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Adam Gacek - The Arabic Manuscript Tradition

Adam Gacek - The Arabic Manuscript Tradition

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Sections

  • ABBREVIATIONS
  • 1. Sources/References
  • 2. Technical terms in the glossary
  • I. GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES
  • I. 1. Bibliographies
  • I. 2. Periodicals
  • I. 3. Conference proceedings and composite works
  • I. 4. General studies and surveys
  • I. 5. Selected studies of one or more manuscripts
  • I. 7. Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies)
  • I. 9. Popular culture in manuscripts
  • I. 10. Forgeries
  • I. 11. Terminology
  • II. 1. General studies
  • a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world
  • - Bibliography
  • - Papermaking recipes and ethics
  • b) Watermarked paper and filigranology
  • II. 5. Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories
  • IV. 1. Types of compositions, their parts, etc
  • IV. 2. Page lay-out (mise en page)
  • IV. 3. Colophon and scribal verses
  • IV. 4. Dates, dating and numerals
  • a) Bibliography, chronology
  • b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems
  • c) Abjad, LV E DO-jummal, chronograms
  • d) Greek (Coptic) numerals
  • H 5 P ) V QXPHUals
  • f) Dating by fractions
  • g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties
  • IV. 5. Abbreviations
  • IV. 6. Arabic nomenclature
  • IV. 7. Transcription, corrections and etiquette
  • V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE
  • V. 1. General studies
  • V. 2. Transmission of individual works
  • VI. 1. Albums and exhibition catalogues
  • VI. 2. Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens
  • a) General
  • b) Maghribi and African scripts
  • VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK
  • a) Bibliographies
  • b) General studies and exhibition catalogues
  • c) Albums (muraqqa¶ W
  • a) Bibliographies and dictionaries
  • b) Exhibition catalogues
  • c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship
  • d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas
  • VII. 3. Ornament and painted decoration
  • VII. 4. Painted illustration
  • a) Drawing
  • b) Other studies
  • c) Descriptions of individual works
  • VII. 7. Decorated paper (marbled paper, etc.)
  • a) Bibliography
  • century texts
  • c) Other studies
  • VIII. QURµ ANIC MANUSCRIPTS
  • VIII. 1. Exhibition catalogues
  • IX. TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING
  • IX. 1. General studies
  • IX. 2. Some specific cases

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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..................................................................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements ................................ XI Preface ....... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ....................................................

.. 156 1.............. 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ....................................................................................... 181 Periodicals ...... 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ..................................... 1 Abbreviations ......... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK....................................... 177 I................................................................. .............................................. Technical terms in the glossary ............. 156 2...... 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY .. 182 General studies and surveys ............................................................................................... Sources/References ............. 181 Bibliographies ....................................................................................... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ..............................................................

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

......................... 3........................................................... 242 c) Other studies................................................................................... 255 IX.................... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper.......... 7...................................... 2.......................................................................... 2........................... 247 Later QurÐans...................... 4...................... 232 Ornament and painted decoration ................................... 259 ........................... 247 Early QurÐans and fragments................... TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ........... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works....................................... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ........................... 241 Bookbinding . 5..................................................) ............................ 242 a) Bibliography...................................................................................... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship .. 6..... 8................ VIII....................... 3.............................................................................................. 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries .................... 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ........................................................................................................................ 238 b) Other studies ............................... QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ........... 243 2.............. ....... 240 Papercuts .................. 238 a) Drawing........................................................................................................................................... 236 Painted illustration ...................... 251 Facsimile editions ...................................... 4........................ 227 b) Exhibition catalogues .......................................................... 256 1...... General studies ................................................................ 256 Some specific cases .................. 239 Lacquer ........................ etc.............. 242 b) Pre-18th century texts ............................... Exhibition catalogues.... 226 Calligraphy ...................................... 247 1........

............. CATALOGUING........................ ETC........................ COLLECTIONS. PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION .... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ...... 261 XI............... Catalogues of catalogues ................... 4..........................X CONTENTS PREFACE X.......... 263 XII........... 2................................................................... 266 1.................. 5........................ 266 266 267 267 268 ......... ........... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts ................... CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS................. 3......................... Descriptions of collections and catalogues .

David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof. Last but not least. . My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions.

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Arab authors. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. the preparation of inks. 2). most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’.PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. Along with this manuscript output. scholars. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. both religious and scientific in nature. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. VII. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. papermaking and bookbinding. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7.).VKE O G 1231). DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.10/16th cent.

EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO. RI .

Furthermore. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7. DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials.

included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). lineation). who in his work on education.984/1577). as well as on the collation and correction of books. which deals with the preparation of inks. al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. Finally. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G.

it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. Some terms. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. corrected. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ). A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. respectively. as it were. which spans almost 14 centuries. It brings together. are recorded the way they appear in various sources. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed.g. medieval and postmedieval texts. contemporary studies and catalogues. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q).* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. especially those relating to book formats. . this chapter has been omitted. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. book lovers and cataloguers. even in its present form. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). could be very misleading. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). bound and decorated. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. writing surfaces and implements used. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. unless their exact meanings could not be verified. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. as well as extant specimens. some of the most important research in this field published to date. The glossary is a by-product. Nevertheless. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. To translate. e. for the first time.

khadd (‘cheek’. flap). for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. Thus. recto. on the other hand. miqlab (Levant.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. may have been used exclusively in those circles. raddah (Levant). however. for example. OLV Q (‘tongue’. book cover). and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. been largely omitted here. In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. medallion. catch- . envelope flap). Some. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. raÐs (‘head’. marjiÑ (Morocco). however. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). fore-edge. wajh (‘face’. North Africa). flap). The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). serif. Iraq). period and/or region in which they were employed. great caution is in order. for example. for example. The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. outer or inner margin). We do not. Ñaqb. catchword. and V TLÃah (Yemen). This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. udhn (‘ear’. as yet. fore-edge). Therefore. Ñaqib (‘heel’. Here we find. OLV Q (central Arab lands). It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. Thus. catchword). This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). upper margin. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. incipit. having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). lower margin. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. Here. recto. inkwell and the like. case (box). Áadr (‘chest’. upper cover).

Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. either contemporary or earlier. .XVI PREFACE word). Due to the limitations of the computer program used. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. As far as transliteration is concerned. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. Most words are traced to a source. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. On the whole. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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I. the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. 176-178) 2. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN.v. 104. al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq.). ST.  EU  ZDUDT DO. 103. 2: ibrishmah). SD. I. GA. 182). 107. 215. among other things. I.EU . DB. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. index. ibrah (pl. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided.v. 13. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. of minfadh (q. 107. 12. 154. MB. IA. 97.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. syn. from Pers. I. 392). RN. 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). 8). muµabbar – sewn (KC. SA. 97-98. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. needle case (DM) 2. miµbar 1. 18-19. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. 9. 59. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. GA. ebrû. II. TS. ibar) – needle (UK.) (DD. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. 60. III. AG. 8). I. AG.

 .

LEU VLP. LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP.

(DB.14). – closing matter of the text (composition). taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. explicit (TP. 62. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM). I. 53). ilá NKLULK – et cetera. n. abbrev.

175-176). 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. DG P (pl. passim. scribal etiquette 2. I. AE. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. MF. 52). udum) 1. I. leather (UK. IW. – etiquette (EI. tanned red leather (DB. 106-108) 2. adam(ah). 63. 71-72.

\XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. XIV. MU. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M.

jild. DGG P – tanner (DM). comp. DG K SO DGDZ W..

tool. DGDZ W O W. implement. e.g. 345). – V\Q ODK (EI. instrument. I.

DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK. 153-156. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W. writing MB.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

6 GLOSSARY hour of night. al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. JKXU E – the last hour of day. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. VI. 250).

alDZ NKLU .NKLUDK DO-ukhar. al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20).Oá (al-uwal) (1-10).

li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. -30) (SA.g. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. 248-249). VI. e.

106. 235). e. VI. II.DP O 3 VK 73  CI.EQ .g. EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA.EQ . al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . nos.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR .VI. 244-248). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. 178). 244-249). al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW .

PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9. -248). al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O.

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

ar„ \DK – background (LC. IV. (EI. X. taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . FZ. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn. JL. 22. 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. 262.D. ER.1st 5509 B. taµU NK-L PDODN . 6$ 9.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. 670).C.

 .

GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. II. XVK UDK. taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah).

107. 11. AG. 10: ishfah. sifr 4. – awl. IA. KM. uÁ O. a¦l (pl. MB. 115). 15. punch (TS. 90. 59. 43: VKDI . ST. IK. 103. I. IB.

. .  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9..

92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. II. MU. 26. original (main) text. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. 27) 3. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). exemplar. MH. 39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. VIII. SD.

2024.. MI. 136). but also 0= . XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858. .

269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. major work (TM. SM. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. 126. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. 23) 4.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (.e. 80) 3. KR. UI. headpiece (LC. border (of a book cover) (LC. ià U W XÃur) 1. 29) 5. 928). i. I. rules. rectangular panel (LC. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. rule-border. tabula ansata (UI. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. 24). . . DB. 402) 2. 24. 27) 6. i¨ U (pl. FT. frame (within a border) (TF. 24. 145). 24. 25. textual surround (LC.

8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. writing circa 1375’ (DW. I. according to other sources al. 46). 581-582). 6. DIVK Q (Pers. 32). taµO I DK.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. ER.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages.

taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W. (pl.

 muµallaf (pl. muÐDOODI W.

360). EI. work (of prose or poetry) (SD. – composition. taÁQ I muµallif – author. compilation. writer. X.1 . umm. ummah . muÁannif. comp. I. 33. comp. .

SO XPPDK W.

 . shar¨ (IN. . used in mosques (KN. copy.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC. 246) 3. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. 130) 4. transcript (from which another copy is made). SD. I. I. TM. exemplar. original (main) text. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. 26. 26). archetype (LC. 35. umm al-NLW E 1. as opposed to a commentary. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. 29).

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

37. II. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. Umm al-qurá. 294). KF. Umm al-EXOG Q. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). textus receptus (NT. archetype. 39). Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. LP P – exemplar. codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. 99. II. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. . II.

II. tadabbur. 2812). II. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. (CI. abbrev. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q).GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. xiv. 99). I. LL. comp. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P.

 . . or /'    $'  (.

XQE E DK. FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã.

SO DQ E E.

ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. 370). – unpared. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). III. 31. LQV see sinn. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ. KU. LM. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. unnibbed reed (FN. 31). 370. anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. II. BA. III.

52. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition).14. JA. (TP. AA. n. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. incipit. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. initia. I.

 .

10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taµZ O (pl. taÐ Z O.

g. – interpretation. explanation (e. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q.

 **** PDEW U 1. baŒr (pl. 34). truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH. imperfect. acephalous. bu¨ U. incomplete (of text) (KC. passim) 2.

JL. – panel on a book cover. cartouche (TS. AG. . 110. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' . 33.

WDENK U – fumigation (TS. 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). bidl '% . tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. . 355). badal.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &. .. [LLL.

100-103). I. DT. alteration (CL. comp. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. MZ. 296). EI. suppl. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. fasc. II. . 59-60. fasc. conjectural substitution. also WDEG O – subal-matn.3. SD. stitution.3-4. wifq (US. 412) 2. 153-154. RU badal respectively (KG. conjecture. 49.

EDUG \DK – papyrus. IA. II. EI. 417. DD. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). qirà V mibrad – file. QS. VIII. 407. comp. 390: for trimming). lin. papyrus sheet or roll (DB.84. 60. I. I. publishing (KM. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). 64-66). 521-522. WS. sifr 13. IV. rasp (HT. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ].GLOSSARY 11 EDUG .

EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. 545). . I.

148). – endband (headband) (ST. IB. EDUVK P. index. n. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . 8. 81. ST. 17-18.

 al-PXE UDN DK.

– epithet of the months of ‚afar. ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY.

nuskhah. DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. ELUN U SO EDU N U. etc.

41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 .  '0. – compass.9. (pair of) dividers (SA. III.

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

. 12. 18). Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS.

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

SA. 49). 455 6. trimming (of a reed ) (IR.v. EDUU \DK. PLEU K SO PDE ULQ.  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 232. 154: IK. bary.). 85. III.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). KK. ELU \DK – paring.

mibzaq – lancet-like knife. flattening (of a letter).   $6 . 88. SD. DB. 591).. I. DA: mibzagh.. 81). I. – pen knife (AA. index. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . 90. IK. 8. 64. bas¨ – spreading out. MP. mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST.

original (comprehensive). line (KU. III. horizontal stroke. 11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. comp. jazm (IK. 144) 4. unabridged work. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). AS. KH. PDEV ¨ 1. 34. mukhtaÁar. (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. 87) 3. syn. 120) 2. rectilinear (of a script.

ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. maÁ ¨if. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. TW. 322). – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. 13. 144). 47. 365. basmalah SO EDV PLO.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

silk endband (headband) (HT. PDEVK U – pared. TS. 161. 52. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. also known as al-JKXE U (q. ratisser des peaux’. paring. HT. 58. dressing (of leather) (UK. index. and opening a composition (TP. piece. 109. 58. register (AD. 9. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts.) (AS. 78.v. ba¨n (pl. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. AG. LF. 145). 78: ‘racler. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). bashr 1. catalogue. 12). erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. IA. 63. erased. lin. bi¨ TDK (pl. ST. EI. I. baà Ðiq) 1. LF.97. 155). slip (of paper) 2. MP.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. bashra¨ 1. 1084-1085). lin. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. 23-24. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF.111) 2. buà Q.

 E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side. flesh side (of parchment). inner cover. al-NLW E. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr.

MB. 408) 2. lin. 102. UK. 159. baà Ðin) 1. IB. doublure (LC. 89. lining (FT. bi¨ QDK (pl. pasteboard (UK. endleaf (ST. IV. 117. endpaper.73-79) 3. paste-down endpaper. HT. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. passim. 112). HD. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. AG. doublure (TS. 22-23. 23. 47. IA. – inner cover. MA. 60. 49.

 92).  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' . .

9. index. MU. XIV. lining of the insides of book covers with paper. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. leather or silk (ST.

/( . 2. ba¶du – after. comp. II. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. BA. paring (of the calamus) (KD. MB. bary. 370). 87).v. used for a transposed word. III. removal of sha¨mah (q.) from the reed (IK. abbrev. 61.

also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). tab¶ „ – word division. E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. separation (MM.20). 53. ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. n.

(MB. (pair of) dividers (UK. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. IB. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. 156. IA. 105). 104. 103. etc. 59. 153. MP. – compass. 60. 101. MB. 103. 58. measuring distances. TU. comp. 44. biUN U WDEN U.

153. 103. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. 42. IB. MB. IA. 391). UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. DD. 59). EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. 380. I. comp.

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

I. comp. CT.  EDO . 56. JA. 45: EXO JK). muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin.9 SO. damaged (TS. TP.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' . 268. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . E OLQ – worn.119.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

E E SO DEZ E. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus). 36). 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. EI. kha¨¨L E KDU. IV.

 . abbrev. – chapter. 0.

20). n. TP. comp. 609. 376). 53. bayt SO EX\ W. murattib. mubawwib – compiler (DF. IV. WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

82). 95. KR. 32. . 33). AG. 31. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. Bayt al-Maqdis. 110). al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. Ãurrah) (TS. compartment (in such a box) 3. frame (as part of the border. 97. bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 31-33. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. AG. 110) 4.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

95. KR. . AG. tibr – gold.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 82). W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 30-31. gold dust (AQ. 110). 97. also TS.

 takht SO WXNK W.

earth.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. sifr 13. 120). WDNKW W – pressing (ST. index. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. 22. 6. KM. lin. IV. 107) 3. 9). 24.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8. 127-. IB. I.  . WXU E – dust. index. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. AG. HT. TD. 9. 156. 42. wooden pressing board (TS. KU. sand. 94. 82.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 478-480). 6$ II.

122) 3. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . 28) 4. AH. key word (LC. 165). detailed title of a book. 28. chapter heading (IN. title (of a book) (LC.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. II. indicating its contents (DB.

27) 8.g. 27) 6. disc) or margins (e. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC. medallion) . headpiece or tailpiece (LC. paragraph (LC. 27) 7.g.

DB. mutarjim 1. exegesis (DB. interpretation. II. 1021) 13. also mutarjam (e. explanation. 224) 12. ‘QaÁ GDW . biography (EI. translator. IT.18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. 224) 10. 29. II. 270). tirs. X. translation (EI. 28. illuminator (TW. cryptography (AA. 30) 9. 260. 186. 1021). turs SO WXU V.g. biographical note. X.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. 29-31. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11. biographer 2.

rosette (HD. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. IB. 103. corner-piece (ST. 69. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 82). comp. turunj(ah) 1. execution. 95. IP. 9. 116). taftar see daftar. PA. index. illuminated oval medallion. 97. writing tamma (lit. LC. 28) 2. WDWP P – completion. citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. oval. 15). KR. shamsah. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. 145. ‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. 44) 3.

WDP PDK (pl. comp. tatimmah – supplementation. xiii). . talisman (EI. comp. RU CM. 46). continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). [LLL at the end of the colophon. II. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. WDP Ðim) – amulet. 177-178). used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). &. ¨add. supplement . WDP P – end. X. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. . finish. abbrev.

1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. FK. copying (MH.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. no. 101. II. 100.

 XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’. atKE W. thabat (pl.

GA.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. written testimony (SD. muÑjam. I. 288: syn. record of attested study (HB. document. 157) 2. 234. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW.

I. vocalization (AD. WKDE W – signature (SD. 18) 2. LWKE W 1.  WDEOH RI contents. usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. authentication (formula). also WDWKE W – attestation. 157).

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

n. muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. 45. 289). 53.25. CT. muthabbit. GA. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP.

I. 330). CT. 101. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. 45). writer of the audition note (MH.

– drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. 11. WKDT O (lit. III. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. AS. 107). AG. . ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA. 147).

1125in Turkey). (TN.9 . TU. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. T OLE. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. abbrev. JM. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. III. WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. 51). 349).in Persia. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. I. .

VII. 795-. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. DO-thumn. octagon (EI.

abbrev. 361). . 361). 232-234. VI. Taf. 12. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. MI. 102). PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above.13. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM).  RU &. 232-234) . I. . hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points).VI. MZ. epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. I. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. no. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. SA.. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. see also mashÐalah. [LY )0 167.

either illuminated or stamped (KI. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& .GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. decorative medallion or panel.

 center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. JL.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK . 87. 83: M PDK ZXV¨á . 88.

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

100). restoring manuscripts. braid. 83. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. restoration (KR. nos. interlace (TF. PDMG O SO PDM G O. 87). 141).41. WDMG G – repair. 99). jabr – repairing. 99. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. mending. corner-piece (JL. repair (SJ. 43).

. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. 50.6/2) 6. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). creating rule-borders (WB. 24) 4. 175) 5. II. KC. 32). 148. talismanic seal (EI. DT. diagram. 26). magic square. table (LC. 160) 2. 56. 108). table of contents (CM. chart. 42). 33. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. – leather strap. thong (KC. no. 370. 63) 3. TW. column (of text) (SD. mujadwal – ruled (LC. rules. I.

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ .   .. FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah.

extract. MDU GDK – list. abridgement (SD. I. inventory (SD. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. jard al-matn see matn. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. mijrad(ah) – file. II. 184. 183).&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). WDMU G 1. 112. 107. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. register. I. scraper (MB. DD. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . I. 27). KF. DG. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ .

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

jirm wasaÃ. jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. majran SO PDM ULQ. passim). HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm.

MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. 62). jazz – trimming. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . shaving (MB. IA.8 154). passim: Œazz.

2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. 132. inset (UI.  ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. KF. n. 19. 103). MU. rough copies 2. . I. VII. also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume.

booklet. AI. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. 79. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2. single-quire codex. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs).GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1.

juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. II. 128). tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. 705). passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. tomaison) (SJ. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. VII. small piece of writing. usually not more than a quire (IJ. 90). 711). small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. DEEUHY RU (CI. independent. 128) 6. xii) 4. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. I.

94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. MB. 143. IK. LL. 38). 99. jazm – reed pen. 421). I. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 89. 90). (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. MP. having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. 7-9. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. 87: qalam jazm. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

for other signs representing jazmah see GL. 13). . 196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). – background (UK. Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. 23). WDMV G – tinting in red (AD.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

. . )1   ...  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ .

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

 G Z Q MDO (SA. 1123). WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. IV. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. III. .

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

26). II. 123 and IX. 47.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. 416-417). majlis SO PDM OLV. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. VIII. LC.

1020). majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &.. – session.  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV. . majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. sitting. VIII.

459-460. 154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. KU. julfah – nib (of the calamus. jalam SO DMO P. the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). II.

II. IR. 89. abbrev. CI. 230). CM.NKLUDK DO. – (pair of) scissors (DS.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !). 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. -XP Gá al. no. -XP Gá al. / / (OS.NKLU. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih.Oá. 91-92. IK.

compilation. SA. contraction (of letters) (KU. 126. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. abbrev. / (OS. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2.9 . composition. 89). M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. III. 34) 3.

 FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . e. major original compilation.  FN.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. 352). the QurÐ Q 8. .g.

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W.  FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. III. II. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ).

case with compartments (TS. 37. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. 217. 52.  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). 683) 4. writing case. SD. 233. 52. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). DG. inkwell 6' . escritoire (TW. 13) 3. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. tool box. NH. jumal. 106. 25). AG. case.  '' . 12. I. codex compositus (LC. 393) 1. 32) 2.  composite volume. 380). mujamma¶ (UA. box (NM. TM.

MDQ Œ (pl. index. 107: for cutting gold leaf . – book cover (ST. IA. abbrev. ajwibah) – responsum. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts.v. (CI. better known as al-JKXE U (q. MDZ E (pl. 109. II. AG. xiv.111). knife (TS.) (AS. index. IA. MI. ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB. M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. 11. 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. 61. ST. 10). 145). 10). 110.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . 27. 273-275. VIII. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. certificate of transmission. ER. EI. LB. IJ). 126-130. 1020-1021. – authorization. III. licence. 24. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text.

GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (. LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. . LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ.9 . 181).

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH. OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license).

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

133. NH. 381: jawn. 179. 468. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. AT. LQNZHOO (HI. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. SA. 154: wa-al-M EDK . KU. II. DS.

see also the quotation under miqlamah). (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . also known as waqabah. DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq.

 **** Œibr (pl. a¨E U.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

n. Œibr al-raqq. IR. IV. sifr 13. MJ. 8. MP. 18-21. MP.53. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. UK. 101-110 and MB. KM. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. 6: wa-al- . 13. 75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. -100 and MB.

MA. IK. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . 134-135. see LL. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. AE.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. 349. LM. 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink. MR. IK. II. 127-131. SA. IV. I. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates . AT.

embellishment (DB. miŒbarah (pl. 354). 2016). FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. III. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. ma¨ ELU.

II.  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. SA.. 372. III. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ .  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: .

443. 468-. SA.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. II.

264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. embellished writing (composition) or copying. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. transcription (TE. compiler (SS. 87. inscribing in ink (SM. elegant. Œubs (pl. inking. taŒE U 1. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. SK. ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. II. 89). muŒabbir – author. I. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. 119). 15. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). SA. WR. a¨E V.

 taŒE V (pl. ta¨E V W.

stitching (of a book) (TM. MB. waqf. AG. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding).  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment.. 157. IA. TS. 62. also Œabkah – endband (headband). bequest note (LC. Œabk 1. comp. 154. n. 109. 132) 3. sewing. 28). MM. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . decorative endband (UK.. . 18-20.. 104 ff.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. endbanding with silk 2.

 VSLQH 74 .

AG. 109). 19. AG. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. 109. 19. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS.

 .

'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. I. AD.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. bookbinder (IB. 11. n. 19. AG. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. 109). 19. 478). AG. 28). 246). ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. 19. 109). Œabakah – bookbinding (IB.

– the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. (OS. 10). 89). amulet (DT. ma¨ MLU. hone (TS. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). ajar al-¨XP ¨im). Œajar al-misann – whetstone. maŒjar (pl. 69). Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS. ŒLM E (pl. Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). miŒjar. ¨ujub) – talisman. 60). Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. abbrev.

ST.10. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. index. 36) 2. MB. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . UK. 38. 36). MP. AG. counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. 107. 99. 142: 12.

$ . .

8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U. (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV. 2733. FN.H.

I . FRPS .

honing (of a knife) (KD.30 GLOSSARY Œadd. II. 711). Œadd (pl. taŒG G – whetting. ¨XG G.

end. – limit. 154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. ŒDG G DK.

IA. 29. 105. (pl. 10. 393. MB. 138). 188). ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. Œadr (pl. 59. ¨XG U. AG. taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. 59). 31. TS. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. MP. 109. MJ.

redaction (CM. 38. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. revised version (edition). 286). elegant writing. 701. 214) 8. 52. taŒU U 1. mu¨DUUDU W. 48. AF. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . 15. outline. author. 16. fair copying (TE. secretarial style of shikastah script. ER. 16) 6. muŒarrir – 1. AQ. ornamental surround. index. 109. SK. ŒDU U – silk (ST. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. PA. AG. penman.. with black ink (TE. 1124. 2408. IV. 58. 246) 7. e. calligrapher. frame. transcription (TE.g. – descender (down-stroke. EI. 16) 5. 119) 2. DB. 215-227). IV. XVII. 13. MU. 73) 2. 50). 15) 4. TE. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. IV. comp. editor. copying. 64. IP. 15) 3. 10. muŒarrar (pl. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. TE. composition (GA.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. terminal of a letter) (AA. 145. compiler (SS. III. ÁaÑd. 50. editing (of a manuscript text).

– piece of calligraphy. calligraph (DP. 53). Œard al-matn see matn. .

GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl. a¨U ] ¨XU ].

69). – talisman. maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. IV. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K.g. MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. e. amulet (DT.

50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. e. Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word. Œarf (pl. lin. 596-560). DS. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal.g. trimming (HT. cutter). LL. KK.  . II. II.80-86). Œarf (pl. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah). ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. 230. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. sharp edge (of a knife.' . III. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. ¨iraf) – edge. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. LM. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. 463. word 2. border. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . 39-42) 2. letter. miŒra„ah. error. 549). distortion.9 . ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. taŒU I 1.. I.

. FRPS TLU Ðah.

Œarakah (pl. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ). al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. III. 57. MJ. ¨DUDN W. comp. Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. falsification (of a text). 59. MQ.32 GLOSSARY  08 . 224).

stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. UA. II. Mecca and Medina. MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. vowelization (DM). taŒU N – vocalization. 65. 112-113. shakl. comp. KD. miŒU N – spatula. – vowel (GL. 8). 393). al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. MB. 704.

(OS.v.). al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. 89). abbrev. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar. Œizb (pl. a¨] E.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

11. taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 11). ST. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. Œazm . ST. 28.. index.

chronosticon (TP. 468). ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. . 54: EI. computation. III. ŒLV E – calculation.

with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. ¨DZ VKLQ. abbrev. 269-270. II. see SA. VI. 302).GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. EI.

collection of glosses. MB. margin (of a page) 4. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. MD. border (on a book cover) (MB. 109) 3. apostil. 118. 217-219. marginalia. 119.112. scholium. lin. IA. 63. often abbreviated as or . IA. 63) 2.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. FZ.

AG. gutter. pl. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. 1820). IV. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. 30. AS. 412. 977). 71) 2. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. 63. 60. 89-90). IX. 65. Œ VKLQ (pl. interpolation. parenthesis. Œashw(ah) 1. III.54. 145. FI. 73  00 139. DB. 268-269. 110. 222. JM. EI. FT. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. ¨DZ VKLQ.

322. 26. muŒashshin – glossator. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. 34). gloss (AM. II. 296. AD. III. (MI. .74. 332). trimming (of a reed) (BA. abbrev. glossed. nos. CI. Œa¦ramah – paring. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . xi. taŒshiyah – glossing.

546). taŒ¦ O – copying. transcription (FK. . I. no.89.

60. sifr 4. 34). 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing.31). polisher (KM. n.). MB. burnisher. 5. smoothing leather (ST. 107. TS. I.v. IA. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. comp. AG. 29. IB. 6. 118: mikhaÃà (!). ÑDU T W.

35. surround. RN. VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. 24). I. Œa„ UDK (pl. headpiece (LC. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. frame (SD. 302) 2. 34. KH. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved).

box (KC. small box (DG. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . 55. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1. II.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. 51). NT. 44) 2. Œif„ – learning by heart. ŒLI „ (pl. a¨fiÌah). preservation. FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. memorization (TP. miŒfa„ah – case.

 FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. text editing. critical edition (of a text) (MH. MR. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . 89.

 muŒaqqiq – corrector. editor. ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1.

22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . 12.U T and alZDUU T (FN. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. III. 13) 2.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. 1123. 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah. III. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq.in Persia. IR. 1125.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU. 78. TU. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. EI. LM. comp. IV.in Turkey).

) (DD. pumice (MB. syn. erasure. NH. 58. IA. ¨alaq. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab.v. MM. scroll (in design) (UI. mibrad (q. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. 141) 2. 59) 3. Œakk – rubbing out. miŒakk al-rijl 1. I. 31). 112. IA.v. 137). 392. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). miŒakk(ah). Œalqah (pl. screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. effacement (TP.) (UK. ¨DODT W. 62) 2. syn. 104.

27). study circle. III. II. AI. scholar’s circle (SL. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. 372) 2. 48.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. part of a clasp) (BA. ma¨ O T.

136. 139). AB. . 422. – tendril (FT.

embellishment (KT. taŒP G DK. 150-151). Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK. Œilyah. taŒliyah – decoration.  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. 204-209). 416). al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah.

EI. 38. rubrication. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. 95). III. 53. n. TB. 122-123). red ink (LC. Œumrah 1. red colour. TP. rubrics (CM. 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. 24) 2.20. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK.

86) 3. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. ME. ÑUthmanic canon. 169. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. ta¨ Q VK. TW. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . 566. codex (MA. amulet (DT. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA. maŒmil 1. TP. IV. archetype (KM. TP.  ‘pupitre’). 15. taŒQ VK (pl. 69). WA. 55). ŒDP ODK (pl. taŒP U – rubrication (TE. 24. 24). 51). sifr 13. book cradle (TC. 286. maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. IV. 56-57. LC. exemplar. also miŒmal. 29).

143) 3. 44). rope work. 58. 138. ST. .  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. 11) 2. (pair of) dividers (IB.) (MP. compass. index. interlace (TF.

II.  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O. 700).GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD.

miŒwar (pl. ma¨ ZLU. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah).

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

144). 138. as opposed to the border (TF.  FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). maΠU DK.

¨awr (LL. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. TP. Œ µil. I. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. 171. 104-105). 665). 483). taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. II. Œawqalah. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. 149-150). Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 99. TP. 109. 97. MH. 58: as a means of cancellation. see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension).

RQH LVQ G from another. 73 . abbrev.

 .

tooling 2. tool. MI. 35).g. 31). colophon (TM.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. khatm 1. 3. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. 214) 3. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . 24. stamp. stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. panel (in decoration) (UI. stamping. **** NK QDK – compartment. seal. sealing.

khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' . RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS).

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2. – 1.9 . complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .

 .. NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P .

e. OS) 2. 63). NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God. 130. talismanic seal (DT. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). 144).9 1105. 34. 169. DT. 29. 108) 3. AG.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (. NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. 109. al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. 110. CI. . IA. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). I. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP.g.

. explicit. colophon (UI. 52. epilogue 2.14) 3. FT. tailpiece (HD. conclusion. 396) 4. 5. LNKWLW P 1. 108). n. 8. closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

– inner or outer margin (IM. 165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ .

backing (of the spine) (HN. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. 385). 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E. also LVWLNKU M (TW. takh„ ¶ – rounding.

126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. RI WKH material from the original work (TW. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK.

explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ . FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce.

TM. insertion. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   .  omission. ) 4. 58. comp.0 . 187-188. la¨aq (TP.

I. insertion 2. 169) 7. WDNKU MDK 1. reference mark (signe de renvoi). 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . copying. I.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. KF. omission. transcription (TW. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. quotation (TM. or a caret. 58.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8. pl. 718). ÑaÃfah.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. n. extract from a book.. 606) 6. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK.73: in the form of a curved line.) . WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

mukhraj – insertion (MH. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukharraj.

39). selector (DF. TW. mustakhrij. vox reclamans (MA. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. . 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. excerpting. LVWLNKU M 1. catchword. 126130). copying (DM) 2. NM. 683). 384. mukharrij – compiler. IV. II.

59).40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. MP. mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). 35. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. DS. 481. ST. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. punch (SA. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. 181). II. index. 99. OM). 12.

70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94). khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK.

 FDUWRXFKH ).  )7 .

khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah.  DQVD roundel. comp. Ã P. palmette (KH. 36). Ãurrah.

17. 154. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. 59) 3. 347. khirqah (pl. index. undoing the sewing (ST. MP. MB. 12. II. II. 109) 2. scrap (of paper) (DM). 157. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. gap. 104. kharm 1. comp. SA. blank. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. MB.166). 15. 481) 2. polishing cloth (MB. 459). 114. lacuna (SJ. 27. IA. HT. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. MI. sewing (of quires) (UK. khiraq) 1. 60. lin.

 .

NKLU. TC.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex. PDNKU P. KF. fragments (HB. 233: feuillets décousus. II. incomplete (TC.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. munkharim – imperfect. en vrac. 26). 26.

kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. khazz SO NKX] ]. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). II. IV. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. 527). sifr 13.

library. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. 107). mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. AD. 23-24) 3. GL. kharm and ¨azm. – silk. 14-15. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. 27. VII. LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. 25-26). PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. maktabah. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. 119). xiii-xiv. II. abridgement. NKL] QDK. comp. I. . AG. epitome (EI. comp. 46). abbreviation (contraction. suspension. 107. TP. siglum. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. 159-160. EA. 55-56. 536-540. AG.

mark. khuà Ã) 1.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. calligraphy. penmanship (ML. handwriting. sign. stroke. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. script. 34-38) 2. writing.

khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. al-DTO P DO-sittah. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. EI. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. AS. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. LM.. 41. 83. 103).EQ 0XTODK 6$ . al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). comp. yad. 358). copied by (e. 681). scriptio plena.g. 114. 887: ER. IV. III.. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts. also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . comp. 144). CI. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. scriptio defectiva. as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal).8  51  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  . I. script (text) see also Ñajam.

8  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .

380). makhà à W. comp. calligraphy (WR. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher. penman. makh¨ ¨ (pl. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. 80). I. no. 26). paleography (KJ. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD.1.

writing. 61) 2. takh¨ ¨ 1. IA. 103. 98. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). 118. LL. index. manuscript codex. 60. UA. implement (made of wood. 760. tracing. I. straightedge (LL. 555. . mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. 12). ruling (of lines). mikha¨¨ 1. 110) 2. I. 760). drawing (MB. tracer (ME. reed pen. 110.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. calamus (AA. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. MB.

sifr 13. khi¨ E (pl. address.1). IV. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. akhÃibah) 1. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q. letter.g. speech 2. honorific (e. note.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM.

extract. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. 105. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. 25. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. trimming (TS. AG. mukhtaÁar. epitome. NKDI I (lit.g. 14). 59. 156. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. 109). abbrev.20). mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah). X. abridgement. IB. comp. NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. IA. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. 44: ornament). n. 53. RIWen unpointed) (GL. 123). MB. 145). pen-name (nom de plume) (EI.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. 18. preface (LC. TP.

MU. TP. 95. 273. 58). . varia lectio (e. MH.g. XII. 52. XI. LNKWLO I – variant reading. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. XVII. 46.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. 126. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD.

 SO WDNK P V.

v. – pentastich amplification of a poem. PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W.). LNKWL\ U. NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. 95. pentameter (SD. al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. 401). 97). 123-125). AD. 405. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. I. EI. 50. X.

endbanding without silk (TS. 107-108). index. index. 12. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. 12). MB. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. 109). 12.e. thick needle (ST. index.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . i. I. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. IR. 19. AG. 43. 94-95). – anthology (EA. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding). IB.

 .

of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. VI. G E M SO GDE E M. 250).

84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. – silk brocade (MU. XIV.

exordium. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY. G E MDK 1. preface.

of fataÐammal(hu) (q. /& ) 2. reflection. frontispiece (MD. GLE JK DK. tadabbur – consideration. adorning something with arabesques. PA. WDGE M 1. creating headpieces (AD. 115). 52.v). composition (of a text) (DM). TW. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. 127. headpiece. 65. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. 259) 2.

– tanning (MB. 114-115. fasc. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. IA. 63.3-4. 60). I. 172). 140-143. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G. suppl.. MP. EI.

8. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q.  IR.

darj. dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr.

SO GXU M DGU M.

LL. 68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. I. 138: al- . roll. IK. I. 141. 868: also daraj. SA. 68. rotulus (IK.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. 138. parchment or paper (AJ.

46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .$  Q.

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

dast(ah) SO GXV W. darmak – farina. 13. AG. 142) 3. bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. 432). paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 287). 60). dirafsh – awl. punch (IA. inset (SD. I. 107). WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

96. 81. MB. 59. AB. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. wide polisher. 94. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). GXVW U SO GDV W U. MA. 145. I. WS. 524) 2. 44). 92. kaff 3. IV. 39. 156. rizmah. comp. IB. burnisher (UK. IA. PT. 105. SD. 92.

 KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN.  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP .  ..) .

I. 23) 3. also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK.  DXWKRU’s original. holograph (LC.

. HB. II. 357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. dasht – loose leaves. unbound book. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). book consisting of loose leaves (KF.

54. (see e.. daffah SO GLIDI GDII W. 617-618) 2.g. etc. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð). pious invocation. TP. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’.  . such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. ‘prayer of request’ (EI. adÑiyah) 1. 150-156). assimilated (KU. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . hence mudgham – contracted.+ 35). AA.. II. supplication.GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. formula of benediction.

index. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). book cover. 13). index. index. 13.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. daftar *U GLSKWHUD. also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover. 13). pasteboard (ST.Oá (ST. ST. al-daffah al. 104) 3.

SO GDI WLU.

daqq 1. 4. 22-25. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). II. 29. QRV  096) 3. I. n. 321. see LS) 2. 60) 2. volume (IK. pounding (MP. rubbing.. 14 leaves.g. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). 40 x 14 cm. 481). 48. taftar (SK. Daftar kutub. IA. register (EI. 108. fine writing (TM. 77-81. . . beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. 192). notebook (e.18) 3.. SL. account book. KK. II. 63. pen wiper (SA. bound or unbound codex .

363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. AG.48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). 85. OH. MB. NH. waraq damghah see waraq. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. 139). 13. 87). 11. SD. 107). 23. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. I. glazing (ST. KM. 48-50. KR. 110. 217. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. 461). burnisher (for doublures) (TS. burnishing. 118. sifr 4. GDON WDGO N – polishing.163. I. FJ. HT. index. midlak – polisher. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. lin.

 905-906). Tabriz. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. I. 230: LL.E GDK – Yazd. ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . Isfahan. ' U DO-¶. ' U DO-. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. midhan. mudhun – container for oil (IR.UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. grease. – fat. Herat. 927). oil. ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina. .

93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ . circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR.  73 .GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1.

30. WDGZ U 1. 59) 5.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. i. JA. 105. MB. ta¨U I. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). e. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP. I. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value. TS.e. UD. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. even (as opposed to oblique. 56. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. medallion. disc (UK. roundel.g. (5) 4. 156. straight.

RN. LM. 10. rounding (of the spine) (IA. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn).g. 35). also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. hence PXVWDG U – round. curvilinear (e. 61) 3. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. LM. 9. 39-40) 2. 22.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

129. collection of poems written by one author (DM). chancellery (KM. SA. 323. writing down (of ¨DG WK. I. collecting (collection). I. EI. EI. IV. WDGZ Q 1. UHJLVWHU account book. II. 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. 90) 2. sifr 13. 323). II. office. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK.

  73 . . (.

 FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3. 15. copying. transcription (LC. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . UI. TE. 28.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

IURP which it is derived (EI. 1125-6). GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. IV.

KU. BA. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. 370) 2. writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. 169-170. -85.. escritoire. . III.  LQNZHOO .

132-133. 54. 53). FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. GDZZ µ. 137-139). ND. AT. tadhkirah 1.50 GLOSSARY ruler. ER.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. dhabr. III. 77. DG.v. suppl. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1. X. midhbar see mizbar. aide-mémoire (EI. II.3-4. II. 440-443. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. 372) 2. 53) 2. VII. EI. 73). 65. memorandum. 713. wiper and sand) (SA. UK. MB. fasc. 203-204. descender (of a letter) (AA.

dhanab SO DGKQ E. +%  (. 53). X.

al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. 25. gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. LL. ¨arf (SA. 21). (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . 89-91. supplement (AD. II. UD. 24. 226.V. 130-132. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. 983: ‘water-gold. – tail (foot) of a letter. dhahab. 477. UK. I. III. index. LC. paint (MU. WDGKQ E – appendix. 151). P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. 13). 59). SA.’). MB. I. etc.

TE. 145).GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. WDGKK E 1. KA. writing with liquid gold. 27. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. chrysography (LC. AS. IX. 222. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. 15. gilding.

 SO WDGK K E.

dhayl SO GKX\ O. MU. mudhahhib – gilder. TE. 132. 15). chrysographer (AB. 490). 27. 141). 385). XV. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. PA. JLOW REMHFW 6' .

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

lower margin. 206). ruÐ V. 23). dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl. dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW.

IA. SA. as opposed to the spine (MB. fore-edge of the codex. envelope flap (MB.g.g. 26). 14. beginning of something.  KHDG RI D letter. character. raµs al-waraqah. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. (qalam) al-riµ V . raµs al-NLW E). 24. e. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. raµs al-¦afŒah. 62) 4. e. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. i. TM. 26) 2. 172). III. 108. frontispiece (LC. 109). 136. page or book. IA. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. upper margin (TS. LC. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. 109. ruµ V DOsu¨ U. 26). raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. 61) 3.e. 107.

MO. 144. 33. 12. 65). JM. 37. 226. 83-84. WDUZ V 1. AQ. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN . but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. 84. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 215). 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). KH. vox reclamans (NZ. TU. FZ. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2. RN. script akin to a large naskh. HI. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. 35. 146. 126. 236.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 100. 13) 2. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð...202/817-8) (FN.5 -242. U EL¨ah – catchword. 100). à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . AS. 30. 213.

UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. 5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. DO-rub¶.

abbrev. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. CM. 5DE ¶ al. 89. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q .NKLU (al-PXE UDN. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G). / / (OS.

– the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl. rabaÑ W.

 .  VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

  6' . 48. nos. 51. 15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +. MS.21.  &$ .  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ.

stalk (?) (TS. mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. 109). 11. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb. AG.128). lin. …spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á . WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT.

no. 50. I. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . composition (MU.GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. AM. arrangement (of the text).170) 2. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam.

IV. 72). 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK. 384. copying (KM. 53.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP.20). n. comp. II. ratm – close. compact writing. SS. sifr 13. murattib – author. mubawwib. compiler (DF.

al-aÁabb.  26 . Rajab (al-murajjab. abbrev. al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar.

 XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory.1 . often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. didactic poem (EI. raj¶ (pl. 376). DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). VIII.   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . .

I. sifr 13. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). 28. IV. 109). MJ. WDUM ¶ 1. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. AG. comp. 17) 2. writing in bold characters (TE. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. retouchage (of a letter). FRPS SD. UXM ¶ – reference. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. polychrome illumination (TE. 252). 17. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. 513: ‘barrage. 99. source (in a text) (IN. I. retouching. muÑallaqah. KM. III.

62). .  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. epilogue (AD.

al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST.% 81. index.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 31: MD.185). 13). ST. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . n. 13). book support (MD.13. index. 137. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. 132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. index. RI.

 tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. 3185). 294.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. 3099. 54. UXNK P DK. numrah) (TP. 2152. abbrev. 419. 1035. 1038. VA. 1055. nos. 584. 1062. comp. 1223. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’.

IA. raddah – envelope flap (TM. 107. 103. TS. ST. 14. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). pl. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. marble slab (MB. OM). 59. XXIB). also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. . TP. 10. 11. . AG.

92. WS. AB. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' . dast (q.GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. rizam) 1.) (PT. AJ. ream (of paper). . 39. 145.v. consisting of five quires.

VIII. monograph (EI. also ruzmah – booklet (SD. dast 2. ULV ODK 1. tract. epistle 2. treatise. LUV O DK. letter. 532). 524: ‘cahier’). I. FRmp.

– ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ . 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK .. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH.. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. LM.

e. execution.g. 14) 2.VIII. drawing. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP. 451-. sketching (ME. 101. EI. 100. PA. making a mark (ST. marking. 561. copying. 100. rasm al-muÁ¨af. rasm 1. epistolography (DM). MB. tarassul – art of letter writing. index. writing. 45) 3. designing.

 SO UXV P.

– stroke. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. comp. 560. rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. unpointed letter or word ( NO. I. SD. 15) 6. I. designer. 528). 527) 7. 527). 527) 5. bi-rasm see mustanad. rawsam SO UDZ VLP. line (traced with a pen) (SD. chapter (in a composition) (SD. I. faÁl. painter (ME. I.

tooling (HT. marking (syn. 137). decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. – woodcut. index. 14) 2. wood block (AB. UDVKVK VK – reed pen. index. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. rasm) (ST. lin. 164) 3. 14). III. calamus (BA.129. . 370).

rizmah. 18) 2. marshim. mark (TS. comp. marsham SO PDU VKLP. ream (of paper) (SD.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. 532). I.

135). tar¦ ¶ 1. I. 532). ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. decoration (MS. 125) 2. hot iron (SD. illumination.  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

126). 103.3 145. 17) 3. decoration (with liquid gold). . covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD. TE. ta¨U U TY. gilding the inside of the surround (outline).

$) .

79. KH. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. writing. III. SA. 140. tar¦ I 1. 35) 2. composition (NS. ra¦f. joining letters together (AP.

35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. 89. KH. II. abbrev. tar„iyah. 125). MI. 35. 34. tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. SL.    73 54. 15. used for the companions of the Prophet. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. AR.

 FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah. DQW RI \ ELV.

. – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. 16. 14. 144). 24). 15. AS. istir¶ µ \DK – note. statement (LC. 19.

book support. 44. n. 111-112). riqq SO UXT T. raqq. lin. 231. book cradle (IN. 70) 2.133.GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT.11. 137). mirfa¶ 1. KK. I. ND. support (for an inkwell) (AA. 230.

 -485. EP) 2.. diacritical pointing (TE. elegant. 93. piece (slip) of leather. 1135) 3.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ . I. EI. I. LL. UDTT JKD] O see jild. sifr 13. no. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. SK. 407-410. making something multicoloured (LL. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. 353). vox reclamans (NM. 108-111. KJ. I. embellished writing. UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. mirqash – reed pen. 230). IK. VIII. diacritical point (JA. KM. 17. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). VIII. raqshah – pointing. arabesque decoration (KA. 53. parchmenter (DG.67). 1135) 4. UDTT ¦ – catchword. parchment leaf (ND. 683. WS. 105. copying (TE. 17. 74-75. n. KK. paper or other writing surface (MU.1. IV. AE. al-raqq al-a¨mar. AK. KR. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. AA. 53. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. IW. 60-63. 407). 119. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . 85). calamus (IR. 269). vocalization by means of points. I. 105.

note.  OHWWer. rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. brief message.

1126). IV. . DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI.

sifr 13. JM. inset (MK. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. 78-82. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. EI. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. VII.) script (AS.in Persia. 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. 602-603). MN.v. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. 1125. raqm 1. 1123.in Turkey). IV. patchwork. 146. often sewn in). 86). LM. 139. writing (KM. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. passim. IV.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

54. DP. AW. NI. 266) 4. 41. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. – piece of calligraphy. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. calligraph (AC.

.  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ..

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

no. 160). mirqam – reed pen. siglum (CL. 387-388. raqn – compact writing (KM. 5. IV. 244. sifr 13. IR. GA. arqam. 82. WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. III. 154). 141. 147. 45.76). BA. no. LL. 383. UDT P – inkwell (KM. 372. KJ. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. 1140). – abbreviation. 2. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. GA. 230. 183). WDUT P – punctuation (AH. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. IV. 17. 468-9: AN. sifr 13. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. fasc. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. 106). calamus (TE. 17. IK. III. copyist (AC. 183.3. AM. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. AW. 30). also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. SK. I. TE.

 .

GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. writing) (KM. IV. embellishing ( a text. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK. sifr 13.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). index. I.g. comp. hybrid (of a script) (LM.g. SA. 393). 78) 3.73. III. IV. 83). Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. ¨ibr 2. lin. 389. HT. 58. WDUN E 1. ligatured. markaz SO PDU NL]. murakkab 1. ¨ibr. ST. MP. e. 60ff). linking (joining) one letter with another. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. AG. comp. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. 681) 2. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. 14. (Turk. 45). ligature (e. 109. 24-27. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name.5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). 50. UA. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . boarding (TS. on the line) (MY.

393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q. – support (for reed pens) (UA. UXN ¶ .

VIII. 36. DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. 406). juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. rukn SO DUN Q. EI.

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

5 . .

. 30. AG. II. 107) 3. mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). corner piece itself (ST. 31. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. IB. 69). 703). index. 14. rakwah (pl.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS.

60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair. restoration (DM). ramz SO UXP ].0 .9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada). WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ . murammim – restorer.

secret alphabet (EI. code. TW.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. chronogram. III. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. 468. chronosticon (EI. cypher. VIII. 55. WB. VIII. 428) 2. 159) 3. 427) 4.

&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. . V. 209.

abbrev.  26 . Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.

 WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. II. PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA. I. 127136). al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. . 135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦).  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. 86. 478- $7  6' . I. TD. UA.  '' . 393).

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

syn. U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl.  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. DM). 1186. I. UA. UXZ K. 393. mik¨ O '' . LL. – little stick for the application of kohl.

varia lectio (MR.v.) (TP. link in the chain of transmission (TP. 26. EI. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. KF. VIII. recension (recensio) (LC. ULZ \DK 1. version (versio). XII. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. tradition (traditio). 545-547) 2. 53). LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. II. 417418 and 500-501) 3. variant reading. 53. also known as sanad (q. 94). 109-111). transmission. – transmitter.

100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah).in Turkey). MP. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. 146. (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. LM.in Persia.v. 1125. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI. IV. 545-547). (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . 43: wa-T OD .) script (AS. 38.EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh. JM. 73-77. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). 1123. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. MB. VIII. 144. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn.

]DEU WD]E U 1. inscription on stone (KM. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink.). sifr 13. 18. q. I. copying.v. IV. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2. CI. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. ¨ibr. transcription (TE. also dhabr – writing.

 zab U (pl. ND. 80. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. copyist (TE. work (SA. 18. zubur) – composition. IK. 92). II. ND. 80. 444. KK. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe.

18). ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. copying (KK. II. 444-465. IR. 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. polychrome illumination (TE. TE. copying (KK. 18) 2. zakhrafah 1. embellished writing. SA. 85. IK. 18)  SO ]DNK ULI. 53. elegant.18. elegant. 230). embellished writing. calamus (TE. TE.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

 DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. muzakhrif – illuminator. decorator (WR. zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. 87). 80).

135). AG. 34. Ñurwah. 110. comp. KT. – knob (of a clasp) (TS. . 25.

ER. decoration in gold and colours (LL. ]XO \MDK.& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?)./Turk. lit. ‘hair lock’. 35. fastener (TS. zulf (Pers. I. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). ‘curl’). IV. see DC. 25. zalf (MN. 19: in 12). 109). ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . 1222). 69. MN. AG. ]LP P DK. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. 682. 689). V. ST.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment.. index. zulayjah (]DO MDK. 360) 1.

(al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. account book. 383-385. 222: al-WDUP N . 181). 127. (pl. 95) 2. list. register (IK. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC. NA.9. pt. I. 601). GA. catalogue (SD. azimmah) 1.

ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. MB. comp. 101. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. II. 320). . 145. II. 478). zinjafr – cinnabar. KF. vermillion ink (SA. 315.

80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). floriated (KJ. hence muzahhar. WD]K U – floral decoration. zawj SO D]Z M.64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. 38. KR. 44.1. 91). box (DG. no.

 ELIROLR ELIROLXP.

409). AG. WD]Z U 1. conjugate leaf (AG. EI. forgery.120b. 825 and VIII. copying (TE. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. X. 376). 283. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. falsification (UI. 107). muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. 90-100). GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. 73. 6. GA. 391). VII. TK. X. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. ER. AD. muzawwir – forger (EI. I. f. 408-409. 73). 18) 2. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. X. embellished writing. 107) 2.

 HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ . ..

]DZZ T – illuminator.  decoration. lin. ]LZ TDK – art of illumination. 12). . 560. 4). 11) 3.4. n.102. WA. 560) 4. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. MS. 105). multi-colour illumination (HT. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. miniature painting (WA. writing. miniature painter (ME.

9).GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. 184) 2. 52. index. ]L\ GDK 1. dittography (TM. 136). 59. 98) 3. addition (TP. MI. post-scriptum (AD. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . 60. 127) 2. square (an implement) (MB. addition (CM. interpolation. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. index. 9). ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. superfluous. IA. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. abbrev.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN. angle 2. 62). MH. 111. interpolation. 73). corner.

embellished writing (SK. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . ] QDK WD]\ Q 1. FRPS TDUU Á. elegant.

 HPEHOOLVKPHQW GHFRUDWLRQ '0.

abbrev. . quodlibet. asÐilah) 1. suµ O (pl. comp. jaw E (CI. MI. II. 128) 2. preamble to a fatwá. xiv. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah.

n. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. 461. nos. used after the word All K 73 . 3214) 2.20. 1853. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. VA. 696.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. 53.

13. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). 81. n. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY. parchment) (IB. lapsus calami (DM). index. piece (of poetry. 637). etc. siŒ µah – piece.) (SD. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. IB.185). 11-12). al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. I.

transcription (TE. 83). WDVG G – copying. asiddah) – stopper. plug (in the inkwell) (IK. . 17). VLG G (pl.

39. n. punch (SK. awling. 122. prelector (TP. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. recital. 56. 122) 2. sifr 4. KM.52). punching (SK. comp. misrad – awl. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. I. 115. reading. 1347). LL. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. I. 1347). Áurrah.) 1. hence V ULG – reader. I.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. 40. 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion.

. KR. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. 82). also known as lawzah (JL. 27. . 97. 36). 127. 95. AF. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC.. munsa¨iŒ – flat. MD. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ .  frontispiece. horizontal stroke (UD.

asÃur. sa¨r (pl. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan. asà U VXà U.

. – line (KD. 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). II. line of writing.

91. copying (TE. lineation. 28. number of lines per page (LC. 43). III.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. WS. 104-105). 59). 155. (grid of) guidelines. lin. ff. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. 50. TS. 13. MB. 155. 25) 3. straightedge (UK. 155. 105. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". WA. stencil (AF. KA. 78. 155). MB. 77). creating a line (of writing) (SA. MB. pasteboard (HT. LC.%  Q LC. 104. 113) 6. number of lines per page (TK. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). 17. lineation (LC. designing (UK. 48) 5. IN. WR. 28) 5. 18. 59). 86. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. 87). ruler. mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK.. 12. lining.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. 155. tas¨ U 1. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. ruling board (ST. 28. ruling (of folios). 104- 7. 247) 4. 73. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. 134) 4. 155). 104. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. SDVVLP 6$ . TA. TS. composition (AD. 15. IB. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . V ¨ir.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. IA. 17). folder (UK. 174) 3. ruling. 59). writing. 103. TM. IA. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. IA. index. threaded guideline board for ruling pages. I. redaction. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK.

 1364.5  // . . . DM: snuff box).

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

 WH[WEORFN 67 .

 SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. MS. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK. book. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. codex. volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK.

 FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.

9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 . V ILU (pl.

bookbinding (e. WDVI U 1. ST.g. index .

 SO WDV I U.

11. 109) 2. VDI QDK 1. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). – book cover (MB. AD. IV. TF. passim). 742) 2. oblong format (of a book) (MD. I. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. VIII. . al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. lower margin. tail (of the page). AG. 15. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. end of a letter or book 2. safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. index. HT. lin. 660.115. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. EI. AG. MB. 97. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). 31. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. 150). 158. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. 110). 78). spine (of a book) (UK. 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh).

ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design. 95. saqa¨ (MU. 87) 2. haplography (TP. 238) 1. 97). V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 58. also LVT ¨ – omission. XII. KR. see above) (JL. 88). 95. MH. 97. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL.70 GLOSSARY saq¨.

saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. comp. 133. IA. 80). 118. VXN Q 1.  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. lin. IR.133. 148. comp. WS. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. II. 230). 137). 482. circle-like tool (HT. 107. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. jazmah 2. AT. VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. 60). ÑLO M PLVT K.

VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. 103-104. 90-91. SK.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 248). silsilah SO VDO VLO. KD.$  8. – knife. II. AA. II. 115- . 465-466. LM. 711. pen knife (IK. VI. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. SA. 31-33).

 FKDLQZRUN LQ ERRN FRYHU GHVLJQ.

76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

stemma codicum (AL. IX. silsilat al-nasab – stemma. 27). I. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 .  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. 611).

WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM. VDO P. 5863. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS. 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. 107). 1124). JM. IV.GLOSSARY 71 146. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. EI. KK. AG. 15.

MI.1830. I. PLVP U (pl. 128). mas P U. CI. xiii. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. VA. 2211. no. 54.

peg (part of a clasp) (BA. 372. – nail.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. III. TM.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

 DXGLWLRQ RI D WH[W.

&7 .

auditor.. KF. 27. . (CW. 267. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. XVII. LC. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. TP. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 .25. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. 69. n. TP. X. 1019-1020)..g.. MU. EI. 53. certificate). also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. 485493). 278. VIII. MU. II. 53. abbrev.  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement.

audition note. I. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . 45) 2. ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. certificate (JA.

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

audition leader (master). PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. certifier (CT. 45). FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session. authoritative commentator.

ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ. PDTU Ð. comp. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ.

proper name (EI. 1. title of a book (ism al-NLW E). 179-181) 2. . IV.

the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. 28) 2. tasmiyah 1. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨.20) 3. TP.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. n.v. sinn SO DVQ Q. 28. 53. 100). the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q.) (MH. title (of a work) (LC.

  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q. shaqq ) (UK. – half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6.

  .9  LQV – left side. 6$ . . .. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // ..  (.

60: misann akh ar. 153. IA. hone (UK. 103. MB. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. misann ÃXOD\O ".

5  6$ . 384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ ..  $7 133. TS. AG. . 10. NH. 107.

v. q. sanad SO DVQ G.). misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. 395). musannanah – chevron (FT. musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM).

53. musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. 56). DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP.

 9.. .   (.. 6/ .

14. 365. IV. sifr 13. 5. 704-705). mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . 692). 8. 47). (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. RN. FN. TW. I. 2. EI. FRPS muÁannaf. misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. VII. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT.

sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA. VI.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. 264-265. II. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar). 88. OS. CM. 232).

252).D. VI. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA. comp.). Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK.

27. 320. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. SK. – Muslim era (DD. I. AI. 384. black ink (LC. VDZ G 1. 388).

MU. 161. XV. MU. XIII. rough copy (LC. VI.9 .  DOVR musawwadah – draft. 27. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . MU. 126.

copying (TE. 237). WDVZ G 1. 50A) 3. 45. 65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. 18. AM. calligrapher (AW. vox reclamans (NZ. musawwid – copyist. 98) 4. copying by an apprentice (TE. (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . FRPS PXED\\D ah. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. making it difficult to read (MH. nos. 18). 18) 2. 97. preparation of a draft (TE. marring (of a text).

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

. – woodworm.

SA. 50. comp. KD. trimming the textblock (TS. II. 702). damage caused by worms (LC. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. 105. II. 463. ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. musawwas – worm-eaten. KK. 17-18). (kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. 28). LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK.

sayr SO VX\ U. 1125.in Turkey. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. IV. 24-24). 183). 1124. DR. used in Ottoman Egypt. A variety of this script. 178-180. was known as qirmah (GA. RA.in Persia.

 VWULS QDUURZ SLHFH RI OHDWKHU 0%  .$ .

 endband (headband) strip (ST. HT. MB. index. lin.96). 114. 16. sayf SO VX\ I.

104. IA. – trimming sword. MB. 103. 60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. 154. cutter (UK.

20) 2. nos. 33. 407. 19. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. lin. WDVKE N 1. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. 115. DH. endband (headband) (HT. (pl.88-106. **** VKDE NDK 1. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. WDVK E N. 73).

passim). . – interlace (TF.

à VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV. 406).GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT.

shajjah SO VKLM M. ...' .  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ ..  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). comp. jilfah.

14. no. 9. honing (of a knife) (KD. EI. 35-35). WDVKG G DK. I. white interior substance of the reed (IK. 87. II. I. composing a text in a schematic. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. DH. LM. shaddah. I. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). shaŒm(ah) – pith. 967) 3. 27). mishŒadh – whetstone. 86. 711). WDVKM U 1. UD.73) 2. creating a genealogical tree. shaŒdh – whetting.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). arabesque decoration (WR. tree-like way. also mushajjar – foliated design. stemma (AL. shajarah – genealogical tree. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. stemma (SL. VII. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . 390). hone (DD.

doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. shidq SO DVKG T. – doubling (of a consonant). 14).

 SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). 27. . case binding (TS. book cover.

comp. 109). 369). fakk 2.76 GLOSSARY AG. sharaj SO DVKU M. fore-edge flap (?) (NH.

– plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q.v. 372). sharŒ (pl. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.) (BA. III.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

decorative band (UI. abbrev. 158. IX. MI.0 . long commentary. also VKLU V. II. 397-320. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. shar¨(ah) (pl. cutter (IA. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). al-VKDU I DK. comprising the text commented upon (matn). shuraÃ) – line. 60. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. 174-175). mishra¨(ah) – knife. 60. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). 392: for opening sealed documents. 217. DD. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. shars – pasting. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. 29) 4. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V .. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. CI. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. EI. 106-107. 100. OM). IB. xiv. MD. ashriÃah) 1. comment-text book. fillet (in decoration) (FT. 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. MM. &. 5051). 27. VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. paste (MB. [Lv). rules. . al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. 27) 2. EA. al-sharŒ al-PD]M . NH. I. stroke (DM). 139. MB. IA. VLU V and V U V (DM). 109) 3. 385. 401). FZ. abbrev. I. rule-border (LC. (LC.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

ligatured Maghrebi script.).v. 250). VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT. 322). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. VI. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . 365. 47. TW.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. nuskhah and the like. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG.

)'  .

whisk (?). burnisher. mish¨ab – 1. 756). 251). eraser (TS. comp. FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. 113) 2. AG. I. shaÌ \ . duster. 390). sha„ \DK (pl. cancellation (LC. 28: IN. polisher (NH. 11. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. shaqq. I.  arb.

88. AA. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. III.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. serif-like stroke (LM. also tash„ \DK – line. 35.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . 13) 2. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. KH. à Ð \ Ð.

al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. al-mukarram. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam.

– the eighth month of the Muslim calendar. abbrev.  26 .

 .

78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. shi¶r (pl. ashÑ U.

I. 116). no. 82. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP. nos. 81. scribal verse (see e. versification. CI. 12. II.g. – poetry. CI.

mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS. MJ. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . 11. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. III.83. 16. lin. pt.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. JM. shaving (HT. UK. VI. 45. IA. II. 109). IP. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. LM. 250). 104. 58). scraper (ST. 91-93. 144. 103. outline (KF. lin. outlining. 161). 153. WDVKI U – trimming. AI. SA. MB. shafrah 1. bookbinder’s sword.159). also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). index. cutting edge (SK. 112. 50) 3. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. AG. NA. 9. III. shaqq SO VKXT T. tash¶ U 1. 145. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. parer. 59. AF. paring knife. trimmer (HT. 161) 2. al-musha¶¶ar.104. 127. 59) 3. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. 224). illumination in gold.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

MH. slit (of the nib). 460-462). IM. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. 97. 171) 3. II.  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. . SA. 59. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh.

Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI.1. no. 694). . IV. WDVKN ] – 1. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. IV. awl.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). preliminary endbanding (IA. sewing endbands (headbands). IV.GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. 393). 1124. 62) 2. a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. punch (UA. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. IV. 1124. 699-702). 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf. ER. ER. 43.

shaqq. vowelization. 59. III. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. 12) 2. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. KH. III. comp. 36). SA. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. hence mushakkal – vocalized. GL. 125. IM. III.g. vowelized (for various practices see SA. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. 81). 160-167. diagram. 150). vowel marks.

+  8'   . .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

 FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK. 156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .

sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. 118. AF. 27. rosette (LC. 110. 116). PA. 51). WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. 135).  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. passim. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. 63). IA. MB.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

– quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e.g. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

340-. 201 and X.20. document (DM). EI. – copy of a letter. 53. IX. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. n.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

90). Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . Mashhad (al-)´usayn. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS.

al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad.HUEHOD . – . al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas. shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU.DUEDO Ð).

shuhrah. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. – new moon.v.). 1612). II. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. month (LL. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known.

EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &. . ..

 .

al-PXE UDN.GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram.

– the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

19-20. comp. KH. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. RN. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. 117.) – endband (headband) (LA. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ.). 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). VI.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. fahrasah. VK U ]DK (Pers.5. VI. 725). fihrist. PA.v. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. . i¦E ¶ (pl. 8. 250). 118). mashyakhah (pl. For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. pt.

¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. II. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). 136. ¦LE JK – pigment. 29-32. NW. AR. writing word in the text (GA. thus (JA. 285. VIII. 267-268). 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. MB. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. I. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. tint (UK. 35. abbrev. abbrev. QS. dye. sic. 114-118. (KG. 73  . MH. NH. 671-672. tinting. IA. 370: Áabgh al-waraq.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. 120-129. MP. emendation 2. LE. 473. CT. attestation (of correctness in transcription). mara  and saqam). 45). 63. correction.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector. n. 53. signing (a document) 4. ¦ Œib (pl. aÁ¨ E. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP.25). comp. preparation of a critical edition. editor.

isti¦Œ E – ownership. .  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). 0. abbrev. owner (OS). possession (OS).

ma¦Œaf. sifr 13. I. 22) 3. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM.. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. mu¦Œaf. maÁ ¨if) 1. I. sheet of writing material. 9. 22. IK. 24). II. IV. mi¦Œaf (pl.. notebook (SL. Áa¨ Ðif) 1. leaf (TC. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . papyrus or parchment roll (SL. Áu¨uf. folio (folium). 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). BA. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. -835) 2. page (DM) 4.  parchment. papyrus or paper (KD.8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. often leather. small pamphlet.. . III.

146.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. 54-57). 17. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script. JM. parchment textblock (TS. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. AG. MS. VII. 17. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS. AG. MS. 107) 3. 668-669.4). copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. sometimes two. 25.GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. AG. 25. II. 17. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . 16). n. 16). 107. 107. volumes) (EI. 316. KF.

distortion. error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. ta¦Œ I 1.  .  .g.

04  6$ .  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK..

syn. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). ta¨U I TY.

(. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. bookbinding (LA.5.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I. -348) 3. pt. .

II. ÁXG U. IB. 269-270). 9. HD. ¦adr (pl. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. ¦aŒŒ I 1. II. 13. 11. 118) 2. bookseller (QS.

preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. ¦DG UDK 1. preamble. also ta¦G U – incipit.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

27) 4. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). AG. II. fore-edge (TS. MJ. 15) 5. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. wajh (SA. 44. 156. MB. 105. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK . 16. IB.  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. IA. 59). fore-edge flap (TS. 464. 107) 6. 218). as opposed to inner side.

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

comp. JL. 83. al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. surrah. mandorla (FZ. ¦urrah – center-medallion. 99. ¦a¶d (pl. MD. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). ÁuÑ G. 110). 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. 109.

34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. – ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. 50. TU.

107). 371. 227. 30. 192). AG. KD. ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. II. ¦DI Œah (pl. 58). 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. study (KF. ta¦I Œ – catchword. vox reclamans (TT. siglum) (TP. II. 27). FN. verso of the first folio (LC. ta¦affuŒ – examination. 11.

 maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). iafar (al-khayr. al-muÌaffar. al-PXE UDN. al-Ìafar.

aÁI U. – the second ¦ifr (pl.

. abbrev. – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM.171. 59). TP. month of the Muslim calendar. (OS. 89).

maÁ ILQ.GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl.

burnishing (MB. maÁ TLO. strainer. sieve (UA. ¦aql – polishing. – filter. passim. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. 134). 393: for ink). KA.

105. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . 156. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. 99. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). 44.. IB. 149. ¦ulb (pl. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. aÁlub. IA. – polisher. 142. DD.  DS. 149. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq. aÁO E. MB. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. I.

27) 2. main. 1712. 119). MB. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. 62) 3. IA. making pasteboards (MB. correction (FK. . 62).  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. II. ¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. i¦O Œ 1. 27). no.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . ta¦O E 1. 111. also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. 59). 166. II. text-column (LL. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. comp. LC. bookbinding (IA. matn. original text (LC.

 UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .&   7: .

55-56. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. 191. no. suspension. II. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. i¦¨LO Œ. siglum) (TP. MM. CI. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E.

 .

86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. . ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’. abbrev. . used after the name of the prophet Muhammad.      73  Q 73  &. [LLL (. -359).

). sketching (MO. 83). 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl.v. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. ¦LP P – plug. ta¦P P – design. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ÁDQ G T.

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

0'  7% -94). ¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  .

Ñamal. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). taÁ Q I. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦un¶. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl. ta¦Q I (pl.

– composition. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. work (MU. III.

705). compiler. often the author of the original text PDWQ.) (SL. mu¦annif – author. 662663. EI. as opposed to musnad (q. 39. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation.v. VII. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation. work. II.

abbrev. (CI. art. E\ $E +LO O. IX. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). duction by artisans. I. craft (EI. 625-626). xi).

 .

transcript (e. 889892 and X. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. copy. XV. comp. IX. taÁ¨ ¨. apograph (TP.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. 56) 3. 361. „abbah (pl. ta¦Z E (pl. aÁwinah) – case. ¦LZ Q (pl. ¦ UDK (pl. 57). TP. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. 268) 4. XVI. mu¦awwir – painter. Áuwar) 1. correctness. 225. 559). 143. I. ta¦Z U 1. microfilming.212). exact copy. preservation (DM). 361-363) 2. ME. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. miniature painting (MU. ¨ ¦awn. 136. X. MU. box (NT. no. DH. painted illustration (EI. taÁZ E t) – correction. 121.141: ‘portraitiste’). comp.  LE E.2. **** LI Ì. pt. example (JA. illustrator (PA. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. EI.g.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

thus (TP. sic. marking the word with a  abbah (TP. a  E U. 30) 2. DEEUHY 73  AR. ta„E E. 95-96). 57.64. MH. n. MH. i„barah (pl. also known as WDPU „. 95-96). 57.

a„barah. bundle of documents (IK. KM. a number of leaves or sheets put together. sifr 13. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. „LE UDK 1. IV. quire .. 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd.

120a-b). IB. ta„E U 1. 11) 2. 26.) . 17. 112) 4. 44. album (FT. 19. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl.) . 12.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O .   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl). index. 107) 3. 16.177). ST. (pair of) dividers (TS. f. 107. 13. AG. 97) 2. TK. specialist in  abÃ. (pl. textblock (TS.  XU E. orthographer (MH. II. AG. 18. 5) 3. binding (IB.16.  DZ ELÃ) – compass. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. 388). 18.88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. collation (of quires) (TS. AG. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . „ EL¨ 1. 29. n. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB..

small tool (resembling a drum stick. 347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. KF. erasure (MF. „irs (pl. AG. 11. 62). II. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. a U V  XU V. mallet (LF. mi„rabah 1. 109) 2. 59). stalk?) (TS. – cancellation.

12. 32-33. AG. 109) 2. interlace (TS. also TS. a Ñ I. AG. „i¶f (pl. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. 109-110).  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS.

ta  Ñ I. ta„¶ I (pl.

– space between lines. interline (LL. II.  /& .. MU. 1792. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . XVII.

 .

e. a Z Ð) – counter. plait. 30.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF.406). ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. 11. ‘eye’ (of a letter). passim). 12. interlaced (FZ. Á G à Р.g.  DI Ðir) 1. AG. 45). 33. „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. III. braid (FT. 110). 44). interlace (TF. mu„alla¶ – polygonal. ma„I U – plaited. polygon. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. AG. „awµ (pl. al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. 217). (SA. 44. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. 413) 2. 107). 32. „DI UDK (pl. al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk.

76   $* .

stamp (IK. mi¨ba¶ 1. signet. .134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). comp. 96). lin. ¨ ED¶ (pl. ¨ EL¶.medallion) (HT.  ODUJH stamp (for a center. seal. ÃDZ ELÑ ).

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

 PRXOG VKHHW of paper. . roll (AJ. 144. WS.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO. comp. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq).

154. center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. 2019) 4. 83. III. (KU. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK . 979) 5.5 . element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. tirs. sarwah) (JL. DB.

ÃDEDT W ÃLE T. ¨abaqah (pl.

MZ. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). turn-in (TS. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. 60). ¨LE T – large sheets. audition note (EI. gloss. 109) 2. 113.7. 107.120a) 4. marginal note. AG. VIII. ¨urrah (pl. AG. I. 73  Q $. IA. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. AD. margin (LC. ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. 110) 3. 372). TK. border (on a book cover) (TS. . marginalia. 21. Ãurar) 1. Taf. edge. 28. abbrev. leaves (of paper) (NH. 102). f. 1020.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

ML. SA. 46. 58. VI. address (ÑXQZ Q. II. margin (TP. SD. 313. 29) 6.

illuminated headpiece (LC.120a.120a). palmette (LC. . HT.85). comp. ansa. Ãughrá 7. 28) 11. TP. 28. f. f. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. X. ta¨U U – glossing. tailpiece (LC. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. 57. mu¨arrar – glossed. 58. 28) 10. 28) 13. 28) 9. 16). 682. annotated (WA. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. n.67). IV. 16). 36) 12. lin. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. KH. 689). annotation (WA. al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. 28) 8.

person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. 141: ‘dessinateur. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. Ãar¨’) 2. PA. manuscript restorer. 159: ‘dessin. ¨irs (pl. MB. ÃXU ¨). sketcher.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. celui qui fait le tracé initial. outline (HD. HD. composition’). ta¨U Œ – sketch. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. 133). 118. ¨DUU Œ 1. 69. 101. ÃXU V DÃU V. ¨arŒah – mould (DG. draftsman (AB. 118. PA. 61. 103). 132.

63-64. 408. VIII. II. 1840).  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. LL. IK. IW. 75-76. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU . 93. comp. EI.

79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. IV. BA.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . effacement (of the original writing) (KM. ta¨U V – obliteration. LF. 8. 371). III. sifr 13.EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH. pour s’en servir encore une fois’). ¨araf (pl. aÃU I. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. 140. HJ µ.

– key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. IA. hammer (TS. 38. 31. AG. 11. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. 57. 87). 15. 30. AG. 60). 11. 107). TH. 109). AG. 107. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. 166. . mi¨raqah – mallet.

406). FT. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). (MU. 28). 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. ta¨¶ P – inlay. X.) 2.v. 595-598) 3. ¨XJKU µ (pl. sifr 13. à ¨ughrá. 28) 4. headpiece (LC. 109). inlay work (AB. erasure (KM. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC.92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. IV. X. 134. AG. 11.

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

92. leaf (of paper) (TS. ÃDO ¨ \. 83). al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 145. AJ. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. ¨alŒ \DK (pl. I. 483). requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. 147. ¨alŒ. UK. WS. ¨alaŒ – sheet. 52). II. SD. 27.

. 52). II. SD. roll (WS. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM). 87: al-darj. – sheet (of paper from the mould).

0 .GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . 82. comp.) (pl. thus differing from Ãirs’). ta¨O V – obliteration. ¨ilsim (etc. ¨ilsim. NH. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. 373: ¨ulsah). erasure (ND. ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. ¨alsah. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. 373: ¨als. syn. IV. sifr 13. II. LL. 63. Ãirs. ¨ilsam. ÃDO VLP. Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih). NH.

X. ¨ OL¶ (pl. beginning of the text. also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin. – talisman.v. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. ascender (of a letter). 500-502). iÁE Ñ (q.) (KH. 258). headpiece (TW. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). WB. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. 11. mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. 56). naÌDUD ZDTDID. tion of words (EI. incipit (WA.

/&  26 .

naÌar. III. 144. FRPS WDTU Ì. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. popular class of scripts’). al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. 29: ‘common. SA. . 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . RN. 59. III. MJ. 224).

DG. 278. daubing. 136). I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. passim) 2. 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. obliteration. I. 58. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. II. erasure (JA. gilding (SD. ¨ams 1. KD.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. ‘eyes’. 110). filling in (inking in) (of the counters. II. gilt and the like (MB. coating. pasting (MB.

IR. 36.. 242. 144). ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. -47. 6$ .. KH. AS.

Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. a¨Q E (sg. 36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter).

cartouche (LC. 109. 157. MB. pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 35. mu¨awwal – original. 61). a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. layer) of paper (TS. MB. rules. AG. 26) 2. . 26). rectangular panel (AB. AG. IA. 107. IA. comp. musta¨ O 1. ¨DZ O – long. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. strand (UK. 32. ¨ TDK 1. I. rule-border (LC. 17. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). sheet (piece. abbrev. 120b) 2. 62. xviii). unabridged work. 110). TK. 31. / / / (CI. 111. f. Áilah. 135) 3.

%  $-  .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U..GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .

KM.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. IV. 8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. sifr 13.

mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. III. 49-57). In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS. 12). (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. It was written with a reed pen. ÃDZ P U. the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. 11. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

120a). f. abbrev. – 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK.  0. . person.

misk) (e. MJ.g. 206. 212). musta¨ E DK. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

18). II. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. 3. CI. CM. RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e.g.

98. WKDU KX – requiescat. ÌXU I. inset (EM. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. AH. 182). **** „arf (pl.

 ..  UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ .

 FDVH ER[ /& 29. 575). ME. LL. II. 1910. .

„ufr (pl. aÌI U.96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. al-„afar.). 495). al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.v. II.

outline (KJ. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. 29). 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132).3. no. ‘shading’) – outlining. ta„O O (lit. usually the thumbnail) (TM. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC.

 „ann (pl. ÌXQ Q.

GA. verso. hair side (of parchment). „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. blank reverse of a letter (LC. back of a document. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. 285). 29). 29). (TP. 59) 2.64. placed in the margin. I. „DKU \DK 1. xv. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). n. 29. baÃn. II. CI. „ahr – back. 57. abbrev. SL. front of the textblock (LC. – conjecture. comp.

I. „ KLU (lit. gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. 8 and II. ‘alleged.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 .Oá). 88. obvious. comp. evident’.  IO\-leaf (SD. 11. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. ME. ‘external. AG. . abbrev. II. 109). first page(s) of the textblock (KF. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture.

 .

148-149. ¶ajuz (pl. 147. WS.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. AJ. MP. ¶ajz. aÑM ]. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. 80-82). 40.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

 FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU. V. 52. ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-.14). n. 21-22. TP.P P DO-0DKG .

5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). 26). sifr 13.. IV. . vocalization (KM. DEEUHY MI. 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract.  (.. diacritical point 3. RA. mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . 146. . treatise. III.

. SA. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. i¶M P WD¶M P 1. ¶ajm. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. pointed letters (TP. 57). 90.

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

(pl. taÑ U M.

ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. ÑXU VK. – curve. curvature (of the descender) (SA.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj). ¶arsh (pl. 30). III.

al-sa¨r – base line (TW. 230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U.

202). Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). mu¶ UL„ – collator. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. MH. II.  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. 29). SA. reciter (CT.. FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. LC.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih.9. 45). lattice-work (AB. SA. 56. 45). JA. 136). ¶LU „(ah). KU. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E . ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. taÑ U T. 464. trellis (FT. 423) 2. abbrev. I. TP. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . III. 25. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. ¶ar„(ah). 218.. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl.

37. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. 50. SA. 22. 11. 40. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. KU. 36. KH. III.

¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. 11).U T see mu¨aqqaq. FRPS PXÑaqqaf. (al-kha¨¨) al-¶. .

leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ . KT.. AG.  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q.. Ñuran) – thong. 25.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. 110. 34.

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

 DEEUHY / (CI. xiii). aÑVK U. ¶ashr (pl. I.

 ¶ VKLUDK (pl. ÑDZ VKLU.

7  // .. . ¶ VKLU \DK – mark.  6' ..  8. decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .

dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). ta¶VK U 1.

¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. 109). 109) 2. 108. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS. 116: gha  UDK . 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. 11. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 109).7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). ¶ushar 1. stamp with vegetal design (TS. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . AG. AG.

. 84). II. 154. SD. IK. also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. 155. mi¶¦arah (pl. 154). ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. 154-155. 42). mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. IB. 134).

curved line (used as a reference mark. caret (MR.130) 2. fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB. lin. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . signe de renvoi).100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT.

introd. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. abbrev. 147. connection.). 36. 37) 4. MI. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. / / / (AR. 145. AM. 35. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction.

00 132. 93. 176. MR. TP. 54). TM. al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

16. margin (ST. 19). gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. ¨ibr) (MP. index. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . LL. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ST. 2091). II. ¶LI ¦ – plug. 83. 17. ¶af¦ – galls.

aÑT E.+  10  SJ. note. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . 27) 2. ¶aqib (pl. ta¶T EDK 1. 344). ¶aqb. vox reclamans (TN. comment (LC. catchword.

knot-like tool (TS. 58. counter. . 46. 109). ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. lower ¶uqdah (pl. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. KH. III. 11. AG. Ñuqad) 1. 47. 36) 2. – end of the text (matn) on a page.

37).GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. 126). comp. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. ‘perhaps. la¶allahu (lit. taÑU T ¶allahu. mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU.

 WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0. .

WS. 80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO.Q DO-ÑLO M. 90. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB.

9 . transcription. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. 15) 2. 119) 3. script. copy. copying (TE. writing. transcript (AD. 124). 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . composition. ligature (KU.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

.) . .

abbrev.  DOVR ta¶O TDK.  (MI. 107) (pl. taÑ O T WDÑO T W.

LC. scholium. 71. II. explication (TE. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. 27. 1124. IV. 15. EI. comment. ER.v. 162). mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. 26). X. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q.). 165) 6. name often given. the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. 694-696) 2. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. IX. IV. – marginal gloss. in the Turkish/Arabic context. MU.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

28. FRPS U MLÑ.. III. al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. 104). . closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. also TS. AG..102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. 26. al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ . al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn. 77).

III. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . 371. mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA.

 ¶alam (pl. aÑO P.

¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. 22). index. XII. 2140). 164. 27) 2. ¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. signature (SD. 135. abbreviation (siglum) (MU. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. ta¶O P 1. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. 18) 2. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. II. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. II. mark. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. signing a document (AA. 352) 4. book mark (e. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E.g. II. autograph (LC. EI. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. ¶DO PDK – 1. 164). SD. I. marking quires before sewing (ST. 381). motto. – decorated border (LL. TS. marking.

no. 100).HUEHOD .39).¶  0. ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ. al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI .DUEDO Ð) (CM.

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

abbrev. III. . ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. 372).

aÑP O. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. ¶amal (pl. 2153: ‘text of the book’). II.

256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ. VII. compilation (MU.  FRPSRVition.

etc. 257-258). SA. colouring. taÑZ U 2. VII. EI. main work of a painter (PA. laà I DO-Ñamal. painting. q.e. 30) 3. 47-48. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. comp. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution.). (SJ. IX.v. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. used in opposition to Ãar¨. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. 229. TC. chronosticon (TI. cryptogram. i. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. 123). ta¶miyah 1. writing. FRPS ÁanÑah 2.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

16. ¶XQZ Q (pl. 110. 260-261). VII. 211. I. EI. (MW. ÑDQ Z Q. PK. SL.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

66. 29. 870). chapter. X. X. 29). comp. EI. 36. 871-872) 3. PA. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. II. 870-871) 4. tarjamah 2. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. 2183). ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. section heading (LC. 29. title (of a book) (LC. X. EI. EI. 116. .

VWURNH.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. curved (of a line. i¶ZLM M – curvature. hence mu¶awwaj – crooked. I. 200-203). al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah.

collation session (MF. 13. taÑ Z GK. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. X. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. ta¶Z GKDK (pl. . VII. UD. 12. i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. IN. 726). 74). 14). ta¶awwudh. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). e. repetitor (EI. 7). I.g. 230). collation master.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn.

69). ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. of letters) (AP. ‘eyes’. comp. amulet (DT. 123-124). Ãams. 114. aÑZ P. – talisman. ¶ P (pl. KU. 95.

– year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. ¶ayn (pl. comp. LM. 43). 194. . comp. ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. VI. Ñuqdah. sanah. 252-253).

88. MB. lin. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. n. IB.60-72. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. 12-13. 97. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. VI.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. MP. 250). 90. 73). red and black colours (SD. OD. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. 46: taghriyat al-waraq).18) 2. AS. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. AG. 37. 47. and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. rasm al-JKXE U. North Africa. 74). (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. IK. MB. NW. MP. II. VI. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. 199). IV. 244). taghriyah 1. 141. sizing (of paper) (AB. aghriyah) – paste. EI. JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. pasting (ST. 250). 41. 74. 233. 37. 141. NW. DW. 145). NW. 58-63. HT. 45-47). index. 107.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. 97. VI. 42. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. 32-34. JM. 47). adhesive (TS. ghubrah – mixture of white. 145. MP. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. IB. 19-23. IB. 1124). al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm.

IU T  . FRPS .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

36. ME. covering of the board. 564) 2. JKLVK µ (pl. 554. passim). JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. binding (TS. case. KC. box (SD. aghshiyah) 1. 214. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. II. book cover. 35. JKD] O see jild.

III. 71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. CD. pl.

 ODVW SDJH V.

binding (IN.) . I. I. LVWLJKI U DK. 257). taghshiyah – book covering. 473). 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF.

. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ .  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' . 217) 2...  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ.

bold character. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). OHWWHU 6.  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). 150). ghal¨ah – error. WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. 192). mistake. abbrev. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„. a word) (MI. .

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 214. 132). WDJKO I – book covering. binding (FZ. – book cover (MD. 157). JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. 108). AB. 213.

) . 261)..  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). 47. **** I I U – papyrus (EI. 114.). also iftit Œ. I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1. SA. 128). comp.Ñuqdah. fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. – WDLOSLHFH . 46. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. VIII.v. III. LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ.

23) 2..9.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. proem (MU. prologue. LC. preface. XV. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& . LQFLSLW 08 .

320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. LC. headpiece (KF. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar.  KHDGLQJ (e. 23) 4.g. II.

109) 2. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. IA.18. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. AG. IDW ODK 1. 245). 59). PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. press screw (MB. TS. IA. . also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. VI. 62. 104.

249). SD. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. leaf (of paper) (SA. II. comp.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. VI. 189.

– one of a pair. conjugate leaf. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). one half of a piece of leather (TS. LIU G – letter in its isolated. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah.v.). al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. WDUN E TY. 28). as opposed to linked (ligatured) form.

. . 6$ ..

IR. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. II.) (KU. 390). shaqq (q. fur„ah (pl. mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA. 60.v. MY. AT. SA. III. 154). I. 481. far„ al-qalam – syn. 230. DD. 83). 133.g.

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

// .. .

LC. 23) 2. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „.18). 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. witness (MR. note. annotation (TM. mifra¨ – cutter (ST.=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK . apograph. index. most probably a variant of PLTU „.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

q. aÁl. scroll (FI. 15. SM. JL. IDU JK SO IDU JK W.v.) (UD. 131). application as opposed to theory. abbrev. (AD. 82). 93. 269) 4. WDIU ¶ – interlacing. 88. 87. KR. argument resulting from a legal point.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl.

 DOVR WDIU JK (MO. 41) – end. execution. completion. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.

farkah (MN. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2. 289) 3. lacuna (LC. blank. 116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK .+  /0 . 23. 26. GA. also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. 23).

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

comment. explication. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 1.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. disc. fa¦¦ (pl. commentary and/or translation. fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). X.5 . IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. MS. 83). from Greek into Arabic (EI. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. 55. FRPS VKDU¨ 2. paragraph mark (TP. three dots. 23. 351. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams.g. III. AK. e. mufassir – commentator. LC. SA.

 .

110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl. fuÁ O.

138. space between words or passages. III. 55. word division (in a text). . SA. division of a composition into fuÁ O ). MM. 145-146) 2. 134. QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. taf¦ O 1. spacing (TP.

fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . 271). 37. silver-based ink (UK. TP. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. 33). or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. 130-133.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U.20). fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’. 53. comp. 92. n..  FKDSWHU 6' II. MB.. (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. MP. baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver.

273. fiqar) – passage. paragraph (LC. DM). section of a text. SD. fiqrah (pl. WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). 351). I. abbrev. II. 23. AK. comp. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. xiii. taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N.

– book cover (HN. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K. BA. 385. III.

 FRPS VKLGT .

g. box (KC. mufakkak – loose. IDQ T (pl.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. fihris. 45). funuq) – case. fihrist (pl IDK ULV. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). disbound (e.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. marginal note. 36). bibliography. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. 293) 2. 23. nota bene (notabilia). abbrev. 149. mashyakhah 2. list. EI. II. II. 49. catalogue (SD. RU &0  RU 66. record of attested study. II. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. 743-744) 4. 286. abbrev. comp. 207. AR. (CA. also I µidat al-a¦l. gloss. LC. cataloguing. 50). fahrasah 1.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan. 107). .VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. 76  AG. 15). WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. Qubbat al-.

qub¨al. straightedge (TS.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. II. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. abbrev. AG. 107. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. SD. IV. qabla – before.‘grave’) – pen box (EI. lit. qabr. . 302). 471).

PXT ELO – collator. n. muÑ UD ah 2.TP. corrector. collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. 490492). VII. 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih. VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. collation note (statement). letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . EI.52. MH. comp. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. 56. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL. II.

CI.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. II. CI. aqudd) – strip (of leather). n. AG. 11. 54. 18. TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather. / / / / / (TP. qaÃÃ. 701. AA. I. abbrev. xiv).37. FRPS ] Ðidah. 107). . etc.xiii. 24. 10. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. 109). comp. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. qidd (pl. II.

59. 26. VII. muqaddimah – forward. MI. fore-edge flap (TS. TP. 120. 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). abbrev. comp. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. also TS. 52. 173). preface. RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. AG. 17. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar. 495-496). introduction (EI. for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U. 107).

collection of glosses. 139). 26) 2. – marginal note. 9 -129) 3. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. TLU µah 1. reading. variant reading (varia lectio). commentary (AD. manner of recitation. prelector. reciter. gloss. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. recitation (LC. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q.

$/ .  73 .

n. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W. 494-498). FRPS VDP Ñ. TP. II.g. FRPS ¨arf. KF.25. 53. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

sheath (SK. II. AG. al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. . 466) 2. 36. aqribah) 1. AG. 36. 110). al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. TLU E (pl. 104. SA. AG. 35-36. 110). sleeve case (TS. 110).

107.19. IB. 19. IB. 417). index. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. 63. ST.114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. IV. putting something into a press (ST. II. ST. IK. 44. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. 63). MP. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. 107. 18. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. 60). sifr 13. 59). AG. 47). 21. 103: PLTU   (!). 10. 20). qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing. index. 94). qar¦a¶ah – fine. IA. MP. 44). IK. 19. screw press (MB. compact writing (KM. index. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. AG. QS. 91-92.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

UD. 261. II. V. parchment (AE. VIII. EI. 50. I. AE. 82-91). 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. 108. EI. VIII. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). IW. 173-174. AE. 17). 66-76. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. 407) or paper (SA. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. comp. 98. 66-93. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. WS.

often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. . – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. 335- WDTU   W . XIV.

muà ODÑah. comp. 136. 313). 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. IV.  qarmadah. 143. compact writing (KM. 182. qarma¨ah – fine. %/ $0 QRV     122. 186). sifr 13. muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK .

IV. index. IA. al-qurnah al-yusrá). EI. 181. trimming (ST. reed pen (IK.19. IB. . JM. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. qirmah see VL\ T. DS. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. 59. EI. 69). taq¦ ¦ – shaving. 86. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. 60. MB. AA. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. 146. 153. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. IK. IV. see also UA. HT. 80). miqsam(ah) (lit. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). 42. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. qurnah – corner (MB. 41). 393: not defined). 103. (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ. qa¦¦. 682.

comp. qa„m – syn. 86). 130. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU.116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. qa¦amah. miqaÃÃ. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 32). 153). MP. qa„ P DK. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 154). tin-based ink (UK.

109-110. 72-74. the point itself. I. KM. LM. nibbing. 153. IK. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. 93). leather (IW. etc. cutting (of leather. 102. sifr 4. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. AA. – white hide. 50. KU. 2-463.) breadthwise (KD. KK.. II.

i. II. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM. longer than the left’. LM.e. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. LL. I. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. 462. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely.

MJ. 2996. II. 1742. 217). opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. 462). see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. 154). qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. II. ivory. 217). al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. straight point of the nib (SA. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. . II. MJ.

AT. IV. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. LS. qa¨¶ (pl. 54. qaÃÑ al-thumn. 65. 76. SA. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah.GLOSSARY 117 etc. IP. 105: maqaÃÃ. II. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 62. MK.742. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. 133). MM. 468. MB. SK. 45. ND. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ.

piece of poetry) 2. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. . VI. piece of calligraphy.  irs (AG. 110). qi¨¶ah 1. 475). piece of something (e. principle of the interlace. 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. calligraph (AC. FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting.g. decoupage (ER.

21) 2. VI. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined. 90) 4. AG. 91). collage.  +'   T ÃiÑ. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (.. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. 107). 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. 144. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. taq¨ ¶ 1. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. papercut(s). instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. 11. 9. mishraÃ.  (5 9. PA. WS. comp. format (of a book) (TL. decoupage. cutting instrument (DM) 2. 475). filigree work (IP. muqaÃÃa¶ ). . (pair of) scissors (IK. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

– the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

377). . – clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH.

ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. 15. AG. 107). 107. flat back (TS. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. AG. qalb. 641). comp. 14. 15-17. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. 20). al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. AG. AG. 15. 107). 15. 107). index.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. taqfiyah – backing (TS. ST.

 PRXOG 8.  .

MK. 26.3. 26. LC. 14. index. ST.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. no.19. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto.

214. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. 59. 43). FI. folder (IB. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. miqlab SO PDT OLE. 93) 4. FZ. JL. 88.

7XUN PLNOHE.

WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. 202-203). TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. DW. – envelope flap (MT. qalam SO DTO P TLO P. 68). 83. 26).

.  SLHFH RI ZRRG .  76 .

45-87. 13 (AA. TC. II. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". SA. also qalam al-qa¦ab. KU.  calamus. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V.e. i. copper pen. 232. 44-465. IK. see TW. reed pen. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK.

 -50.. UK. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. ductus. hand. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . AT. MP. MB. 133-134. EI. 71-75. 356. handwriting. 471) 3. 59-64. 100). . 38-39. IV. MB. script. 144.

see khaÃÃ. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

used in talismans and amulets (IT. muqawwar. I. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. 335). 11-12). al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin.

TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 145). 85). al-thuluth. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. IK. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. DO-mu¨aqqaq. 153. 144). al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS.

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  .  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah. ..$  Q. ..  $. SA.

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

49-51. 2565). For a list of words used for such containers see SL. 85). 43. II. qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). KR. 109). AG. I. trimming (a reed). II. hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. . 43. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. chest (LL. 79). WDTO P – paring. 11.

comp. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah. 144). III. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA. 37). AS. 11. 144).

 qawl SO DTZ O.

passage. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. tract 2. xiv. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. XII. II. 154. TP. 155. MI. short composition. treatise. 190. PDT ODK 1. 238). – quotation. MU.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

 FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. III. KF. DF. 377. I. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. 86. 190. 283. I. 327. folio (folium) (MK. 83. 82. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. KF.

. mDEV Ã. erect. comp. 22). RN.g. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. PXVWDT P – upright.

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 . – HQGSDSHU 8.  DPP DO-Ñ.

 al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq. qayd SO TX\ G.

– note. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶.. qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. statement. 17. committing something to writing. composition (TE.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

 . 62) 4. binding. 371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh.. IK. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // .  tying. 113. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. III. IA.

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

43). glossator (AM.187). 27). IB. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP. muqayyid 1. N JKL¨. gloss (LC. author 2. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. no. – marginal note. 153. N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136).

al-kalŒ . N JKLGDK – sheet. AE. IV. . 419-420. comp. etc. WS. 136). 77) – paper (EI. leaf (of paper) (AJ. al-5 P . 77-85). WS. al-N JKDG DO-.VO P . see waraq. waraq. SO NDZ JK Ã. 98-105.

WS. ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. 136.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. munkabb – inclined. as in the beginning of w Z. 374). 85-86). N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. kubab) – ball (of fibre. in papermaking) (OM). kubbah (pl.

8'  /0 .

169). 440. SD. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ . NDE NDM 1. 91. TS. 393). 40.) 2.) (US. II. comp. TH.107.v. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. II. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. q. KL. 49-53. Ranunculus asiaticus. CM. AG. katb. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj. 416. II. mikbas. UA. mun¨anin. 416). kitbah (MH. WDNE V – pressing (QS.

copying. composition. NLW E NLW EDK – writing. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . transcription.

used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist. FDOOLJUDSKHU.

45: ‘hence katabah. NI. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. CT. Turkish ketebehü. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). +.

amanuensis (EI.  VHFUetary. 554-760). IV. scrivener 2. scribe. 180). . fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI. comp. mu¨arrir.

tail (of a book or document) 2. NH. I. KD. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. book. copying (KK.) . NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. maktab – place designated for writing.   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 .. 384). V. II. NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. VI. maktabah – library (EI. chapter in a book (SL. document. IK. 197-200). a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ. spine (of a codex) (HT.GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 23. lin. booklet. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. letter. PDNW E SO PDNW E W.115). codex (MA. EI. piece of writing. 388: mukattab). archetype. 53. IV. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 86). 705. 207-208).

LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. sifr 13. II. KM. master calligrapher (KK.g. IV. 53). muktib. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. 51. mukattib (e. 4. – piece of calligraphy. calligraph (DP. 705). KD.

  26 . ..9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .0 .

kuŒl – antimony. kohl. 230). 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). pointing (of a wall) (FT. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. 414) 2. outline (of letters) (DH. 393. outlining. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il).383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. I. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. no. 187). takŒ O 1. mikŒ O see mirwad. IR. NDWK U µ – tragacanth.

68). misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB. comp.

OLQHV LQ .

142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK.

12. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs. 33. AG.

0. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK.  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). NDGK – thus. sic. for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . IB. 42). 154. abbrev.

 WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI. 184). TM. takarrur – graphic error. 48. ditto- NXUU V DK. WLNU U.g. dittography (e. 162). mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar).

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

14. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. SK.92). abbrev.  . 107) 2. AA.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ . 468-471. x. passim. II. 48. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. KU. quire (gathering). comp. 132). II.0 . . 700). SA. SL. 100. reading stand (MD. 84. KD. lin.  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB. 131. CI. 60). TS. TS. AG. II. II. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. IK. ra¨l. kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. 60). NXUV – book cradle.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

.- QR  .

QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH . mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P.P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE.

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

miksar SO PDN VLU. 363). kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH.

274. IR. TP. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . 128). 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 137. I. knife (for making erasures) (IR. 58). 389. DD. 79. syn. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. 391). of bashr (LF. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). NH.

kuÑ E.126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl.

kaff(ah). AB. JL. passim. WS. II. 61. 109. IA. tongs (MB. 95. KR. 90). 92. 39. NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. 94). 82). AJ. 97. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. 442. usually 25 sheets (PT. 406). 977. 84. 109). – spine (back of a codex) (MB. rizmah. FT. al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. 109). DE. dast. NXQQ VK DK. flat back (MB. comp. main de papier). 145. DM). WDNI W – inlaying. inlay (SA. 92.

SO NDQ Q VK.

. HB. 25. commonplace book (LC. – 1.

395-396). mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI.  kunyah (pl. al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . V. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb).

I . an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI . IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-.GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. originally and properly speaking. I 1.

g. 11-13. MV. 27ff. 363. AV. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV. FN. OD).  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e. 8-9. comp.

76  $*  86 .

azure ink. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. ultramarine. II. 478). 85). 29. al¨ T OL¨ T. paint (UK. JM. 27. 119. SA. laŒaq (pl. 145. 114. 139). MP.

 ilŒ T. . mulŒaq – omission. insertion (TP.

154. 703). TM. I. LC. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK.. 185. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP. 279).  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq.14). IB. OL] T – paste. adhesive (KD. 42). liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. 24.128 GLOSSARY  . comp. II. JA.

AG. 390) 3. DD.  76  11. 15. 133. book cradle (TW. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. II. WA. 14. 107.169. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. SA. 481. copyist’s book support. n. I.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8.24. SA. II. 230. IR. 481) 2. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam).

/&  /( . where each gathering is numbered separately). abbrev.  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books.

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

109. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah. ST. MM. index. 20. HT. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. 132). lin. $'  /( 137) 3. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. 25. LC. 90. OLV Q (pl. 13. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. 119. JL. 25).

 .

laqab SO DOT E. 131. alÁiqah) – paste. milaff 1. lafŒ – tooling. 145. wrapper (DM). 391. II. IR. or (MI. 480. DD. adhesive (SA. II. spool (DS.166). mulaffaq. malediction. abbrev. OL] T la¶nah – curse. SD. 167. DM). 26). 530).GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . 181. stamping (HT. lin. I. 230) 2. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. comp. passim). al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. RA.

– nickname. 109) 2. 618-631). V. pincers. DD. . implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. 406). milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. WDOT P – inlaying. (pair of ) tongs. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). inlay (FT. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. honorific title (EI. tweezers (MB. I.

lakk RU O N '* . 11. stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. 49). LM.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. lak.

AG. glazed. lamq – elegant writing. comp. copying (TE. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS.). ODPP ¶ – glossy.g. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. law¨ W. 109). lacquer.  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. varnish (AB. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. 16). namq. burnished (e. q.v. 140). 11.

58-59) 2. gloss (DM).  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. 31) 6. 99. (Turk.123.or tailpiece) (LC. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af. headpiece (FT. II. 24. panel (in decoration). . WDOZ Œ – marginal note. usually framed). pasteboard (ST. OM) 4. HT. 142-143. wooden board (TS. 402). 29. levha) large panel (of calligraphy. wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. 125). illuminator (HD. 124) 3. 11. head. 5) 5. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece. 25. MB. MS. lin.

). central medallion (on a book cover). 38). MB. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. IA. oval figure 2. 59. also known as sarwah (q. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design). raÐs al-lawzah. see also nuqÃah) 3.GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. 156. mandorla 4. 44.v. 11. 109. AG. 31. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. 105. TS. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. IB. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK.

478. 133. 208). lawn SO DOZ Q. MJ. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. II. IR. 45. IB. 230. AT. – spatula.

. pigment. JA. tint (EI. 148. – colour. V.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. 698-707. AI.

 WDOZ Q 1. polychrome illumination (WA. IK. see also the quotation under sha¨m). 11. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. III. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. WDO\ ¨ 1. tinting (of paper). 27) 2. LC. shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. 86.

MJ. 111-119. MP. III. tuft of unspun silk. 370). O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. 20. 13. 160) 3. index. UK. 393) tow (wad. O TDK (pl. AT.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. 84. MB. 26-29. 26-29. IK. II. II. MP. 55. 133). 79-84. 702. n. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. . colour. also PLO T (UA. liyaq) 1. BA. 203) 2. coloured ink (SA. tint (AD. paper pulp (OM). 477-478.

also PLO TDK (BA. III.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. II. amliqah) 1. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 . 370) – compartment for ink (KD.

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

 .. %$ ..

KH. 38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. 144. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS.

muraÃÃab. such as al-thuluth. muqawwar. **** matn SO PXW Q. comp. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. 843) 2. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). V. II. text-column (MU. EI. 111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . VI. 1.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

shar¨ or gloss. WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. ¨ VKL\DK.

central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. 1. IX. 214. (qalam) al-matn. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN. P WLQ – author of the original composition. 843) 4. 53). 568). EI. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. Œard al-matn (HN. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. II. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. MD. TP. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). SD. . 25). 24. VI. LC. 109.

khirqah. 1031). amthilah) – copy.) . 121-122. amiddah) – soot ink. MP.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). 371). or licking) (TP.) . obliteration (by means of a cloth. JL. process of softening leather (making it flexible. . IV. pl. 86.  madd. 471-477. 38. comp. 238). 55. AE. blind tooling. AT. III. EI. MP. KR. comp. tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. 15-18. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. 36-37). PLG G (pl.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. KH. 58. erasure.52. UK. ¨aÃÃ. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. 127-131. MB. ¨ibr. III. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. maŒ UDK (q. IV. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. index.v. VI. 67-71. 216). apograph (CD. 90). LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. tamŒ ¨ 1. II. maŒw – ink removal. SA. comp.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). ink (in general) (SK. UK. MJ. BA. 38. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. 79: dalk) 2. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. 89). n. 138-140. 134-135. 79-90. 21. TP. 13. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. transcript. MJ. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST.

I  mudyah (madyah. mudan. 103- 8$  . (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . II. also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. midan) – knife. midyah) (pl. 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). 465-467.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). SK.5  . pen knife (SA.

ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M. FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). WDPU „ see  abbah.

166. 202). mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. I. 114). SA. misŒ 1. 110. IA. AT. 60: misann almis¨) 2. 391). masŒ – rubbing. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. 230. II. 133. sackcloth (DG. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . . 481-482. see shar¨. DD. wiping (MB. coarse haircloth.

. FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð.

transcription (TE. IR. 55) 2. mashq 1. hasty. 230). mush¨ – comb (IA.  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( . 116-117. 16) 3. elongation (of letters) (JA. scribbling (MM. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq. copying. SK.. 60.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. AA.I. inelegant hand. I.

KK. IK. is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own.’). unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq…. KT. 151). fine elongation. 48. 134: ÑDQ . calligraphic hand (CM. 4. according to some opinions. 164) 6. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. elegant. calligraphic model (AD. fine elongated stroke (SK.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. 16. 83) 5. copying from a model (TE. mashqah 1. MY. for example. 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. calligraphic exercise.

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. P VKLT – calligrapher (NI. 183).

'' . .

 FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. signature. autograph (DM) 2. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . signing.

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

478). Makkah (al-mukarramah. 11. al-musharrafah. VII. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. 107) 2. TS. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. EI. AG. al-maghrah al-¶. 27). 88. II. milk – ownership (OS. LC. plane-like instrument (TS.U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. etc. 8). 390. 25. 88. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. also malasah – burnisher. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . 11. 411). 60-61). 31. al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. ex-library. AG. 107). LC. I  mimlasah 1.). FRPS QDÌar 3. polisher (NH. ex-dono.

work (known as al-DP O . SDVVLP :6 -13. 85-94) 2. KF.  GLFWDWLRQ $. I.

472-.VII. passim. 725-726). II. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. SL. EI. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. stamp (EI. signet. 48). 725-726. famulus (AI. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. VII. writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). muhr – seal. passim. VII. GA.

 FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. . 472-473). VII. stamping (EI.

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

KM. 79-82. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3. 472. AE. II. 50-52) 2. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. sheet. sheet. 105-106. 8-9. leaf (of paper) (SA. WS. IV. sifr 13. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. II. (IW.

 mawzah – burnisher. 63). 60. P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. polisher (IA.

– pen knife. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK .$  maws. UD. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] . trimmer (TW.

V. 226. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. LC. II.  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA.  1+  '' . 64). 25). P µ al-ward – rose water (MP.

. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen. 12. gilt (SD). hence P µil – inclining. II. tilting (of a script). FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. 45). coating. II. script) (UD. 442) 2. 403). WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. inlaying (SA. SA. slanting (of the line.

IV. WDQE K – note. JM. copying (TE. PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). sifr 13.138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. 16. 5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). nota bene. remark (in the body of a composition). 40). KM. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. 146.

232. paring. UD. naŒt 1. – OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. minjam – mallet (ST. 43: P MDPDK). index. 21. trimming (of a reed) (IR. IB. 36). 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK.

35).g. 133-134. basmalah. . 482). (MG. copper-based ink (UK. nuŒ V – copper.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. MP. etc. e. ¨amdalah. I.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

82). DM). 94-95). 230. selector (DF. munkhul – sieve (IR. II. 384). nasab SO DQV E. 95. I. KR. muntakhib – compiler. 97. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. – anthology (EA.

nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. tribe. nisbah (pl. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. ending in – (EI. genealogy. etc. – lineage. 53-56). 967-968). VII. pedigree (EI. religious sect or school. VIII.

DO-PDQV E DK.

1124 (in Persia). 17. (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. naskh 1. sifr 13. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. naskh-ta¶O T). IV. ER. 1127 (in Muslim India). The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG .5. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. index. 21). transcription (TE. KK. 57) 2. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. 696-699). par excellence. 1126 (in Turkey). IV. which according to the Mamluk tradition. KM. IV. see khaÃÃ.

al-nuskhah (al-kutub. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ.in Persia. but erroneously. commonly. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. transcript. 47. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ.      $5  $. nusakh) 1. comp. QDVNK 1. pl. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. LM. EI. II.12) 2. I. CI. al-makh¨ ¨ W. I. list. 141.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. catalogue (AD. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. xv. 123. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. recension (MU. personal) nature (CI.in Turkey. copy (EI. variant reading (varia lectio). XVI./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. archetype (LC. IV. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. nuskhah (pl. CD.in Muslim India). 138. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. 89). IV. LM. 146. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . 1125. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah. 36. VIII. LE. al-naskh al-mu¶W G.171). 149) 2. n.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. 26). 412: – nuskhahaÁl. MZ. 1123. abbrev. properly ‘pertaining to naskh’. 182. badal) 4. CM. 128. 1127. CA.  0. version. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn. xiv).

unicum. 26). 26). al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. archetype (LC. DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

17. PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. MA. WB. 348. passim). TW. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . 16. scribe (TE. 47). muntasikh – copyist.

g. LQVK µ – construction.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. documents or state papers. . I. no. style or composition. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq).. III. e. letter-writing. layout (mise en page ) (FK. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. 9. of letters. 1241-1244). epistolography (EI.

94. 134. 278. I. IK. WDQVK U. 173. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. TD. 67). I. 136). nashr. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. AI. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV. 76   $*  .

OM. IB. nashan – wheat starch. 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). 21). 480. . IR. 390. 12. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. 50. 133. index. AT. 136). 13. ST. 395). 230: minshaµah). QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). 106. DD. 21. minshafah – blotter (TD. dhurah) (OM). PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. I. index. I. II. starch paste (made of sorghum. MB. II. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. starch paste (TS. SA. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. 60. IA.

 . pallet-like tool (HT. handle (SK. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2.. 240. stroke. ni¦ E 1.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ . 249. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn.133. 241. 137)..  . the letter alif (IR. straight line. lin.

MB. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE. 47.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. 103. UD. 59). LM. 11. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 43. munta¦ib – ascender. IB. 59) 3. IA. 156. up-stroke (SA. 101. III.

88. medallion. 93. ZM. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI. JL. reading note. na„ar – study note. 218. 43). tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. FZ. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element.g. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah). e. 217. III. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶.

$+  .) .  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK.

XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I. un„ur – ‘see’. FRPS PXà ODÑah. abbrev.

nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

curator. na„m. . no. II.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. versification. shiÑr. I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. comp. 2812).170).

I. IV. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. sifr 13. MJ. IV. minfadh – punch. 230. 133. WDQT Œ. DD. 23). II. naqr – inscription. 5). 391: for sewing of quires). epigraphy (KM. revision (KF.3. passim). tanaqquŒ – correction. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). awling (MB. no. AT. nafÃah) – pockets of air. 208. IR. engraver (KM.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. engraving (on stone). nafa¨ (sg. sifr 13. 392). 481. nafdh – punching. II. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). QDTT U – carver. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. awl (SA.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

5). 84. 471. SA. naqsh SO QXT VK. II. IK. KM. – ink (KK. 49. sifr 13. 469. IV.

engraving. painting. naqr 2. MB. epigraphy (FT. 931). 63) 3. illumination (EI. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. comp. 105. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. IA. inscription. VII. TS. 400). QLT VKDK 1. 156. 29-32.

. ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. 59).  0% 105. IA.

931-932). 266). 5) 2. 159). Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. engraver (KM. VII. sifr 13. copying (FK. IV. miniature painter. III. 155. QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. carver. 141. WDQT VK – writing. illuminator (PA.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. designer.

nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. III. nuq¨ah (pl. naq¦. 16-17) 2. III. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl. nuqaÃ. naq¨ 1. 160. SA. 58). 38). KH. letter-pointing (TE. vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. 16-17. SA. III. haplographic error. haplography (TP. TE. 151.

EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.  T OD .  GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.

137. abbrev. numrah. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. TE. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). 218) 2. translation. 133. Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã).  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. IA. citing. 368). 59: nuqaà mudawwarah. calligrapher (TE. 33. 68) 5. . Q TLO (pl. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . AW. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. copying. 12. copyist. exact copy (apograph). transcription (MU. naqalah) 1. HT. 16. 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. figure. nimrah – number. translator. XII. 105. orthographer (LT. quoting. naql 1. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). 16) 4. IA. extract. MB. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. quotation 3.

embellished writing. copying (TE.GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. 53. 16. 62. KK. 45. 91). written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers. namq WDQP T – elegant. SK. numbering. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 . AM. 53.

45. 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). NI. Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC.

calligraphic composition (NI.1). IV. painted illustration (KF. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). sifr 13. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). n. II. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. copying (KH. WDQP O – compact writing. copying (SK. 369. 38). elegant. namnamah 1. 237). calligraph. compact writing (KM. 105) 2. 181. AW. AA. embellished writing. 119.

al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. 44).) (LM. 26. index.v. 43). PXQ U – syn. IB. of maÃP V q. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. having an open counter (ant. IB. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. – floral design. 22. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. 69). of mufatta¨. PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the .

27). 498-450. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. KF. III. II. EI.

82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. – inkwell (SK. II. KD. IK. 700. 106.

LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. / / / (for intahá) (MW. xi. CI. 87. II. 110. SL. abbrev. GA. LQWLK µ – end. CI. xiii. II. 285). I. termination.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

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hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU. hudb. 36). **** DKG E (sg. hud hud SO KDG KLG.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). correction. 23). 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . epitome (EA... LKG µ – dedication (FN. revision (DM) 2. abridgement.. I. . WDKGK E 1.

rounding (of the spine). abridger. MG. author. 181. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. muhall. 483. 69. X. 72. compiler (SS. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. WDKO O 1. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. 61). I. EI. backing (MB. IA.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. 73) 2. epitomist. 108) 2. 109.

 . VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9.

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

.  PDUJLQ ') ..   .

gloss. .  PDUJLQDO note. abbrev. /&  0.

  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn). K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ . annotation (TT... 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK. WDKP VK 1. glossing.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $. .

annotated (TW. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. muhammash – glossed.

4. IR. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points. 244). . LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. syn.. raÐV HJ 6$ . unpointed letters (TP. 57.. 57. MH. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah.  K PDW DO-alif). 90). K PDK – head (of a letter). GL.

   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). 31..148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement.. upper cover (TS. ¶alá al-wajh – copying. face. IV. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( . 25) 2. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL. wajh al-hirr (lit. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . 43-45). 31) 3. II. epitome (DM). transcription in full. wajh(ah) 1. upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. 25. page (MU.

 -92). 29. 109). al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al... 82). MK. 6$ . wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG.Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK.

SA. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK. II. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. sifr 13. . wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. 82). 29. KK. IV. 464. MK. 53). 218). 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. KM. 5. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. MJ. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. waŒVK see sinn. waŒy – writing.

muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH.73). DA).GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. lobed medallion (DH. 95. piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK. waraq SO DZU T. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. no. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette. no.73).

such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-. -195. 85-.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. WS.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

abbrev. waraqah 1. leaf.  $5  . folio (folium). parchment or leather) 2. piece (of paper.

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

11. 25). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. AG. wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. (TS. 29). 109).

DO-. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 85).VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. I.

31). al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. French paper (PT. 77) 2. 75. European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. I. DO-5 P 1. 378).

waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). SA. OM). paper bearing an imitation watermark. . 193. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. 31). Tre Lune) (PT. VI. 30.

al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O. 32).150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT.

MD. WS. 35. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. pasteboard (JL. 104) 2. 88. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. 394). 487. 107. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. WS. II. 380). 84). SA. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . – glazed paper (PT. 82). 87. JL. 32. cardboard (FT. MS.

66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). foliated arabesque design (ST. 93. 558-561). – marbled paper (DM. 88. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. 82. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. professional copyist. bookseller. IV. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. IK. bookbinder (QS. 87. MP. 380). index. WDZU T 1. LC. MN. scribe (SL. copying. I. 16. II. 495). 14. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. KF. WR. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. 22. FI. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. IB. 161). WS. stationer. 9. 22. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. I. index. 28. 81. 69. maysam SO PD\ VLP. transcription (WS. EI. II. 94). JL. 65). 148) 2.

– tool. stamp (AB. mawsim SO PDZ VLP. 135).

For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e. washŒ – decorating. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. festival. index. MP. II. 65). 10). – feast. CI.g. 22. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK .

125. stamping (of leather) (HT. . drawing (AD. writing. lin.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1. also WDZVK P – tooling. 186) 2. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK. 93) 3.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

washy. stamp (HT. wa¦l. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE. UK. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). lin. wi¦l. awÁ O ZDÁO W.126). – pattern (created by tooling). 18. wu¦l (pl.

knife (used by the waÁÁ O . VI. 10. 90).  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. 234. piece. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. 88. HB. collema (kollema) (WS. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. 812. 683. wa¦lah 1. 65) 2. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. SA. darj). vox reclamans (NM. II. 110). NZ. 144) 3.

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arrangement (of a text) (MU. aw  Ñ ) – composition. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. wa„¶ (pl. wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. 62. PA. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. I. KF. 187. VI. comp. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. 3132). 12. 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P.

 Z „i¶ – compiler. author (DF. . IV. 376).

proem (DM).152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. prologue. P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G.

56.192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $. – collation session (TP.  . TM.

 wi¶ µ (pl. 87: ZDT ¶ah. case. ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. box (MS. 19. 16. awÑiyah) – 1. DA). container (OM). ME. 575) 2. wifq SO DZI T.

signature (EI. 392-393) 3. 124. IV. 28. motto. gloss. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). I. 69. 392. 189). X. royal edict. 96). X. 100. 125) 4. KF.. LC. decree (EI. 189. 108). P IDT – seal. al-WDZ T ¶. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. stamp (IK. 10) 2. apostil (usually signed) (AD. 28. . KM. LC. writing something down. autograph. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. AD. I. sifr 13. WDZT ¶ 1. taking something down in writing (SL. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the .

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

WDZT I (KF. waqf 1. 90). 43-46. LM. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. 146. 38) 2. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. wakf 3.9 1123. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf).29. 61. 73-77. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. 90. KF. LM. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH.g. waqfiyah. II.g.g. 473) – endowment certificate or statement.) (BL. endowment.in Turkey). II. 63). PDZT I 1. 100. above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. JM. 69). . LC. 187). LM. 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (.. unfinished stroke (e. 146. (AS. KF. II. WDTU Ì (q.. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. AS. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. 441). KH. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). WDZT I SO WDZT I W. 146.v. reading. 146).in Persia. 1125. 428-442). bequest note (OS. III.

error (IK.  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. 95. 122). sifr 13. K P – omission (IK. IV. comp. 28). wakt – letter pointing (KM. . 55). which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). AA. 123). logograph. overlining (TP. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. taÐammul 2.) (LC. AA. wahm – mistake. 95.

96). SA.154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA. III. 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146). al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . III. 95-96. III.

DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq. ray¨ Q QDVNK. maÁ ¨if.

ant. 6$ III. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. 144). al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah. \ ELV – rectilinear.

6$ ..  8'  $6  /0 ..

yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ. FRPSPDEV Ã.

reed pen (IK. KD. in the hand of) (OT. 42). – hand. 86. DM. II. 393. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). I \DG. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ. . UA. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. \DU ¶(ah) – reed.

g. no.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. CM.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &. .  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK.

 .

ed. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. A. AJ = J. AE = Adolf Grohmann.ABBREVIATIONS 1. Max Weisweiler. AC = Adam Gacek. 1981. AF = Oleg F. 1989. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. ±aydar Ghaybah.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. Damascus. 1923. 1967. AD = E. Akimushkin and Anatol. Gray. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. Beirut. Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. AI = ÑAbd al-.VKE O LQ KLV µ. Riyad. ed. ed. B. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. AG = Adam Gacek. Algiers. 2 (1989): 37-53. 1414/1994. von Karabacek. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. “Das arabische Papier”. Paris/ London. transl. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. Vol. Ivanov. 1979: 35-57. Arabische Paläographie.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East.1. The arts of the book in Central Asia. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. Fagnan. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . Wien. Al-. “The art of illumination”.

“Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. AW = Nabil F. 1992.D. Manuscripts of the Middle East. decoration. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. ed.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. 2 (1987): 45-67. New York. London/Oxford. Safwat. AO = Adrian Brockett. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Montreal. London/Oxford. 382-398. 1996. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. AL = . The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451].4 (1986): 131-137. AS = Adam Gacek. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. 4 (1989): 144-149. 1. 1982: 1. AQ = David James. binding and paper”.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. McGill University. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . AP = Nabia Abbott. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. 8 (1941): 65-104. Descriptive catalogue. AV = François Déroche. 1996. Manuscripts of the Middle East.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. no. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. . “Arabic numerals”. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. Ars Islamica. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. 15. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. 1992. London/Oxford. AN = Richard Lemay. nos.

CT = Pierre A. Montreal. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. The Chester Beatty Library. CM = Adam Gacek. -CCA = Adam Gacek.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. 1984-85.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal. CL = Jan Just Witkam. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. 1958. London. 1991. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. 1982 . 27-28 (1981): 177-196. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . MacKay. Arberry. Dublin.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. 4 (1991): 35-53. CI = Adam Gacek. Leiden. CD = Arthur J. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. Oriens..

M. Iskandar. Dictionnaire arabe-français. DB = R. 61. Chouémi and C. N. Blachère. London.S. 1967.4 (1971). 1960. -DDA = A. Dictionnaire . no. CW = A. De Biberstein Kazimirski. Paris. Denizeau.Z.´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library.

DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. Beirut. ed. ed. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G.2 (1938): 141-151. DG = Werner Diem. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. Wiesbaden.1986. fasc. 1984. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl.M. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. DC = A. Dictionnaire arabe-français. 1994. fasc. . DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. . Paris. 2 (1998): 93-193. 5.1 (1937): 69-110. 1967. DP = Adam Gacek. Beryus. 4. Little. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”.-L. Revue des études islamiques. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. DQ = François Déroche. DM = Hans Wehr. de Premare. 1989. Kuwait. 1993 . Cowan.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. 4th ed. “The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Paris. NY. Archeological studies.D. 4 (1989): 44-55. ±amd al-. DR = Donald P.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af. 0DPO N studies review. 1994.. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. ed. 59 (1991): 229-235. J.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. Ithaca. Frankfurt. “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. DT = Tawfik Canaan..

LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. -EEA = J. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley. Baghdad.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. New ed. London. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. à W´ Al-Mawrid. Part 1. -FFD . Leiden. 1998. 1997. Cairo. transl. EP = François Déroche. 5 .S. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.). 1999. 1979. FM . EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. London (later Costa Mesa.. n. Al-)XQ Q DO-. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Starkey. London.VO P \DK. New York. Dimand. Encyclopedia of Arabic literature. 1995: 17-57. Calif. ed. 1986. E. Meisami and P. 1982 .EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. eds. Yarshater. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q..S.d. Istanbul. London/ Oxford.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. 1960 . 1995: 93-101. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. 1993. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus.EU K P .

1982. Istanbul. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. herausgegeben von W. 1987. Wright.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q .ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. ³. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. Wiesbaden. Cairo. Cambridge. Fischer. 1966. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). HN = Ñ \LGDK . 6 (1991): 41-58. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. .EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. Manuscripts of the Middle East. HT = Adam Gacek. Rabat. Cairo. 1967. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. Kaziev (Gaziev). GL = W.U. transl. 3rd ed. HD = A. ed. 50-99. A Grammar of the Arabic language. 1994. HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. 1992. Baku. 1987. FT = Oktay Aslanapa.

1973. Petherbridge. Cairo/ Tunis. J. Beirut. of Chicago. IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab.EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. 1997: 57-63. ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-.1987? . The Oriental Institute. Univ.1981. F. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. )DKP 6DÑd.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. Carswell and G.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. Déroche and F. Damascus. 1389/1970. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. Bosch. IB = G. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. London.. Chicago. May 18 . IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . ed. ed. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. 1981. no. Paris.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. 1983. 1995: 123-136. ed. Richard. A¨mad ‚aqr. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. 1319 A. Cairo. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990].August 18. .2 (1979): 221-284. à W´ Al-Mawrid.H. Beirut.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Qum. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q . IM = Ñ. 8.

. Ph. Qum. 1985.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. Damascus. 1983.. s. Beirut. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). [Tehran?]. University of Michigan. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I . no.. 1363 [1984]. 1962..LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð.G E (Cairo).XOO \DW DO.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G. 1969.G E DOV PLÑ.D. ÑIzzat ±asan. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 20. KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  . “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. 1962. 38 (1989): 7-103. 6 pl.PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD.ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. Cairo.n. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð. ed.1961. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-.1 (1958): 81-106. 0DMDOODW . JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . Riyad.l.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-. ed. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . S. Baghdad.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. Al-0DQ KLO. 1997. Algiers. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. 1982.

240 (1984): 61-68. by Arthur Jeffery. 1316-21 A. Fehervari and Y. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. ed. “Al-.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”. 1.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq.H. Á KL = G. 1981. 2 (1946): 9-18. Cairo. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan.3 (1964): 1933.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK . 1937: 125-161. KS < VXI DO-. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . 1. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q. KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. Leiden.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.VO P .H. no. no. London. 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³. no. Al. 1 (1963): 26-48.LW E. ed. Safadi. RDVK G DOÑ.DWW Q  ³.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. 2.2 (1973): 43-78. 1978. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. no. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-.

Wiesbaden. Raif Georges Khoury. 1976.LW E DO-zuhd. ed. . ed. . KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá.XZDLW 1977. .LW E DONXWW E.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . .

“The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. ed.J. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. Ben Cheneb. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. Brill. LE = M. 1978 (catalogue no. 1911-1931. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. Arabic-English lexicon. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”.S. LL = Edward William Lane. 2 (1987): 68-87. Revue africaine.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. ed. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. 48 (1989): 21-29. 1929. van Koningsveld and Q. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. Rev. MELA Notes.500). LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. LB = Jan Just Witkam. 1992. LC = Adam Gacek. Leiden. 1984. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . Baghdad. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. LD = P. Cambridge. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. Manuscripts of the Middle East. by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. 1790-1930. Cairo. Samarrai.

MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. Damascus. 1995. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ. ed.G DO-Mawlá. MC OL¨ \DK . | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. no. ME = A. . MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. 1913.4 (1986): 185-248. Beirut. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. 1972. Cairo.d. Lamare. Beirut. MK = Etan Kohlberg. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. 20 (1970): 88-137. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”. 230 (1938): 551-575. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. 15.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Journal asiatique. MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . Beirut. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. Damascus. ed.U T . 1391/1971. 1980. 1992. 1992.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. Leiden.OP DO-Ñ. Beirut. ed. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q. n. 1349 [1930].

14. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. no. pt. Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. 15. MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. MP = Martin Levey.S. N. Revue des études islamiques. MT = Adam Gacek. no. 32 (1987): 105-114.1 (1969): 3-47. 1992.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. Cairo. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. no.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. 1936-38. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”. 1976-87.2 (1989): 201-203. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub.. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.4 (1962).6 (1993): 641649. MY = François Déroche. 52. London/Oxford.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . . ed. Al-Mawrid. 18. MW . “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð. MV = François Déroche. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. 75/76 (1995): 81-90.

NO = Dimitri Gutas. Damascus. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. 45 (1977): 1-87.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. 13. Manuscripts of the Middle East. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. Cairo. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. no. 1. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid. Bonebakker. 1 ILPELU  HG . “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . 1928. 2 (1987): 126-130. ND = J. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. 1418/1998: 341-393. NH .VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts.VO P  . “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI .168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab.A. London. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos.EU K P 6KDEE ¨.EU K P 6KDEE ¨.. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. NS = S. Revue des études islamiques. 2 (1987): 8-17. 1342/1923 . NC = Adam Gacek. Sadan.2 (1992): 679-683. Cairo. 1367/1949. NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub.EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ.

Manuscripts of the Middle East. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. . by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche.W. OM = Adam Gacek. “O. 5 (1960): 124-143. OH = J. PT = Terence Walz. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. Derek Latham.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . New York. Daly. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. Rabat. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”. 1985: 29-48. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 10 (1998): 41-63. OS = Adam Gacek. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. ed. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. M. 2 (1987): 88-95.H. 1994 : 75-81. Paris/Teheran. -PPA = Yves Porter. 1992. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). PK = S. 26 (1976): 199-212.

170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. SJ . 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). . 1 (1987): 21-38. Paris. Beirut. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. -RRA = William L. 1973. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. Chicago.EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . Costa Mesa. no. Bull. 1995. SL = Nabia Abbott. Paris. Cairo.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. 3rd ed. 1938. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. RI = W. Beirut.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. 1410/1990.4 (1986): 259-270. SD = R. RN = Nabia Abbott. 195772. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. ed. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. 1967. 1960. a new direction”. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. 15. 2 (1956): 339-372. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Bookbinder. Dozy. Chicago. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð.

MELA notes. 1997: 135-150. ed. . P. François Déroche. 1989: 49-50.1 (1997): 55-90.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q. 50-51 (1990): 13-18. 1925. Damascus.H. 1965.Q Q  London.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . Paris/Istanbul. ed. 5DVK G DO-Ñ.DWW Q  . Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. Paris. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. TE = Adam Gacek. Beirut.K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 1994: 11-32. Bibliothèque nationale. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. ed. TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. Rabat.H. 1995. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie). TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. arabe 6844). Ricard.VO P . 1346-49 A. Damascus. 1303 A. no. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. Rabat. MS (Paris. 41.

1982. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. 1353/1934. Déroche. F. Ñ$EG $OO K . Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed.VKE O  ³. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK . -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim.EU K P DO-.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. Paris/Istanbul.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh.172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. n. Damascus. TS %DNU LEQ . +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah.d. 1989: 51-60. xx-xxxii. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. Kuwait. . 1991. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed. ed. ed. Rabat. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. Jedda. TP = Adam Gacek. ±amd al-. Hyderabad. 1949. pl.

no. no. Beirut. DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1981-83. Graz. 1 (1986): 49-53.2 (1977): 45-56. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun. 16. UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. Dublin. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. 17 (1971): 43-172. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. Chester Beatty Library. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften.4 (1982): 10-24. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. Hildesheim/New York. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 18. DaÑwat al-|aqq. Beirut. no. .10 (1975): 80-92. 23. 1980.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. 1992. 1983.

2. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW .NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá. no. 6 pl.Oá / -XP Gá al. 17. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al.XOO \DW DO.1 (1955): 43-48. Tehran.G E (Cairo). 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed).

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P. / = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal.

numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P. ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah).

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

Á ¨ib. Áa¨ ¨. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨.

ra L\D $OO K . Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  .

 abbah (ta E E.ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).

rajÑ. Ñ UL a. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . = Ãurrah. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ.

waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V. fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). / = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu).

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . tamma. NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). malzamah. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn. aÁl.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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new ed. al-6DU TDE  :DO G 0X¨ammad. herausgegeben von Max Weisweiler..H. 4 (1951): 27-57. al-0DVK NK  Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q $QP à al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à alÑ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ al-KLMU . (lithographed). [Contains a translation of Chapter Six of al-MuÑ G I DGDE al-PXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G by ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ @ al-SamÑ Q  ÑAbd al-. Ñ ODP DO-kutub. 17. 1952. ³0DIK P DO-taÁ¨ I GLU VDK I WDÐÁ O DOmuÁÃala¨”. 10: 165. Maktabat al-Malik Fahd al-WaÃDQ \DK  ——— “Naskh al-makhà à W´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad. Ayman FuÐ G ³0DQ KLM DO-ÑXODP Ð al-0XVOLP Q I DO-ba¨th PLQ NKLO O DO-makhà à W´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DOÑ$UDE \DK. . Damascus. 7: 490-491. A¨mad Mu¨DPPDG 1 U Ñ. F. al-< V  DO-±asan ibn MasÑ G 4 Q Q \DVKWDPLO Ñalá a¨k P DO-Ñilm wa-a¨N P DO-Ñ OLP ZD-al-mutaÑallim. no. no. ' U DO-MaÐP Q OLO-7XU WK  Sayyid. 1310 A. al-6DZ ¨LO  $¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá. 43. 1989: 2.Q \DW DO-mu¨DGGLWK Q EL-WDZWK T DOPDUZ \ W ZD-DWKDU GK OLND I WD¨T T DO-makhà à W.6 (1993): 641-649. “Mu¯ EDOD´ EI. 1947. Oriens. Rosenthal. al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. 349-360..1 (1996): 29-33. 14. EI.. ——— “TaÁ¨ I´ EI. Riyad. “Min qa  \ DO-¨arf al-Ñ$UDE  DOtaÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. ——— The technique and approach of Muslim scholarship. new ed. new ed. Sayf. 10: 347-348. ——— “ TaÑO ¯”. 15.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE   ——— Die Methodik des Diktatkollegs (Adab al-LPO Ð waÐl-LVWLPO Ð ).IUDQM I GK OLN. 6K NLU $¨mad. Fez. no. Leiden. 17901930.3 (1994): 322326. al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. Rome. %HLUXW ' U DO-. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib.214 BIBLIOGRAPHY makhà à W DO-nuqaÃ.O  :HLVZHLOHU 0D[ ³'DV $PW GHV 0XVWDPO LQ GHU DUDELVFKHQ Wissenschaft”. TaÁ¨ ¨ al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah waND\I \DW  abà al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-. Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð.2 (1999): 99-131. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  Rabat. malzamah 24: 1-7. no. BeirXW ' U DO-.

Studia Islamica. 32 (1970): 255-264. Reichmuth. ——— “Madrasa and university in the Middle Ages”. 3. Brinkley. Oriens. “Authorship and transmission in unauthored literature”.. 1. Princeton.. “Oral transmission and the book in Islamic education: the spoken and the written word”. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE V. Edinburgh. no. Leder.1 (1992): 1-14. 8: 545-547. 1981. Seyyed Hossein. Edinburgh. Jonathan Porter. N. “Murta  D]-=DE G G.BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 V. The rise of colleges: institutions of learning in Islam and the West. Journal of Islamic studies. 31 (1988): 67-81. 1990. 1993. ——— ³5LZ \D´ EI. Berkeley/Oxford. Stefan. Makdisi. Messick. Nasr. Textual domination and history in a Muslim society. 1992. George. General studies Berkey. The calligraphic state. Stefan.J. ——— The rise of humanism in classical Islam and the Christian West with special reference to scholasticism. new ed. The transmission of knowledge in medieval Cairo: a social history of Islamic education.

no. 66 (1989): 38-67. ——— “Weiteres zur Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im Islam”. Al-ÑIlm wa-al-ÑXODP Ð I ÑuÁ U DO-NKXODI Ð. Der Islam. Die Welt des Islams. 62 (1985): 210-230. 6L]N Q 6H]JLQ. Sellheim. 1972. Beirut. LQ ELRJUDSKLFDO DQG autobiographical accounts: glimpses of Islamic scholarship in the 18th century”. “Die Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften im frühen Islam”. Der Islam. 39. Schoeler. Gregor.1 (1999): 64-102. R.

“De la transmission orale du savoir dans l’Islam traditionnel”.VO P \DK´ Mu¨  DU W I WDÐU NK DO-ÑXO P DO-Ñ$UDE \DK wa-al-.VO P \DK (= Vorträge zur Geschichte der arabischislamischen Wissenschaften). Georges. )XÐ G ³$KDPP \DW DO-LVQ G I DO-ÑXO P DO-Ñ$UDE \DK wa-al-. by FuÐ G 6L]N Q Frankfurt am Main. . N. ——— La transmission du savoir en Islam (VII-XVIIIe siècles). Vajda. ed. Cottart. 4 (1975): 2-8. London. 1984. 1983. L’Arabisant.

Quiring-Zoche.KDWDP W ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. Vajda. 244 (1956): 433-437. Lévi-Provençal. E. ——— “The transmission of Muslim’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’”. 14 (1952): 579-588. University of London. Joseph. 5REVRQ - ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI $E ' Z G’s ‘Sunan’”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 202 (1923): 209-233. University of London. Schacht. ³/D WUDQVPLVVLRQ GH OD µ. “Deux éditions inconnues du ‘MuwaÃÃaÐ’”. 16 (1954): 258-270. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Studi orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida.PLÑ’”. Georges. 50 (1998): 191-222.216 BIBLIOGRAPHY V. Johann.LI \D I PDÑrifat uÁ O Ñilm alULZ \DK¶ G¶DO-Haà E Dl-Ba G G ´ Arabica. “Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bu© U ’s Traditionssammlung”. Leiden.LW E GH 6 EDZD\K. 240 (1984): 61-68. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. “La recension maghribine du ‚a¨ ¨ d’al-Bo© U ´ Journal asiaique.DWW Q  < VXI ³. Rosemarie. ——— “La transmission de l’éloge de Zayn al-Ñ ELG Q´ Journal asiatique. 1956: 2. 1995. Transmission of individual works Fück. Geneviève. “How al-Bu© U ’s ‘‚a¨ ¨’ was edited in the Middle Ages: Ñ$O DO-< Q Q DQG KLV µ5XP ]’”. al-. Humbert. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. 2. ——— “La transmission de la mašya©a (Ansal al-PDT Áid wa-aÑdab alPDZ ULG. Bulletin d’études orientales. ——— ³7KH WUDQVPLVVLRQ LI 7LUP GK ’V µ. 4 (1957): 304-307. 477-492. /HV YRLHV GH OD WUDQVPLVVLRQ GX . Rome. 92 (1938): 60-87. (1949): 46-60.

ilá . Rivista degli studi orientali. 9  . 48 (1973-74): 55-74. G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”.. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-.M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad.M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h./10 m.

Ben Shemesh.L.J. 1967.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W. A. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”. 4 (1981): 82-103.] Ebied. Islamic quarterly. “An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”. 18. nos. M.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h.Y. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. Le Muséon.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . and Young. R. Leiden. 87 (1974): 445-465. Taxation in Islam.1-2 (1974): 3-7. [Vol.

al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W. . MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ.S.] Lecomte.H. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles. -DOO E ±asan. . Koningsveld.K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 41. no. 1974:92-110. Amsterdam. Iran. Amsterdam. 326 (1997): 97-102. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. P. Les . 35-36 (1414 A. 26 (1994): 75-96.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus). Gérard.1 (1997): 55-90. ed. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. 32 (1994): 115-123. 1998. van.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq.): 270-372.H. “Al-. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. 18-19 October 1973. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ . Studies on Islam. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad.

IÁO ¨ alDODÃ I DU E DO-¨DG Å’ li-$E ÑUbayd al-4 VLP E 6DOO P”. DU E DO-¨DG Å’ et de ‘K. Bulletin d’études orientales. 21 (1968): 347-409.218 BIBLIOGRAPHY certificats de lecture du ‘K. ——— “Bedeutung der ‘Randzeugnisse’ VDP Ñ W.

”./12. Damas: Institut français. Jhdt. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6. Leder. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Stefan. MacKay.1. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . 1996 – . Pierre A. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. Suppl. 550-750/1155-1349. Oriens. 34 (1994): 57-75. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”.

H): 172-182. Hamdard Islamicus. “Al-.1 (1955): 232-251. 1. 8: 1019-1020. “Al-. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”.H): 107-114. Sayyid.1 (1407 A. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”. 3. 4 (1924): 345-355..M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.4 (1971.. no.1 (1408 A. EI. no. ed.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ . 8.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. al-Munajjid. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. no. 1. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ. new ed. no. n. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101.s.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ .M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”. 61. ——— “Al-.1 (1985): 7-20. no. Hespéris. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá.2 (1406 A. 2. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”. 7 (1989): 238-252.H): 115-117. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. no.

 5DPD  Q ³$KDPP \DW Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q DO-ÌDKU \DK.

1997: 179-196. I WDZÁ I DO-makhà à W´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar. .Q Q  London. AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.

AÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OLMuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-. 3: 1020-1021. 1995: 123-136. 1997: 163-177.VO P \DK ED\QD iÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar.10. ——— “Al-ÑUnÁ U DO-EDVKDU ED\QD DO-naÁÁ wa-al-T ULÐ: al-LM ]DK I DOmakhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK´ 'LU V W DO-makhà à W DO-. London. Yarshater.] $P Q  )DNKU DO-' Q 1DÁ U  *DQM QDK-Ði khuà Ã-i ÑXODP Ð-i aÑO P YD G QLVKPDQG Q-L NLU P YD VKXÑDU -yi ÑiÌ P YD NK VKQDY V Q-i FK UDKGDVW YD PXÑ ÁLU Q 7DMU VK . Jan Just. ——— “Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris”. new ed. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. Wilhelm. 1957.Q Q  London. no.3 (1954): 337-342. Paris. “The human element between text and reader. ed. [Also in: idem. 1. 1983: 85-92. 1993. Hildesheim/ New York. Berlin. The LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. ——— “Idj ]D´ EI. Vajda. 1.VO P  HG 5DVK G DO-Ñ. ARABIC ALPHABET. VI.UDQ. ——— “Un opuscule inédit d’as-6LODI ´ La transmission du savoir en Islam (VIIe-XVIIIe siècles).. Witkam. E. Georges.BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 SteZDUW 'HYLQ - ³(M ]D´ Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. Zwölf arabische Schrifttaffeln. 8: 273-275. 1899. Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. Arabica. SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY VI. 1981. Albums and exhibition catalogues Ahlwardt. London.

London. 1939. Specimens of Arabic and Persian palaeography.  > RU @  YROV Arberry.J. A. >&KHLNKR 6KD\NK .

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L. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. J. The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. 1994. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. 1994. (éd. Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah .æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. Hunwick.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. B. V. 1996.). Volume I. S. Phonology. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. A. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. Hofheinz. J. 2 Parts. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. (ed. 1994. Porten. Radtke and K.F. (ed. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . A Bibliography of Islamic Law. References and Index of Texts Cited. J. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. Jagd. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. (eds. M. and Stolbova. M. Numerals. V. Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. (ed. ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey.). ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings.). Abu Salim. Tanz und verwandten Themen. I. 1994. Materials for a Reconstruction. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns. E. A. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. O. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. Marín. Bd. S. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. H. Nouns. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. Mosak Moshavi and B. Orthography. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. with the assistance of M. 1994. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. 2: Ab-bildungen. N. M. 1995. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. und Sardshweladse. Compiled by John O. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. With appendices by R. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. Ibrahim. ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III.1: Text. 1995. L. Band 22 .T.Lagarde. V.). O. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. Judaism in Late Antiquity. and Peters. Chief consultant to the editor. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. Roman Loimeier. J. V. With Full DefiniKinberg. Hamidu Bobboyi. (eds. 1900. 2nd ed. 1994. Vikør. 1994. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. and O’FAHEY. 1996.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. O’Fahey. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. and Jongeling. und Herb. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . Part Two: Historical Syntheses. W. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources.). Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. S. 1980-1993. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. Judaism in Late Antiquity. S. 1994. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. K. Y. 1995. Steiner. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . K. R. English Summaries and Extensive Citations.C.). 1996. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . 1995. A. Arabic Literature of Africa. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. Bd. Manuel de recherche. R. M. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. Spiel. Compiled by R. S.

1999.J. Index of Names. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili.Band 26 Halm. 1997. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. and Neusner. The Empire of the Mahdi. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. III. M. R. W. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. D. D. and Porten. N. 1999. 1.W. J. J. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. Translated from the German by M. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. W. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. F. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. R. Religious Perspectives 1999. M. B. and Healey. H. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. 1997.1: B. Social Perspectives 1999. 1999. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. Mesopotamian Lexicography. Vol. 2 Volumes. The Rise of the Fatimids. B. 1999. Judaism in Late Antiquity.1. 1996. The Kingdom of Kush.E. The Mishnah. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. 1997. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . 1999. J. J.G. L. 1999. A Bibliography. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. H. H. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. T. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. 1999. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. 2: 1988-1992. 1997. J. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. H. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. 1997.L.H. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. 1999. 1999. Terms and Topics. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. 1: A. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). H. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan. Vol. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. 1999. Bonner. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. 2000. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner.J. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998. G. 1998. A. 1999. and Wyatt. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. 1999. G. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger.F. J. Vol. III. 1998. V. van. J. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. The Mishnah.2. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová. and Sou‘ek. and Pingree.

2001. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. Neusner. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. B. and Chilton. J. R. A. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. R. and Society in Eastern Arabia. 2001. J. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral.. A.. B. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. Vol. 2001. Comparing Judaisms. and Chilton. The Arabic manuscript tradition. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov.3. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. A. 2000. Band 56 Avery-Peck. (2 Volumes) 2000. Ch. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. de.J. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. World View. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 . 2000. Judaism in Late Antiquity V.J. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls.. 2001. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism.E. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck... Neusner. and Neusner. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. U. and Neusner. A.J.1. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. C. Judaism in Late Antiquity III.J.4. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books. Theory of Israel. J. 2001. 2001.2. A. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. Culture. Dialect. J.Band 50 Tal. A. 1 : Glossary 2001.

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