al-LM ]DK I DOmakhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. VI. 1. ARABIC ALPHABET. ——— “Idj ]D´ EI. 1957. SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 SteZDUW 'HYLQ - ³(M ]D´ Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol.

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Rudolph. %DJKGDG :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK ZD-al-IÑO P ' U DO-ShuÐ Q DO7KDT I \DK DO-Ñ PPDK 1989. 2 vols. no. ed. 62. Heft 2 (1988): 301-316. al-=DE G  0X¨ammad Murta á. no. %DJKG G DO-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. Ta¨T T W ZD-taÑO T W Ñalá kit E µDOKhaÃà à al-BaghG G Ñ$O LEQ +LO O DO-PDVKK U EL-Ibn alBaww E’. 56 (1939): 71-83.U T   al-AÑÌDP  :DO G Jamharat al-khaÃà à Q DO.%DJKG G \ Q PXQGKX taÐV V %DJKG G ¨attá nih \DW DO-qarn al-U ELÑ Ñashar al-KLMU . “Der Wettsreit der Schriftarten – eine arabische Handschrift aus der Forschungsbibliothek Gotha”. al-$WKDU  0X¨ammad Bahjah. Sharikat al-MaÃE Ñ W 97. Zuhayr = KLG DQG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Mu¨ammad „al¨DK %LO O -HGGD ' U DO-0DGDQ   [Contains (pp. ed.1 (1988): 50-65. Ñ . Der Islam.113-138) a compilation by the editor entitled: 7DWLPPDK I naqd al-DWK U DO-maÑU IDK Ñan al-khaÃà wa-al-NLW EDK. ÑAbd al-Laà I DO-5 Z DQG ÑAbd al. “The contribution of Ibn Mu¯lah to the North-Arabic script”. ed. Abbott. no.QGH[ RI SHQPHQ LQ 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q’s ‘MuÁawwar alkhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ’”.BIBLIOGRAPHY 229 5LI Ñ DO-Qasà O  0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK by Mu¨ammad al-=LIW Z  Bi  Ñat al-mujawwid by Mu¨ammad al-6LQM U DQG Shar¨ almanÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm al-NLW EDK by Ibn BaÁ Á and Ibn al-Wa¨ G@ ³5LV ODK I ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW Eah”. 65. 15. ²ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DO. American journal of Semitic languages and literatures.4 (1987): 760-795. no.1 (1994): 70-73.] d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas Á $EE V DP\ Ð Mu¨DPPDG ³1LV Ð khaÃà à W´ Al-Mawrid.O K 1DEK Q Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK ELDimashq.4 (1986): 345-376. [Contains a facsimile of *K \DW DOPDU P I WDNK Ãub al-DTO P by Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $¨mad al0DTGLV @ SaÑG ) U T 5LV ODK I DO-khaÃà wa-bary al-qalam li-Ibn al-‚ Ðigh.LW E DO-qalam li-$E 0X¨ammad al-6DUU M al-%DJKG G ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. 63. 15. Nabia. Ekkehard. 15.4 (1986): 141-148.I T. 13 (1978): 27-35. MELA notes. Beirut.OP DO-Ñ. no. al-6 ZLU  ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] ³. $OELQ 0: ³. al-SaÑG DO-MawÁLO  6 OL¨ ³8UM ]DK I Ñilm rasm al-khaÃÔ.

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With a full description of the curÐ Q PDQXVFULSWV in the Oriental Institute. London. Chicago. [1987]. Winfried]. 1939. 7 GUXV )DZ]  'DO O PDÑri  makhà à W DO-QurÐ Q DO-NDU P. The QurÐ Q FDWDORJXH RI DQ exhibition of QurÐan manuscripts at the British Library 3 April – 15 August 1976. Arts and Letters. 1991.. Kuwait. Cyril and Methodius National Library. 1995. Stoilova. Yasin Hamid. . IMA and BN. Martin and Safadi. London. 1985. Kuwait. . ÑAbd al-5 ]LT $¨mad. Paris. The rise of the North Arabic script and its curÐ QLF development. ——— QurÐans and bindings from the Chester Beatty Library: a facsimile exhibition. Doha. A. Munich. Nabia. Splendeur et majesté: Corans de la Bibliothèque nationale. MaÁ ¨if ‚anÑ Ð (19th March – 19th May 1985). [Rebhan. 1976. 1987. Lings. 1998. and Ivanova. Kuwait. Kuwait National Museum. National Council for Culture. The Holy QurÐ Q WKURXJK WKH DJHV a catalogue of the exhibition of manuscripts and printed editions preserved in the SS. Helga and Riesterer. Prachtkorane aus tausend Jahren: Handschriften aus dem Bestand der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München. 2. MaÁ |if ‚anÑ Ð. Z. Sofia. 1985: 3140. A¨mad. “NashÐat al-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ZDtaÃawwuruh Ñalá al-maÁ ¨if”. Early Qurµans and fragments Abbott.PLÑat QaÃar. VIII. 1980.

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Judaism in Late Antiquity. S. H. V. M.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. With Full DefiniKinberg. R. Nouns. O. A. 2: Ab-bildungen. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . K. (eds. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. and O’FAHEY. Hamidu Bobboyi. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen.T. Materials for a Reconstruction. Y. Porten. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. S. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. Hofheinz. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. (ed. und Sardshweladse. V. Steiner. and Stolbova. Manuel de recherche. With appendices by R. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. Volume I. und Herb. 1994. S. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. 1994. Band 22 .). 1996. A. 1980-1993.F. Jagd. Phonology. 2 Parts. Arabic Literature of Africa.L. Tanz und verwandten Themen. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. M. V. (ed. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. 1995. J.). M. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. 1900. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. Abu Salim. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. 1994. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. References and Index of Texts Cited. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. 1995. and Jongeling.). 1994. N. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. Compiled by John O. Ibrahim. (ed. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. S. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . O’Fahey. Numerals. Bd. J. E. Hunwick. J. Radtke and K. R. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. 1994. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. The Legacy of Muslim Spain.). Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. Mosak Moshavi and B. 1995. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. Bd. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. I. Orthography. (eds. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1996. Roman Loimeier. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs.1: Text. B. L. Vikør. Compiled by R.). (éd. Marín. M. 2nd ed. W.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. Chief consultant to the editor.). ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . 1994. and Peters. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. K. A. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan.Lagarde. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. J. S. V. 1994. 1996.C. Spiel. with the assistance of M. 1994. 1995. O.

Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. G. van. 2 Volumes. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. J. 1997. Judaism in Late Antiquity.1: B. 1: A. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan.W. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. The Mishnah. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török.1. H. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. 1997. J. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. T. III. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili.L. 1999. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. 1998. Religious Perspectives 1999. 1999. Social Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. 1998. 1999. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. R. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. H. The Mishnah. H. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. and Pingree. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I.H.J. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka.G. 1996. 2000. Mesopotamian Lexicography. and Healey. The Kingdom of Kush. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. A. 1997. J. and Wyatt. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. and Porten. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. D. 1999. Terms and Topics. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. W.F. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). The Empire of the Mahdi. 1999.J. V. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. B. 1999. 1997. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. D. M. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. 1997. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. N. H. J. 1999. and Neusner. J. A Bibliography. J. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. The Rise of the Fatimids. M. Translated from the German by M. 1999. Index of Names. F.E. R. Vol. L. Vol. W. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. H. Vol. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. G. J. 1. 1999.2. 2: 1988-1992. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic.Band 26 Halm. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. and Sou‘ek. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. III. Bonner. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . 1999. 1999. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. B. Judaism in Late Antiquity.

1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl.Band 50 Tal. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. J. A. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. A. Judaism in Late Antiquity V.J. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. J. 2000. Theory of Israel. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. 1 : Glossary 2001. R. 2001. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. 2001.J. 2001. and Chilton. Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. and Chilton. A. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic.4. C..J. Dialect. U. Neusner. R.3. B. 2001.. A.E. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. J.J. Ch. Vol. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. and Society in Eastern Arabia.2. The Arabic manuscript tradition. A. Culture. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. 2000. A. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. J. Judaism in Late Antiquity III.1.. 2001. and Neusner. (2 Volumes) 2000. and Neusner.. World View. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. 2001. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. de. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. Comparing Judaisms. Band 56 Avery-Peck. B. ISBN 90 04 12000 9.. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

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