THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY

H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH

VOLUME FIFTY-EIGHT

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION

THE ARABIC MANUSCRIPT TRADITION
A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography
BY

ADAM GACEK

BRILL
LEIDEN • BOSTON • KÖLN 2001

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gacek, Adam. The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek. p. cm. — (Handbuch der Orientalistik. = Handbook of Oriental studies. Section one, the Near and Middle East, ISSN 0169-9423 ; v. 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9004120610 (alk. paper) 1. Manuscripts, Arabic—History—Bibliography. 2.Codicology– –Dictionaries. 3. Paleography, Arabic—Bibliography. I. Title. II. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Erste Abteilung, Nahe und der Mittlere Osten ; 58. Bd. Z6605.A6 G33 [Z106.5] 011’.31—dc21 2001 2001018082 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Gacek, Adam: The Arabic manuscript tradition : a glossary of technical terms and bibliography / by Adam Gacek.. – Leiden ; Boston ; Köln : Brill, 2001 (Handbuch der Orientalistik : Abt. 1, Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten ; Bd. 58) ISBN 90-04-12061-0

ISSN 0169-9423 ISBN 90 04 12061 0 © Copyright 2001 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

PREFACE V To Joanna. Julian and Helenka .

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.......................................................PREFACE VII CONTENTS Acknowledgements .......................... XIII Part One: GLOSSARY ( ........................................................... XI Preface .................................

................................................................................................................ 174 Part Two: BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................... 177 I............................... 156 2..................................... 1 Abbreviations ............. 156 1.............. Technical terms in the glossary ............................... 181 Bibliographies .............................................. 184 Selected studies of one or more manuscripts ............... 181 Periodicals ..... 187 Manuscript production and cXOWXUH ZLU TDK....................................... .................................................................................................... 182 General studies and surveys .......... GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY STUDIES ........................................................................... 182 Conference proceedings and composite works ....... Sources/References ...........

........................ 190 Libraries (selected bibliographies and studies) ........................ 191 History of manuscripts (ownership statements, seal impressions, waqf-statements, etc.) .......................................... 193 9. Popular culture in manuscripts ................................................... 194 10. Forgeries ..................................................................................... 194 11. Terminology................................................................................ 195 II. WRITING SURFACES, MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS ................................................................................. 195 1. 2. 3. 4. General studies ....................................................................... Papyrus ................................................................................... Parchment ............................................................................... Paper........................................................................................ 195 197 198 198 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VIII

CONTENTS PREFACE

5.

a) Non-watermarked paper and paper in the Islamic world.... – Bibliography ........................................................................ – Papermaking recipes and ethics........................................... – Studies ................................................................................. b) Watermarked paper and filigranology................................ Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories....................

198 198 198 199 203 204

III. TEXTBLOCK (QUIRES, SIGNATURES, ETC.) .............. 206 IV. THE TEXT, ITS COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................ 207 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of compositions, their parts, etc. ................................. 207 Page lay-out (mise en page) ....................................................... 208 Colophon and scribal verses ...................................................... 208 Dates, dating and numerals ........................................................ 209 a) Bibliography, chronology .................................................. 209 b) Alpha-numerical and numerical systems............................ 209 c) Abjad, ¨LV E DO-jummal, chronograms................................ 210 d) Greek (Coptic) numerals ................................................... 210 H

5 P ) V

QXPHUDOV ........................................................ 210 f) Dating by fractions ............................................................. 211 g) Calendars, conversion tables, dynasties ............................ 211 Abbreviations .............................................................................. 212 Arabic nomenclature............................................................... 213 Transcription, corrections and etiquette ................................. 213

5. 6. 7.

V. TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE .................................. 215 1. 2. 3. General studies ....................................................................... 215 Transmission of individual works .......................................... 216 ,M ] W DQG VDP Ñ W ................................................................... 216

VI. ARABIC ALPHABET, SCRIPTS AND PALAEOGRAPHY .......................................................................... 219 1. 2. 3. Albums and exhibition catalogues ............................................. 219 Library catalogues with reproductions of specimens.............. 220 Studies..................................................................................... 221 a) General................................................................................ 221

CONTENTS PREFACE

IX

b) Maghribi and African scripts ................................................. 223 VII. THE ARTS OF THE BOOK ............................................. 224 1. General ................................................................................... 224 a) Bibliographies ........................................................................ 224 b) General studies and exhibition catalogues.......................... 224 c) Albums (muraqqaÑ W

............................................... 3........................ 251 Facsimile editions .............................. TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND EDITING ............................................................................... 6....................................... 227 b) Exhibition catalogues ............. 228 d) Calligraphers and calligraphers’ diplomas ............ 2...................................................................................................... General studies ............... 242 a) Bibliography........ 238 a) Drawing................... 226 Calligraphy ... 256 1.......................................................................................... 4................................. 236 Painted illustration ..................... etc......... 2........... 227 a) Bibliographies and dictionaries .......................................... 241 Bookbinding ........................................................................... 247 1....................................................................................................................................... 238 c) Descriptions of individual works......... VIII.................... 8............................... Exhibition catalogues............................................................. 243 2.... 227 c) Pre-20th century texts on calligraphy and penmanship .....................................) .............................................. 247 Early QurÐans and fragments.................... 240 Papercuts ......................................... 256 Some specific cases ............................ 242 b) Pre-18th century texts . ..... 4...... 238 b) Other studies ................ 247 Later QurÐans... 255 IX....... 7................... 5.............. QURµANIC MANUSCRIPTS ........................................................................ 259 ................................................... 241 Decorated paper (marbled paper.................................................................. 239 Lacquer ... 229 e) Studies and albums (by modern calligraphers) ................................................................... 242 c) Other studies.. 232 Ornament and painted decoration ........................................................................ 3............................................

.. 263 XII.................... COLLECTIONS.................................... Bibliographies and bio-bibliographies of the Arabic heritage Lists of dated manuscripts .......... PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION .............................................. Descriptions of collections and catalogues .......................... 4..X CONTENTS PREFACE X...... CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS............................... ETC................................... 3........................... 261 XI... Catalogues of edited manuscripts ...... ........ CATALOGUING......... 5.... Catalogues of catalogues ... 2..................... 266 1.............. 266 266 267 267 268 ...................................

David Pingree for recommending this work for publication and my colleague Prof. Last but not least. . without which this work would most probably not have seen the light of day. François Déroche for his comments and suggestions. My gratitude also goes to Steve Millier and Khaleel Mohammed for having kindly proof-read this text. I am thankful to McGill University for granting me a sabbatic leave.PREFACE XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to Prof.

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PREFACE XIII PREFACE One of the principal characteristics of Arab Islamic civilization is undoubtedly the cult of books. Apart from numerous compositions on calligraphy and penmanship. This literature is gradually being discovered and edited. scholars. Along with this manuscript output. calligraphers and craftsmen produced a rich literature dealing with the actual making and decoration of books. They are: ÑUmdat al-NXWW E (UK) by al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V G. the preparation of inks. papermaking and bookbinding. Islamic civilization produced several tens of thousands of works in Arabic on a variety of subjects. more specifically in the QurÐ Q WKH $UDELF ERRN SDU H[FHOOHQFH )URP WKH HDUO\ st / mid 7th century until the end of the 13/19th century. most notably from the Mamluk period (see ‘Bibliography’. and most probably several millions of manuscript copies. This central position of the book in Arabic culture has its roots in Islam itself. 2). VII. we have now at our disposal three manuals dealing with a wealth of information on writing implements. both religious and scientific in nature. This very rich heritage has survived in the hundreds of thousands of manuscripts found in almost all major university libraries and in numerous public and private collections throughout the world. Arab authors.

 alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ (MB) attributed to al-Malik alMuÌDIIDU < VXI DO-*KDVV Q G.

10/16th cent. To these should be added the 7D\V U (TS) of al-.). DQG al-1XM P DO-VK ULT W (NW) by Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT (fl.VKE O G 1231). the 7DGE U DO-VDI U +7.

EQ $E ±DP GDK IOth) and the ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub (ST) of al-6XI\ Q IO. RI .

 DOO RI ZKLFK deal with bookbinding techniques and materials. Furthermore. the Tu¨af al-NKDZ ÁÁ 7.

984/1577). included the most comprehensive chapter to be found in Arabic literature on scribal etiquette. al-Durr al-na{ G (TP). Finally. which deals with the preparation of inks. RI $E %DNU 0X¨ammad al-4DODO V G 1307). The present work consists of two major parts: a glossary of . who in his work on education. as well as on the collation and correction of books. mention should be made of Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] G. also contains a chapter on misÃarah (ruling. lineation).

medieval and postmedieval texts. writing surfaces and implements used. some of the most important research in this field published to date. there is as yet no comprehensive introduction in English to various Arabic codicological phenomena. as well as the way Arabic manuscript books were transcribed. as it were. especially those relating to book formats. The technical terms contained in the glossary have been collected and selected from a variety of sources: classical. due to the obscure context or the fact that the word is used in only a single surviving manuscript. which spans almost 14 centuries. corrected. Although there may be some doubt as to the exact form or meaning of a given term. To translate. book lovers and cataloguers. it does reveal a very rich picture of Muslim book culture in the manuscript age. nevertheless it was deemed important to include at this stage all terms encountered.XIV PREFACE technical terms and a bibliography arranged by subject.g. The glossary is a by-product. of my research on Arabic manuscripts and therefore should not be taken as comprehensive. e. as well as extant specimens. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ and qaÃÑ al-thumn as ‘quarto’ and ‘octavo’. are recorded the way they appear in various sources.* Although there are a few good general monographs on Arabic manuscripts. without the specific corresponding equivalents in English. . bound and decorated. This is due to the fact that we do not as yet know their exact meanings. A glossary of terms used in the production of manuscripts would * This work was originally to appear under the title “Glossary of the Arabic manuscript book” and to contain an edited chapter on bookbinding taken from “alMukhtaraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ” by al-Malik al-MuÌaffar. even in its present form. For this reason the bibliography is envisaged as an indispensable aid for the student of Arabic manuscripts. this chapter has been omitted. Since an edition of this work has recently been published. and Arabic palaeography is only in its initial stages of development. Nevertheless. The exploration of this rich written tradition is necessary for a better understanding of the various scripts. It brings together. could be very misleading. calligraphers (khaÃÃ Ã Q). Some terms. respectively. as well as craftsmen (ÁXQQ Ñ ). for the first time. traditionists (mu|DGGLWK Q). contemporary studies and catalogues. It includes terms encountered in the literature produced by or for government officials and secretaries (kuWW E). unless their exact meanings could not be verified. lexicographers (OXJKDZ \ Q) and other scholars (ÑXODP Ð ).

raddah (Levant). flap). catchword. marjiÑ (Morocco). period and/or region in which they were employed. inkwell and the like. catch- . as yet. miqlab (Levant. We do not. It is interesting to note also the association of a number of terms with the human body and its various parts. incipit. The technical vocabulary relating to the mixing of inks and the use of pigments has. wajh (‘face’. however. Therefore. recto. and V TLÃah (Yemen). Ñaqb. OLV Q (‘tongue’. OLV Q (central Arab lands). flap). envelope flap). medallion. shidq and fakk (‘jawbone’. upper margin. This is particularly apparent in the physical description of the codex. and UDTT Á (‘dancer’. Thus. for the characteristic envelope flap we find udhn (Andalusia. have a clear picture of these variations in formal scripts and there is besides quite a lot of confusion in the modern literature on calligraphy as to the labels themselves. fore-edge. fore-edge). Here. Iraq). having been drawn from sources relating to public administration (diplomatic). great caution is in order. the naskh or ULT Ñ scripts in the Mamluk period were very different from the naskh or ULT Ñ of a later period. The same applies to such terms as endband (headband). Ñaqib (‘heel’. udhn (‘ear’. on the other hand. for example. book cover). serif. the definitions as given in the glossary are very general and sometimes linked only to the use of a given script in a given period or region. The art of calligraphy is a living art and scripts (and often their labels) were subject to changes and modifications depending on the ‘school’ (tradition). North Africa). Áadr (‘chest’. Here we find. lower margin. raÐs (‘head’. been largely omitted here. Some. for example. This terminology constitutes a well-defined field of study and has been exposed and dealt with in a number of publications but principally in Martin Levey’s “Medieval Arabic bookmaking” (MP). In view of the fact that the terms contained in the glossary were collected from sources which originated in various parts and historical periods of the Arab world. catchword). Most of the terms included here concern the Arabic manuscript book. Thus. khadd (‘cheek’. however. recto. outer or inner margin). upper cover). case (box). These descriptions should not be taken as definitive. may have been used exclusively in those circles.PREFACE XV not be complete without including the names of at least some of the most important scripts in use during the manuscript age. for example. the list contains a considerable number of synonyms.

. Undoubtedly some of the words in the glossary are newly coined terms but the majority can be traced to a medieval usage. As far as transliteration is concerned. either contemporary or earlier. an Arabic font was used only where absolutely necessary. Greek/Latin and Latin terms still encountered in the English technical literature. Apart from English technical terminology the glossary contains also a number of Greek. On the whole. the terms without references are either commonly encountered in the existing literature or are easily found in standard dictionaries. Arabic script has also been used for abbreviations of some technical terms found in the glossary.XVI PREFACE word). Due to the limitations of the computer program used. Most words are traced to a source. the Library of Congress romanization tables have been used. This is done either in order to document the usage of a given word or to provide a reference for topical study or both. The glossary is thus arranged alphabetically according to the root of the word which is given in Arabic script.

PART ONE GLOSSARY .

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the letters of the alphabet arranged according to this mnemonic system (EI. for the creation of chronograms and chronosticons (EI.GLOSSARY 3 al-alif al-muŒarrafah see ta¨U I al-alif al-murawwasah – WKH OHWWHU DOLI SURYLGHG ZLWK D VHULI WDUZ V (q. I. 60. among other things. needle case (DM) 2. ibrijmah – paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 11: Ñinda ¨abkih lil-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwanah. DEMDG DEMDG \DK DO-ŒXU I DO-DEMDG \DK 1. I. 107.EU . 8). syn.v. 97. 104. II. also ŒLV E DEMDG ŒLV E DO-jummal (al-jumal) – alpha-numerical notation used. TS. AG. SA. AG. 9. IA. III. I. 97-98. miµbar 1. RN. index. 176-178) 2. 8). 33: bi-JKLVK Ð muÐabbar). al-alif al-mu¨laqah see muÃlaq. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah see mushaÑ Ñar. ebrû. 215. 18-19. 103. SD. 392). from Pers. LEDU  DEE U – needle maker (QS. 12. DEDUG VHH EDUG  DEU (Turk. GA. ibrah (pl. DB. MB.  EU  ZDUDT DO. of minfadh (q. I. 59. abr – ‘cloud’) – marbled paper (MN. 13.) (DD. I. ibar) – needle (UK.). 182). muµabbar – sewn (KC. GA. the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms (voces memoriales) into which the twentyeight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. ST. 2: ibrishmah). 107.v. 154.

 .

4 GLOSSARY LEU VDP. LEU VLP. LEU VKLP – VLON FRPS EXUVKP Q NKLU SO DZ NKLU.

ilá NKLULK – et cetera. (DB. n. I. – closing matter of the text (composition). 53). taµNK U PXµakhkhar VHH WDTG P adab SO G E. 62. abbrev.14). explicit (TP. DZ NKLU DO-shahr – the last 10 days of the month (DM).

tanned red leather (DB. primitive critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) in manuscripts (TP. udum) 1. MF. 106-108) 2. DG P (pl. scribal etiquette 2. – etiquette (EI. 175-176). adam(ah). I. AE. 71-72. 201: fa-lam yazal 5DV O $OO K Á. I. 63. adab ma¶a al-kutub 1. passim. IW. leather (UK. 52).

\XPO ZD-Ñ$O \DNWXE ¨attá malaÐa baÃn al-DG P ZDÌahrahu wa-DN ULÑah. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan biG E M. MU. XIV.

. DG K SO DGDZ W. jild. comp. DGG P – tanner (DM).

e. – V\Q ODK (EI. I. tool.g. instrument. implement. 345). DGDZ W O W.

153-156. 103-105) or DGDZ W O W. writing MB. DO-WDMO G = bookbinding tools (UK.

DO-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK

implements, accessories (SA, II, 440-468; AE, 117-127).

udhn, udhun SO GK Q

– flap, envelope flap (TS, 25: idh al-¨XNP I al-XGKQ DQ WDN Q PDÃE Ñah Ñalá al-sifr ¨attá l WD¨W M LOá Ñurwá wa-O zirr tazurr bi-KL DPP DO-udhn fa-al-aÁO I KL DQ \DN Q DTDOO PLQ niÁf al-sifr bi-PLTG U UDÐs al-zirr; AG, 109; BA, III, 372).

GLOSSARY

5

urkhah – date (LL, I, 46). taµU NK SO WDZ U NK

 WDZU NK (KK, 55; IK, 102-103; SK, 137: wa\XT O DO-WDZU NK OL-DQQDKX \XT O ZDUUDNKWX DO-NLW E ZD-arrakhtuh) – date, dating; chronology (SA,VI, 243-251; TP, 53-54; EI, X, 257-302; ER, IV, 668-677); chronogram, chronosticon (also qi¨¶at al-taµU NK, AM, nos.10, 26, 141; ER, V, 550-551). al-taµU NK DO-¶$UDE (al-taµU NK DO-,VO P , al-sanah al-KLMU \DK, alsanah al-TDPDU \DK, al-sanah al-KLO O \ah) – Muslim calendar beginning July 16th 622 A.D. (SA, VI, 240, 243; EI, X, 258-261). al-taµU NK DO-) ULV (al-sanah al-<D]GLMLUG \DK) – Persian calendar beginning June 16th 632 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 254, 256; EI, X, 262). al-taµU NK DO-+LQG – Vikrama era (Vikrama samvat) beginning in 58 B.C. al-taµU NK al-,O K – Mughal calendar with the starting point March 21st 1584 A.D. (EI, X, 263). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK – cryptographic dating, chronosticon, in which more than the second hemistich (miÁU Ñ ) of a verse (bayt) is counted in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; EI, IV, 468). al-taµU NK DO-mustathná, also known as al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ – chronosticon, in which the value of one letter or word from the first hemistich is subtracted from the cumulative value of the second hemistich in calculating the date (TI, 47-48; TP, 54; AM, nos.109, 213). al-taµU NK DO-mutawwaj – chronosticon, in which only the numerical values of the first letters of each verse are counted in calculating the date (KB, 10-12). al-taµU NK DO-Qib¨ or al-Qub¨ (taµU NK DO-VKXKDG µ, sanat Diqli¨\ Q V DO-Malik) – Coptic calendar beginning August 29th 284 A.D. (SA, VI, 242, 253, 255; EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK DO-5 P (al-taµU NK DO-6XU\ Q , taµU NK 'K DO-Qarnayn, taµU NK JKDODEDW DO-Iskandar, al-sanah al-< Q Q \DK) – Seleucid era (era of Alexander) beginning Oct.1st 312 B.C. (SA, VI, 242, 253254; EI, X, 261). taµU NK DO-¦ufr – Spanish era beginning Jan. 1st 38 B.C. (EI, X, 261). al-taµU NK EL-DM] µ al-yawm aw al-laylah – dating by the hours of day or night, e.g. VKXU T – the first hour of day, shafaq – the first

al-taµU NK EL-al-¶ashr min al-shahr – dating by the ten-day segments GHFDGHV. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA.6 GLOSSARY hour of night. JKXU E – the last hour of day. 250). VI.

al-Ñashr al-ukhrá (al. RI WKH PRQWK HJ I DO-Ñashr al. al-Ñashr al-wusÃá (al-wusaÃ) (11-20). alDZ NKLU .NKLUDK DO-ukhar.Oá (al-uwal) (1-10).

VI.g. -30) (SA. al-taµU NK EL-al-E T – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘baqiya’ to indicate how many nights are remaining until the end of the month. 248-249). li-arbaÑ ÑDVKUDWD OD\ODK LQ. e.

EQ . II. al-taµU kh bi-al-P „ – dating by the nights of the month using the verb ‘ma á’ or ‘khalá’ to indicate how many nights have elapsed from the beginning of the month.EQ .VI.DP O 3 VK  DO-taµU NK DONLQ µ ) – GDWLQJ E\ IUDFWLRQV DWWULEXWHG WR . e. 106. 244-249). EDTL\DW PLQ VKDKU NDGK (SA. nos. 235).DP O 3 VK 73  CI. al-taµU NK EL-OD\ O DO-shahr – dating by the nights of the month (SA. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U (taµU NK . VI. lil-OD\ODWD\Q NKDODW PD DW . 178).g. 244-248). al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V – dating by a ruler’s accession to the throne (CM.

al-taµU NK EL-al-PDZ VLP – dDWLQJ E\ IHDVWV DQG IHVWLYDOV HJ I yawm Ñ G DO-fiÃr (1st 6KDZZ O. PLQ VKDKU NDGK 6$9. -248).

 I \DZP Ñarafah (9th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm Ñ G DO-na¨r or Ñ G DO-a ¨á (10th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-qarr (11th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I \DZP DO-nafr al-awwal (12th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

 I yawm al-nafr al-WK Q th 'K DO-±LMMDK.

262. taµU NK-L PDODN . IV. al-taµU NK DO--DO O (taµU NK-L -DO O . taµU NK NDZQ DO-¶ ODP (taµU NK DO-khilqah) – era of creation (era of Adam) beginning Sept. (EI. X. 6$ 9. ar„ \DK – background (LC.D. ER. 22. 670). taµU NK-i sul¨ Q ) – -DO O FDOHQGDU EHJLQQLQJ 0DUFK th 1079 A. 218: ar  \DW DO-matn.1st 5509 B. FZ.  &0  I laylat al-MiÑU M th Rajab). 88: ar  \DK PXODZZDQDK. JL.C.

 .

XVK UDK. II.GLOSSARY 7 uskurrujah – inkwell (KD. 713: wa-uskurrujah al-GDZ K ) ULV \DK PXÑarrabah wa-O \XT O VXNXUUXMDK ZD-taÁJK UXK XVD\ NLrah). taµVK U VHH QXVK UDK ishfá SO DVK ILQ.

I. – awl. 107. 10: ishfah. IB. MB. IK. 115). KM. 103. uÁ O. 90. 43: VKDI . IA. 11. ST. sifr 4. 59. 15. a¦l (pl. AG. punch (TS.

. .  DXWKRU¶V RULJLQDO KRORJUDSK 08 9..

39: wa-al-aÁl yashtamil Ñalá sittat ajz Ð bi-khaÃÃih kulluh. original (main) text. also referred to as al-nuskhah al-a¦l (LC. 92: yajib Ñalá man kataba nuskhah min aÁl baÑ  al-VKX\ NK DQ \XÑ UL  nuskhatahu bi-al-aÁl. VIII. MU. SD. exemplar. as opposed to a commentary (shar¨) or gloss (¨ VKL\DK. 26. MH. 27) 3.  FRS\ transcript (from which another copy is made). II.

but also 0= . 136).. 2024. MI. . XVXDOO\ DEEUHYLDWHG DV RU 9$ QR 1858.

major work (TM. SM. 174: al-uÁ O al-TDG PDK. 126. 269: aÁO Q $6  al-uÁ O DO-khamsah. al-uÁ O DO-sabÑah) 5. 23) 4. main (principal) script such as thuluth or mu¨aqqaq (from which other scripts are derived) (NC. WH[W FRPPHQWHG XSRQ (LC.

 VSLQH RI D TXLUH RU ERRN.

67 LQGH[  67    Ñalá uÁ O DO-NDU U V DÑQ TDI DO-NLW E.

24). rule-border. 80) 3. ià U W XÃur) 1. 25. textual surround (LC. I.  URRW RI D YHUE RU QRXQ (. 24. 24. headpiece (LC. 928). rectangular panel (LC. 29) 5. maµ¨ U PXµa¨¨ar – ruled (LC. frame (within a border) (TF. DB. tabula ansata (UI. KR. 141: ¨DZ VK K PXWDÑadditat al-uÃur) 4. 24. UI. border (of a book cover) (LC. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O see qalam. 27) 6. rules.e. 145). FT. i. . i¨ U (pl. . 402) 2.

581-582).8 GLOSSARY (al-kha¨¨) al-.) – decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver (MN. taµO I DK. I. according to other sources al. 6. 46). writing circa 1375’ (DW. DIVK Q (Pers. ER.IU T LV LGHQWLILHG ZLWK DO-6 G Q  D VFULSW ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG IURP WKH Maghrebi family of scripts and came to be associated with subSaharan Africa (AO.IU T – properly ‘a general term for the style of the Arabic script current in Ifriqiyyah (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) in the early Middle Ages. (…) used by the historian Ibn Khaldun. 32).

(pl. taÐ O I WDZ O I WDÐO I W.

 muµallaf (pl. muÐDOODI W.

comp.1 . muÁannif. comp. writer. I. compilation. – composition. 360). EI. X. ummah . taÁQ I muµallif – author. work (of prose or poetry) (SD. . 33. umm.

SO XPPDK W.

as opposed to a commentary. exemplar. . original (main) text. 26). I. 29). shar¨ (IN. used in mosques (KN. copy. 35. 130) 4. SD. fundamental (essential) work (composition) (LC. I. heavenly prototype (aÁl) of the QurÐ Q (. umm al-NLW E 1. . 246) 3. archetype (LC. 180: qif Ñalá al-LOWL] P OL-PXT EDODW DO-NLW E Ñalá al-shaykh aw muÑ UD atih Ñalá al-umm) 2. 26. model codex of the QurÐ Q XVXDOO\ RI D ODUJH IRUPDW and without vocalization. transcript (from which another copy is made). TM.  DOVR al-nuskhah alumm – holograph (LC.

 WKH ILUVW V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q '0.

II. Umm al-EXOG Q. . codex (al-mu¦Œaf al¶8WKP Q ) (MD. archetype. Umm al-qurá. 137 : wa-huwa al-LP P DOODGK ODP \DNKWDOLI I PXNKtalaf). al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P – ÑUthmanic canon. 37. II. al-Musnad al-LP P – the Musnad of Ibn ±anbal (SL. Umm al-ELO G – Mecca. 99. II. LP P – exemplar. 294). 39). KF. textus receptus (NT.

abbrev. 99). taµP Q – saying (writing) P Q (DP Q). xiv. II. 2812). I. I KL QD„ar) implying doubt and insinuating ‘politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. LL. II. tadabbur.GLOSSARY 9 taµDPPXO W (sg. I KL WDµammul – a phrase (syn. (CI. one of the standard closing formulae in manuscripts. taÐammul – ‘consideration’) – notabilia. comp. fa-taµammal(hu) – nota bene. usually abbreviated as DOLI MRLQHG WR P P.

or /'    $'  (. . .

XQE E DK. FRPS WDWP P WDIT Ã.

SO DQ E E.

anfah – nib (of the calamus) (BA. 370). – unpared. taµQ I – nibbing (of the calamus) (KD. 370. III. BA. III. unnibbed reed (FN. 31). KU. II. ODK – LPSOHPHQW LQVWUXPHQW V\Q DG K TY. LM. (qalam) al-muµannaq see al-ash¶ U. 31. 701: annaftuhu taÐQ IDQ LGK ¨addadtu Ãarafahu al-PDEU ZD-qaÃaÃtuhu qaÃÃan). LQV see sinn. 153: wa-O \XVDPPá al-XQE E TDODPDQ ¨attá yuqÃaÑ.

AA. awwal SO DZ Ðil) – introductory matter of the text (composition). (TP. 40: wa-al-taÁG U I DZZDO DO-NLW E ZD-al-duÑ Ð I NKLULK. 264: rasm al-WDVPL\DK I DZZDO NLW E DO-shiÑr. I. 52. n. JA.14. incipit. initia.

 .

taÐ Z O.10 GLOSSARY DZ µil al-shahr – the first 10 days of the month (DM). taµZ O (pl.

explanation (e. – interpretation.g. taÐZ O DO-QurÐ Q.

34). baŒr (pl. acephalous. passim) 2. incomplete (of text) (KC. **** PDEW U 1. imperfect. bu¨ U. truncated letter (especially of a descender) (KH.

AG. JL. cartouche (TS. – panel on a book cover. . 110. 33. 103: ià U I KL PDQ Ãiq wa-bu¨ U PXVWDà ODK GK W IXÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  6' .

355). tabŒ U – creating panels on book covers (NH. 40: wa-yubakhkhir bi-aÑ  Ð al-hud KXG ZDU VKLK ID-innahu yaqtul al-ara ah). . WDENK U – fumigation (TS. bidl '% . badal.

SO DEG O.

 YDULDQW UHDGLQJ YDULD OHFWLR.

 .. [LLL. RU IRU QXVNKDK DQG usually abbreviated as &.

59-60. . 412) 2. conjectural substitution. stitution. fasc. 473: see the quotation under Ì KLU 0. RU badal respectively (KG. 100-103). II.    D\ I QXVNKDK XNKUá badalan Ñan al-nuskhah al-PDGKN UDK I IRU QXVNKDK-aÁl. conjecture. DT. also WDEG O – subal-matn. suppl. alteration (CL. wifq (US. 296).3. EXG Œ – artificial talismanic word (seal) formed from the simple threefold magic square. SD. MZ. I. EI. 49. fasc. comp.3-4. 153-154.

qirà V mibrad – file. LEU ] – bringing out (a book). I. IA. VIII. comp. 6: abraztu al-NLW E QDVKDUWXKX ZD-KXZD PDEU ]. DD. 64-66).GLOSSARY 11 EDUG . WS. I. EI. DEDUG (waraq al-bDUG ). lin. 417. QS. 521-522. publishing (KM. II. rasp (HT. 60. 407. EDUG \DK – papyrus. sifr 13.84. 390: for trimming). IV. papyrus sheet or roll (DB.

barshamah – decorating a text with multi-coloured dots (DB. LEU ] EL-al-Œumrah see ¨umrah. 545). EXUVKP Q (or EDUVKP Q SO EDU VKLP '& . . I.

81. ST.148). 8. 17-18. IB. – endband (headband) (ST. EDU VKLP SO EDUVKLP Q /$ SW  EDUVKLP Q MDPÑ EDUVK P DZ EDU VKLP D\ LEU VKLP DZ LEU VLP ZD-huwa al-¨DU U ZD-al-EDUVK P ) ULV \DK ZD-al-EXUVKP Q MDPÑXK . n. index. EDUVK P.

 al-PXE UDN DK.

ShaÑE Q 5DPD  Q 6KDZZ O DQG 5DE Ñ al-7K Q TY. – epithet of the months of ‚afar.

nuskhah. DV ZHOO DV VXFK ZRUGV DV NLW E M PLÑ. ELUN U SO EDU N U. etc.

(pair of) dividers (SA. – compass. 41: used IRU PHDVXULQJ OHWWHUV 08 . III.9.  '0.

 VHH DOVR E N U DQG WDEN U EXUN Q (pO EDU N Q.

12. 18). Œajar al-EXUN Q – pumice (TS. .

12 GLOSSARY EDUQ PDM SO EDU PLM.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

bary. 85. 232. trimming (of a reed ) (IR. 154: IK.v. III. EXU \DK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. EDUU \DK.). KK. SA. PLEU K SO PDE ULQ.  8'  DUN Q DO-bary arbaÑah: fat¨ wa-na¨t wa-shaqq wa-qaÃÃ). 49). ELU \DK – paring.  ZRUN containing a record of attested study similar to fihris and fahrasah (q. 455 6.

– pen knife (AA. 88. bas¨ – spreading out.   $6 . mibzaq al-fa¦ GDK (ST. I. as opposed to rounding LW WDTZ U 6$ . 90. SD. I. 591). flattening (of a letter). mibzaq – lancet-like knife. 64. 8.. MP. DA: mibzagh. DB. index. 81). IK..

11: wa-KXZD P O LQNKLV I ZD-O LQ¨ià à I KL ND-al-mu¨aqqaq. 34. unabridged work. rectilinear (of a script. line (KU. horizontal stroke. KH. al-qalam al-PDEV ¨) (SA. III. 144) 4. AS. PDEV ¨ 1. comp. syn. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK. jazm (IK. mukhtaÁar. original (comprehensive). 120) 2. 87) 3. having its nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely). (qalam) PDEV ¨ – reed pen.

365. 13. 144). 322). basmalah SO EDV PLO. – rectilinear scripts such as mu¨aqqaq. maÁ ¨if. 47. ray¨ Q DQG QDVNK (AS. well-spaced Maghrebi script used predominantly for the copying of the QurÐ Q DQG SUD\er books (LT. (al-kha¨¨) al-PDEV ¨ – clear. TW.

– WKH SURSLWLDWRU\ IRUPXOD µ%LVP $OO K DORa¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P.

¶ ZULWWHQ XVXDOO\ RQ LWV RZQ D QXPEHU RI OLQHV .

bashra¨ 1. 161. PDEVK U – pared. ‘effacer des mots avec un grattoir’) 3. bi¨ TDK (pl. TS. catalogue.GLOSSARY 13 down from the head of the page. 58.v. lin. 1084-1085). (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. erasure with a pen knife or scraper (TP. LF. MP. 12). IA. 109. LF. 63. 145). 78: ‘racler. -0  T OD Dl-QDE Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam NXOO DPU GK E O O yubdaÐX I KL EL-%LVP $OO K ID-huwa abtar ay maqÃ Ñ al-barakah. 52. I.) (AS. slip (of paper) 2. dressing (of leather) (UK. ratisser des peaux’. silk thread used for endbanding (headbanding) 2. baà Ðiq) 1. 9. register (AD. AG. buà Q. erased.111) 2. 58. silk endband (headband) (HT. HT. piece. 23-24. and opening a composition (TP. ST. EI. lin. ba¨n (pl. paring. 79-81: ‘en passant quelques traits de plume par dessus’). bashr 1. cancellation by means of drawing lines above a word or words to be erased (LF. 155). 78. index. also known as al-JKXE U (q.97.

inner cover. flesh side (of parchment). al-NLW E. ba¨n al-JKLO I (al-sifr. E ¨in SO EDZ Ãin) – inner side.

MA. 89. paste-down endpaper. HT. baà Ðin) 1. 23. – inner cover. endleaf (ST. IV. lining (FT. 102. AG. IA. pasteboard (UK. 90: wa-O EDÐs an yubaÃÃin al-jild bial-DZU T DOODW I K DO-¨LV E. doublure (TS. doublure (LC. lin. IB. 22-23. 157: waraq al-baà Ðin wa-hiya ZDUDTDW Q ID-ZDUDTDK WDN Q I DO-jild wa-ukhrá tak Q E TL\DWDQ Ñalá al-NDU U V OL-taÁ Q DO-NLW E PLQ DO-adhá wa-al-wasakh) 4. 408) 2. passim. 159.73-79) 3. UK. 60. 112). 49. MB. 47. 117. HD. endpaper. bi¨ QDK (pl.

. 92).  EDVDQ VKHHS VNLQ $*  6' .

XIV.14 GLOSSARY tab¨ Q 1. 9. 84: mujallad bi-adam mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. lining of the insides of book covers with paper. MU. index. leather or silk (ST.

bary. /( .) from the reed (IK. MB. BA. II. comp. 2.v. 87). 61. 701: baÃÃantu al-qalam tabà QDQ LGK UDTTDTWX baryah. paring (of the calamus) (KD. 370). ba¶du – after. III. abbrev. used for a transposed word. removal of sha¨mah (q.

20). ba¶G \DK – WKH HSLVWRODU\ DQG WH[WXDO IRUPXOD µDPP RU ZD-) baÑdu’. also known as fa¦l al-khi¨ E. tab¶ „ – word division. 53. 135: wa-NDULK WDEÑ   alkalimah al-murakkabah). E N U SO ED\ N U EDZ N U FRPS ELUN U. separating doxological statements from the preface proper (TP. n. separation (MM.

101. comp. 58. measuring distances. 104. TU. 44. etc. – compass. IA. 105). 153. 105: fa-al-E N U \DK LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-al-GDZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑX I ZDVDÃ alNLW E. 60. (MB. MP. 103. 103. biUN U WDEN U. also E N U \DK – working with a compass by drawing circles. MB. 59. 156. IB. (pair of) dividers (UK.

mis¨arat al-WDEN U see misÃarah. MB. JHRPHWULFDO ILJXUH GHVLJQ al-GDZ µir al-E N U \D\K VHH G Ðirah. 103. 380. IA. 42. DD. I. UXNK P EDO JK SO EDO JK W. IB. 391). 153. comp. EDO ¨ah – marble slab (UK. mibkar(ah) – case (for a compass) (NH. 59).

 WDEO JK SO WDEO JK W.

 DOVR known as ¶DO PDW al-EDO JK (al-WDEO JK) – collation statement or mark indicating the .

damaged (TS. E OLQ – worn. 45: EXO JK). 56. comp. CT. 28: al-DVI U DO-EDZ O . I.119. JA. muÑ UD DK PXT EDODK muballigh see mustamlin.GLOSSARY 15 SODFH ZKHUH FROODWLRQ ZDV LQWHUUXSWHG 0)  EDODJKWX TLU Ðatan min al-EDO JK EL-khaÃÃ LOá hun  0)  ID-samiÑD P I K PLVK DOnuskhah Ñinda al-WDEO JK &' .  EDO . 268.9 SO. TP.

 WDEQ T – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

36). IV. kha¨¨L E KDU. 1127) – script used in India mostly but not exclusively for the copying of the QurÐ Q IURP WKH ODWH th century to the end of the 10/16th century (CA. E E SO DEZ E. EI. FRPS WDQP T (al-kha¨¨) al-bih U or al-%LK U (also known as E KDU (thus).

abbrev. – chapter. 0. .

mubawwib – compiler (DF. murattib. 609. 53. IV. TP. bayt SO EX\ W. n. 376). comp.20). WDEZ E – arrangement (division) of the text into chapters (MF.

 ZRRGHQ ER[ IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q.

bayt al-JKXU E – hexagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. AG. 95. 110). AG. al-Bayt al-Muqaddas – Jerusalem. 6- QRV DQG  I ED\W Ñ G ODÃ I PXEDÃÃan bi-al-¨DU U I bayt Ñ G UDEÑah mughashshá bi-al-jild 2. 110) 4. KR. compartment (in a book cover design) (TS. 31-33. compartment (in such a box) 3. WDE\ W – creation of compartments and frames (on book covers) (TS. 31. Bayt al-Maqdis. 82). 97. Ãurrah) (TS. frame (as part of the border. 33). . 32.

16 GLOSSARY ED\ „ SO ED\   W.

 EODQN VSDFH JDS VSDFH VSDFLng (e.g. TM,  ED\   al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-NKDZ WLP $.  ID-inna al-ED\   min jumlat ÑDO Ðim al-faÁl; SA, III, 146: wa-NXWW E DO-UDV Ðil yajÑDO Q lil-IDZ ÁLO ED\  DQ \DN Q ED\QD DO-NDO PD\Q 6$9,  PLTG U DOED\   qabla al-basmalah; SA, III, 50: an \DN Q DO-ED\   bayna ala¨ruf ka-mithlih bayna al-suà U

 ODFXQD DEEUHY 71  /& 23; MI, 138) 3. also mubayya„ah, WDE\ „ah – fair copy (as opposed to a draft, musawwadah (q.v.) (MU, VI, 157: wa-EDTL\D EDT \DW DONLW E PXVDZZDGDWDQ JKD\U PXQDTTD¨ah wa-O PXED\\D ah fabayya DKX $E ,V¨ T 08 ;9  DO-VDZ G ZD-al-ED\  ; FK, I, 978; KF, II, 333) 4. counter (‘eye’) of a letter (KH, 36) 5. white colour, ink or paint. ED\ „ ¦aŒ Œ – expression used for a blank space or page created by mistake or left deliberately blank in order to indicate a lacuna in the exemplar (hic nullus est defectus). WDE\ „  FUHDWLQJ DGHTXDWH VSDFH ED\  ) between letters and lines; spacing (TE, 15) 2. execution (of the fair copy) (TE, 15; KF, II, 333, 346) 3. copying, transcription (TE, 15). mubayyi„ – author; fair copyist.

ED\ Q SO ED\ Q W

– marginal correction or explanatory note (usually for a smudged or clumsily written word, i.e. cacographical error), abbrev. or (TP, 58; CI, I , xiv; MI, 182; MM, 136).

****

W E W SO WDZ E W

 ZRRGHQ ER[ FKHVW IRU KRXVLQJ D PXOWL-volume copy of the QurÐ Q

6- QR I W E W Ñ G PXUDNNDQ EL-al-nu¨ V 76  WDZ E W DO-rabaÑ W 76  DO-WDZ E W DO-M IL\DK DO-DMU P 0( 568-569) 2. pentagonal figure or pDQHO 76  WKXPPD WDUVXP I DO-

AG. KR. 82). W V PDK – octagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 110). 97. gold dust (AQ. . also TS. 95. tibr – gold. 246: kataba wa-dhahhaba wa-zayyana DUN QDK EL-al-tibr wa-al-lawn wa-al-ta¨U U // . 30-31.GLOSSARY 17 XGKQ W E WDQ Ñalá wasaà al-NK WLP DZ DO-G Ðirah.

 takht SO WXNK W.

HT. IB. 9).  . 94. 82. KU. wooden pressing board (TS. IV. earth. 156. index. KM. 127-. 22.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG 8.7  XVHG IRU ERRN covers) 2. also takht al-]L\ U (al-]L\\ U) bookbinder’s press (ST. 9. 120). sand. I. 24. AG. TD. 6. 107) 3. index. WDWU E – sprinkling a freshly written text with sand (IK. WDNKW W – pressing (ST. WXU E – dust. sifr 13. 42. lin.

compartmeQW IRU VDQG LQ WKH GDZ K TY. FRPSWDUP O mitrabah – sandbox.

tarjamah SO WDU MLP. 478-480). 6$ II.

28) 4. II. 252: waal-PXU G EL-al-WDU MLP DO-DEZ E ZD-al-fuÁ O ZD-na¨ZXK . indicating its contents (DB. chapter heading (IN.  GHVLJQDWLRQ RI WKH VHQGHU LQ WKH ÑXQZ Q 0/  PDN Q DO-tarjamah qabla al-basmalah) 2. 122) 3. key word (LC. 165). title (of a book) (LC. detailed title of a book. AH. 28.

g. medallion) . paragraph (LC. 27) 7. headpiece or tailpiece (LC. 27) 8. 27) 6.g. decorative figure of any shape or size used in the text (e. disc) or margins (e.  decorative panel around a chapter heading (LC.

biographical note. II. illuminator (TW. tirs. biographer 2. 28. 270).18 GLOSSARY 06  WDU MLP PXGKDKKDEDK PXODZZDQDK PXWDQDZZLÑat al-DVKN O also MS. 224) 12. 30) 9. exegesis (DB. translation (EI. turs SO WXU V. DB. explanation. 29-31. interpretation. translator. 29. 260. X. mutarjim 1. cryptography (AA. 1021). IT. table of contents (tarjamat al-DEZ E /& 28) 11.g. 224) 10.EQ DO-'XUD\KLP I DO-mutarjam’) – cypher. 1021) 13. X. biography (EI. 186. also mutarjam (e. II. ‘QaÁ GDW .

‘it is finished’) DQ\ QXPEHU. shamsah. IP. corner-piece (ST. oval. rosette (HD. IB. 97. 145. writing tamma (lit. WDWP P – completion. index. – principal (often central) element in a Mamluk book cover design in the shape of a pointed star (JL. 95. 44) 3. 28) 2. 103. PA. rub¶ al-turunjah – quarter-medallion. 82). turunj(ah) 1. 69. center-medallion in the shape of a mandorla (ST. 15). 9. KR. execution. taftar see daftar. 116). citrus-shaped stamp (mandorla) for centermedallions (IB. LC. comp. illuminated oval medallion.

comp. &. [LLL at the end of the colophon. often abbreviated as  RU DW WKH HQG RI PDUJLQDO TXRWDWLRQV RU JORVVHV (CI. supplement . continuation and end (of a composition) (DM). . 46). talisman (EI. taÐP Q WDIT Ã. . ¨add. RU CM. finish. WDP Ðim) – amulet. WDP P – end. abbrev. xiii). II. 177-178). comp. used in manuscripts of Persian/Indian provenance in the expression WDP P VKXG (‘it is finished’). X. WDP PDK (pl. tatimmah – supplementation.

II.GLOSSARY 19 **** WKDEW LWKE W – writing. FK. no. 100. 101.1202-3: K GK NKLU P DWKEDWQ KX I K GK DO-NLW E. copying (MH.

 XVHG YHU\ RIWHQ LQ WKH formula of attestation ‘Áa¨¨a wa-thabata’. atKE W. thabat (pl.

234. GA. document. written testimony (SD. muÑjam. 157) 2.  FHUWLILFDWH RU GRFXPHQW DWWHVWLQJ D GLGDFWLF transmission of a text. I. mashyaNKDK LQ WKH (DVW DQG EDUQ PDM RU IDKUDVDK LQ WKH :HVW. 288: syn. record of attested study (HB.

usually expressed by: Áa¨¨a (or Áa¨ ¨. LWKE W 1. also WDWKE W – attestation. 157). vocalization (AD. I. authentication (formula). WKDE W – signature (SD. 18) 2.  WDEOH RI contents.

GK OLND.

wa-WKDEDWD RU NDWDED.

muthbit – ZULWHU UHFRUGHU V\Q N WLE. 289). CT. GA. 45. 53. n. muthabbit.25. RU K GK Áa¨ ¨ wa-katabahu (TP.

writer of the audition note (MH. thabaj(ah) – obscurity or indistinctiveness of handwriting (LL. SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH expression muthbit al-VDP ¶ LH N WLE DO-VDP ¶. mithqab SO PDWK TLE. CT. 330). 45). I. 101.

147). 107). AG. III. . 11. – drill for making holes in boards when endbanding (headbanding) (TS. WKDT O (lit. 58: al-thuluth al-WKDT O WKDT O DO-thuluth. AS. ‘heavy’) – larger variety (version) of a script (SA.

9 . T OLE.20 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-thuluth (al-thulth) – the principal curvilinear script used in codices mostly for book titles and chapter headings (SA. abbrev. 1125in Turkey). (TN. epithet DGGHG WR WK Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU \ Ð (LL.in Persia. 46-53: MDO O DO-thuluth. hence muthallathah – having three diacritical dots. TU. 106: li-anna alif al-WKXOXWK I ÁDGULK WD¨G E P ZD-I ÑDM]LK NDGK OLND /0  ZD-al-thuluth lil-taÑO P /0  ZD-in kunta taktub WKXOXWKDQ DZ WDZ T Ñ DZ ULT Ñan fa-DPLO NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) muraÃÃiban ilá na¨w al-yasUDK TDO ODQ (. al-thuluth al-0DJKULE VHH 0DVKULT  (qa¨¶ ) al-thulth see qaÃÑ. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-thuluth fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I KL Ñalá al-P O LOá al-WDTZ U $6  JM. I. 51). . III. 32-38: al-thuluth al-mu¶W G. al-Œibr al-muthallath see ¨ibr. JM. 349). WDWKO WK – providing a letter with three diacritical points.

octagon (EI. al-WKXP Q VHH T OLE muthamman – octagonal. DO-thumn. 795-.VII.

abbrev. MZ. 102). no. muthann K WDŒW \DK – marked with two points below. hence PXWKDQQ K – having two diacritical dots (points). 361). MI. see also mashÐalah. 361). I. . epithet DGGHG WR W Ð WR SUHYHQW LW IURP EHLQJ UHDG DV E Ð RU WK Ð RU \ Ð (LL. I. epithet added WR \ Ð WR SUHYHQW LWV EHLQJ PLVWDNHQ IRU E Ð RU W Ð RU WK Ð (LL. SA. al-taµU NK DO-mustathná see taÐU NK LVWLWKQ µ – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µLQ VK Ða $OO K’ (SA. . [LY )0 167.. VI. 12. tathniyah – providing a letter with two diacritical points (DM).13.VI. FRPS NK WLP muthamman. 232-234) .  RU &. Taf. PXWKDQQ K IDZT \DK – marked with two points above. 232-234.

GLOSSARY 21 **** M PDK 1. decorative medallion or panel. 258: al-PDQ Ãiq wa-al-bu¨ U /& . either illuminated or stamped (KI.

JL.5  DVKN O ODZ] \DK . 88. 83: M PDK ZXV¨á .  center-piece (on a book cover) (FI. 87.

 SDOPHWWH URXQGHO =0  .

braid. PDMG O SO PDM G O. rub¶ al-M PDK – quarter-medallion. MDG ODK SO MDG Ðil) – plait. 141). restoring manuscripts.41. 99. jabr – repairing. 43). interlace (TF. dhayl al-M PDK – pendant (JL. 87). 99). corner-piece (JL. nos. WDMG G – repair. repair (SJ. mending. 83. 100). restoration (KR.

50. table (LC. 175) 5. 24) 4. rules. mujadwil – ruler (maker of rule-borders ) (TC. – leather strap. 370. 42). TW. 148. ruleERUGHU /&  MDG ZLO DO-Áafa¨ W MDG ZLO DO-KDZ PLVK +'  PA. 56. column (of text) (SD. 160) 2. no. thong (KC. 32). mujadwal – ruled (LC. chart. 108). I. talismanic seal (EI. KC. . DT. jadwal(ah) SO MDG ZLl) 1. creating rule-borders (WB. magic square. 33. table of contents (CM. also WDMGDZ O – ruling (of borders). II. diagram. 26). 63) 3.6/2) 6.

22 GLOSSARY MXGK GKDK – VOLS RI SDSHU.

 LQVHW '0.

   .. jurrah – horizontal sWURNH OLQH DV LQ WKH PHGLDQ N I LVRODWHG ¨ Ð RU V Q µZLWKRXW WHHWK¶ 6$ . FRPS MX] ]DK jarrah..

112. II. inventory (SD. scraper (MB. mijrad(ah) – file. edition or composition involving collection or selection of material from an original work. 184. I. 331: wa-lam yujarridhu Ñan al-musawwadah) 2. KF. 183). extract. collection (gathering) of glosses from the margins of a manuscript (TT. DD.&  I VLIU EL-mijarr min khashab). I. 27). register. DG. WDMU G 1. 390: instrument for FOHDQLQJ D GDZ K 8$ . abridgement (SD. FRPS VKDTT mijarr – ZRRGHQ SDUW RI WKH FODVS . jard al-matn see matn. 107. I. MDU GDK – list.

 jirm SO DMU P.

– IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

jirm laà I RU ODà I DO-jirm (SJ. HJ MLUP NDE U RU NDE U DO-jirm. passim). jirm wasaÃ. majran SO PDM ULQ.

62). MX] ]DK SO MX] ] W. – FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH GDZ K . passim: Œazz. shaving (MB. jazz – trimming. IA.8 154).

 ORRVH VKHHW RI SDSHU XVHG IRU QRWHV TXRWDtions or drafts. rough copies 2. 19. 103). also jizzah – slip of paper used for glosses and tipped into a volume. n. VII. KF. 132. inset (UI. .2: ZXUD\T W WXÑDOODT I K DO-IDZ Ðid. I. MU.

AI. single-quire codex. the 30th part of the QurÐ Q  ¨izbs). 79.GLOSSARY 23 juzµ SO DM] Ð) 1. one of the 30 volumes of the QurÐ Q  TXLUH JDWKHULQJ. booklet. volume (in the sense of mujallad) (MK. 117: wa-yuwassiÑu al-Ã OLE NXPPDK OL-ya aÑ I KL DO-kutub wa-al-DM] Ð) 2.

small collection of ¨DG WK ZLWKRXW DQ\ VWUXFWXUHG DUUDQJHPHQW (. 705). passim: tajziÐat sabÑDK :5    HJ NKXP V \DW DO-tajziÐah. mujazzaµ – YROXPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI ERXQG TXLUHV DM] Ð (IJ. usually not more than a quire (IJ. VII. 128) 6. independent. small piece of writing. mijzaµah – pen knife (IK. tomaison) (SJ. II. DEEUHY RU (CI. tajziÐah ÑXVK U \DK WDM]LÐDK WKXP Q \DK. 128). tajziµah – set of a number of volumes (Fr. xii) 4. juzµah – handle (of a knife) (KD. I. 90). chapter or section of a text (composition) 5. 711).

IK. 90). MB. (kha¨¨ or qalam) al-jazm – ancient script of al-± UDK XVHG IRU WKH copying of the QurÐ Q NKDÃà al-maÁ ¨if) and having ‘a stiff and angular appearance’ (RN. I. 7-9. 99. 38). having the nib cut (evenly) straight (not obliquely) (IK. MP. 94: fa-LGK VDZZá ¨XU I NLW batih wa-ODP \XNK OLI EDÑ XK EDÑ DQ T OD MD]DPD \DM]LPX MD]PDQ wa-khaÃà PDM] P. 89. PDM] P – well-balanced (of writing) (IK. jaz¶ – onyx (for burnishing gold) (UK. 143. LL. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ see waraq. 421). 87: qalam jazm. jazm – reed pen.

 jazm(ah) – diacritical mark ( RU .

196: wa-¨XGKGK T DO-NLW E \DMÑDO Q DO-MD]PDK M PDQ laà IDWDQ EL-ghayr ÑDU TDK LVK UDWDQ OLO-jazm. 13). LQGLFDting an unvowelled final consonant (DS. . for other signs representing jazmah see GL.

24 GLOSSARY jasad SO DMV G.

23). WDMV G – tinting in red (AD. Ð Ñ alá mujaffif – GU\HU IRU VDQG. 149: ÁLIDW NLW EDK ED\  jasad aswad). – background (UK.

 FRPS WDUP O 8$ .

 (qalam) al-MDO O – according to Ibn al-1DG P WKH µIDWKHU RI DOO scripts’ DE DO-DTO P.

. )1   ... .  ZD-khaÃÃ ahl al-6K P DOjaO O \DNWXE QD EL-hi al-maÁ ¨if wa-al-VLMLOO W 6$ .

 al-kha¨¨ al-MDO O (also MDO ) – name given to a larger variety of the VFULSW HJ MDO O DO-mu¨DTTDT TY.

 MDO O DO-WKXOXWK TY.

1123). III. G Z Q MDO (SA. 50: wa-al-maÑná f KL DQQD DO-ÃDPV O \DO T EL-al-khaÃÃ al-MDO O EI. . WDMO O – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ µMDOOD MDO OXK’ or ‘jalla shaÐnuh’ (abbrev. IV.

 SODFHG DIWHU WKH ZRUG $OO K 73 .

 (ism) al-MDO ODK – WKH QDPH RI *RG WKH ZRUG $OO K.

/& 

 majallah SO PDM OO

 Zriting surface (like Áa¨ IDK

%$ ,,,  al-majallah Áa¨ IDK N Q \DNWXE QD I K DO-¨ikmah); parchment roll (ND, 57, n.67) 2. booklet (SL, I, 48; SL, II, 5) 3. composition, work HJ 0DMDOODW /XTP Q ). , QR ZD-baÑdu fa-K GKLKL PDMDOODK mushtamilah Ñalá shar¨…). jild SO MXO G

 OHDWKHU (, ,, -541; KM, I, sifr 4,100-111; WS, 56-60; AE, 106-109); parchment (AE, 108; EP, 17) 2. volume. jild (raqq) al-JKD] O – gazelle skin (hide) (EI, VIII, 408); fine (good quality, vellum-like) parchment, not necessarily made of gazelle skin (EP, 19-21). jild(ah) – book cover; binding (JL, 81: jildat muÁ¨af; LC, 25). jildah yumná – upper cover (LC, 25). MDO GDK, mijlad, WDMO GDK – book cover (LC, 25; SD, I, 206). WDMO G – covering with leather; bookbinding (SD, I, 206).

26). 123 and IX.GLOSSARY 25 mujallad(ah) – volume (MU. mujallid – bookbinder (QS. majlis SO PDM OLV. LC. II. 416-417). 47. VIII.

1020). – session. majlis al-PXT EDODK – colODWLRQ VHVVLRQ &. majlis al-VDP ¶ – audition/reading session (EI. VIII.  EDODJKD TLE ODQ « I PDM OLV.. . sitting.

154: wa-julfat al-qalam min mubtadaÐ sinnayh ilá ¨aythu intahá al-bary). II. the whole part of the reed which is cut away) (SA. al-taµU NK EL-al-MXO V see taÐU NK jilfah. 459-460. KU. julfah – nib (of the calamus. MXO V – accession to the throne (DM). jalam SO DMO P.

/ / (OS. II. IK.NKLU. 89. 203: -DP G DO-Awwal. abbrev.Oá.NKLUDK DO. – (pair of) scissors (DS. 230). CI. 181: wa-ya¨W M LOD\KL DON WLE I TDÁÁ al-waraq lil-taswiyah wa-na¨wih. no. -XP Gá al. Jum G DO-Awwal – the fifth month of the Muslim calendar. IR. CM. -XP Gá al. 91-92.190: -DP GDK DO-7K Q !).

SA. 89). rounding (of the descender to resemble a semicircle) (KH. III. 126. 34) 3. jam¶ SO MXP Ñ ) 1. abbrev. contraction (of letters) (KU. compilation. -XP Gá al-7K QL\DK -XP G DO7K Q – the sixth month of the Muslim calendar. / (OS. M PL¶  FRPSLOHU DXWKRU ') . composition. 146: aljamÑ wa-al-mashq) 2.9 .

 FRORSKRQ NDWDED K GK DO-M PLÑ Ñ$O LEQ +LO O EL-0DG QDW DO-6DO P 6/ . .g.  SO MDZ PLÑ ) – comprehensive work. 352).  FN. major original compilation. e. the QurÐ Q 8.

26 GLOSSARY PDMP ¶(ah) SO PDM P Ñ PDMP Ñ W.

 FRPSHQGLXP ZRUN ERRN (MU. III. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO IDQQ WDÁ Q I wa-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I ). 359: tamma al-PDMP Ñ al-musammá bi-)DZ W DO-ZDID\ W. II.

case with compartments (TS. 380). 106. box (NM. tool box. 37. 233. 32) 2. inkwell for coloured ink (TC. jumal. jummal see ¨LV E janb SO MXQ E DMQ E. 52. majma¶ SO PDM PLÑ ). escritoire (TW. codex compositus (LC. I. inkwell 6' . 52. mujamma¶ (UA. 13) 3. 12. 393) 1. SD.  '' .  GDZ K PXUDEEDÑDK GK W EDÃQ ZDV Ñ min nu¨ V aw ghayrih). 217. AG. 683) 4. writing case. NH.  composite volume. 25). TM. DG. case.

10). ajni¨ah) – hinge (guard) (MB.v. 10). 61: mijwab al-WDNKU P. 11. ajwibah) – responsum. (CI. (qalam) al-MDQ Œ – the smallest of the curvilinear scripts. 107: for cutting gold leaf . II. – book cover (ST. index. index. MDZ E (pl. ST. MI. IA. 110.) (AS. 145). MDQ Œ (pl. IA. AG. xiv. knife (TS. abbrev.111). M EDK VHH M QDK mijwab – cutter. 109. 61. better known as al-JKXE U (q.

 LM ]DK SO LM ] W.

EI. 1020-1021. diploma in the form of a note appended to a manuscript or existing independently and often containing autobibliographical data (LC. IJ). LB. statement of authorization to transmit one or more than one text. ER. 27. 126-130. certificate of transmission. 24. – authorization. licence. LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDOah VHH PXQ ZDODK . III. VIII. 273-275.

GLOSSARY 27 LM ]DW DO-TLU µah VHH TLU Ðah. (kha¨¨) al-LM ]DK – 2WWRPDQ YDULHW\ RI ULT Ñ script having a long WDUZ V ZKLFK RIWHQ ZUDSV URXQG WKH VKDIW RI WKH DOLI (.9 . . LM ]DK EL-al-kitbah – certificate granted to a calligrapher allowing him/her to sign his/her calligraphy with the expression ‘katabahu’ (NI. 181). LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK VHH ULZ \DK LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ VHH VDP Ñ.

 PXM ] PXVWDM ]  OLFHQVHH UHFLSLHQW RI DQ LM ]DK.

 SO PXM ] W PXVWDM ] W.

M QDK – FRPSDUWPHQW SODFH. OLFHQVHG ZRUN PXM ] – licensor (person ZKR KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR JUDQW DQ LM ]DK signer of a license).

IRU DQ LQNZHOO LQ WKH GDZ K.

DS. 154: wa-al-M EDK . 179. 468. 73: wa-DPP DO-M QDK DOODW I K ¨uqq al-PLG G ID-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q VKDNODQ PXGDZZDU DO-raÐs. al-j QDK ZD-hiya alÌDUI DOODGK I KL DO-O TDK ZD-al-¨ibr. 133. LQNZHOO (HI. AT. II. NH. SA. 381: jawn. KU.

see also the quotation under miqlamah). (al-kha¨¨) al-mujawhar – Maghrebi script used most commonly in official correspondence and as a book hand for the copying of nonQurÐ QLF WH[WV /7  7:   . DOODW WXMÑDO I K DO-¨uqq. also known as waqabah.

 **** Œibr (pl. a¨E U.

 JDOOQXW RU WDQQLQ LQN LQN LQ JHQHUDO.

75-78: al-aŒE U DO-mulawwanah – coloured inks. 71-75: al-aŒE U DO-V G – black inks. sifr 13. 236-237: al-aŒE U DO-murakkabah – compound inks. MJ. MP. 13.53. MP. 8. IR. UK. Œibr al-raqq. n. 212-213: Œibr al-N JKDG. 18-21. 101-110 and MB. IV. 6: wa-al- . KM. -100 and MB.

I. 84: wayataÑayyan ÑDOD\KL DQ O \DQVDNK EL-al-¨LEU DOODGK \D¨riq al-waraq. 93: wa-al-NLW EDK ELal-¨ibr awlá min al-PLG G OL-annahu athbat. MR. IK. 471-477: wa-DPP DO-¨ibr fa-aÁluhu al-lawn. 127-131. SA. 134-135. IK. MA. 7273: al-Œibr al-GXNK Q . 68: al-Œibr al-ma¨E NK – ‘cooked’ ink.28 ¨ GLOSSARY ibr al-PLG G ZD-al-] M PLQ DNKO à al-¨ibr. 349. see LL. AT. LM. II. IV. AE. 68: al-Œibr al-muthallath – ink produced by cooking the ingredients until two thirds of the substance evaporates .

ma¨ ELU. 354). 2016). III. FRPS PLG G  DOVR Œabr – flourish. embellishment (DB. Œarq Œibr – ink burns (SJ. miŒbarah (pl.

III..  DOVR ŒLEU \DK – inkwell (BA. 443: al-mi¨barah al-mufradah Ñan al-GDZ K 6$ . SA. II. 372.  ZDhiya al-maqÁ G PLQ DO-GDZ K 7: .

443.  FRPSDUWPHQW IRU LQN LQ WKH GDZ K $7 -133. 468-. II. SA.

inking. SK. 87. FRPS GDZ K ŒDEE U. inscribing in ink (SM. 73: qaraÐWX MDP Ñ K GK DO-NLW E Ñalá muÐallifih wa-mu¨arririh wa-muhadhdhibih wa-mu¨abbirih). II. SA. 15. 264: al-ta¨E U DO-naqsh min al-¨ibrah) 2. WR. Œubs (pl. taŒE U 1. muŒabbir – author. 89). transcription (TE. a¨E V. I. compiler (SS. 119). ŒLEU – ink maker (QS. mis¨arat al-taŒE U see misÃarah. 472: ¨abbartu al-shayÐ ta¨E UDQ LGK ¨assantuhu. elegant. embellished writing (composition) or copying.

 taŒE V (pl. ta¨E V W.

18-20. 154.15: al-kutub al-maŒE NDK. also taŒE N – endbanding (headbanding). decorative endband (UK. 132) 3. 157. .. bequest note (LC. 109. Œabk 1. TS. stitching (of a book) (TM. sewing. waqf. MM. MB. 28). IA. 170: VKDGG DZU TLK '% . 62. 104 ff. comp. also Œabkah – endband (headband).. endbanding with silk 2.  HQGRZPHQW EHTXHVW  FHUtificate or statement of endowment. AG.. n.

 VSLQH 74 .

19. al-Œabk al-5 P – Graeco-Coptic (Byzantine) endband (headband) (TS. 3$  RI WKH OHWWHU G O. al-Œabk al-G O – trellis-like endband (headband) (TS. 109). 109. 19. AG. AG.

 .

109). n. AG. 28). AD. 11. 478). 19. AG. 'K DO-´ijjah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P. Œabakah – bookbinding (IB. 109). bookbinder (IB.GLOSSARY 29 al-Œabk al-sha¨UDQM – chessboard-like endband (headband) (TS. 246). al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ – chevron-like endband (headband) (TS. 19. I. ŒDEE N – ornamental sewer. ŒLE NDW DO-NLW E – raised band (on the spine) (SD. 19.

ajar al-¨XP ¨im). miŒjar. – the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar. (OS. ma¨ MLU. Œajar al-¶u¦¦ U – stone slab for pressing (OM). Œajar al-misann – whetstone. maŒjar (pl. 60). ŒLM E (pl. Œajar baŒU OLO-Œakk – polishing stone (IA. amulet (DT. abbrev. 89). Œajar al-¨iŒn – mill stone (OM). ¨ujub) – talisman. 69). hone (TS. 10). Œajar al-EXUN Q Œajar al-qaw¦DU  Œajar al-TXVK U – pumice (TS.

142: 12. 36) 2. MP. AG.  maŒ MLU – letters such DV Z Z P P I Ð and Ñayn (TU. 99. ST. 112: ¨ajar al-TD\VK U . 36). counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (KH. 38. index. ¨ Œajar al-MXP KXQ – burnisher (for gold) (MB. 107. UK. MB.10.

 .$ .

 (al-kha¨¨) al-´LM ] – generic name given to a number of very early scripts (1st and early 2nd centuries A. FN. 8: fa-DPP DO-0DNN ZD-al-0DGDQ ID-I DOLI WLK WDÑZ M LOá yamnat al-yad wa-aÑO DO-aÁ ELÑ wa-I VKDNOLK LQ LM Ñ \DV U. 2733.) used in the region of Mecca and Medina (hence orginally referred to as al-0DNN and al-0DGDQ ) characterized by elongated ascenders and a slant to the right (AV.H.

 FRPS . I .

711). taŒG G – whetting. ¨XG G. II. honing (of a knife) (KD. Œadd (pl.30 GLOSSARY Œadd.

154: É ÁÁf…Á…spÁpyiÁ€qÁxfƒrtyfwÁrw€„„p„ÁÉQ4ÁÁ!"Á!%Áh€xÁ…fxŒxÁ mabdaÐ maqaÃÃih). ŒDG G DK. used in the form of its numerical value Œadd al-qalam – place where the cutting of the nib begins (KU. – limit. end.

MP. ¨DG Ðid) – iron tool or stamp (for leather work) (ST. MB. mustaŒadd – knife (UA. ¨XG U. (pl. 138). TS. 31. 10. Œadr (pl. 59. 59). 393. IA. 105. 29. 188). taŒG G – tooling (of leather) (TF. 109. AG. MJ.

ornamental surround. MU. compiler (SS. 1124. 52. secretarial style of shikastah script. 48. terminal of a letter) (AA. e. 73) 2. 2408. elegant writing. AF. 16) 5. 286). 50. 701. 16. 16) 6. 15. muŒarrir – 1.  ZDUU TDQ N QD DZ PX¨arriran) 3. author. index. comp. known in Persian as kha¨¨-i taŒU U WDŒU U (EI. frame. writing (of a vocalized text) (TE. 10. outline. PA. IV. ÁaÑd. with black ink (TE.. outlining of figures and/or letters executed in gold. editor. contour of letters or illuminated pieces (AF. redaction (CM. AG. 58. 145. IP. IV. 246) 7. editing (of a manuscript text). muŒarrar (pl. TE. 119) 2. 15) 4. mu¨DUUDU W. 15) 3. AQ. 109. EI. IV. revised version (edition). calligrapher. fair copying (TE. 280: wa-N QD I DZZDO DPULK PXÑalliman fa-ODPP M GD NKDÃÃuh Á UD mu¨arULUDQ . taŒU U 1. ŒDU U – silk (ST. 13. DB. 215-227). III. composition (GA. ER. 214) 8. 50). penman. XVII. copying. transcription (TE. TE. 64. 38. al-A¨wal al-Mu¨arrir al-%DEDUW $&  7( -16. SK.g. – descender (down-stroke.

Œard al-matn see matn. – piece of calligraphy. 53). . calligraph (DP.

GLOSSARY 31 Œirz (pl. a¨U ] ¨XU ].

amulet (DT. e. 69). MiÁr al-ma¨U VDK PD¨U VDW ±alab and the like (DB. maŒU VDK (‘protected by God’) – epithet of major cities in the Islamic world. 2430: aw ±alab ¨DUDVDK $OO K. – talisman. IV.g.

usually involving either transposition of letters  RU   RU PLVSURQXQFLDWLRQ HJ within a word.' . ¨iraf) – edge.80-86).. border. DS. ŒXU I DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK ŒXU I DO-hij µ – letters of the alphabet (EI. Œarf (pl. 39-42) 2. sharp edge (of a knife. Œarf (pl. 464: ¨arf al- in the QurÐ Q '% . lin.  . Œarf al-qalam – right-side (of the) half-nib (SA. II. muŒru„ah – vessel for making potash from ¨ur  (kali or glasswort) (IR. I. LL. 177: huwa al-sinn al-yumná al-murtafiÑah).g. II. miŒra„ah.  PX¨arraf al-sinnayn. al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah see al-muÑMDP W al-ŒXU I DO-muqa¨¨a¶ah see muqaÃÃaÑ W al-ŒXU I DO-murakkabah see WDUN E ŒXU I DO-]LP P VHH ]LP P tiŒU I – shaving. 230. 50: wa-lil-TDODP VLQQ Q VLQQ D\PDQ ZD-sinn aysar fa-LGK N QD DO-ayman aÑlá min al-D\VDU T OD TDOam mu¨arraf wa-qad ¨arraftuhu ta¨U IDQ 6. 596-560). KK. letter. trimming (HT. 549). ¨XU I D¨ruf) 1. al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah see al-PXKPDO W ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam see muÑjam. LM. taŒU I 1. cutter). e. III. oblique nibbing (cutting of the point of the nib) (SA. word 2.9 . 463. distortion. ŒXU I DO-jummal see ¨LV E DO-jummal. variant reading (varia lectio) qalam huwa al-sinn al-ÑXO\ ZD-hiya al-yumná. error.

. FRPS TLU Ðah.

MQ. MJ. ¨DUDN W. 224). 59. falsification (of a text). Œarq Œibr see ¨ibr. 57. Œarakah (pl. al-qalb al-PDN Q  WDÁ¨ I al-alif al-muŒarrafah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) tapered slightly to the left (SA. 641: al-ta¨U I EL-al-]L\ GDK DZ EL-alnaqÁ).32 GLOSSARY  08 . al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf see qaÃÃ. III. comp.

taŒU N – vocalization. 65. 704. comp. MuŒarram (al-¨DU P. KD. al-´DUDP Q – the two Holy Places. miŒU N – spatula. 8). shakl. UA. 112-113. MB. vowelization (DM). – vowel (GL. II. stirrer (for an inkwell) (AA. 393). Mecca and Medina.

a¨] E. abbrev. (OS.). al-ŒDU P – DOVR DQ HSLWKHW RI 5DMDE 'K DO-QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO±ijjah (q. Œizb (pl. 89).v. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the first month of the Muslim calendar.

– the 60th part of the QurÐ Q '0.

11). index. azm al-NDU U V 0%  NKD]P. 28. Œazm . taŒ] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. 8: ¨ ŒD]] P – sewer of paper into bundles (IB. ST. ST. 11..

computation. 468). chronosticon (TP. ŒLV E – calculation. . 54: EI. ŒLV E DO-jummal (or ŒXU I DO-jummal) – chronogram. III.

¨DZ VKLQ. 269-270.GLOSSARY 33 ŒLV E DO-JKXE U see al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK al-ŒLV E DO-+LQG see al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK $OO K¶ SODFHG XVXDOO\ DW WKH HQG RI D GRFXPHQW FRPSRVLWLRQ DQGRr colophon. abbrev. II. Œasbalah – the formula ‘¨DVEXQ $OO K ZD-niÑma al-:DN O¶ RU µ¨DVE Œ VKL\DK (pl. see SA. VI. with a reversed tail of the descender (?) or what looks like . EI. 302).

FZ. 109) 3. IA. 118.112. often abbreviated as or . MD. 119. IA. lin.  HGJH WXUQ-in (HT. also taŒshiyah – marginal gloss. apostil. scholium. 217-219. 63. marginalia. 63) 2. collection of glosses. supergloss (¨ VKL\DW DO-¨ VKL\DK. margin (of a page) 4. MB. border (on a book cover) (MB.

parenthesis. 63. 60. al-Œashw al-EDODG – Mamluk-type decorative panel (DE. 1820). 71) 2. AG. decorative panel or geometrical figure (in illumination or book cover decoration) (TS. JM. al-Œ VKL\DK DO-yusrá – inner margin. 110. III. 977). AS. interpolation.54. 268-269. 222. al-Œ VKL\DK Dl-yumná – outer margin. 89-90). ¨DZ VKLQ. 30. pl. EI. Œashw(ah) 1. FI. 65. DB. gutter. Œ VKLQ (pl. IX. 412. IV. FT. (qalam) al-ŒDZ VK – the smaller version of al-naskh script (NA. 73  00 139. 145.

trimming (of a reed) (BA. gloss (AM. abbrev. glossed. (MI. II. 332). nos. taŒshiyah – glossing. xi. . 322.74. III. CI. 296. muŒashshá – provided with glosses. 34). muŒashshin – glossator. 372: wa-¨aÁrama al-TDODP EDU KX // . Œa¦ramah – paring. AD. 26.

546). . no. transcription (FK. I.89. taŒ¦ O – copying.

comp. AG. sifr 4. 63: al-miŒa¨¨ al-khashab. often confused with mikha¨¨ (q. 34). 29. ÑDU T W. 118: mikhaÃà (!). n. burnisher. IB. smoothing leather (ST. TS. 110: al-¨aÃà dalk al-DG P EL-almi¨aÃà wa-huwa khashabah yuÁaqqal bi-K DO-DG P ZD-yunqash. I.34 GLOSSARY Œa¨¨ – rubbing.). IA. inŒi¨ ¨ – V\Q LQNKLV I  GRZQZDUG FXUYDWXUH RI D OHWWHU HVSHFLDOO\ RI descenders. 5. MB. 6. 107. tam¨ W miŒa¨¨ – wooden tool used for smoothing leather and tooling.v. 60. polisher (KM.31).

302) 2. 34. RN. PLPP ÁuniÑa lil-muÁ¨af al-ÑaÌ P DO-aÁwinah al-JKDU EDK ZD-ala¨fiÌah al-ÑDM EDK 0(  . I. frame (SD. headpiece (LC. 22: PDNKV I – deeply curved). 24). VHH WKH TXRWDWLRQ XQGHU PDEV Ã. ¨aÌ Ðir) 1. 35. surround. KH. Œa„ UDK (pl.

a¨fiÌah). FRPS ÁLZ Q muŒ ID„ah – conservation. Œif„ – learning by heart. 142: wa- Œuqq(ah) 1.8  ZD-al-¨XTT P \XMÑDO I KL al-PLG G PLQ DOÁufr aw al-¨DG G. 44) 2. ŒLI „ (pl. NT. the main part of the inkwell in the GDZ K LQNZHOO . small box (DG. preservation. box (KC. 55. miŒfa„ah – case. memorization (TP. 51). II.

MR. critical edition (of a text) (MH. 103: tis ZDTDÑD I al-NLW E NKDÃaÐ wa-¨aqqaqahu kataba ÑDOD\KL NDGK . text editing. FRPS M QDK taŒT T – establishing the correctness and authenticity of a text. 89.

ancient bookhand used by the VFULEHV ZDUU T Q. editor. muŒaqqiq – corrector. (al-kha¨¨ or qalam) al-muŒaqqaq – 1.

13) 2. RI %DJKGDG KHQFH DOVR NQRZQ DV al-¶. 22: fa-DPP DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-P Áa¨¨at DVKN OXK ZD-¨XU IXK Ñalá iÑWLE ULK PXIUDGDWDQ $6 . 12.U T and alZDUU T (FN. family of scripts characterized by a clear execution of letters (SA. III.

 WKH principal rectilinear script (used mostly for the copying of the QurÐ Q.

.

in Turkey). 106: wa-alif al-mu¨DTTDT OD\VD I K ta¨G E /0  ID-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q OLO-maÁ ¨if wa-aladÑiyah.GLOSSARY 35 characterized by tapered descenders (SA. 1125. IR. 1123. comp. EI. ray¨ Q al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah VHH O P DOLI bashr (LF. IV. 78. TU. 237: wa-al-¨akk bi-al-U VDNKWh (?) wa-al-QXVK GLU wa-al-qily wa-al-NLEU W Ñinda al-P KLU.in Persia. 53: fa-in kunta taktub mu¨aqqaqan aw ray¨ QDQ ID-O taÑawwij NKLUDKX D\ ¨arf al-alif) al-battah. 50: ÃDU TDW DO-mu¨aqqaq fa-WDMU DO-¨ O I Ki Ñalá al-P O LOá al-basà G QD DO-WDTZ U $6  -0 67-72: MDO O DO-muŒaqqaq. LM. III.

screw (of the bookbinder’s press) (MB. 62) 2. NH. miŒakk(ah). 392. qalam al-Œalbah VHH JKXE U ´alab al-6KDKE µ – Aleppo. effacement (TP. ¨alaq. I. ŒDOD] Q  VQDLO XVHG IRU WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ RI SDVWH JKLU ¶ DO-¨DOD] Q q. 59) 3. 31). 58. 381: wa-al-mi¨akkah li-iÁO ¨ ruÐ V DOMDU Ðid wa-al-GDI WLU ND-mibrad). Œalqah (pl.) (UK. 141) 2. mibrad (q. ¨DODT W. syn.) (DD. of al-dhahab al-maŒO O see dhahab. pumice (MB. 137). MM. erasure. IA. miŒakk al-rijl 1. Œakk – rubbing out. 104. 112.v. IA.v. scroll (in design) (UI. syn.

48. ma¨ O T. ŒDOTDK ODZODE \DK PLŒO T (pl. study circle. III. 27). part of a clasp) (BA. scholar’s circle (SL.  ULQJ RQ D ERRN FRYHU RU D OLG RI WKH chest. II. AI. 372) 2.

– tendril (FT. 136. 422. AB. 139). .

150-151). Œilyah. 204-209). taŒP G DK. al-Œilyah al-VKDU IDK – calligraphic Œamdalah. taŒliyah – decoration. Œilyat al-sa¶ GDK DO-VKDU IDK.36 GLOSSARY ŒDOT \DK – roundel (FT. 416).  composition containing the ¨DG WK GHVFULELQJ WKH SK\VLFDO DSSHDUDQFH of the prophet Mu¨ammad (MC. embellishment (KT.

red ink (LC. Œumrah 1. also referred to as LEU ] (i„K U NLW EDK. 53. – the doxological formula ‘al-¨amd li-$OO K¶ (AD. red colour. EI. rubrics (CM. n. 122-123). 152: tammat al-¨umrah al-PXE UDNDK 7(  00  NLW Eah bial-¨XPUDK NLW EDW DO-¨umrah. rubrication. III. TP. 24) 2. 95). TB. 38.20.

86) 3. 4: al-ma¨mil alNLW E DO-awwal. sifr 13. book cradle (TC. also miŒmal. 286. IV. 169. 51). 24. maŒmil 1. 15. exemplar. taŒQ VK (pl. 69). 24). maŒmal – copyist’s book support (ME. 56-57. ME. 566. ta¨ Q VK. ŒDP ODK (pl. ¨DP Ðil) – talisman. taŒammul al-¶ilm – transmission of knowledge (GA.  ‘pupitre’). taŒP U – rubrication (TE. 29). TW. WA. amulet (DT. EL-al-Œumrah (LC. TP. archetype (KM. LC. TP. 12: Ñ G DO-QDV NKDK 6' . 55). ŒLP U DO-kutub – book support. IV. codex (MA. 566: al-muÑtamad) 2. ÑUthmanic canon.

138. (pair of) dividers (IB. ST.  VWUDLJKW RU FXUYHG OLQH H[HFXWHG RQ OHDWKHU etc. index. rope work. 44). 143) 3.) (MP. interlace (TF. compass. 11) 2. . 58.

GLOSSARY 37 ŒDQ IDK – inkwell (KD. 700).  munŒanin – downward (inclined) sloping stroke (from right to left or OHIW WR ULJKW DV LQ WKH LVRODWHG G O. II.

miŒwar (pl. 8'  /0  ZD-al-mun¨DQ wa-al-PXQNDEE I DO-MXPODK KXZD DOODGK \DGNKXO I KL DO-iÑZLM M PLQ yamnah ilá yasrah). ma¨ ZLU.

 VSLQH RI D ERRN.

$% .

 FHQWUDO SDQHO (on a book cover). maΠU DK. 144). as opposed to the border (TF. 138.

I. 483). 109. often found at the end of a composition or colophon (MG. 99. 59: as a means of indicating an addition or omission in a different recension). TP. 149-150). see also tam¨ U taŒZ U – lining books with sheepskin leather. Œawqalah. 665). MH. 104-105). Œ µil. TP. – oyster shell (for burnishing gold decoration or writing) (KA. 171. taŒZ ¨ah – circular talismanic seal (DT. II. ¨awr (LL. taŒZ T – parenthesis (IM. Œawlaqah – WKH IRUPXOD µO ¨awla wa-O TXZZDWD LOO EL$OO K’. 58: as a means of cancellation. taŒZ O ŒD\O ODK – place separatinJ VHSDUDWLRQ RI. 97.

abbrev. 73 . RQH LVQ G from another.

 .

3. 35). khatm 1. ‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U . tool. 31). stamping (of a book cover) (FZ. **** NK QDK – compartment. stamp. tooling 2. also khatmah – lecture delivered to mark the end of a series of study sessions on a given composition (e. 174: wa-ka-GK OLN \Df ÑDO I khatm al-NLW E DZ NKLU NXOO MX]Ð) 4. seal.g. colophon (TM. stamping. 24. MI.38 GLOSSARY iŒ ODK  ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK – reference mark (signe de renvoi) (LC. sealing. 214) 3. panel (in decoration) (UI.

khatm al-Qurµ Q – WKH ILQDO V UDK RI WKH 4XUÐ Q $' . RU VXEMHFW ZRUN FRPSLOHG IRU WKLV RFFDVLRQ (KS).

 khatmah SO NKDWDP W NKLWDP.

recital of the entire QurÐ Q HVS on festive occasions) 2.9 . – 1. complete copy of the QurÐ Q 6- : alkhitam al-PXE UDNDK 0$ .

 .. NK WLP NK WDP NK W P NK W P SO NKDZ WLP NKDZ W P NKD\ W P .

I. IA. 29. OS) 2. stamp or medallion (on a book cover). NK WLP muthamman – eight-pointed medallion (star) (TS. DT. NK WLP PXUDEba¶ – lozenge-shaped medallion. 109. AG. 130. NK WLPDK SO NKDZ WLP. NK WLP PXVDGGDV – six-pointed medallion (star). .9 1105. e. 34. talismanic seal (DT. al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q – Solomon’s seal (cryptographic talisman representing the greatest name of God.  VHDO VLJQHW VHDO LPSUHVVLRQ (.g. 63). 144). al-Ism al-AÑÌam) (CM. 110. 108) 3. CI. 169.

14) 3. tailpiece (HD. 8. LNKWLW P 1. conclusion. FT. 108). closing matter (in manuscripts) (TP. explicit. epilogue 2. 52. 396) 4. n. colophon (UI. . 5.

khXG G.GLOSSARY 39 khadd (pl.

– inner or outer margin (IM. 165: fa-N QD DOWDNKU M I Ãurratayh Ãurar Áuffifat bi-E   al-NKXG G $$ .

 takh„ ¶ – rounding. also LVWLNKU M (TW. WDNKU M LNKU M 1. backing (of the spine) (HN. 385). 210) – edition or composition involviQJ FRUUHFWLRQ VHOHFWLRQ DQGRU UHDUUDQJHPHQW WDEZ E.

RI WKH material from the original work (TW. 126-130: mukharraj min almubayya DK WDNKU M ¨ VKL\DK PLQ DO-mubayya ah. kharraja taÑ O T MDGGLK.

 FRPS WDMU G  WUDFLQJ D ¨DG WK EDFN WR LWV RULJLQDO VRurce. explanation and evaluation of the sources of a ¨DG WK 0+ .

insertion. 58. TM. la¨aq (TP. comp.0 .  omission. 187-188. writing DQ RPLVVLRQ LQ WKH PDUJLQ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I DO¨DZ VK  05   . ) 4.

73: in the form of a curved line. 606) 6. copying.  PDUNLQJ WKH SODce of omission (MF. or a caret. ÑaÃfah. 243: akhraja minhu bi-khaÃà \DGLK PXMDOODG W NDWK UDK . KF. omission.) . 58. transcription (TW. 718). extract from a book. reference mark (signe de renvoi). quotation (TM. I. WDNKU MDK 1. 169) 7. WDNKU M – µNKDUUDMD NLW EDQ – he wrote a book leaving [blank] the places [of the titles] of the sections and chapters’ (LL. pl. n. 222: wa-O NDOLPDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK wa-O WDNKU MDK.. insertion 2.XXIIA: wa-yajÑalu badala al-WDNKU MDK LVK UDWDQ EL-al-KLQG  TP. also known as ¶DO PDW NKD¨¨) al-WDNKU M (TP. I.  JKD\U PXNKUDM LOá al-ED\  ) 8.

 PDUJLQDO QRWH FRPPHQW $'  /& .

mukhraj – insertion (MH. 95: kharraja al-PXNKDUUDM I al-¨ VKL\DK. mukharraj.

. 126130). copying (DM) 2. vox reclamans (MA. catchword. 683). 90: fa-ya¨W M DO-Á QLÑ DQ \DN Q Ñ ULIDQ EL-al-LVWLNKU M OL-yaÑrif bi-GK OLN LWWLÁ O DO-NDO P EL-P EDÑdih. 384. NM. LVWLNKU M 1. mukharrij – compiler. excerpting. II. selector (DF. mukhraj – discarded leaf of calligraphy (AC. mustakhrij. TW. 39). IV.

mikhrash – tool resembling a churn-staff (for mixing paper pulp) (OM). DS. PLNKUD] PLNKU ] – awl. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] VHH TLU E kharzah – glass bead (for burnishing gold or paper) (MB. II. 35. 12. punch (SA.40 GLOSSARY kharz – sewing (of leather) (TS. MP. 99. NKDU ¨ah SO NKDU ÐiÃ) – case. book pouch (for hanging a copy of the QurÐ Q RQ WKH ZDOO. 59). OM). 481. 181). ST. index.

70  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U 7% 93-94). khar¨ VK ah) SO NKDU Ã VK.

  )7 .  FDUWRXFKH ).

palmette (KH.  DQVD roundel. khur¨ P SO NKDU jilfah. Ã P. comp. 36). Ãurrah.

II. 27. polishing cloth (MB. cloth (used for doublures and endbanding) (TS.166). SA. 104. lin. 109) 2. 354: wa-I KL NKDUP ZD-taqÃ Ñ wa ¨arq ¨ibr. khirqah (pl. 60. MB. 157. HT. gap. khiraq) 1. 481) 2. II. – nib (of a calamus) (SA. 15. comp. index. kharm 1. 76: al-kharm al-saqà I DO-makhà à W. lacuna (SJ. IA. 154. 114. 347. undoing the sewing (ST. eraser (cloth) (DM) 3. sewing (of quires) (UK. MB. blank. 459). MP. scrap (of paper) (DM). 59) 3. 12. 17. MI.

 .

233: feuillets décousus. en vrac. 26. KF. TC. PDNKU P. 26).NKLU.GLOSSARY 41 NKXU P – loose leaves from a disbound codex.  PDNKU P DO-DZZDO PDNKU P DO. munkharim – imperfect. II. fragments (HB. incomplete (TC.

IV. 7: wa-al-kharmaVKDK LIV G DO-suà U ZD-al-NLW E ZD-na¨wih). II. khazz SO NKX] ]. kharmashah – uneven lineation (KM. imperfect manuscripts (volumes) (KF. 527). sifr 13. PDNK U P PDNKU P W – incomplete.

xiii-xiv. I. maktabah. PDNK] PDK – document written on ‘a sheet of paper folded twice vertically in the middle so as to form four narrow pages. cloth made of silk and wool (TS. VII. 55-56. II. 23-24) 3. 46). 27. 107. 119). LQNKLV I see in¨ià Ã. each page is divided into two parts divided by a fold’ (DR. EA. mukhta¦ar  FRQFLVH FRPSRVLWLRQ FRPS PDEV à 2. NKL] QDW DO-kutub – bookcase. 159-160. library. suspension. AG. AG. TP. For various abbreviations used in manuscripts see CI. 536-540. comp. epitome (EI. kharm and ¨azm. 107). – silk. abbreviation (contraction. 25-26). GL. WDNK] P – sewing (of quires) (TS. AD. al-sharŒ al-mukhta¦ar see shar¨. 14-15. . siglum. NKL] QDK. comp. abridgement.

mark. line (for various technical terms connected with the shapes of letters and strokes see KH. 52: iÑlam anna al-khaÃà huwa ÁXZDU WDWDVKDNNDO I DO-Ñaql tashakkulan NXOO \DQ Za-al-yad tukharrij tilka al-Áuwar bi-Z VLÃat al-qalam bi-qadr quwwat al-yad wa-NDWKUDW LGP QLK ZD-O Q DÑÁ ELK . khuà Ã) 1. writing. handwriting. script.42 GLOSSARY kha¨¨ (pl. penmanship (ML. sign. calligraphy. 34-38) 2. stroke.

8  51  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ma¦ Œif – QurÐ QLF VFULSWV ERRN KDQGV XVHG SULQFLSDOO\ for the transcription of the QurÐ Q )1  .EQ 0XTODK 6$ . scriptio plena. CI. also known as al-qalam al-) V or al-qalam al-5 P . as opposed to unvocalized (ghayr mushakkal). EI. scriptio defectiva. al-kha¨¨ al-mu¶jam – pointed letters. 29) – proportionate writing or scripts.. al-kha¨¨ al-PDQV E (also al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK. AS. LM. 83. used in Maghrebi manuscripts for the purpose of dating and in the law of inheritance (AK. bi-kha¨¨ – in the hand(writing) of. khu¨ ¨ al-NXWW E – chancery (secretarial) scripts (KU. copied by (e. 103). al-kha¨¨ al-) V – numerical system of Graeco-Coptic origin. IV.g. 887: ER. yad. 41. script (text) see also Ñajam. III. comp. I.. 358). 144). 114. al-kha¨¨ al-mushakkal – vocalized script (text). comp. which according to the Arabic tradiWLRQ XVH WKH SULQFLSOH RI µWDQ VXE¶ HODERUDWHG E\ . al-DTO P DO-sittah. 681).

8  $6 . khu¨ ¨ al-ZDUU T Q – book hands associated with the copying of texts other than the QurÐ Q LWVHOI .

calligraphy (WR. comp. mu¨DUULU N WLE kha¨¨ ¨ \DK – female calligrapher (SD. khi¨ ¨ah – writing. makhà à W. kha¨¨ ¨ – calligrapher.1. 80). I. 380). penman. paleography (KJ. 26). makh¨ ¨ (pl. no.

98. 760). IA. 555. bone or iron) in the shape of a gendarme’s hat used for tracing lines on leather (ST. tracer (ME. 61) 2. UA. mikh¨ ¨ – wooden ruler. I.  KDQGZULWWHQ  DOVR makh¨ ¨ah – manuscript. calamus (AA. MB. reed pen. ruling (of lines). I. 118. index. writing. 110. LL. 60. drawing (MB. implement (made of wood. straightedge (LL. 103. manuscript codex. tracing. . 110) 2. takh¨ ¨ 1. 393: wa-qalam al-Ãar¨ \XVDPP Q mi¨aÃÃ!). 760. 12). mikha¨¨ 1.

letter. speech 2. Fakhr al-' Q 6KLK E DO-' Q.g. honorific (e. IV.1). sifr 13. akhÃibah) 1. 4: al-takhà à al-tasà U :5  /)  n. khi¨ E (pl. note. address.GLOSSARY 43 calligraphy (KM.

18.  DOVR khu¨bah – exordium. althuluth al-NKDI I NKDI I DO-mu¨aqqaq) (AS. ‘light’) – smaller variety (version) of a script (e. fa¦l al-khi¨ E see faÁl. MB. NKLO I SO NKLO I W. 156. NKXO ¦ah – excerpt. n. takhallu¦ – pseudonym. extract. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah VHH O P DOLI WDNKI „ – shaving. IB. 109). 14). NK OLG – oval or round-shaped tool (UK. 53. X. trimming (TS. 123).20). TP. preface (LC. 145). pen-name (nom de plume) (EI. 59. abbrev. mukhtaÁar. RIWen unpointed) (GL. IA. epitome. 25. abridgement. mukhaffaf – letter without doubling (shaddah).g. 105. comp. 44: ornament). AG. NKDI I (lit.

. XVII. 273. MH.g. 58). 95. XI. ikhtiO I DO-ULZ \DK LNKWLO I DO-nuskhah. varia lectio (e. TP. 52. MU. LNKWLO I – variant reading. XII. 46.

44 GLOSSARY khams SO DNKP V.

 NK PLVDK SO NKDZ PLV.

– mark in the shape RI D FLUFOH GLVF RU IORUHW VHSDUDWLQJ D JURXS RI  YHUVHV \DK.

RI WKH QurÐ Q 06 .

thumma raÐD\Q EDÑGD NXOO NKDPV \ W DQQD DO-G Ðirah tata amman raÐs ¨arf al-NK Ð badalan min al-sharà wa-aÁba¨at tusammá bi-al-WDNKP V W. marking a group of 5 verses of the QurÐ Q WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK – WKH QXPEHU  ZULWWHQ LQ WKH JKXE U y€…f…t€yÁÉ Á…€ÁxfƒvÁ…spÁxtiiwpÁq€wt€Á€qÁfÁ‚†tƒpÁÉRSÁ&ÁÁ WDNKP V 1. 126.

 SO WDNK P V.

I. 97). pentameter (SD. EI. 50. X. PDNKP V – pentagonal element in a Mamluk book cover design (JL. 405. 123-125). NK ¦ah – fillet (in decoration) (FT. LNKWL\ U.v. 401). PXNKW U  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LNKWL\ U W PXNKW U W. – pentastich amplification of a poem.). 95. AD. al-khayr – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q.

94-95). 19. khay¨ SO NKX\ Ã) – thread (ST. thick needle (ST. 109). – anthology (EA. IR. MB. index. mikhya¨ PLNK\ ¨ – large. endbanding without silk (TS. 12). index. i.  '6  KXZD P \XNK Ã bi-hi al-waraq Ñinda al-¨ MDK LOá GK OLN 1+ . 12. NKL\ ¨ah – sewing (of quires) (ST. al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N – thread for preliminary endbanding (headbanding).e. 107-108). 12. IB. index. AG. I. 43.

 .

VI. G E M SO GDE E M.GLOSSARY 45 **** al-daµ G (pl. of duÐduÐ) – the last three nights of the month (SA. 250).

XIV. 84: mubaÃÃan bi-G E M. – silk brocade (MU.

exordium. preface. G E MDK 1. embracing the matter before and after al-baÑG \DK TY.

TW. PA. 127. ¦afŒat al-G E MDK see Áaf¨ah. /& ) 2. frontispiece (MD. composition (of a text) (DM). creating headpieces (AD. GLE JK DK. 259) 2. fa-tadabbar(hu) – syn. 65. 115).v). reflection. WDGE M 1. tadabbur – consideration. 52. of fataÐammal(hu) (q. headpiece. adorning something with arabesques.

3-4. MP. IA. 60). 63. EI. 140-143. 114-115. suppl. GXNK Q – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G.. I. – tanning (MB. GDEE JK – tanner (QS. fasc. 172).

  IR. 236: ÁLIDW LNKU M al-GXNK Q. 8.

dirj :6 . al-Œibr al-GXNK Q see ¨ibr. darj.

SO GXU M DGU M.

68: al-DGU M DO-ÑDU  ah) 2. LL. rotulus (IK. 868: also daraj. SA. I. parchment or paper (AJ. 141. IK.  UROOHG XS RU IROGHG VKHHW RI papyrus. 68. roll. 138. 138: al- . I.

$  Q.46 GLOSSARY PXU G EL-al-GDUM I DO-Ñurf al-Ñ PP DO-waraq al-mustaà O DO-murakkab min Ñiddat awÁ O :6  .

 mudraj(ah) SO PDG ULM.

dirafsh – awl. punch (IA. dast(ah) SO GXV W. paste (used for work with parchment) (TS. 60). 13.  V\Q GDUM )1  $-   Áu¨uf mudrajah) 2. WDGU s – explication (of a reading) (GA. 107). bifolio (bifolium) (AJ. 287). 142) 3. inset (SD. darmak – farina. I. 432). AG.

 TXLUH )U PDLQ GH SDSLHU.

39. 92. AB. 59. 524) 2. MB. 105. WS. 145. wide polisher. I. 92. IB. PT. SD. 96. stack of 5 folded sheets of paper (5 bifolia) (OM). 44). kaff 3. burnisher (UK. XVXDOO\ FRQVLVWLQJ of 25 sheets (AJ. GXVW U SO GDV W U. IV. MA. 81. rizmah. 156. comp. IA. 94.

  .  KRORJUDSK LQ WKH IRUP Rf a draft or notes (FN.  LUWLM ODQ PLQ JKD\U NLW E ZD-O GXVW U )1  ZD-raÐaytu bikhaÃÃih shayÐDQ NDWK UDQ I ÑXO P NDWK UDK PXVDZZDG W ZD-GDV W U ODP \XNKUDM PLQK LOá al-Q V NLW E W PP ..) .

also al-nuskhah al-GXVW U – archetype (AL. 23) 3. holograph (LC. 29: al-aÁl al-wa¨ G DOODGK WDÑ G LOD\KL NKLU DO-amr kull al-nusakh al-khaÃÃ \DK.  DXWKRU’s original. I.

357: mustakhraj min dasht al-MuÐayyad. . HB. unbound book. 233: ‘feuillets en vrac’). book consisting of loose leaves (KF. II. dasht – loose leaves.

daffah SO GLIDI GDII W.  .g.. ‘prayer of request’ (EI. 617-618) 2. TP. 150-156). 54. (see e. II. pious invocation. formula of benediction. Ñalayhi al-VDO P’. etc. adÑiyah) 1. hence mudgham – contracted. 123-124: wa-iÑlam anna aÁl kull khaÃÃ wa-ÑDP GDK DO-fat¨ G QD DO-taÑmiyah faal-WDE\ Q ZD-al-WDZT P G QD DO-LGJK P ZD-al-taÑZ U 6$ . supplication. such as ‘ra¨imaKX $OO K UD L\D $OO K Ñanhu. AA..GLOSSARY 47 du¶ µ (pl. LGJK P – DVVLPLODWLRQ FRQWUDFWLRQ RI OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð V Q P P Q Q K Ð).+ 35). assimilated (KU.

daftar *U GLSKWHUD. 13). also al-daffah al-yumná (al-¶XO\ ) – upper cover.Oá (ST. also al-daffah al-yusrá (alsuflá) – lower cover.  ZRRGHQ ERDUG  SUHVVLQJ ERDUG LQ WKH screw press) (MB. pasteboard (ST. ST. index. 5: al-DOZ ¨ min al-N JKDÃ DOODGK QD \DNV QDKXP EL-al-jild Ñalá alNLW E 0% passim). 13. index. book cover. 13). index. al-daffah al-WK QL\DK (ST. al-daffah al. 104) 3.

SO GDI WLU.

pen wiper (SA. KK. account book. II. beating (of the pulp) (OM) WDGT T – compact. 4. volume (IK. 108. . taftar (SK. I. 321.g. 48.. 22-25. daqq 1. SL. IA. n. 192). 40 x 14 cm. 29. register (EI. 60) 2. see LS) 2.. II. 96: al-daftar fa-yuwaqqiÑ QDKX Ñalá m jullida wa-Ñalá m ODP \XMDOODG ). 14 leaves. bound or unbound codex . 481). Daftar kutub. 77-81. 63. rubbing. pounding (MP. 57) – booklet (consisting of a number of bifolia or diplomas). notebook (e. QRV  096) 3.18) 3. fine writing (TM. .

I. 23. GDOO \DK – pendant (FZ. 363: glazing of paper with a wooden ball. KR. al-Œabk al-G O see ¨abk. damghah (sometimes tamghah) – ownership stamp (LC. 87).48 GLOSSARY GXTP T – small mallet (OM). 110. HT. MB. KM. NH. index. burnisher (for doublures) (TS. burnishing. glazing (ST. 107). lin. duhn SO DGK Q GXK Q. 217. SD. 139). 461). FJ. I. OH. 48-50. 85. waraq damghah see waraq.163. midlak – polisher. 118. 11. sifr 4. 13. AG. GDON WDGO N – polishing.

UVK G – $UGDE O ' U DO-. ' U DO-. I.KLO IDK – %DJKGDG 7HKUDQ 6K KMDK Q E G ' U DO-Sa¶ GDK – Constantinople. grease. Isfahan. 927). mudhun – container for oil (IR. ' U DO-¶. 230: LL. ' U DO-Sal¨anah – Constantinople. ' U DO-FatŒ – Constantinople. . – fat. Tabriz. ' U DO-Hijrah – Medina.E GDK – Yazd. ' U DO-6XU U – %XUK QS U IRU RWKHU HSLWKHWV RI WRZQV VHH (5 . ' U DO-6DO P – Baghdad. midhan. oil. 905-906). Herat.

GLOSSARY 49 G UDK G µirah SO GDZ Ðir) 1. circular motif (used as a textual GLYLGHU SDUDJUDSK PDUN I Áilah) (MR. 93: yajÑal bayna kull ¨DG WKD\Q d UDK IDÑDOD GK OLND MDP Ñat min al-PXWDTDGGLP Q ZD-ista¨abba alKhaà E DQ WDN Q JKXIODQ -$ .  73 .

ta¨U I. 30. even (as opposed to oblique. I. 156.e. e. JA. round motif in textual or book cover decoration. disc (UK. 59) 5. 56. (5) 4. 13: al-GDZ Ðir al-E N U \DK – circles drawn with a compass). TS. UD. circular mark indicating the end of a gloss (TP.g. 105. straight. roundel. MB.  FLUFXODU PRWLI XVHG DV a collation mark) (TP. medallion. i. WDGZ U 1. 273: fa-ista¨DEED DQ WDN Q DO-G U W ghuflan fa-LGK Ñ UL a bi-kull ¨DG WK QDTDÃD I Dl-G UDK DOODW WDO KL nuqÃah aw khaÃÃ I ZDVDÃLK NKDÃÃan) 3. circular motif representing the OHWWHU K Ð (for intahá or intih Ð) and its numerical value.

RN. G Z Q SO GDZ Z Q. LM. QLEELQJ RI D calamus) (UD. 49: wa-al-PXVWDG U KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDÃ Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr al¨ Ð wa-al-Ñayn). hence PXVWDG U – round. rounding (of the spine) (IA. 10. 9. 61) 3. curvilinear (e. 22. 39-40) 2. 35). LM.g. also LVWLG UDK – rounding (of letters) (KH.

 FROOHFWLRQ RI UHFRUGV RU VKHHWV.

129. office. sifr 13. II. EI. collecting (collection). WDGZ Q 1. II. chancellery (KM. 323. 90) 2. IV. SA. I. 323). I. UHJLVWHU account book. collection of poems written by one author (DM). 8: al-G Z Q majmaÑ al-Áu¨uf. book (collection) of prose or poetry (FK. writing down (of ¨DG WK. EI.

  73 . (. .

15. 8: al-nusakh almudawwanah bi-khaÃÃ al-tadw Q DO-Ñ G . transcription (LC. UI. 28. copying. TE. FRPS WDT\ G  ZULWLQJ FRPSRVLWLRQ &0 QR 7( 15) 3.

 (al-kha¨¨ or kha¨¨) al-G Z Q – Ottoman chancery hand having a PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG WDUZ V TY.

WKDQ WKH 3HUVLDQ WDÑO T TY.

1125-6). IV. GDZ K SO GDZD\ W GXZ \ GDZ \  GDZDQ. IURP which it is derived (EI.

370) 2. .  LQNZHOO . writing case (containing among other things compartments for ink and pens. -85. BA. KU. III.. 154: wa-I DO-GDZ K PDMU K ZD-M EDWXK ZD-¨XTTXK ZDÃDEDTXK  7: -56. 169-170. escritoire.

137-139). fasc. III. ER. VII. memorandum.3-4.v. dhabr. 53) 2. DG. X. 53). FRPPRQSODFH ERRN RIWHQ RI REORQJ IRUPDW VDI QDK. GDZ W – maker of inkwells or writing cases (KD. AT. **** dhuµ EDK SO GKDZ Ðib) 1.132-133.50 GLOSSARY ruler. II. 372) 2. GDZZ µ.) in ‘boxed books’ (BA. II. aide-mémoire (EI. 440-443. 77. leather thong attached to a ¨alqah (q. midhbar see mizbar. tadhkirah 1. suppl. 203-204. 54. wiper and sand) (SA. descender (of a letter) (AA. MB. ND. 65. UK. EI. 73). 713.

53). X. +%  (. dhanab SO DGKQ E.

89-91. III. supplement (AD. paint (MU. II. dhahab. (qalam) al-dhahab – script written in gold ink in the form of al- . LL. WDGKQ E – appendix. MB. al-dhahab al-masŒ T – gold powder (QS. 24. – tail (foot) of a letter. etc. UD. LC. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink. 59). 226.’). 130-132. SA. 25. 21). UK. 151). I. 983: ‘water-gold. I.V. 477. index. al-dhahab al-maŒO O – liquid gold (ST. 13). gold powder mixed with size for ornamental writing. ¨arf (SA.

145). chrysography (LC. KA. IX. AS. 15. 104-105: al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá = matt. WDGKK E 1. 27. writing with liquid gold. 222. al-WDGKK E DOODPP ¶ EULOOLDQW JORVV\ JOD]HG. TE.GLOSSARY 51 thuluth or al-WDZT Ñ with its letters outlined in a colour other than gold (NA. gilding.

 SO WDGK K E.

chrysographer (AB. dhayl SO GKX\ O. 27. 490). 120: Á ¨ib al-khaÃÃ alPDO ¨ wa-al-LGKK E DO-I Ðiq. JLOW REMHFW 6' . 15). MU. WDGKK E PD¨U T – gold tooling (HN. TE. mudhahhib – gilder. XV. 132. 385). PA. LGKK E – chrysography (SJ. 141).

 WDLO RU IRRW RI D ERRN RU SDJH.

dhaylah – ‘tail of the text’ colophon (TW. dhayl al-waraqah – foot of the page. 23). 206). al-taµU NK DO-mudhayyal see taÐU NK **** raµs (pl.  VXSSOHPHQW appendix. lower margin. dhayl al-M PDK VHH M PDK dhayl al-NLW E – tail (of the book) (LC. ruÐ V.

ruµ V DOsu¨ U. 14. 172). 136. 108. 113: al-V TLà wa-huwa al-raÐs. 26).g. 61) 3. 26). page or book. raµs al-fiqrah or raµs al-NDO P – chapter heading or subheading (LC. 109. envelope flap (MB. character. 62) 4. raµs al-waraqah. 26) 2. raµs al-ka¶b – endband (headband) (MB. IA. ruµ V DO-ŒXU I (MM. raµs al-NLW E). IA. i. frontispiece (LC. upper margin (TS.e. beginning of something. raµs al-lawŒah – headpiece. raµs al-¦afŒah. one of the HDUO\ VFULSWV DSSDUHQWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH YL]LHU 'K DO-RiÐ VDWD\Q . sometimes al-UL\ V or al-UL\ VK (!) 1. 109). LC. as opposed to the spine (MB.g.  KHDG RI D letter. 24. TM. e. 107. SA. fore-edge of the codex. e. III. (qalam) al-riµ V .

WDUZ V 1. 13) 2. 236. 144.. (qa¨¶ or T OLE. 42: fa-inna qalam al-UL\ VK \DP O ilá al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-naskh wa-OD\VD I KL LQVLNK I ZD-O LQ¨ià à waKXZD PXUDZZDV MDP Ñuh). 37. HI. 213. execution of the head of a letter (the manner of drawing it) 2.52 GLOSSARY al-Fa l ibn Sahl (d. 30. U EL¨ah – catchword. TU. KH. 226. à Ð N I DQG O P 6$ . 83-84. FZ. 215). 100. 33. 100).. AS. U EL¨ SO UDZ ELÃ) – fore-edge flap (FJ. 12. 126. vox reclamans (NZ. AQ. also WDUZ VDK (see AQ and MO below) – barbed letter-head or serif-like downward stroke (either right-sloping or left-sloping) on the KHDG RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI E Ð M P G O U Ð. 35. RN. 146.202/817-8) (FN. 46: thumma qad dhakara ahl al-ÁLQ ÑDK DQQD WDUZ V DO-alif ka-subÑih wa-GKDKDED < T W LOá al-]L\ GDK Ñalá dh OLN .5 -242. script akin to a large naskh. but having a left-slRSLQJ WDUZ V DV RQH RI LWV FKDUDFWHULVWLFV (AS. 84. MO. 65). JM.

5DE ¶ al-Awwal (al-VKDU I. UXE ¶ see qaÃÑ DQG T OLE rub¶ al-M PDK VHH M PDK rub¶ al-turunjah see turunjah. DO-rub¶.

89. – the third month in the Muslim calendar. 5DE ¶ al. CM. / / (OS. 5DE ¶ al-7K Q . abbrev. 39/2: 5DE ¶ al-0DZO G).NKLU (al-PXE UDN.

– the fourth month in rab¶ah (pl. rabaÑ W.

 VTXDUH FKHVW ER[ IRU FRSLHV RI WKH 4XUÐ Q GLYLGHG LQWR FRPSDUWPHQWV EX\ W 6' . .

 FRS\ RI RQe part (juzÐ) of the QurÐ Q 76  .

15: inna al-PXU G EL-al-rabÑah ÁXQG T PXUDEEDÑ al-shakl min khashab mughashshá bi-al-MLOG GK ÁDI Ði¨ wa-¨DODT \XTVDP G NKLOXK EX\ WDQ EL-Ñadad DM] Ð al-muÁ¨af yujÑDO I NXOO ED\W PLQKX MX]Ð min al-muÁ¨af wa-iÃO TXK Ñalá almuÁ¨DI PDM ]DQ +.  6' . 48. 51. nos.  &$ .  PXOWL-volume QurÐ Q al-rab¶ah alVKDU IDK (SJ. MS.21.

…spÁF†„wtxÁhfwpyifƒÁfggƒp‡  Á ÁÉHRÁ%&Á .128). stalk (?) (TS. 109). mirba¶ah – small tool resembling a piece of wood used for lifting. WDUE ¶ – square (an instrument) (HT. AG. lin. 11. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ see kaÑb.

GLOSSARY 53 WDUW E 1. 51: wajaÑaltu al-WDUW E Ñalá ¨XU I DO-muÑjam. I. the expression µUDWWDEWXKX K . 50.170) 2. AM. composition (MU. arrangement (of the text). no.

mubawwib. sifr 13. murattib – author. compact writing. II. compiler (DF. copying (KM. ratm – close. SS.20). IV. n. comp. 53. 72). 384. 5: ratamtu al-NLW E TDUUDEWX ED\QD VXÃ ULK.¶ XVHG LQ D SUHIDFH NKXÃbah) and indicating the chapter arrangement of the composition in question (TP.

 Rajab (al-murajjab. al-aÁabb. al-fard) – the seventh month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . al-¨DU P DO-aÁamm. abbrev.

   $5  ÑDO PDW DO-rajÑ ilá al-K PLVK . VIII. 376). raj¶ (pl. DUM Ñ ) – reference mark (signe de renvoi). often in the shape of an upward rising stroke or the abbreviation 0. XUM ]DK – poem composed in rajaz metre in which one and the same rhyme is obligatory. didactic poem (EI. .1 .

I. 99. 5: al-WDUM Ñ washy al-NLW E. IV. polychrome illumination (TE. U ML¶ SO UDZ MLÑ ) – strip of leather for lining the spine (TS. retouching. 17) 2. al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah – WKH OHWWHU \ Ð with its tail (foot) pointing to the right (SA. comp. muÑallaqah. KM. UXM ¶ – reference. 17. 28. barrière qui ferme une rivière’. retouchage (of a letter). sifr 13. I. 109). writing in bold characters (TE. MJ. III. 513: ‘barrage. 239: not allowed in al-mu¨aqqaq). 252). source (in a text) (IN. FRPS SD. AG. WDUM ¶ 1.

62).  DOVR LVWLUM ¶ – IRUPXOD µLQQ OL-$OO K ZDLQQ LOD\KL U MLÑ Q¶ XVHG DW WKH Hnd of a conclusion. epilogue (AD. .

132: alra¨ODK DZ NXUV DO-muÁ¨af min law¨ayn min al-khashab mutaG NKLlayn bi-ÃDU TDW DO-taÑVK T PLQ DO-wasaà ka-DQQDKXP NDII Q TDG VKDEDkat aÁ ELÑXK  $'  µSXSLWUH SRXU OH &RUDQ¶. al-marji¶ al-a¦ghar – fore-edge flap (ST. n. 13). book support (MD.13. raŒl(ah) – book cradle. index.% 81.54 GLOSSARY marji¶ – envelope flap (ST. 13: yusammá al-OLV Q . 31: MD. ST. index. al-marji¶ al-akbar – envelope flap (ST. RI. index.185). 13). 137.

1055. 294. 1223. 3099. VA. UXNK P DK. numrah) (TP. 1062. 1035. nos. abbrev. 584. 1038.   WKH U Ð DQG K Ð in manuscripts of Persian and Indian provenance often resemble a long horizontal line with a loop at its end. requiescat (used after the name of a deceased person) ‘ra¨LPDKX $OO K UD¨PDW $OO K ÑDOD\KL WDJKDPPDGDKX $OO K EL-ra¨matih’. 419. 2152. comp. 54. tarŒ P WDUDŒŒum – the formula of benediction. 3185).

TS. IA. 59. XXIB). raddah – envelope flap (TM. similarly alkha¨¨ al-UDG µ – EDG LQHOHJDQW KDQG )1  ZD T OD UDG Ðat al-khaÃà ]DP QDW DO-adab wa-T OD DO-khaÃà al-UDG Ð jadb al-adab). OM). . 107. 11. ST. pl. UDG µat al-kha¨¨ – inelegance (poorness) of handwriting. 172: al-qiÃÑah al-U Ðidah min al-jild fawqa al-daffah al-yusrá. 14. 103. marble slab (MB. . 10. TP. AG. also lawŒ al-UXNK P – marble.

AB. ream (of paper).GLOSSARY 55 rizmah (pl. rizam) 1. 145. . dast (q. 92.) (PT. consisting of five quires.v. WS. 39. AJ. 96: wa-al-dast khams wa-ÑLVKU Q waraqah wa-al-UL]PDK NKDPVDW GXV W 6' .

I. LUV O DK. treatise. 532). also ruzmah – booklet (SD. VIII. ULV ODK 1. epistle 2. monograph (EI. letter. dast 2. tract. FRmp. 524: ‘cahier’).

. LM. 36: wa-NXOO LUV ODK \DMLE DQ WDN Q EL-sinn al-qalam al-yumná. ¨ Ð P P Q Q \ Ð ÑD\Q T I Á G Z Z K Ð without an upward curvature (KH. 72: fa-\DMLE DQ \DN Q TDGUXK PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK . – ILQDO VWURNH H[WHQVLRQ RI WKH WDLOV RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV V Q U Ð. 35: huwa iÃO T DO-ÑDU TDK PLQ JKD\U WDTZ V 6$ ..

PA. rasm al-muÁ¨af. 100. making a mark (ST.VIII. rasm 1. index. writing. 561. designing. 100. 45) 3. epistolography (DM). e. copying. sketching (ME. tarassul – art of letter writing.g. 101. drawing. execution. 14) 2. 451-. MB. marking. EI. rasm al-tasmiyah (DP.

 SO UXV P.

rawsam SO UDZ VLP. I. painter (ME. 528). bi-rasm see mustanad. 527). rasm al-JKXE U – see raqm. 560. I. U VLP UDVV P – draftsman. – stroke. letter or word in a dictionary (SD. chapter (in a composition) (SD. 527) 7. 527) 5. SD. designer. line (traced with a pen) (SD. comp. unpointed letter or word ( NO. 15) 6. I. I. mis¨arat al-rasm see misÃarah. faÁl.

lin. wood block (AB. tooling (HT. index. calamus (BA. . III. 14). rasm) (ST. 14) 2. 370). 164) 3. index. – woodcut. decorating centers of book covers with medallions (ST. marking (syn. UDVKVK VK – reed pen.129. UDVKP WDUVK P 1. 137).

marshim. ream (of paper) (SD. mark (TS. 532). marsham SO PDU VKLP.56 GLOSSARY rashmah 1. 18) 2. comp. rizmah. I.

135). I. 28: wa-qad raÁÁaÑWX KDZ PLVK al-NLW EDK EL-WDU MLP DNEDU. ra¦ ¶ah – central medallion (on a book cover) (AB. decoration (MS.  VPDOO ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO +7 lin. 125) 2. illumination. 532). tar¦ ¶ 1. hot iron (SD.

 LOOXPLQDWLRQ LQ JROG DQG VDIIURQ.

17) 3.3 145. . 103. 126). ta¨U U TY. TE. decoration (with liquid gold). gilding the inside of the surround (outline). covering the entire surface with liquid gold (HD.

$) .

79. joining letters together (AP. writing. tar¦ I 1. 35) 2. composition (NS. III. KH. ra¦f. SA. 184: faraghtu min taÐO ILK ZD-raÁfih wataÁQ ILK 4)  IDUDJKWX PLQ WDUÁ I K GK DO-±iÁn al-¨aÁ Q. 140.

AR. 34. tara„„in – the formula of benediction ‘ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu’ or ‘ri Z Q $OO K Ñalayhi’. 35. 125). tar¨ E – rounding (of letters) (UD. 35: al-tarà E KL\D VKDGGDW al-LVWLG UDK. MI. abbrev. used for the companions of the Prophet. KH. II.    73 54. SL. 89. 15. tar„iyah.

DQW RI \ ELV. FRPS WDTZ U al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (or al-ra¨bah.

. 16. 14. 144). AS. 24). 19. istir¶ µ \DK – note. – curvilinear VFULSWV VXFK DV WKH WKXOXWK WDZT Ñ and riq Ñ (UD. statement (LC. 15.

137).GLOSSARY 57 raf¶ – gouge-like tool (HT. riqq SO UXT T. mirfa¶ 1. lin. I. book support. 70) 2. raqq. n. 44. 231. book cradle (IN. 230. support (for an inkwell) (AA. 111-112).11.133. ND. KK.

UDTT T UXT T – parchment maker. 353). 407-410. KJ. 119. 85). 407). diacritical point (JA. UDTT PDQVK U – ‘unfolded parchment’ (EI. KR. no. AK. UDTT JKD] O see jild. 230). EI. SK. al-raqq al-a¨mar. KM. 86: alraqsh al-¶$UDE ). vox reclamans (NM. mirqash – reed pen. arabesque decoration (KA. LL. raqshah – pointing. diacritical pointing (TE. paper or other writing surface (MU. 53.67). parchmenter (DG. 1135) 3. I. 1135) 4. piece (slip) of leather. 53. KK. UDTT ¦ – catchword. EP) 2. n. calamus (IR. IK. copying (TE. 105. IW. 108-111. 42: al-raqq al-azraq. 17. 105. I. 5: al-WDUT VK DO-NLW EDK ZD-altasà U I DO-Áu¨uf) 2. 683. I. I. sifr 13. IV. -485. AA. vocalization by means of points. elegant. WS. embellished writing.1. VIII. 133: wa-kuntu aÑri  ÑDOD\KL NXOO \DZP ULT Ñan fayuwaqqiÑX O I K . 269). 17. making something multicoloured (LL. 74-75. VIII. parchment leaf (ND. ruq¶ah SO ULT Ñ ) 1. 93.. 60-63. UDTVK WDUT VK 1. AE.  WKLQ OHDWKHU SDUFKPHQW 6$ .

rikÑa) – script developed most probably in WKH QG KDOI RI WKH WK FHQW RQ WKH EDVLV RI G Z Q TY. (kha¨¨) al-ruq¶ah (Turk. brief message.  OHWWer. note.

DQG XVHG commonly by the Arabs in correspondence and occasionally as a book hand (EI. . IV. 1126).

patchwork. often sewn in). VII. passim. muraqqa¶ – album of paintings. sifr 13. EI. inset (MK.58 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-ULT ¶ – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ (q. MN. LM. 146. 86). 47: wa-al-ULT Ñ lil-WDZ T Ñ al-ÁLJK U ZD-al-PXU VDO W EI. JM. 78-82.in Persia. IV. ruqay¶ah – slip of paper (used for glosses and inserted in between the leaves of the codex. 1125. drawings and/or calligraphy (consisting of a number of pieces joined together and forming a bookaccordeon) (AC. WDUT ¶ SO WDU T Ñ ) – repair. IV.) script (AS.in Turkey). 602-603). 1123.v. 5: al-raqm al-khaÃÃ I DO-NLW E. 139. raqm 1. writing (KM.

 also WDUT P – HOHJDQW ZULWLQJ FRS\LQJ 7( .

 SO UXT P.

DP. diacritical pointing RI OHWWHUV. 180: al-LM ]DK DOPXE UDNDK OL-N WLE K GK Dl-raqm. 266) 4. NI. calligraph (AC. – piece of calligraphy. 54. AW. 41.

..  UDTTDPWXKX WDUT PDQ.

 SO DUT P.

 DOVR WDUT P – QXPEHULQJ QXPEHU QXPHUDO  SO UXT P.

sifr 13. 244. calamus (TE. UDT P – inkwell (KM. – abbreviation. sifr 13. GA. BA. al-DUT P DO-+LQG \DK. 1140). 30). 383. KJ. mirqam – reed pen. GA. 5: raqana al-NLW E TDULED bayna suà ULK. 160). raqn – compact writing (KM. 2. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK. AW. also known as Œisab (or ŒXU I. SK. 183). arqam. 468-9: AN. U TLP PXUDTTLP – calligrapher. III. no. no. IV. LL. 183. WDUT P – punctuation (AH. 17. 106). 147. 5. IV. 372. also known as al-ŒLV E DO-Hind or ŒLV E DOHind – Hindu-Arabic numerical system used in the Mashriq (AN. IK. 141. WDUT P DO-ZDUDT W – foliation. fasc. 82. 230.76). WDUT P DO-¦afaŒ W – pagination. III. siglum (CL. 154). TE. 387-388. IR.3. rasm) alJKXE U – numerical system (also known as ‘dust’ or Toledan numerals) used in the Maghreb (EI. 17. AM. copyist (AC. I. 45.

 .

IV. sifr 13. writing) (KM. 5: WDUT Q DONLW E WD]\ QXK.GLOSSARY 59 WDUT Q 1. embellishing ( a text.

 FDOOLJUDSK\ )7 .

24-27. mürekkeb) – ink (DD. on the line) (MY. 45).5 -237: al-a¨E U DO-murakkabah). 393). WDUN E 1.73.g. Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. SA. al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. I. murakkab 1. MP. 109. preparing inks (by mixing two or more ingredients) HJ 1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q . 681) 2.g. 83). (Turk. HT. ligatured. e. UA. markaz SO PDU NL]. AG. hybrid (of a script) (LM. ¨ibr. mounting (of leather on book covers and the covers on the textblock). 58. index. al-ŒXU I DO-PXUDNNDEDK PXUDNNDE W – letters of the alphabet (written joined together. comp. 60ff). boarding (TS. 78) 3. ligature (e. 50. ¨ibr 2. composition of letters and words on the line (ER. linking (joining) one letter with another. 389. comp. 14. ST. III. IV. lin.

– support (for reed pens) (UA. UXN ¶ . 393: li-P ÑalayKL \  aÑ ruÐ V DO-DTO P OLÐDOO WXÁdaÑ ). rak¶ah – bowing (during the recitation of the QurÐ Q.

36. EI. DEEUHY  XVXDOO\ DFFRPSDQLHG E\ QXPEHUV LQGLFDWLQJ UDNÑah. VIII. juzÐ DQG \Dh (CA. rukn SO DUN Q. 406).

 FRUQHU RQ D ERRN FRYHU.

5 . .

rakwah (pl. AG. 31. 69). mirkan – pitcher-shaped container (OM). 30. 107) 3. . 703). index. ULN Ð) – inkwell (KD. II. corner piece itself (ST. IB.  ZHGJHG stamp (used for a corner piece) (TS. 14.

murammim – restorer.60 GLOSSARY UDPP WDUP P – repair.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-suà U baÑGD WDVZL\DWLK ZD-NLW EDWLK ZD-\XT O UDPPDMDKX EL-al-WXU E ¨attá fasada). restoration (DM). ramz SO UXP ].0 . WDUP M – VPXGJLQJ REOLWHUDWLRQ .

VIII.  DEEUHYLDWLRQ VLJOXP /&  0+   (. chronosticon (EI. cypher. code. TW. chronogram. 468. 55. 159) 3. 427) 4. III. secret alphabet (EI. also WDUP ] – marking the QurÐ QLF WH[W ZLWK WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO UHading signs TLU Ð W. 428) 2. WB. VIII.

 KHQFH PDUP ] – provided with reading marks (DC. 209.&  DNKDU I DO-UXE Ñ TDG P PDUP ] I VLIU. V. .

 Rama„ Q (al-PXE UDN DO-muÑaÌÌam) – the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

135: WDUP O bi-al-dhahab al-NK OL¦). 127136). UA. al-WDUP O DO-GKDKDE – gold sprinkling (TW. . 393).  '' . 86. I. WDUP N see ta]P N WDUP O – sprinkling (of the freshly written text with sand) (TD. 478- $7  6' . PLUPDODK UDPO \DK – sand box. TD.  ODK lil-raml al-a¨mar. II. I. sand compartment in the writing FDVH GDZ K) (SA.

GLOSSARY 61 mirwad SO PDU ZLG.

LL. DM). U ZLQ U ZL\DK (pl. syn. mik¨ O '' .  OLO-ikti¨ O EL-hi. 1186. UA. I. 393. UXZ K. – little stick for the application of kohl.

53). LM ]DW DO-ULZ \DK – transmission certificate (MU. also known as sanad (q. recension (recensio) (LC. 26.v. 417418 and 500-501) 3. varia lectio (MR. 94). transmission. – transmitter. EI. marwiyah SO PDUZL\ W. ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – book ascription. 53. tradition (traditio). link in the chain of transmission (TP. 109-111).) (TP. version (versio). 545-547) 2. VIII. II. ULZ \DK 1. variant reading. KF. XII.

VIII.) script (AS. rish(ah) – quill pen (UK. 100: al-DTO P DO-U VK yah). (qalam) al-rayŒ Q – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq (q. 43: wa-T OD . 144. qultu wa-ka-al-JKXE U LOá al-ULT Ñ. of ray¨ Q RU D W\SH RI mu¨aqqaq script (EI.in Persia. 38. rayŒ Q – term used in the later Ottoman period and in modern publications either as a syn. 73-77. MB. JM. 1125. MP.EQ DO-%DZZ E ZD-DPP DOray¨ Q ID-huwa bi-al-TL\ V LOá al-mu¨aqqaq ka-al-¨DZ VK LOá alnaskh.in Turkey).v. 1123. 146. (qalam) al-UL\ VK see riÐ V  . IV. LM. wa-al-farq bayna al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-ray¨ Q DQQD DO-ray¨ Q \DN Q LÑU EXKX EL-qalamih wa\DN Q LÑU EXKX PXIDWWD¨ al-aÑyun wa-al-mu¨DTTDT \DN Q LÑU EXKX ELghayr qalamih). 545-547). – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK ULZ \DK FKDLQ of transmitters) (EI.

copying.62 GLOSSARY **** ] M – vitriol. 18. 65: qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ ]DEU K GKLKL DO-0DM OLV DOMustanÁLU \DK«. also dhabr – writing. CI. ]DEU WD]E U 1. ¨ibr.). IV.v. q. transcription (TE. sifr 13. sulphuric acid or a sulphate (one of the components of ink. inscription on stone (KM. I. 4: al-zabr al-QDTVK I DO-¨ajar) 2.

ND. II. 80. KK. ] ELU ]DE U – scribe. copyist (TE. zubur) – composition. IK. 444. 53: wa-\XT O OLON WLE ] ELU ZD-]DE U PLWKO   ULE ZD- DU E. 80. 92). zab U (pl. work (SA. 18. ND.

18)  SO ]DNK ULI.18. elegant. IR. embellished writing. copying (KK. 53. 18). embellished writing. IK. TE. 444-465. mizbar or midhbar – reed pen. calamus (TE. copying (KK. elegant. II. TE. SA. 18) 2. polychrome illumination (TE. 85. zakhrafah 1. 230). 53: wa-\XT O ]DEUDMWX DO-NLW E « LGK ¨assantuhu wa-zayyantuh. ]LEULMDK ]LEU M 1.

SRO\FKURPH LOOXPLQDWLRQ 7( .

zirr SO D]U U D]LUUDK. decorator (WR. muzakhrif – illuminator.  DUDEHVTXH RU geometrical decoration (WR. 80). 87).

KT. . 135). comp. AG. 25. 110. 34. Ñurwah. – knob (of a clasp) (TS.

]LP P DK.. 35. fastener (TS. index. 1222). zulf (Pers. ‘curl’). ]XO \MDK. 69) – serif-like VWURNH SURWUXGLQJ IURP WKH KHDG RI WKH DOLI O P HWF FRPS WDUZ V (KH. ‘hair lock’.GLOSSARY 63 zarkashah – embellishment. 360) 1. ornamental tile (DM)  PRVW SUREDEO\ D VPDOO VTXDUH IRUPDW RI D ERRN . 689).& SDVVLP I T OLE DO-]XO \MDK I DO-]XO \MDK OLO-kibar(?). zulayjah (]DO MDK. IV. lit. I. ER. 69. 109). V. ST. zalf (MN./Turk. MN. zamm – leather thong (for tying up a book). 25. 682. see DC. 19: in 12). decoration in gold and colours (LL. AG.

(pl. ŒXU I DO-]LP P – Graeco-Coptic alpha-numerical system used in early Arab administration records (AN. 181). NA. 95) 2. pt. GA. WD]P N – outlining (of a letter by means of a fine line in a colour different from it) (NC.9. account book. 601). azimmah) 1. 222: al-WDUP N . 383-385. catalogue (SD. (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P see musnad. I. list. register (IK. 127.

320). II. comp. . II. 101. zinjafr – cinnabar. ta¨U U WDN¨ O zunjufr. KF. KXZD DQ ya¨bis al-¨arf bi-lawn ghayr lawnih bi-TDODP UDT T MLGGDQ 7(  AS. 145. MB. 478). vermillion ink (SA. 315.

zawj SO D]Z M. 80: Ñamal al-PX]DKKDU W ZD-qaÁÁ al-waraq). floriated (KJ. WD]K U – floral decoration.1. hence muzahhar. 38. no. box (DG. KR. 91).64 GLOSSARY ]DQIDO MDK – case. 44.

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283. 825 and VIII. mizwadah – small container (for making ink) (DD. also WD]Z UDK – elegant. I. conjugate leaf (AG. f. muzawwir – forger (EI. AG. VII. WD]Z T SO WD] Z T. X. falsification (UI. 73. 107) 2. 391). X. copying (TE. TK. 18) 2. ]DZZ U – painter (AD. ER. 73). 90-100).120b. X. 408-409. GA. forgery. 409). AD. WD]Z U 1. sarlawŒ muzdawij see sarlaw¨. 6. GLSORPD 76    ID-in N QD DO-NLW E NXOOXK D]Z MDQ G QD PXNDUUDV ZD-GK OLND DQQD D]Z M al-N JKDG DNWKDU GDONLK I DO-DZ VLÃ. 107). embellished writing. muzdawij – XUM ]DK-type poem in which every two verses have the same rhyme (EI. EI. 376).

 HOHJDQW HPEHOOLVKHG ZULWLQJ . ..

multi-colour illumination (HT. 11) 3. decorating (with colours other than gold) (KA. miniature painting (WA. WA. 560. lin. miniature painter (ME. n. 4). 12). writing. . 105). ]DZZ T – illuminator. painting (with an admixture of quicksilver) (ME. 560) 4.4. ]LZ TDK – art of illumination.  decoration. MS.102.

corner. ]L\ GDK 1. post-scriptum (AD. index. addition (TP. 9). 62). 73).GLOSSARY 65 ] ZL\DK 1. also takht al-]L\ U (ST. 127) 2. ]L\ U DO-taq¦ ¦ – press (for trimming) (ST. angle 2. abbrev. 52. 59. dittography (TM. superfluous. 111. 136). IA. ] µid(ah) SO ]DZ Ðid) 1. MI. 98) 3. ]L\ U DO-TDU ¦ – RUGLQDU\ VFUHZ SUHVV 67 LQGH[ . addition (CM. square (an implement) (MB. 60. interpolation. 184) 2. ]L\ U ]L\\ U – bookbinder’s press. 9). index. interpolation. MH.  ZULWWHQ DERYH D FDQcellation to indicate a dittographic error (TN.

elegant. 119: ¨usn alNLW EDK ZD-]D\QXK . embellished writing (SK. FRPS TDUU Á. ] QDK WD]\ Q 1.

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quodlibet. jaw E (CI. II. . preamble to a fatwá. comp. xiv. suµ O (pl. **** al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. 128) 2. MI. abbrev. asÐilah) 1.

used after the word All K 73 . VA.20. n. the doxological formula ‘sub¨ QD $OO K¶ 0: 108) used sometimes instead of the ¨amdalah (TP. the formula of glorification ‘sub¨ QD ZDtaÑ Oá’. 3214) 2.66 GLOSSARY sabŒDODK WDVE Œ 1. nos. 53. 1853. 696. 461.

n.) (SD. etc. slip (of paper on which one writes a short sentence). 81. mistar – fore-edge flap (ST. 637). siŒ µah – piece. sabq(at) al-qalam – slip of the pen. piece (of poetry. VXNKWL\ Q VLNKWL\ Q – morocco (leather) (DM). 13. parchment) (IB. tasŒiyah – binding (with thin leather. index. 11-12). I. al-dhahab al-masŒ T see dhahab.185). lapsus calami (DM). IB. VXNK P – VRRW VPXW RQH RI WKH LQJUHGLHQWV RI LQN PLG G TY.

17). transcription (TE. . VLG G (pl. asiddah) – stopper. 83). WDVG G – copying. plug (in the inkwell) (IK.

40. 122) 2. al-surrah alODZ] \DK – mandorla). 115. Áurrah. LL. sifr 4.52). comp. 1347). 50: al-surrah al-G µLU \DK – circular medallion. collation (of a text without linguistic or other analysis of it). punching (SK. 122. reading. recital. V ULG VDUU G – sewer of leather (LL. headpiece (law¨at Áadr al-NLW E. VLU V V U V VHH VKDUV DVKU V sard 1. prelector (TP. I. punch (SK. hence V ULG – reader. awling.) 1. 56. KM. 39. n.GLOSSARY 67 surrah – center-piece. sarlawŒ(ah) (Pers. I. 1347). center-medallion (on a book cover) (FJ. misrad – awl. I.

127. resembling a cypress tree) in a Mamluk bookcover design. sarwah – lozenge-shaped element (with two sides longer than the others. double-page frontispiece (sarlawŒ muzdawij) (LC.. 95. 27. AF. also known as lawzah (JL. 11: huwa al-khaÃà al-mamG G PLQ \DP Q DO-N WLE LOá yas ULK DZ EL-al-Ñaks ka-al-E Ð wa-al-N I wa-na¨ZLKLP  6$ .. 97. horizontal stroke (UD.  frontispiece. 36). KR. 82). MD. munsa¨iŒ – flat. .

asÃur. sa¨r (pl. asà U VXà U. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ see qafan.

II. line of writing. 705: al-saÃU I DO-lughah alathar al-mustaà O Ñalá istiw Ð). . – line (KD.

. IA. MB. 50. copying (TE. mis¨arat al-U Œ – ruler for work with leather. WA. 155. designing (UK. number of lines per page (TK. lineation (LC.68 GLOSSARY huwa i  IDW DO-kalimah ilá al-kalimah ¨attá taÁ U VDÃran muntaÌim alwa Ñ ka-al-misÃarah) 2. IB. 155. mis¨arat al-takŒ O – ruler for outlining (UK. folder (UK. 59). threaded guideline board for ruling pages. writing. TM. 17. straightedge (UK. mus¶u¨ – receptacle for saÑ W VQXII" PXVN". 25) 3. used for burnishing gold decoration or writing (KA. 247) 4. musa¨¨ir – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE FRS\LVW VFULEH $$  TE. mis¨arat al-rasm – ruler for drawing. al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \DK – ivory ruler. tas¨ U 1. mis¨arat al-shughl – ‘work’ (heavy duty) ruler (UK. ¶arsh al-sa¨r see Ñarsh. 104- 7.  ODK PLQ NKDVKDE PXVWDT PDW al-janabayn yusaÃÃar ÑalayK P \D¨W M PLQ WDVà ULK PLQ DO-NLW EDK ZDmutaÑDOODTDWLK ZD-akthar man ya¨W M LOD\KL DO-mudhahhib) 2. geometrical design (polygonal interlace). ruling. MB. 59). as RSSRVHG WR DUDEHVTXH WDZU T WDVKM U 67 LQGH[  . 12. KA. 104-105). 174) 3. mis¨arat al-WDEN U – ruler for work with geometrical figures (MB. TA. 87). 155). 28. creating a line (of writing) (SA. lineation. 59). 113) 6. 86. 134) 4. stencil (AF. 15. 78. redaction. 48) 5. 105. 28) 5.120ab: faÁO I Ñamal al-misÃarah. 73. WS. pasteboard (HT. SDVVLP 6$ . 155. WR. ff. lin. 104. 77). number of lines per page (LC. 18. ruler. TS. 91. 17). mis¨arat al-taŒE U – ruler for inking (UK. (grid of) guidelines. 104. I. 155). index. TS. MB. 155. IA. LC. 103. 43). lining. III. 140: wa- mis¶a¨. ruling (of folios). ruling board (ST. 28. composition (AD. IN. mis¨arah SO PDV Ãir) 1. IA.%  Q LC. V ¨ir. 13.

.5  // . . DM: snuff box). 1364.

GLOSSARY 69 sifr SO DVI U.

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volume (bound in leather-covered pasteboards) (IK. book.  SDSHU WH[WEORFN 76  $* 107) 3. MS. codex. 96: wa-qad jarat al-Ñ GDK I DO-DNWKDU DOO \XT O DO-VLIU LOO P N QD Ñalayhi jild. 16: al-maÁ ¨if al-VLIU \DK.

 FKDSWHU VHFWLRQ LQ D ERRN SDVWHERDUGV ELQGLQJ .& SDVVLP I VLIU EL-G Q VLIU.

safarah) – DPDQXHQVLV V\Q N WLE .0 .9 VLIU   $$ 23-24: al-safarah al-NDWDEDK Z ¨iduhum al-V ILU. V ILU (pl.

ST. bookbinding (e. WDVI U 1.g. index .

 SO WDV I U.

HT. end of a letter or book 2. – book cover (MB. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. lawzah (mandorla) (TS. 106: al-Áu¨uf al-VDI QDK SD. tail (of the page). 660. PXVDIILU VDII U – bookbinder (ST. safan – coarse hide (used for polishing) (DM). 62: al-N JKDG DMZDGXK P ÁDI ODZQXK ZD-naÑuma lamsuh wa-thaqula waznuh waM GDW ÁLT ODWXK ZD-TDOODW DVI Ãuh). lin. 158. note-pad or commonplace book in oblong format in which the lines are usually written parallel with the spine (EI. 15. 78). 742) 2. al-WDVI U DO-Mi¦U – Egyptian-style binding characterized by a central medallion in the shape of an almond.115. fibres (?) (in paper) (ID. IV. 97. al-nuskhah al-VDIDU \DK see nuskhah. oblong format (of a book) (MD. AD. index. 11. 110). VDI QDK 1. TF. AG. EI. 109) 2. 109: thumma nazalta sufl al-NLW E PDZ iÑ al-NKL\ Ãah). lower margin. spine (of a book) (UK. MB. al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK see muÁ¨af. 150). passim). AG. VIII. 31. . safa¨ SO DVI Ã) 1. small tool resembling a fish scale or a reed from a basket (TS. I.

88). 238) 1. MH. KR. diamond-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. see above) (JL. saqa¨ (MU. V TL¨  RPLVVLRQ KDSORJUDSK\ 0+  ND\I \DW WDNKU M DO-V TLÃ I al-¨DZ VK  70 . 95. also LVT ¨ – omission. 58. ghi¨ µ al-saq¨ – hexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design.70 GLOSSARY saq¨. XII. 97. 95. 97). 87) 2. haplography (TP.

133. 133. 230).  DOVR V TL¨ah – envelope flap (MB. II. AT. saqy al-waraq – sizing (of paper) (UK. WS. 148. 137). comp. IR. lin. ÑLO M PLVT K. IA. 482. VLNN Q SO VDN N Q. VXN Q 1. 118. comp. jazmah 2. circle-like tool (HT. 113: al-V TLÃ wa-huwa al-raÐs. mark indicating vowellessness of a medial consonant. 80). VLT K – water container (for diluting ink) (SA. 60). 107.

90-91. II. VLNN Q DO-kash¨ see kashÃ. VDONK LQVLO NK PXQVDODNK – the last night of the month (SA. 115- . 248). LM. II. silsilah SO VDO VLO. SK. – knife. KD.$  8. pen knife (IK. 31-33). SA. 711. VI. AA.  DQG 0%  VLNN Q DOEDU\ VLNN Q DO-qaÃÃ. 103-104. 465-466.

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76  $*  7) SDVVLP.

I. 27). 611).  VSLULWXDO JHQHDORJ\ DV IRXQG LQ GLSORPDV LM ] W especially in calligraphy) (EI. (qalam) al-musalsal – relative of al-WDZT Ñ script in which all letters DUH LQWHUORFNHG DQG WKH DOLI DQG O P ORRN OLNH OLQNV LQ D FKDLQ $6 . stemma codicum (AL. silsilat al-nasab – stemma. IX.

EI. IV. JM. 1124). 5: al-PXTDGGLPDK I DO-taÁliyah wa-al-WDVO PDK. VDO P. 47: ¨XU IXK PXWWDÁLODK OD\VD I K VKD\Ð munfaÁil. KK. WDVO P DK) – the formula of benediction ‘Ñalayhi al-VDO P¶ (YM.GLOSSARY 71 146. AG. 107). 15. 5863. sulfah – soft leather (used for doublures) (TS.

CI. PLVP U (pl. MI. mas P U. 54. DEEUHY / / / / (TP. no. 2211. xiii.1830. 128). VA. I.

III.  NKDU ÃDK GK W Ñurwah wa-PLVP U. peg (part of a clasp) (BA. – nail. 372. TM.

 VDP ¶ SO VDP Ñ W.

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certificate).. 27. .  DXGLWLRQ QRWH (statement.g. abbrev. V PL¶ – SXSLO DWWHQGLQJ D VDP Ñ-session.25. X.. 69. MU. 485493). 53. XVII. n. taVP ¶  DXGLWLQJ 08 . (CW. also known as WDVP ¶ or ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. auditor. VIII. samiÑWX RU EDODJKD VDP Ñan) (e. MU. TP. LC.. II. 267. TP. LM ]DW DO-VDP ¶ – audition certificate (beginning with the words samiÑa. 1019-1020). KF. EI. 53. 278.

 ZULWLQJ GRZQ UHFRUGLQJ D VDP Ñ (CT. 268: wa-\DNWXE I DOODGK \DO KL DO-WDVP Ñ wa-al-taÐU NK 0+ . 45) 2. I. audition note. certificate (JA.

musmi¶ – SHUVRQ VKD\NK. musammi¶.

45). certifier (CT. PDVP ¶ SO PDVP Ñ W. authoritative commentator. audition leader (master). FRQGXFWLQJ D VDP Ñ-session.

ism SO DVP Ð DV PLQ. – ZRUN WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDP Ñ. comp. PDTU Ð.

title of a book (ism al-NLW E). . IV. 179-181) 2. 1. proper name (EI.

53. title (of a work) (LC. 28. the propitiatory formula otherwise known as basmalah (q.20) 3.) (MH. the expression ‘sammaytuhu’ (in a preface) (LC. 28) 2. such as Mu¨ammad ‚ OL¨. ism al-shuhrah see shuhrah. sinn SO DVQ Q. n.72 GLOSSARY ism al-MDO ODK VHH WDMO O al-Ism al-A¶„am see al-NK WLP DO-6XOD\P Q  al-ism al-murakkab – compound name. tasmiyah 1. 100). TP.v.

– half-nib (of a calamus created by a slit. 154: wa-VLQQ KX Ãarafuhu al-PDEU  6. shaqq ) (UK.  ZD-lil-qalam VLQQ Q.

  (.. waŒVK – ULJKW VLGH VHH DOVR WKH DUWLFOH RQ LQV LQ // .9  LQV – left side.  . 6$ . . ..

103. misann or Œajar al-misann – whetstone. hone (UK. misann ÃXOD\O ". IA. MB. 60: misann akh ar. 153.

384: al-5 P  DO-±LM ]  DO-QawÁ . TS. 10. AG. 107.5  6$ . NH.  $7 133. ..

musannn al-a¨U I – deckle-edged (paper) (DM). 395). musannanah – chevron (FT. sanad SO DVQ G. misann al-misŒ – whetstone (for a mis¨. q.v.).

musnad – ¨DG WK-work (not arranged thematically but on the basis of WKH ILUVW DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH LVQ G. DOVR NQRZQ DV LVQ G and ULZ \DW DO-NLW E – ascription (of a ¨DG WK RU ZRUN LQGLFDWLQJ D FKDLQ RI authorities going back to the author) (TP. 53. 56).

   (. .. 6/ . 9..

sifr 13. 14. 8. 5. RN. 704-705). (qalam) al-musnad – Himyarite (ancient South Arabian) script. 692). TW. al-Musnad al-LP P VHH LP P (al-kha¨¨) al-musnad. FRPS muÁannaf. 47). VII. also known as (al-kha¨¨) al-]LP P – Maghrebi chancery (secretarial) hand used primarily in legal documents and annotations (LT. mustanad – closing phrases of a document including such statements . misnadah – copyist’s book support made up of some dozen sheets of paper held together at the four corners and placed on the knee (SD. 2. 365. EI. also known as kha¨¨ ´imyar (KM. FN. I. IV.

232). VI. CM. II. OS. ¨asaba al-LVK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like) (SA.GLOSSARY 73 as bi-al-isK UDK ¨asaba al-amr and the like. sanah SO VLQ Q VDQDZ W. bi-ÑLQ \DK EL-himmah. 88. 264-265. in codices these statements indicate patronage and include bi-rasm. Á sundus – silk brocade (NT. 143: wa-kusiya al-muÁ¨af al-ÑD] ] ELLZ Q ODà I PLQ DO-sundus al-akh ar).

). 252). comp. Ñ P 6HH DOVR WDÐU NK  HUD al-sanah al-PLO G \DK (al-¶ VDZ \DK DO-0DV Œ \DK) – Christian era (A.D. VI.  \HDU RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D ORJRJUDSK consisting of a horizontal line with a downward curve at its end. al-sanah al-TDPDU \DK DO-KLO O \DK DO-KLMU \DK. and used predominantly in dates in non-Maghrebi manuscripts (SA.

AI. black ink (LC. I. SK. 27. VDZ G 1. 147- \DQEDJK OLO-Ã OLE an yaktub al-¨DG WK EL-al-VDZ G WKXPPD EL-al-¨LEU NK ÁÁDWDQ G QD DOPLG G OL-anna al-VDZ G DÁbagh al-DOZ Q ZD-al-¨LEU DET K Ñalá marr al-GXK U ZD-al-D]P Q. 320. 384. – Muslim era (DD. 388).

MU. XIII. VI. 27. rough copy (LC. XV.  DOVR musawwadah – draft. 161. 7: Ñathartu Ñalá almusawwadah wa-bayya WXK  08 . MU.9 . MU. 126.

65: wa-yuÃlaq ÑDOD\K al-V \LV ZD-hiya al-Ñ PP \DK I DO-NDW W b al-QurÐ Q \DK. 18). (al-kha¨¨) al-6 G Q VHH . preparation of a draft (TE. 18. AM.IU T  V \LV V µis) – catchword. WDVZ G 1. 237). marring (of a text). calligrapher (AW. 50A) 3. nos. also LVZLG G (!) – writing. making it difficult to read (MH. copying (TE. 45. musawwid – copyist. 98) 4. FRPS PXED\\D ah. vox reclamans (NZ. 97. copying by an apprentice (TE. 18) 2.

 V V DK.

SO V V Q.

. – woodworm.

(kha¨¨) al-VL\ T DK. SA. II. comp. 105. damage caused by worms (LC. LVWLZ µ – straight (even) cut (of the point of the nib) (SK. musawwas – worm-eaten.74 GLOSSARY WDVZ V – worming. trimming the textblock (TS. II. 50. taswiyah – aligning (of quires) and shaving. KD. 702). KK. 28). 17-18). ta¨U I al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ see qaÃÃ. 463.

in Persia. DR.in Turkey. sayr SO VX\ U. IV. 183). RA. NKD¨¨-L VL\ TDW VL\ TDW – script and/or system of alphabetic abbreviations used in accountancy (EI. 1124. was known as qirmah (GA. 24-24). 178-180. A variety of this script. used in Ottoman Egypt. 1125.

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lin.96).  endband (headband) strip (ST. index. 114. MB. sayf SO VX\ I. HT. 16.

60: sayf bi-niÁ E VD\I EL-niÁ ED\Q VD\I ÁDJK U VD\I NDE U. cutter (UK. IA. 103. – trimming sword. 104. 154. MB.

33.88-106. (pl. also mushabbak – lattice work (FT. endband (headband) (HT. lin. 19. 158: wa-alghilaÌ I UDÐs al-ibrah yashtarià Ñinda ÁLQ Ñat al-VKDE NDK IDTDÃ) 2. 20) 2. preliminary endbanding (without silk) (TS. **** VKDE NDK 1. 407. DH. nos. WDVK E N. 115. 73). WDVKE N 1.

passim). . – interlace (TF.

à VKDE W DO-qalam – QLE RI D FDODPXV. PXWDVK ELNDK – interlacing (FT. 406).GLOSSARY 75 al-khay¨ al-WDVKE N see khayÃ.

. comp..' .. shajjah SO VKLM M.  VKDE WXK ¨adduh). . jilfah.  VKDE W DO-qalam arafuhu al-PDEU  %$ .

UD. VKDMDU O I DO-shajar – paper pulp (OM). shaddah. 87. EI. 967) 3. also mushajjar – foliated design. shaŒm(ah) – pith.  VKLM M \DÑQ QXTDÃ). 27). arabesque decoration (WR. stemma (SL. LM. – GLDFULWLF SRLQW -$ . WDVKG G DK. shajarah – genealogical tree. II. shaŒdh – whetting. 86: wa\XT O OL-E Ãinih al-sha¨mah wa-li-Ì KLULK DO-O Ã. I. honing (of a knife) (KD. tree-like way. VII. 86. DH. mishŒadh – whetstone. 390). 14. WDVKM U 1. I.73) 2. I. composing a text in a schematic. hone (DD. 35-35). 711). 9. no. creating a genealogical tree. al-qalam al-mushajjar see qalam. white interior substance of the reed (IK. stemma (AL.

doubling sign over a consonant (for various practices see GL. 14). – doubling (of a consonant). shidq SO DVKG T.

27.  SDVWHERDUG PDGH RI WZR RU WKUHH SLHFHV RI paper and one piece of parchment). case binding (TS. book cover. .

109).76 GLOSSARY AG. comp. sharaj SO DVKU M. fore-edge flap (?) (NH. 369). fakk 2.

III. sharŒ (pl.) (BA. 372).v. – plaited thong (al-sayr al-murassaÑ ) placed beneath a ¨alqah in ‘boxed books’ (q. sKXU ¨ VKXU ¨ W.

 QRWH FRPPHQW /& .

MD. rules. al-VKDU I DK. . NH. DVKU V – asphodelus paste (UK. 109: sharastu (not sharshartu!) Ñalayhi bial-DVKU V . 27.. 29) 4. EA. al-sharŒ al-NDE U DO-mu¨awwal) – original. &. shars – pasting. 106-107. 139. VLU V and V U V (DM). MM. I. comprising the text commented upon (matn). shar¨(ah) (pl. xiv. FZ. IX. frame (on a book cover) (FJ. ashriÃah) 1. stroke (DM). 41: wa-al-matn mu¨ à bi-ià U GK WKDO WKDW ashriÃah. paste (MB. mishra¨(ah) – knife. 174-175). 60. 385. I.  UXQQLQJ (systematic) commentary. VLIU   ZD-al-shars shaddat daÑk al-shayÐ). EI. 60. 109) 3. al-ashraf – epithet of Najaf. MB. VKDU ¨ SO VKDU ÐiÃ. CI. OM). al-sharŒ al-PD]M . VK ULŒ SO VKXUU ¨) – commentator. long commentary. IA. 392: for opening sealed documents. shuraÃ) – line. 401). cutter (IA. rule-border (LC. al-sharŒ al-wasa¨ – middle commentary. IB. 27) 2. comment-text book. MI. (LC. decorative band (UI. 5051). fillet (in decoration) (FT. 217. abbrev. 397-320. also referred to as al-sharŒ al-PDP] M (bi-al-matn). also VKLU V. II. al-sharŒ al-¦DJK U DO-mukhta¦ar) – short commentary. 158. abbrev.0 . [Lv). DD. 100.

– epithet of the months of ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O 'K DO- .

250). VI.). TW. as welO DV WKH ZRUGV NLW E NKDWPDK muÁ¨af. 365.GLOSSARY 77 QaÑGDK DQG 'K DO-±ijjah (q. nuskhah and the like. 47. shayzarah – HQGEDQG KHDGEDQG. 322).v. sometimes referred to as al-thuluth al-0DJKULE . VKXU T – the first hour of day (SA. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DVKULT – large size. ligatured Maghrebi script. used predominantly for titles and chapter headings (LT.

)'  .

burnisher. 756).  arb. FRPS VK U ]DK sha¨bah. 11. mish¨ab – 1. comp. sha„ \DK (pl. I. I. tash¨ E – erasure (by means of a pen stroke) (SD. 390). polisher (NH. AG. 251). shaqq. eraser (TS. 113) 2. cancellation (LC. shaÌ \ . whisk (?). duster. 28: IN.

13) 2.  VLGH RI WKH ULJKW KDOI-nib. à Ð \ Ð. 36: al-tashÌ \DK DQ \DN Q DÑlá al-¨arf Ñalá hayÐat al-shaÌ \DK UD. Á G N I JKD\Q RU DW WKH WDLO RI WKH alif (SA. stroke produced by the side of the right half-nib (either at the head of such letters as ¨ Ð. III. KH. 40: wa-kull shaÌ \DK I DZZDO DZ NKLU PLWKO VXEÑ alif khaÃÃLK  . 35. 88. serif-like stroke (LM. also tash„ \DK – line. 54: wa-DPP DOLI DO-WDZ T Ñ alVKDE KDK EL-al-ULT Ñ wa-al-JKXE U ID-anta mukhayyar bayna alshaÌyah ! wa-ÑDGDPLK  /0   8' . AA.8  ZD-shaÌ \DWXK Ãaraf sinnih al-ayman.

al-PXE UDN DO-VKDU I. al-mukarram. FRPS WDUZ V Sha¶E Q (al-muÑaÌÌam.

– the eighth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

 .

78 GLOSSARY (qalam) al-sha¶r see qalam. ashÑ U. shi¶r (pl.

116). 82. II. versification. nos. (qalam) al-ash¶ U TDODP.g. 12. – poetry. 81. I. no. CI. scribal verse (see e. CI.

45.+  I QLK \DW DO-ÑDU T W $6 145. al-alif al-musha¶¶arah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) bent to the left (SA. 127. JM. lin. 58). outlining. 222: tashÑ U W UDT TDK WDOWDII Ñalá al-¨XU I . 104. also known as (qalam) almuµannaq – allegedly a hybrid of either al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth or al-mu¨aqqaq and al-naskh scripts (AS. scraper (ST. II. cutting edge (SK. 16. 9. 112. 321: bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq biP Ð al-dhahab al-mushaÑ Ñar bi-al-aswad) 2. illumination in gold. AG. also sha¶rah and tash¶ UDK – hairline (used for joining letters in the thuluth family of scripts) (NC. MJ. MB. al-musha¶¶ar. 11. 153. IA. 59) 3. 224). 161) 2. shaving (HT. shafaq – the first hour of night (SA. shafrah 1. III. 59. trimmer (HT. outline (KF. LM. AI. tash¶ U 1.83. WDVKI U – trimming. AF. III. design made up of thin lines and drawn in gold (HD. 144. NA. 145. parer. 103. lin. IP. index. mish¶ U – small tool (most probably for creating tendrils) (TS.104. UK. paring knife. 50) 3. 161). pt. 250). 109). 47: wa-al-muÐannaq li-NLW EDW DO-shiÑr). 91-93. shaqq SO VKXT T.159). SA. VI. bookbinder’s sword.

 OLQH GUDZQ DERYH D OHWWHU RU ZRUG HJ al-N I al-PDVKT TDK LH WKH OHWWHU N I ZLWK D OLQH DERYH WKH DVFHQGHU WR GLVWLQJXLVK LW IURP O P.

117: wa-yasta¨VLQ Q an WDN Q DO-N I JKD\U PDVKT TDK. 8' -12: SK.

59. . slit (of the nib).  FDQFHOODWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH IRUP RI D line drawn across the top of the word) (TP. II. 171) 3. splitting of the nib to facilitate retention of ink (KU. 97. SA. IM. 154: wa-shaqquhu farjah bayna sinnayh. MH. 460-462).

a hybrid of two Persian scripts nastaÑO T DQG WDÑO T GHYHORSHG LQ WKH 11/17th century. IV. IV. no. mounting (of leather on wooden book covers) (KJ. IV. WDVKN ] – 1. 43.) – commonly used for shikastah-nasta¶O T. ER. Unlike taÑO T LW KDV QR WDUZ V DQG WKH OHWWHU Q Q LV often written ‘in reverse’ (EI. punch (UA. 62) 2.- QR  \XMDOOLG Q DO-kutub wa-yubaÃÃLQ QDK EL-al-khashab wa\XVKDNNL] QDK EL-al-jild). 694). .GLOSSARY 79 mishakk – needle. 1124. ER. shikastah-ta¶O T – version of the taÑO T VFULSW XVHG IRU Uapid writing (EI. sewing endbands (headbands). IV.1. shakl(ah) SO DVKN O. 393). (kha¨¨-i) shikastah (Pers. awl. preliminary endbanding (IA. 1124. 699-702). 45: wa-al-WDMO G DO-awwal al-$JKODE \DWDÐallaf min daffatayn min al-khashab al-mushakkazatayn bi-al-jild al-muÃarraz al-muzakhraf.

vowelization. 36). III. comp. VK NLODK – lower end of the stem of a letter before the tail (SA. VKDPUDK WDVKP U – upward-FXUYLQJ WDLO RI D OHWWHU DV LQ E Ð G O Q Q. diagram. shaqq. 12) 2. orthographic (orthoepic) signs (e.g. III. 160-167. al-N I PDVKN ODK – WKH OHWWHU N I SURYLGHG ZLWK D VWUDLJKW OLQH DERYH its stem (KU. 150). hence mushakkal – vocalized. 125. GL. 81). vowelized (for various practices see SA.  DOVR WDVKN O – vocalization. vowel marks. 59. IM. SA. KH. III.

+  8'   . .

 .

80 GLOSSARY shams(ah) SO VKXP V.

 FLUFXODU FHQWHU-medallion (on a book cover) (UK. 156: wa-al-E N U OL-LVWLNKU M DO-VKXP V ZD-hiya al-daZ Ðir al-PDQT VKDK DOODW WDTDÑ I ZDVDÃ al-NLW E  0% .

sham¶ al-¶asal – beeswax (used for polishing threads for use in sewing quires) (FD. 51). 110.  FLUFXODU illuminated medallion. PA. passim. 63). 27. MB. WDVKP ¶ – waxing (of leather or paper) (KA. 135). rosette (LC. sham¶(ah) – wax (AG. 116). AF. 118. VK KLG  SO VKXK G DVKK G. IA.

ZLWQHVV QRWDU\  SO VKDZ KLG.

g. – quotation (usually drawn from pre-Islamic poetry) serving as textual evidence (e. al-VKDZ KLG DO-QurÐ Q \DK.

 VK KLGDK SO VKDZ KLG.

340-. 201 and X. 53. document (DM). IX. – copy of a letter. EI. VKDK GDK WDVKDKKXG – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOO $OO K Mu¨DPPDG UDV O $OO K¶ DOVR NQRZQ DV kalimat al-tawŒ G or kaliPDW Q (TP. n.20.

 VLJQHG VKDK GDKstatement (often on the front of the textblock): awdaÑWX I K GK DONLW E VKDK GDWDQ «.

 LVKK G – ZULWWHQ DWWHVWDWLRQ RI D GRFXPHQW HJ D ZDTI \DK TY.

90). Mashhad (al-)´usayn. XVXDOO\ EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH H[SUHVVLRQ DVKKDGDQ KH FDOOHG XSRQ PH as a witness) (OS. Mashhad al-´ µir (al-Mashhad al-´ µLU . Mashhad ¶$O  DO-Mashhad al-*KDUDZ – Najaf.

DUEDO Ð). shahr SO VKXK U DVKKXU. al-Mashhad al-Ri„DZ – Mashhad. al-Mashhad al-Muqaddas. – .HUEHOD .

).v. shuhrah. ism al-shuhrah – that part of a person’s name under which he/she is best known. II. al-shahr al-ŒDU P – the Holy Month of Mu¨arram (q. – new moon. usually introduced by al-VKDK U DO-PDVKK U. month (LL. 1612).

EL al-maÑU I EL DQG WKH OLNH HJ &.. . .

 .

al-PXE UDN.GLOSSARY 81 6KDZZ O (al-mukarram.

– the tenth month of the Muslim calendar.  26 . abbrev.

. VI. aÁ ELÑ ) – DVFHQGHU XSVWURNH RI VXFK OHWWHUV DV DOLI O P DQG the like) (FN.U T DO-VK U ]DK HD. 118). mashyakhah (pl. 19-20. of shaykh) – record of attested study consisting of a list of works and their transmitters (EI. 725). 8. comp.). For the formula µLQ VK ÐD $OO K¶ VHH LVWLWKQ Ð and mashÐalah. i¦E ¶ (pl.5. 386: wa-dhakara al-EXUVKP Q EL-maÑná m \XVDPP KX PXMDOOLG DO-Ñ. ¦DE Œ – the last hour of night (SA. VK U ]DK (Pers. VI. RN. 34: al-¨XU I DO-T Ðimah aw alà OLÑah). 117. fihrist.v. pt. PA.) – endband (headband) (LA. **** al-a¦abb – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. 250). KH. fahrasah.

370: Áabgh al-waraq.82 GLOSSARY ¦abghah. 279: idh raÐayta al-NLW E I KL LO¨ T ZD-iÁO ¨ fa-ishhad bi-al-Ái¨¨ah). 136. ¦aŒ Œ – correct. attestation (of correctness in transcription). 95-96: aPP DO-taÁ¨ ¨ fa-huwa NLW EDW µÁa¨¨a’ Ñalá al-NDO P DZ Ñindah) or at the end of omission. MP. ¦DEE JK – dyer (EI. 35. 45). MH. sic. mara  and saqam). tinting. abbrev. AR. MB. ¦iŒŒah – soundness of the text (ant. VIII. ¦LE JK – pigment. abbrev. emendation 2. tint (UK. IA. CT. 473. thus (JA. (sic) on or next to a ta¦Œ Œ 1. 671-672. 114-118. (KG. I. ¦LE JKDK – art of dyeing. 73  . dye. 120-129. NH. 267-268). correction. writing word in the text (GA. NW. QS. 63. 45-46: ÁLE JK DOwaraq). 285. II. LE. 29-32.

 ZULWLQJ SODFHW.

¦ Œib (pl. signing (a document) 4. DW WKH HQG RI DXGLWLRQ notes (TP. 53. preparation of a critical edition. ta¨U U Wa¨T T mu¦aŒŒiŒ – corrector.25). aÁ¨ E. editor. comp. n.

owner (OS). abbrev.  DXWKRU ¦ Œib al-NLW E). 0. possession (OS). . isti¦Œ E – ownership.

 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-huwa N JKDG :6  (. ma¦Œaf. 371: wa-al-Áu¨XI P N QD PLQ MXO G 6$ . BA. maÁ ¨if) 1. IK. 24). sifr 13. III.. papyrus or parchment roll (SL. IV. folio (folium). Áu¨uf. . often leather. I. 22) 3..8: wa-al-muÁ¨af al-M PLÑ lil-Áu¨uf al- ¦aŒ IDK (pl. mu¦Œaf. codex (either bound or unbound) (KM. page (DM) 4.  parchment. 9. 95: al-NLW E ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ID-LQQDKXP yaqaÑ Q Ñalá jam Ñ DQZ Ñih). -835) 2. mi¦Œaf (pl.. sheet of writing material. 704: wa-\XT O OLO-Áa¨ IDK DOqa  P D\ an. II. leaf (TC. papyrus or paper (KD. 22. small pamphlet. I. notebook (SL. Áa¨ Ðif) 1.

54-57). 25. MS. mu¦ŒLI – calligrapher and decorator of the QurÐ Q 06  . al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah – codices bound in wooden boards (TS. 16).GLOSSARY 83 PDNW EDK ED\QD DO-daffatayn ka-annahu uÁ¨ifa ay jumiÑDW I KL DOÁu¨uf bi-kasr al-P P ZD- DPPLK ZD-fat¨LK  6. n.  ID-huwa muÁ¨DI LGK  ammat al-Áu¨uf baÑ XK LOá baÑ ) 2. KF. II. JM. 16). 107. 107. 146. 25. AG. 17. 668-669. MS. VII. 316. AG. 17. copy of the QurÐ Q al-mu¦Œaf alVKDU I) (usually contained in one. but larger than al-ray¨ Q XVHG H[FOXVLYHO\ IRU WKH FRS\LQJ RI WKH 4XUÐ Q hence its appellation (AS. 17. volumes) (EI. (qalam) al-ma¦ Œif – smaller version of al-mu¨aqqaq script.4). sometimes two. AG. 107) 3. parchment textblock (TS. al-mu¦Œaf al-LP P VHH LP P al-ma¦ Œif al-VLIU \DK – codices bound in pasteboards (TS.

error resulting from incorrect pointing or vocalization of a word or misplacing diacritical marks (e. ta¦Œ I 1.  .g. distortion.  .

  ZD-yusammá al-taÁ¨ I WDÁ¨ IDQ OLOkhaÃaÐ I DO-Áa¨ IDK. 04  6$ ..

syn. FRPS WD¨U I DO-qalb al-PDN Q  PLVWDNH LQ writing). ta¨U I TY.

(.U T \ Q DO-taÁ¨ I.5. . -348) 3. pt. 385: wa-maÑQ K DO-WDMO G DZ NDP \DT O DO-Ñ. bookbinding (LA.

II. HD. 9. ¦aŒŒ I 1. IB. 118) 2. bookseller (QS. 269-270). ÁXG U. II. 13. ¦adr (pl. also mu¦aŒŒif – bookbinder (CI. 11.

preface 73  Q &0 QR T OD DO-muÁDQQLI I Áadr al-NLW E µ%LVP $OO K DO-Ra¨P Q DO-Ra¨ P¶ )1  ZD-li-$E =Dyd al-%DONK shar¨ ÁDGU K GK DO-NLW E. also ta¦G U – incipit. ¦DG UDK 1. preamble.

 IURQW RI WKH WH[WEORFN 76  ID-LGK jiÐta ilá Áadr al-NLW E ZD-KXZD P ED\QD DO-udhn wa-al-tabà Q.

44. 27) 4. 218). 15) 5. fore-edge flap (TS. as opposed to inner side. fore-edge (TS. MB. ¦adr al-qalam – outer side of the nib. 105. wajh (SA. known as ¦adr alE ] (UK. IA. 464. IB. 59).  UHFWR of the first folio (LC. AG. MJ. 16. II. almond-shaped stamp (mandorla). 107) 6. 156. ¦DG UDK see also law¨ al-ÁDG UDK .

84 GLOSSARY ta¦G T – the formula of attestation ‘ÁadDTD $OO K DO-ÑAÌ P¶ SODFHG usually at the end of the QurÐ Q RU D ¨DG WK.

&$ .

al-¦urrah al-ODZ] \DK. 215-219: al-¦urrah alwus¨á. JL. comp. 109. MD. surrah. 99. ¦urrah – center-medallion. mandorla (FZ. FRQILUPDWLRQ certification (DM). ¦a¶d (pl. 110). ÁuÑ G. 83.

– ascender (up-stroke of a letter) (AA. 50. 34: wa-  Ká ÁuÑ GXKX ¨XG UDK. TU.

FN. KD. 11. verso of the first folio (LC. AG. 58). study (KF. ta¦affuŒ – examination. 703: wa-al-waraqah ¦afŒat al-G E MDK – opening page. 192). ÁDI Ði¨) – slab (for tooling leather) (TS. ¦DI Œah (pl. 107). ¦afŒ(ah) – page (SJ. ta¦I Œ – catchword. II. 362: nuqila min GXVW ULK ELkhaÃÃih wa-Ñalayhi ÑDO PDW DO-taÁaffu¨ wa-al-PXT EDODK. 227. siglum) (TP. ta¦JK U – abbreviation (contraction. 371. II. 27). vox reclamans (TT. 30.

iafar (al-khayr. maÑU IDK ZD-kull wajh PLQK Á af¨). al-muÌaffar. al-Ìafar. al-PXE UDN.

– the second ¦ifr (pl. aÁI U.

171. 59). abbrev. month of the Muslim calendar. . TP. (OS. – cancellation mark (in the form of a small circle) (IM. 89).

GLOSSARY 85 mi¦I K (pl. maÁ ILQ.

134). burnishing (MB. ¦DTT O PL¦qalah (pl. KA. – filter. passim. sieve (UA. ¦aql – polishing. maÁ TLO. strainer. 393: for ink).

I. 99. 391: for polishing paper after erasure with a scraper). DD. aÁO E. 142. MB. IA. 149.. 60: miÁqalah NDE UDK PLÁqalah ÁDJK UDK 76  $*  $7  6$ . ¦ulb (pl. 181: al-miÁqalah wa-KL\D DOODW \XÁqal bi-K DO-waraq li-L] ODW P I KL PLQ DO-NKXVK QDK ZD-yuÁqal bi-K DO-dhahab baÑda al-NLW EDK OLtaÌhar bahjatuhu. 105. burnisher (for paper and gold) (UK. IB. ma¦ TLO DO-]XM M – glass burnishers (UK. – polisher. 149. 44. aÁlub. 156. OM) al-waraq al-ma¦T O – see waraq.  DS.

¦DO E – cross (as a mark of two intersecting lines) (UK. making pasteboards (MB. . also ta¦O EDK – pasteboard (MB. no. correction (FK. main. i¦O Œ 1. matn. 27). 1712. II. 111.  PDLQ ERG\ RI WKH WH[W DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the margins. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – slab for making pasteboards (IA. 62). MB. text-column (LL. ta¦O E 1. comp. 27) 2. 62) 3. II.1209/1: qaraÐWX K GKLKL DO-NXUU VDK ZDaÁla¨WXK  -$ . 59). 119). IA. bookbinding (IA. 110: taÁO E DO-daffatayn) 2. original text (LC. LC. 166.

&   7: .  UHSDLU UHVWRUDWLRQ .

II. MM. 191. i¦¨LO Œ. al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ see waraq. mu¦¨alaŒ – abbreviation (contraction. no. 55-56. CI. siglum) (TP. 139: fa-ED\ Q DO-iÁÃLO ¨ I G E MDW DONLW E. suspension.

 .

 [LLL (. -359). ¦alwalah – the formula of supplication ‘Áallá All K Ñalayhi wa-sallam’.86 GLOSSARY ta¦liyah. . also known as al-¦DO K ZD-al-tasO P. .      73  Q 73  &. wa-taÁP PLK ZD-WDGKK ELK. used after the name of the prophet Muhammad. abbrev.

83). stopper (in the inkwell) (IK.). ¦LP P – plug. al-a¦amm – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. ta¦P P – design. sketching (MO.v. ÁDQ G T. 227: ittafaqa al-IDU JK PLQ WDÁ¨ ILK ¦DQG T ¦XQG T (pl.

box (for copies of the QurÐ Q. – wooden chest.

¦DQGXT – keeper of the chest of the QurÐ Q &$  . 0'  7% -94).

ta¦Q I (pl. ¦an¶ah – occupation of and pro¦an¶ah – composition. Ñamal. taÁ Q I. ÁLQ Ñ W ÁunaÑ ). ¦un¶. work (as in ÁanÑDW $E +LO O comp. ¦LQ ¶ah (pl.

work (MU. 98: wa-ODKX I NXOO fann taÁ Q I ZD-PDM P Ñ wa-WDZ O I. – composition. III.

662663. EI. often the author of the original text PDWQ. work. mu¦annif – author. 39. 705). II.) (SL. FRPS WDÐO I mu¦annaf – compilation.v. VII. compiler. often a thematically arranged ¨DG WK compilation. as opposed to musnad (q.

abbrev. 625-626). art. duction by artisans. I. DV RSSRVHG WR D FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨). xi). E\ $E +LO O. craft (EI. (CI. IX.

 .

used in the expression ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ SODFHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ DEEUHY (LE. comp. ta¦Z E (pl. box (NT. example (JA.2. **** LI Ì. 143. preservation (DM). microfilming.g. taÁZ E t) – correction. ¦ UDK (pl. TP. 56) 3. ME. copy.GLOSSARY 87 ¦DZ E – correct. DH. 361. painted illustration (EI. miniature painting (MU. no. 559). apograph (TP.  LE E. X. also ta¦Z UDK – miniature painting. illustrator (PA. Áuwar) 1. aÁwinah) – case. exact copy. correctness.141: ‘portraitiste’). MU. IX. 889892 and X. 121. ¦L\ QDK – conservation. Á UDW LM ]DK Á UDW Ãabaqat al-VDP Ñ ) 2. 361-363) 2. 268) 4. transcript (e. I. „abbah (pl. al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab see qaÃÃ. pt.212). ta¦Z U 1. comp. 136. mu¦awwir – painter. taÁ¨ ¨. 57). EI. ¨ ¦awn. ¦LZ Q (pl. XVI. XV. 225.

 FRUUHFWLRQ PDUN LQ WKH VKDSH RI D µGRRU EROW¶ and resembling the initial form of the letter .

30) 2. marking the word with a  abbah (TP. i„barah (pl. ta„E E. MH. a  E U. DEEUHY 73  AR. sic. 95-96). thus (TP. n. 57. MH.64. 57. also known as WDPU „. 95-96).

KM. bundle of documents (IK. 8: al-¨uzmah min al-Áu¨uf) 2. a„barah.. quire . 95: al-Áu¨uf tujmaÑ watushadd. IV. a number of leaves or sheets put together. „LE UDK 1. sifr 13.

 DZ ELÃ) – compass. IB. orthographer (MH. 107) 3. 388). 11) 2. 107. „ab¨ – pointing and/or vocalization (SJ. collation (of quires) (TS. album (FT. 44. 97) 2.177).) .) . ta„E U 1. f.120a-b). 19. 13.   abaÃa K GKLKL DO-khatmah al-VKDU IDK EL-al-shakl)..88 GLOSSARY (consisting of sewn leaves) (DA. 29. n. 5) 3.  0+  NDP WX baà al-¨XU I DO-muÑjamah bi-al-naqà ka-GK OLND \DQEDJK DQ WX baà alPXKPDO W JKD\U DO-muÑjamah bi-ÑDO PDW DO-LKP O .  XU E. 18. „ EL¨ 1.16. 356: wa- abaÃa al-naÁb bi-al- „arb (pl. 17. 26. 12. (pair of) dividers (TS. 112) 4. TK. binding (IB. specialist in  abÃ. 18. index. textblock (TS. II. ST. (pl. AG. gathering (arranging) leaves together (IB. AG. dhahab wa- abaÃa al-rafÑ PLQK EL-al-a¨mar wa- abaÃa al-khaf  PLQK EL-al-O ]XZDUG ZD-al-akh DU . 16. AG.

347: wa-N QDW I JK \DW DO-VLTDP NDWK UDW DO- XU E IRU various methods of cancellation see TP. 11. 59). mallet (LF. 109) 2. 62). a U V  XU V. small tool (resembling a drum stick. AG. II. KF. mi„rabah 1. stalk?) (TS. erasure (MF. – cancellation. 606: wa-ajwad al- arb DOO \DÃmis al-ma U E Ñalayhi bal yakhuÃà min fawqih khaÃÃan jayyidan bayyinan yadull Ñalá ibà OLK ZD-yaqraÐ min ta¨WLK P NKDÃÃa Ñalayh. „irs (pl.

a Ñ I. 109-110). 32-33. „i¶f (pl. 12.  SDOOHW-like tool (used in leather work) (TS. 109) 2. interlace (TS. AG. also TS. 12: ¨DG G DO- irs wa-hiya sabÑah waWDVPL\DWXK DO- irs wa-al-ÃDZ O ZD-al-Áilah wa-al-tak¨ OD\Q DÑQ ELKLP WDN¨ O DO- irs wa-tak¨ O DO-ÃDZ O ZD-al- afrah wa-al-nuqÃah. AG.

ta  Ñ I. ta„¶ I (pl.

II. interline (LL. XVII.  /& . – space between lines.. 54: wa-qad al¨aqa bi-khaÃÃLK I WD  Ñ I DO-suà U bi-khaÃà GDT T // . 1792. MU.

 .

413) 2. interlaced (FZ.GLOSSARY 89 „agh¨ – stamping (KF. ÑD\Q I Ð **** NK WLP  VPDOO WRRO IRU OHDWKHU ZRUN. mu„affarah – interlacing (FT. 217). ‘eye’ (of a letter). al-waraq al-ma„JK ¨ see waraq. polygon. ma„I U – plaited. 44. 11. interlace (TF.g. passim). braid (FT. 32. III. mi„laf – chisel-like implement (for work with wooden boards) (TS. 12. „awµ (pl.  DI Ðir) 1. (SA.406). AG. Á G à Р. 44). 110). 30. 107). al-Œabk al-mu„alla¶ see ¨abk. plait. 33. e. „DI UDK (pl. a Z Ð) – counter. AG. 45). „afrah – gouge-like tool (TS. mu„alla¶ – polygonal.

76   $* .

¨ EL¶. comp. ¨ ED¶ (pl.134: wa-Ã ELÑ ka-shakl ¨ W OLOwasaÃ). ÃDZ ELÑ ). seal. .  ODUJH stamp (for a center. lin. signet. stamp (IK. mi¨ba¶ 1.medallion) (HT. 96).

aÃE T ÃLE T.90 GLOSSARY ¨abaq (pl.

roll (AJ. . 144.  PRXOG VKHHW of paper. WS.

 IRUPDW RI D ERRN.

comp. 6- SDVVLP I Ãabaq min al-N JKDG I QLÁf al-ÃDEDT I UXEÑ al-Ãabaq). qaÃÑ DQG T OLE  OLG RI DQ LQNZHOO.

DB. 95: al-aÃE T DO-QDMP \DK .5 . center-medallion (on a book cover in the shape of a star) (DE. sarwah) (JL. III. 83. 2019) 4. tirs. 979) 5. (KU. element of geometrical design (in Mamluk book cover decoration such as kindah. 154.

ÃDEDT W ÃLE T. ¨abaqah (pl.

f. I. audition note (EI. MZ. 60). 110) 3. leaves (of paper) (NH. 28. AG. margin (LC. VIII. marginal note. Taf. abbrev. ¨ablah – fore-edge flap (MB. TK. . turn-in (TS. 33: wa-al-ÃXUDU WDN Q Ñalá anw Ñ PLQK Ãurrah min ED\W Z ¨id. 109) 2. Ãurar) 1. edge. 113. 107. record of authorities (or those present at a reading session). ¨abaqat al-VDP ¶. border (on a book cover) (TS. AG. 21. 73  Q $. gloss. ¨urrah (pl. ¨ ELT – group of auditors (auditors’ circle). 102).120a) 4. 372).7. IA. ¨LE T – large sheets. marginalia. AD. 1020.

 FRPS ¨ VKL\DK  KHDG XSSHU.

313. II. address (ÑXQZ Q. ML. 58. 46. 29) 6. SA. SD. VI. margin (TP.

28. serif-OLNH VWURNH FRPS WDUZ V and zulf (ER. 57. ta¨U U – glossing. 28) 13. disc or roundel (serving as a text divider) (LC. 16). tailpiece (LC. annotation (WA. f. 16). 682. . HT. ‘title page’ of a manuscript or recto of the first folio (LC. n. 58. annotated (WA. center-medallion on a book cover (LC. 28) 10. X.85). 28) 8. RI D GRFXPHQW PDWWHU SUHFHGLQJ WKH basmalah (MU. ansa. 28) 11. al-¨urrah al-¶XO\ – upper margin (TK. palmette (LC. comp. f.67). Ãughrá 7. 689). al-¨urrah al-suflá – lower margin (TK. KH. 28) 9. mu¨arrar – glossed. TP. lin.120a. 36) 12. illuminated headpiece (LC.120a). IV.

¨arŒah – mould (DG. MB. HD. outline (HD. sketcher. draftsman (AB. 133). 159: ‘dessin. PA. qalam al-¨arŒ see mikhaÃÃ. 118. 69. 118. 132.GLOSSARY 91 ¨arŒ (pl. 141: ‘dessinateur. ¨irs (pl. celui qui fait le tracé initial. ta¨U Œ – sketch. manuscript restorer. Ãar¨’) 2. ¨DUU Œ 1. ÃXU V DÃU V. PA. person who repairs parts of the manuscript damaged by humidity or worms by restoring the text (AD. composition’). 103). al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ see waraq. 61. 101. ÃXU ¨).

VIII. 408. ÃLOV  VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU .  SDOLPSVHVW LH ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH RU PDQXVFULSW on which the original writing has been effaced to make room for a second writing (WS. 93. 1840). 75-76. IK. comp. II. IW. LL. EI. 63-64.

HJ µ. sifr 13. BA. pour s’en servir encore une fois’).EQ DO-Ñ$G P G  OH.LW E DO-khaÃÃ waG EXK ZD-waÁf ÃXU VLK ZD-DTO PLK¶ E\ . ¨araf (pl. effacement (of the original writing) (KM. ta¨U V – obliteration. IV. 371). 140. III. aÃU I. 8. et dont on avait effacé l’écriture avec un grattoir. 79: ¨LUV PDEVK U or ¨LUV PDNVK ¨: ‘une feuille de papier (!) qui avait déjà servi. LF.

11. 30. ¨DU T – fillet (in book cover design) (TS. hammer (TS. TH. 87). AG. mi¨raqah – mallet. IA. . 15. 107). – key element (part) of a ¨DG WK UHFRUGHG RQ D VOLS RI paper in order to later form an index (fihris) or dictionary (muÑjam) called al-a¨U I (IM. 38. ta¨U T – pounding (of the spine) (TS. 57. 11. 109). AG. 60). 107. 31. AG. 166.

134. X. 7: Ãarmastu alNLW E PD¨awtuh). erasure (KM. IV. signature of the Ottoman sultan (EI. 406).92 GLOSSARY ¨armasah – obliteration. 28). X. 28) 4. sifr 13. headpiece (LC. ta¨¶ P – inlay. FT. ÃXJKU Ð W ÃXJKU Z W.) 2. AG. ¨XJKU µ (pl. 109). decorative panel (on a book cover or in the text) (LC. ¨u¶mah – small tool (possibly in the shape of a calice) (TS. à ¨ughrá. (MU. 57: al-ÃXJKU Ð hiya kalimah ÑDMDP \DK PX¨arrafah min alurrah (q. inlay work (AB.v. 595-598) 3. 11.

 DGGUHVV RI D GRFXPHQW.

I. II. SD. ¨alaŒ – sheet. leaf (of paper) (TS. 145. al-WDGKK E DO-mu¨fá VHH WDGKK E ¨ OLE – ‘student’ (medium) format (of a book) (MK. 52). ÃDO ¨ \. requiescat ‘aà OD $OO K EDT Ðahu’ (MG. ¨albaqah – the formula of supplication. AJ. 147. UK. WS. 27. 483). ¨alŒ. 83). 92. ¨alŒ \DK (pl.

II. – sheet (of paper from the mould). SD. . 52). roll (WS. 87: al-darj. ¨DO Œah – ream (of paper) (DM).

373: ¨ulsah). Áa¨ IDK RU RI ZKLFK WKH ZULWLQJ KDV EHHQ REOLWHrated. 63. Ãirs. ÃDO VLP. II.GLOSSARY 93 ¨alkh – obliteratioQ VPXGJLQJ . NH.0 . ¨ils – palimpsest (KM. ¨alsah. 82. ¨ilsim. syn. ¨ilsam. thus differing from Ãirs’). NH. ta¨O V – obliteration.9 VLIU   LIV G DO-NLW E ZDna¨wih).) (pl. ¨ilsim (etc. 373: ¨als. IV. comp. erasure (ND. 1866: ‘written paper or the like. 7: wa-al-ÃLOV DOODGK PX¨iya thumma kutiba. LL. sifr 13.

11.v. tion of words (EI. naÌDUD ZDTDID. 36: al-¨XU I al-à OLÑah. headpiece (TW. 258). also ¨ OL¶ah – head margin.) (KH. beginning of the text. al-¨XU I DO-ÃDZ OLÑ ) 2. – talisman. ÃDZ OLÑ ) 1. 56). incipit (WA. WB. iÁE Ñ (q. magical combina¨DO VLP – cryptic characters (DM). mu¨ OD¶ah – reading or study note (usually beginning with the verbs à ODÑa. ¨ OL¶ (pl. 500-502). X. ascender (of a letter).

/&  26 .

RN. (al-kha¨¨) al-mu¨laq – curvilinear script or a family of scripts using ligatures and hairlines for joining letters together (AS. 29: ‘common. 22: wa-DPP DO-muÃlaq fa-KXZD DOODGK WDG NKDODW ¨XU IXK ZDittaÁala baÑ XK EL-baÑ . . MJ. 224). al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq VHH WDZT Ñ. FRPS WDTU Ì. 59. SA. al-alif al-mu¨laqah – the letter alif with its tail (foot) slightly tapered (SA. III. III. naÌar. 144. popular class of scripts’).

‘eyes’. passim) 2. 278. gilding (SD. II. I. daubing. filling in (inking in) (of the counters. obliteration. 136). of the letters such as Á G Ã Ð Ñayn. erasure (JA. 110). 710: Ãamastu alNLW E ÃDPVDQ LGK Ñammaytu khaÃÃahu ¨attá l \XTUDÐ) 2. pasting (MB. gilt and the like (MB.94 GLOSSARY ¨aly 1. II. coating. I Ð T I P Q K Ð DQG Z Z. DG. ¨ams 1. 58. ¨LO µ – coat of paste. KD.

. 242. ma¨P V – FORVHG µEOLQG¶. -47. 6$ . 144). KH.. 36. IR. AS.

36: al-aÃQ E DO-DOLI W 01  DODOLI W ZD-al-O P W. Ãunub) – ascenders (TU. a¨Q E (sg. DV RSSRVHG WR RSHQ PDIW ¨) (of the counter of a letter).

157. 110). MB. cartouche (LC. 31. ¨DZ O – long. AG. sheet (piece. abbrev. IA. comp. layer) of paper (TS. al-sharŒ al-mu¨awwal see shar¨. musta¨ O 1. / / / (CI. 109. 135) 3. mu¨awwal – original. a¨ ODK $OO K EDT µahu see Ãalbaqah. 35. 62. rectangular panel (AB. rules. TK. a¨ OD $OO h ¶umrahu – formula of supplication for someone’s longevity (placed after a person’s name). ¨ TDK 1. Áilah. 120b) 2. rule-border (LC. 111. unabridged work. AG. IA. xviii). . 61). 107. 26). pallet-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. 26) 2. MB. strand (UK. I. 32. f. 17.

.GLOSSARY 95 rolO SDS\UXV SDUFKPHQW RU SDSHU UROO .%  $-  .  I anÁ I DO-ÃDZ P U.

8: alà P U ZD-al-à P U DO-Áa¨ IDK. 189: thumma al-PXU G EL-al-à P U DO-waraqah al-N PLODK ZD-hiya almuÑabbar ÑDQK I ]DP QLQ EL-al-farkhah. KM.  VKHHW RI SDSHU RU RWKHU ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH 6$ 9. sifr 13. IV.

the nib of which was slit in three or more places (SA. 49-57). It was written with a reed pen. 147: al-¨ P U DON PLO. mukhta¦ar al-¨ P U). ÃDZ P U. ¨ P U ¨ P U (pl. al-¨ P U DO-mu¶W G. III. (qalam) al-¨ P U – one of the four ancient chancery scripts of a large size (FN. 11. 12). In the Mamluk period it was executed either using the rules of al-mu¨aqqaq or al-thuluth (AS.

 *U WRPDULRQ.

– 1/6th of the papyrus ¨ayy al-N JKDG – fold (of a leaf of paper) (TK. person.120a). f. abbrev. .  0.

misk) (e. 212). MJ. musta¨ E DK. ta¨\ E – VFHQWLQJ SHUIXPLQJ RI LQN ZLWK FDPSKRU N I U DQGRU musk. 206.g.

– KRQRULILF HSLWKHW.

RI NLW E ULV ODK HWF (e. II. CM. 3.g. ¨ ED or ¨D\\ED $OO K. CI. 18).

WKDU KX – requiescat. prayer for a deceased ¨D\\ UDK – slip of paper used for additions and glossed and inserted between the sheets of the volume. **** „arf (pl. 98. 182). AH. inset (EM. ÌXU I.

.  UHFHSWDFOH FRQWDLQHU 6$ . .

 FDVH ER[ /& 29. ME. 1910. LL. . 575). II.

aÌI U. II.v.).96 GLOSSARY „DUU I – seller of paper and boxes (cases) (QS. „ufr (pl. al-mu„affar – epithet of the month of ‚afar (q. al-„afar. 495).

usually the thumbnail) (TM. 28: wa-kataba bial-dhahab al-¨DT T DO-mu¨a  an bi-al-¨ibr al-WKXE W OLO-taÌO O ZD-al¨ Ð bi-maÑná al-EXU ]. ta„I U – ruling (of leaves by means of fingernails. – outline (surrounding the center-piece on a book cover) (LC. ‘shading’) – outlining. no. ta„O O (lit. 29). 172: fa-LGK Ìaffara fa-O \DNELV ÌXIUDK TDZ \DQ 00 132). outline (KJ.3.

ÌXQ Q. „ann (pl.

29). 285). xv. n. 57. „ahr al-NLW E (al-nuskhah). hair side (of parchment). – conjecture. comp. often expressed by the phrase ‘aÌunnuhu’. 59) 2. placed in the margin. baÃn. 29). „ahr – back. „ahr al-waraqah – verso or recto (LC. back of a document. SL. front of the textblock (LC. (TP. I. „DKU \DK 1. GA. blank reverse of a letter (LC. 29. title-page (Áaf¨at al-ÑXQZ Q. CI. verso. abbrev.64. II.

II. comp. evident’.*  ZD-hiya ay al-]L\ GDK ED\QD DO-Áa¨ ¨ wa-al-Ì KLU wa-al-badal wa-li-NXOO Z ¨LG PLQK UDP] DO-awwal Á¨ wa-al-WK Q ELhi Ì wa-al-WK OLWK EL-hi khl wa-qad yuktab al-¨arf Ì I DO-K PLVK D\ an LVK UDWDQ LOá kalimat al-Ì KLU 73  Q 71 . 8 and II. AG. 11. abbrev. 109). I. „ KLU (lit. 88. .  IO\-leaf (SD. 473: wajh al-waraqah al. ‘external. ME. ‘alleged.Oá). gh VKL\DK „ahr al-qalabbaq – tool resembling the back (shell) of a tortoise (TS. first page(s) of the textblock (KF. presumed’) – word commonly used in the Persian/Indian context to indicate a conjecture. 553: ‘la feuille de garde’) 4. obvious.

 .

¶ajz. ¶ajuz (pl. 80-82). 148-149. 40. ta¶W T DO-waraq) – method of making paper look old using saffron or straw to give it a buff or light brown tint (UK. MP. aÑM ]. WS.GLOSSARY 97 **** al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah see muÑallaqah. AJ. 147.

 WKH ODVW ZRUG RI D YHUVH '$.

V. 52.14). 21-22.  FRQFOXVLRQ final part of a document or composition (work) (MU.P P DO-0DKG . ¶DMMDOD $OO K IDUDMDKX – formula of supplication (used after the name of al-. TP. n.

 DEEUHY MI.. diacritical point 3. III. IV. 146.  (. RA. 26). 5: shakaltu al-NLW E DVKNXOXKX VKDNODQ aÑjamtuh). 16: al-Ñajm al-naqà bi-al-VDZ G 0)  DÑjamtu al-NLW E ID-huwa muÑMDP O JKD\UXK ZD-huwa al-naqÃ) 2. sifr 13. . . mu¶jam – record of attested study arranged alphabetically by name 6' . treatise. vocalization (KM. ¶XM ODK – (hastily prepared) short tract..

i¶M P WD¶M P 1. 57). pointed letters (TP. ¶ajm. 90. SA. diacritical pointing (of letters) (MH. ŒXU I DO-mu¶jam – letters of the alphabet. FRPS EDUQ PDM WKDEDW PDVK\DNKDK al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶jamah – letters provided with diacritical points. .

98 GLOSSARY ta¶U M DK.

taÑ U M. (pl.

curvature (of the descender) (SA. 30). ¶arsh (pl. ta¶arruj – scroll (in decoration) (UI. – curve. ÑXU VK. III.    P KXZD PXWDQ VLE I DO-taÑU M ZD-huwa al-Ñayn wa-al-M P wa-yajmaÑXK TDZOXN Ñaj).

al-sa¨r – base line (TW. 230: Ñalá ÑXU VK DO-suà U.

LC. III. KU. 56. SA. taÑ U T.  I asfal al-NLW E DO-PDUI Ñ ilayh aw Ñalá ÌDKULK DZ I Ñur ih. TP. abbrev. 154: wa-Ñur uhu! al-M QLE DO-aysar. trellis (FT. ¶ar„(ah). ¶DU VK WD¶U VKDK 1. II. 45). ¶LU „(ah). FRPS PXT EDODK ¶ur„ al-NLW E – outer or inner margin (IK. 94: fa-LGK QDTDÁa min alNLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨iqhu bayna al-suà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ..  Ñara tu al-QurÐ Q Ñalá (for ¶ UL„a. 29). JA. reciter (CT. I. ¶ar„ al-qalam – left-side (of the) half-nib (of a reed pen) (MJ. 92: af al al-muÑ UD ah an yuÑ UL  al-à OLE EL-QDIVLK NLW EDKX EL-NLW E DO-shaykh maÑa al-VKD\NK I ¨ O WD¨G WKLK L\\ KX PLQ NLW ELK 08 . 136). lattice-work (AB. mu¶ UD„ah – collation of a text with the exemplar (usually in the presence of the teacher by means of recitation or reading) (LC. 423) 2. ¶DU TDK WD¶U TDK (pl.9. mu¶ UL„ – collator. SA.. 202). 218. 25. 45). 464. Ibn Ñ$EE V WKDO WK Q Ñar atan). MH.

KH. sublinear stroke of a letter) (RN. mu¶arraqah – descender (terminal. KU. 50. 37. SA. 22. 11. 125: al-ŒXU I DO-mu¶arraqah – V Q Á G T I Q Q \ Ð  U Ð ] \ P P Z Z. 36. 40. III.

11). (al-kha¨¨) al-¶.U T see mu¨aqqaq. . ¶DUU P – bookbinder (IB. FRPS PXÑaqqaf.

  ZD-f KL >DO-JKLO I@ DO-ÑXUZDW Q. AG. Ñuran) – thong.GLOSSARY 99 ¶urwah (pl. KT. 110... 34. 25. leather fastener in the shape of a loop or noose (part of a clasp) (TS. 135: al-muÁ¨af walahu Ñuran wa-D]U U %$ .

 ¶azza wa-jalla – the formula of magnification (placed after the word $OO K.

 DEEUHY / (CI. I. ¶ashr (pl. xiii). aÑVK U.

ÑDZ VKLU. ¶ VKLUDK (pl.

.7  // . ¶ VKLU \DK – mark.  8..  6' . . decorative disc or rosette indicating the end of a group of 10 verses of the QurÐ Q 06   .

dividing a chapter of the QurÐ Q LQWR JURXSV RI  YHUVHV and marking them with the letter RU  SO WDÑVK U W. al-¶ashr – the first 10 days of Mu¨arram (DM). ta¶VK U 1.

¶a¦¦ UDK – press (used for tanning leather) (MB. tool (used for the application of gold with the inside either engraved or not) (TS.7  N Q \DNUDK Q DO-naqà wa-al-taÑVK U ZD-i¨Á U DO-suwar). 109). ¶ushar 1. ¶a¦r – pressing (MB. AG. AG. 116: gha  UDK . 109) 2. 11. WKH PDUN LWVHOI (MD. 126: wa-baÑda kull ÑDVKU \ W WDWD amman al-G Ðirah raÐs ¨arf alÑayn wa-aÁba¨at tusammá al-taÑVK U W . 109). 31: wa-al-ÑXVKDU I ZDVDà alsifr wa-al-lawzah ¨awlah. stamp with vegetal design (TS. 108.

. 154). II. maÑ Áir) – bookbinder’s press (UK. 134). 154. mi¶¦arah (pl. 154-155. SD. mi¶¦DUDW GK W Œabl – rope press (UK. 42). mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO – screw press. IK. ¶u¨bah – cotton wad (tow) (in the inkwell) (KU. 155. also known as laŒP 6XOD\P Q (UK. 84). IB.

100 GLOSSARY ¶a¨f (ah) 1. 95: wa-T OD WDPXGG DO-ÑaÃfah ilá awwal al-la¨aq thumma yuktab al-la¨aq TXE ODWD DO-ÑaÃIDK I DO-¨ VKL\DK 73 . fold (of a leaf of paper or quire) (MB. curved line (used as a reference mark.130) 2. caret (MR. signe de renvoi). lin. 107: ÑaÃf al-NXUU V HT.

35. connection. / / / (AR. abbrev. sub¨ QDKX WDÑ Oá (placed after the word All K.  rounding (of the end of descender or the tail of the alif) (KH. 145. MI. also ¶DO PDW DO-¶a¨f or ma¶¨ IDK – conjunction. introd. AM. 36. ta¶„ m – WKH IRUPXOD RI JORULILFDWLRQ VXFK DV WDE UDND WDTDGGDVD Ñazza wa-jalla. 37) 4.). 147.

93. TM. 176. MR. TP. 00 132. 54). al-mu¶a„„am – epithet of the months of Rama  Q DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

16. 2091). II. index. 17. stopper (in the inkwell) (IK. ¨ibr) (MP. 83. ST. margin (ST. 19). ¶af¦ – galls. 8: wa-yanÌXU I Ñaqb al-waraqah wa-I DODZZDO DOODW EDÑGDK  03 . LL. gall nuts (for making iron-gall or tannin inks. ¶LI ¦ – plug.

 ta¶T EDK 1. vox reclamans (TN. catchword. 38: hiya al-NDOLPDK DOODW WXNWDE I DVIDO DO-Áaf¨ah al-yumná JK OLEDQ OL-tadull Ñalá badÐ al-Áaf¨DK DOODW WDO K  . note.+  10  SJ. ¶aqib (pl. ¶aqb. 27) 2. comment (LC. 344). aÑT E.

KH. 11. . 36) 2. Ñuqad) 1. 46. counter. 58. knot-like tool (TS. 128: mufatta¨ al-Ñuqad. AG. 47. III. – end of the text (matn) on a page. lower ¶uqdah (pl. ‘eye’ (of a letter) (SA. 109).

‘perhaps. comp.GLOSSARY 101 ¶uqf(ah) – tail of the alif curved to the right (KH. 126). mu¶aqqaf – OHWWHU VXFK DV M P DQG Ñayn) having its tail or descender curved to the right) (KU. la¶allahu (lit. taÑU T ¶allahu. maybe’) – used in the expression ‘laÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ SHUKDSV WKXV. 37).

 WR LQGLFDWH D FRQMHFWXUH DEEUHY 71  0. .

80: Áifat saqy al-N JKDG ZDhuwa al-musammá f PXÁÃala¨ al-Q V DO. RU ¶LO M – sizing (of paper) (AB.Q DO-ÑLO M. WS. 90.

transcription. composition. copying (TE.9 . writing. transcript (AD. hand (using an unconventional way of joining letters) (MM. 124). copy. 119) 3. 133: huwa khalà al¨XU I DOODW \DQEDJK WDIULTDWXK 73  0$ . ligature (KU. 15) 2. FRPS VDT\ ta¶O T 1. script.

 GLFWDWLRQ VHVVLRQ LQ 6K ILÑ FLUFOHV.

.) . .

107) (pl.  (MI.  DOVR ta¶O TDK. taÑ O T WDÑO T W. abbrev.

the WDUZ V protruding to the left and the tail (foot) of the alif bent leftward and often joined with the following letter (EI. – marginal gloss. 694-696) 2.v. 26). explication (TE. IX. comment. 27. II. mu¶alliq – glossator (MI. MU. IV. insertion/ omission (written in the margin) (SD. X. EI. 71. 1124. It is characterized by numerous ligatures. name often given. 165) 6. (also known as ta¶O T-L TDG P or ta¶O T-i a¦l) – Persian chancery hand and later also (though less frequently) a book hand which emerged in its definite form in the 7/13th century. to the script which is properly known as nasta¶O T (q. mu¶allaqah – strip of parchment (used for lining the spine of the textblock befoUH FRYHULQJ. in the Turkish/Arabic context.). LC. IV. 162). 15. scholium. ER. (kha¨¨) al-ta¶O T 1.

 KLQJH JXDUG.

76  DPP DO-maÁ ¨if al-mulawwa¨ah fa-LQQDP WDN Q ODK PXÑDOODT W PLQ DO-raqq mud- .

FRPS U MLÑ. 77). al-V Q DO-mu¶allaqah – WKH OHWWHU V Q ZLWKRXW µWHHWK¶ 6$ .. al-¶ayn al-mu¶allaqah – syn.102 GLOSSARY khalah bayna al-law¨ wa-al-muÁ¨af. closed (‘blinded’) form of the letter Ñayn (SA. 104). al-¶ayn al-ma¨P VDK. also TS. III. 26. AG. .. 28.

III. mi¶O T – fastener (part of a clasp) (BA. 372: wa-huwa khayà aw sayr yushadd ilá ÑXU K . 371.

aÑO P. ¶alam (pl.

¶DO PDW DO-WDPU „ see  abbah. motto. 27) 2. ¶DO PDK – 1. II. II. to mark centers of quires when rebinding. also possibly the textual closing formula ‘wa-$OO K DÑlam (bi-al-ÁDZ E. – decorated border (LL. 138: wa-qad aÑlama Ñalayhi Ñayn wa-hiya ÑDO PDK OL-nafsih) 3. 2140). 164. book mark (e. EI. ¶DO PDW DO-waqf see waqf. marking quires before sewing (ST. I. XII. 135. 22). signature (SD. TS. ¶DO PDW DO-ta¦Œ Œ see taÁ¨ ¨. signing a document (AA. 352) 4. al-¶DO PDK DO-P µ \DK – watermark (HN. SD. ÑDO PDW DO-ta„E E see  abbah. autograph (LC. mark. II. 18) 2.g. index. marking. ¶DO PDW DO-WDNKU M VHH WDNKU M. 381). abbreviation (siglum) (MU. ¶DO PDW DO-EDO JK VHH EDO JK ¶DO PDW DO-iŒ ODK see i¨ ODK ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O VHH LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-raj¶ see rajÑ. ta¶O P 1. ÑDO PDW DO-¶a¨f see ÑaÃf. 164).

no.¶  0.DUEDO Ð) (CM.HUEHOD . 100).39). al-mu¶allá – HSLWKHW RI . ta¶ Oá – the formula of glorification placed after the ZRUG $OO K RU qawluhu (introducing a QurÐ QLF TXRWDWLRQ.

 DEEUHY RU 73 .

 ¶LO ZDK – upper book cover (BA. 372). abbrev. a¶lá All K PDT PDKX – the formula of supplication. III. .

2153: ‘text of the book’). aÑP O. II. ¶amal (pl.GLOSSARY 103 ¶DP G DO-NLW E – text-column (as opposed to the margins) (LL. al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah see nuskhah.

256: Ñamaltu bi-LGKQ $OO K NLW EDQ. VII.  FRPSRVition. compilation (MU.

229.). i. q.v. (SJ. ‘blinding’ of the ‘eyes’ (counters) of letters (KU. SA. cryptogram. laà I DO-Ñamal. VII. comp. EI. used in opposition to Ãar¨. 61: le ‘gros’ de l’oeuvre. TC. 257-258). FRPS ÁanÑah 2. also ¶DPDO \DK – execution. al-ta¶miyah bi-al-naq¦ see taÐU NK al-ta¶miyah bi-al-]L\ GDK see taÐU NK ¶an¶anah – the formula ‘ÑDQ IXO Q¶ RQ WKH DXWKRULW\ RI E\. chronosticon (TI. passim: min Ñamal ¨asan jiddan. also mu¶ammá – cryptography. 30) 3. ta¶miyah 1.e. 123). taÑZ U 2. IX. main work of a painter (PA. painting. mukhtalifat al-Ñamal. etc. 47-48. writing. colouring.

 DEEUHY XVHG LQ WKH LVQ G DQG LQGLFDWLQJ DQ LQGLUHFW WUDQVPLVVLRQ RI D WH[W.

EI. 211. 110. SL. VII. ¶XQZ Q (pl. I. ÑDQ Z Q. PK. 260-261). (MW. 16.

 DGGUHVV LQ GLSORPDWLF PLQ IXO Q LOá ful Q.

29. the matter preceding the basmalah (LC. illuminated headpiece or frontispiece (sometimes containing the title of the work) (AF. 116. . 870-871) 4. PA. X. X. comp. 36. ¶uhdah – IDXOW\ IRUPDWLRQ RI OHWWHUV I NKDÃÃih Ñuhdah) (LL. title (of a book) (LC. 2183). 29. X. 871-872) 3. II. chapter. section heading (LC. 66. EI. tarjamah 2. 870). 29). EI. EI.

al-mis¨arah al-¶ M \ah see misÃarah. VWURNH. curved (of a line. i¶ZLM M – curvature. I.104 GLOSSARY ¶ M – ivory (EI. 200-203). hence mu¶awwaj – crooked.

X. IN. mu¶ G – transmitter’s clerk (famulus). i¶ GDK – reiteration of dictation. . e. 230).g. I. 726). ta¶Z GKDK (pl. 13. isti¶ GKDK – the formula of protection ‘aÑ GKX EL-$OO K¶ (EI. 12. collation master. taÑ Z GK. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK – copyist’s book support (WA. 74). VII.8  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH WDLO RI M P DQG Ñayn. 14). repetitor (EI. UD. collation session (MF. 7). ta¶awwudh.

114. ‘eyes’. ta¶Z U – filling in (inking in) (of the counters. amulet (DT. of letters) (AP. 69). ¶ P (pl. 95. 123-124). comp. aÑZ P. KU. Ãams. – talisman.

– year (word used predominantly in dates in Maghrebi manuscripts) (SA. 43). 252-253). ÑX\ Q DÑyun) – counter (‘eye’ of a letter) (MJ. Ñuqdah. . 194. comp. LM. sanah. VI. comp. ¶ayn (pl.

taghriyah 1. MB. VI. 145). and sub-Saharan Africa (DQ. 47). 37. lin. OD. 90. al-DUT P DO-JKXE U \DK see raqm. 250). AG. 41.289: JKDE U DO-¨ulbah!. IK. aghriyah) – paste.60-72. 19-23. al-khamsah al-JKXE U \DK see khams. IB. HT. 42. 145. adhesive (TS. NW. ghurar – the first three nights of the month (SA. 97. pasting (ST. 58-63. 141. JKLU µ al-ŒDOD] Q – snail paste (UK. NW. ghubrah – mixture of white. 45-47). JKXU E – the last hour of day (SA. ghurrah – the first night of the month (SA. 107. JM. EI. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DJKULE – generic name for a host of ‘non-proportioned’ scripts which originated from the category currently known as the ‘Abbasid bookhand’ and which were used throughout Andalusia. DW. North Africa. 37. also known as (qalam) al-MDQ Œ. NW. MP. 88. 250). IV. VI. 32-34. 233. 46: taghriyat al-waraq). AS. n. 244). IB. 1124). MP. red and black colours (SD. 97. 47. VI. as well as JKXE U (or qalam) al-Œalbah or al-Œilyah (KK. 74.GLOSSARY 105 **** (qalam) al-JKXE U – the smallest curvilinear script. 73). 141. II. JKDUDQ JKLU µ (pl. rasm al-JKXE U.18) 2. MP. 199). IB. index. 74). MB. (qalam) al-ba¨ µiq (AS. sizing (of paper) (AB. JKLU µ al-samak – fish paste (UK. JKLU µ al-Œ W – whitefish paste (ST. 12-13.

 FRPS .IU T  .

106 GLOSSARY MLOG UDTT.

book cover. mi¶¦arat al-PDJK ]LO see miÑÁarah. passim). covering of the board. JK VKL\DK SO JKDZ VKLQ. 214. case. 35. ME. binding (TS. KC. 554. JKLVK µ (pl. JKD] O see jild. 36. aghshiyah) 1. box (SD. 564) 2. II.

71: samiÑa al-juzÐ kullah wa-P I JK VKL\DWLK TDUDÐtuh wa-P Ñalá gh VKL\DWLK. 182: wa-yajÑalu ruÐ V ¨XU I K GKLKL DO-tarjamah ilá al-JK VKL\DK DOODW PLQ M QLE DO-basmalah. pl. III. CD.  ERRN FRYHU LQQHU FRYHU SDVWH-down end paper or recto of the first folio (TM.

 ODVW SDJH V.

. I. binding (IN. 8: al-Áafa¨ W DO-DNK UDK .) . 473). I. taghshiyah – book covering. RI WKH WH[WEORFN DUHD DURXQG WKH WDLO of the text and the colophon (KF. LVWLJKI U DK. 257).

 217) 2. ghufl – DQRQ\PRXV %$ ..  K GK NLW E JKXIO « LGK ODP \DNXQ PDZV PDQ..  WKH IRUPXOD RI IRUJLYHQHVV µDVWDJKILUX $OO K¶ 6' .. prayer (in verse) on the theme of forgiveness.

192). OHWWHU 6. ghala¨ SO DJKO Ã). abbrev.  7%  LQ N QD DO-QurÐ Q EL-khaÃà mutamayyiz bighilaÌ aw ¨XPUDK DZ JKD\ULK ¨aruma). . mistake. a word) (MI. 150). WDJKO „ – writing in bold letters (TM. ghal¨ah – error. ghil„DK JKLO „ah – boldness (of letters). bold character. ZULWWHQ DERYH ghila„.

GLOSSARY 107 JKLO I SO DJKOLIDK JKLO I W.

mughallif – bookbinder (DG. 132). 213. WDJKO I – book covering. 157). JK OLTDK SO JKDZ OLT. – book cover (MD. binding (FZ. 108). 214. AB.

261). LVWLIW Œ – opening lines (of a FRPSRVLWLRQ. 128). fatŒ – opposite of Ãams (q. VIII. 47. – WDLOSLHFH .. **** I I U – papyrus (EI. SA. also iftit Œ. mufattaŒ al-¶uqad – letters with open counters (KU. comp.  K GKLKL DO-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT PLQ LGÑ Q DO-Ñabd … ‚andal). I WLŒah SO IDZ WL¨) 1.) . 46.Ñuqdah.v.). III. 114.

23) 2. LC.9.  NXOO PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah bikhuÃbah. proem (MU. LQFLSLW 08 . prologue. preface. XV. 8: kull PXMDOODG ODKX I WL¨ah wa-NK WLPDK 73  Q /& ..

g.  KHDGLQJ (e. II. 320: al-IDZ WL¨ wa-al-JKDZ OLT. LC. headpiece (KF. 23) 4. IDZ WLŒ al-suwar.

62. 245). 104.18. muftataŒ – the first day of the month (SA. IDW ODK 1. VI. 114: wayusammá h GK DO-sayr al-PDIW O DO-IDW ODh. 109) 2. press screw (MB. IA. TS. IA. AG. also PDIW O – endband (headband) strip (MB. 59). PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ VHH TDUU Á. .

II. VI.108 GLOSSARY farkhah – sheet. 189. comp. Ã P U fard(ah) SO DIU G. leaf (of paper) (SA. SD. 249).

). conjugate leaf. IDU GDK – quire (of paper) (DM). LIU G – letter in its isolated. – one of a pair. al-fard – epithet of the month of Rajab (q. one half of a piece of leather (TS. 28). WDUN E TY. as opposed to linked (ligatured) form. al-nukhah al-IDU GDK see nuskhah.v.

 ... 6$ .

mifrash(ah) – piece of cotton or wool (used as lining for pens in a writing case) (SA.g.v. MY. fur„ah (pl. fura ) – SODFH LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K. 133. 154). SA. 390). AT. III. al-ŒXU I DO-PXIUDGDK PXIUDG W – letters of the alphabet written individually (in their isolated forms) (e. far„ al-qalam – syn. 481. 230.) (KU. IR. shaqq (q. I. 60. DD. II. 83).

ZKHUH WKH LQN LV NHSW SHUKDSV V\Q RI M QDK TY.

// .. .

most probably a variant of PLTU „.18). note. apograph. PLTU ¨ and PLTU „. mifra¨ – cutter (ST. 23) 2. 191: wa-O \XVDZZLGXK EL-naql alPDV Ðil wa-al-IXU Ñ al-JKDU EDK .=  N QD Ñalá al-aÁl al-PDQT O PLQKX K GK DO-farÑ P Á UDWXK«. 94: wa-\DNI PXT EDODWXK EL-farÑ T ELOD EL-aÁl al-shaykh. also al-nuskhah al-far¶ – copy. annotation (TM. witness (MR. far¶ SO IXU Ñ ) 1. LC. index.

 VFULSW GHULYHG IURP WKH RULJLQDO .

WDIU ¶ – interlacing.GLOSSARY 109 (principal) script (aÁl. 131).v. SM. 87. 15. 82). JL. application as opposed to theory. 93. abbrev.) (UD. (AD. 88. IDU JK SO IDU JK W. aÁl. 269) 4. scroll (FI. q. KR. argument resulting from a legal point.

41) – end. one of the standard words introducing a colophon (tail of WKH WH[W.  DOVR WDIU JK (MO. execution. completion.

116) – thinner part of a letter (stoke) at its bend (JM. 23). also qayd al-IDU JK – colophon (LC. GA. 26. 23. lacuna (LC. 289) 3. HJ N QD RU ZDTDÑD RU Z IDTD DO-IDU JK IDUDJKD PLQ WDIU JK 2.+  /0 . farkah (MN. 17: al-qaÃÃ al-mu¨arraf yuÌhir al-IDUDN W I DO-NLW EDK ZD-al-farkah riqqat al-] ZL\DK . blank.

 WDIV U SO WDI V U.

1. commentary on a given work (usually but not necessarily relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. explication. comment.

)1  IDVVDUDK I WKDO WK PDT O W.

commentary and/or translation. X. IDZ ¦il al-¶ashr. fa¦¦ (pl. LC. e.g. three dots. three ‘inverted commas’) used as a textual divider. paragraph mark (TP. disc. from Greek into Arabic (EI. AK. 351. mufassir – commentator. 28: IDZ ¦il al-khams. I ¦il(ah) SO IDZ Áil) – PDUN VXFK DV D FLUFOH OHWWHU K Ð. MS. FRPS VKDU¨ 2.5 . 55. 23. 103: bu¨ur mustaà ODK GK W fuÁ Á I QLK \DWLK  0'  G Ðirah min fuÁ Á – scalloped circle). fuÁ Á) – lobe (in design) (JL. III. 146: fa-al-QXVV NK \DMÑDO Q OL-GK OLN G Ðirah tufaÁÁil bayna al-NDO PD\Q . SA. 83).

 .

fuÁ O.110 GLOSSARY fa¦l (pl.

55. SA. taf¦ O 1. 134. 138. 145-146) 2. spacing (TP. . III. QR ZD-qad IDUDJKWX PLQ K GK DO-NLW E ZD-ta¨Á OLK ZD-tafÁ OLK. word division (in a text). space between words or passages. MM. division of a composition into fuÁ O ).

271). n... or fa„„ Œ al-naskh see matn. place separating the doxological and doctrinal formulae from the preface proper (AA. 53.20). (qalam) al-fa„„ Œ. fa¦l al-khi¨ E – (in epistolography and diplomatic) conclusion of the formal greetings by the words ‘amma baÑdu’.  DQ \DN Q DO-fa O PLQ M QLED\ al-qirà V PXWDV ZL\DQ I DO-PLTG U. MP. 92. TP. 130-133.  FKDSWHU 6' II. silver-based ink (UK. MB. fa„l – LQQHU RU RXWHU PDUJLQ 6$ . 33). baÑG \DK fi„„ah – silver. comp. 37.

taÐP Q WDWP P fakk SO IXN N. abbrev. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG in the form of a logograph) (CI. 351). WDIT ¨ – writing the word faqa¨ ‘only’ (closing formula found at the end of colophons and marginal glosses). 23. section of a text. I. AK. SD. fiqar) – passage. paragraph (LC. comp. II. DM). fiqrah (pl. xiii. 273.

III. 385. BA. – book cover (HN. 372: wa-KXZD P yastur al-DZU T PLQ M QLED\K.

 FRPS VKLGT .

mufakkak – loose. box (KC. 45). fihris.GLOSSARY 111 PDIN N. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah). disbound (e. funuq) – case. IDQ T (pl.g. fihrist (pl IDK ULV.

 WDEOH RI FRQWHQWV /& .

fahrasah 1. EI. LC. 207. mashyakhah 2. RU &0  RU 66.  UHFRUG RI attested study 3. cataloguing. 23. digressional remark (in a text) (SD. 743-744) 4. catalogue (SD. I µidah SO IDZ Ðid) 1. 293) 2. bibliography. 49. abbrev. marginal note. comp. 149. also I µidat al-a¦l. gloss. (CA. II. AR. 50). nota bene (notabilia). abbrev. list. **** T Q Q SO TDZ Q Q. II. 36). II. 286. record of attested study.

– trapezium-shaped instrument (used for FUHDWLQJ FRPSDUWPHQWV DQG IUDPHV WDE\ W RQ ERRN FRYHUV.

al-TDI µ al-muqabbab see qafan.VO P – epithet of the city of Basra. . 76  AG. Qubbat al-iakhrah – the Dome of the Rock (the Mosque of ÑUmar in Jerusalem). 107). 15). WDTE E – rounding (backing) the spine (of a book) (TS. Qubbat al-.

AG. qub¨ O TDE Ãil) – ruler.112 GLOSSARY TXE U (sg. abbrev. qabr. (when used for a transposed word) (LE. 12: wa-ya¨W M qubà ODQ ZD-hiya misÃarah. lit. IV. . 107. qabla – before. 471). II. 302).‘grave’) – pen box (EI. SD. qub¨al. straightedge (TS.

 VHH DOVR WDTG P PXT EDODK – 1. letter inserted withRXW UHDVRQ $' . 94: af al al-PXT EDODK DQ yamsik huwa wa-VKD\NKXK NLW ED\KLP ¨ OD Dl-VDP Ñ. collation note (statement). collation (of the text with the exemplar either in the presence of the shaykh or not) (MR. VII.TP. MH. EI. n. 490492). 56. corrector. II. muÑ UD ah 2. 2985: Œarf muqŒamah. comp. 92: Ñalá al-à OLE PXT EDODW NLW ELK EL-aÁO VDP Ñih.52. PXT ELO – collator. iqŒ P – interpolation (LL.

II. CI. AA. aqudd) – strip (of leather). etc.xiii. FRPS ] Ðidah. 701. qaÃÃ. 11. abbrev. 107). TDGG WDTG G – cutting (of leather.) into strips (lengthwise) (KD. n. CI. II. 10. AG. / / / / / (TP. WDTG V – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µTDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX U ¨ahu)’. 18. 109). comp. xiv). . qidd (pl. 54. 24. miqaddah – crescent-shaped trimming knife (TS. I.37.

RU IRU IRU WDTG P RU PXTDGGDP DQG IRU taÐNK U RU PXÐakhkhar or IRU PXÐakhkhar muqaddam. preface. 107). 52. VII. 173). 495-496). for muqaddam muÐakhkhar (TN. introduction (EI. comp. fore-edge flap (TS. alqalb al-PDN Q  WDTU U SO WDT U U.GLOSSARY 113 muqaddam – fore-edge. 76  PLQ Q ¨iyat al-¨abk wa-al-muqaddam. TP. 27: Ãurrat al-muqaddam wa-al-udhn. 59. muqaddimah – forward. MI. al-WDTG P ZD-al-taµNK U – transposition (of words). 16: al-muqaddam wahuwa al-Áadr. 17. 26. also TS. abbrev. AG. 120. both muqaddam and muÐakhkhar.

 9 -129) 3. prelector. variant reading (varia lectio). 139). commentary (AD. punctuation and vocalization of the QurÐ QLF WH[W '0 (. collection of glosses. gloss. reciter. reading. TLU µah 1. lection (especially relating to the text of the QurÐ Q. 26) 2. – marginal note. T UL¶ SO TXUU Ð) – reader. manner of recitation. recitation (LC.

  73 . $/ .

PDTU µah SO PDTU Ð W.25. FRPS ¨arf. 494-498). 53. KF.g. LM ]DW DO-TLU µah – audition (recitation) certificate (beginning with the word qaraÐa. n. FRPS VDP Ñ. TP. quriÐa or qaraÐtu) (e. II.

– ZRUN IRU ZKLFK DQ µLM ]DW DO-TLU Ðah’ was JUDQWHG /0  PLQ PDTU Ð WLK ZD-PDVP Ñ WLK.

sheath (SK. al-TLU E DO-PDNKU ] – sewn case or box (TS. II. 110). SA. AG. 110). al-TLU E DO-PDEQ – case or box (built around a form) (TS. 35-36. TLU E (pl. aqribah) 1. 110). 36. sleeve case (TS. 466) 2. . AG. AG. 104. 36.

114 GLOSSARY qur¦ SO DTU Á) disc (in decoration) (ZM. IK. QS. 18. index. 63. 19. IK. TXU „ah – slip (of paper) (UI. qar¦a¶ah – fine. 107. 107. qar¦ TDU ¦ – pressing.19. II. IA. qar¨DE Q – square (an instrument) (TS. 47). AG. AG. PLTU „ SO PDT UL ) – (pair of ) scissors (TS. IV. putting something into a press (ST. IB. 417). ST. ST. 60). 21. compact writing (KM. IB. index. PLIW Œ al-TDUU ¦ – press screw (IA. 94). 91-92. 5: qarÁaÑtu alNLW E TDUPDÃtuh. MP. 19. 10. 63). sifr 13. MP. elseZKHUH TDUU   DQG TDUU Á. 103: PLTU   (!). 59). 20). TDUU ¦ – bookbinder’s press. 44. qir¨ V TXU¨ V TDU¨ V *U NKDUWHV. 44). index. screw press (MB.

SO TDU ÃLV TDU Ã V.

AE. AE. 485: al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK ZD-KXP EL-maÑQDQ Z ¨id wa-KXZD N JKDG KK. II. EI. I. Áa¨ IDK TDU ¨ V – papyrus maker (KF. 261. comp. – sheet or roll of papyrus (EI. 98. 66-76. VIII. 66-93. WDTU „(ah) SO WDT U Ì WDTU Ì W. UD. EI. 17). VIII. 407) or paper (SA. 50. 11: wa-l-yakun al-qirà V I ¨ O DO-NLW EDK Ñalá alrukbah al-yumná). WS. V. parchment (AE. 82-91). 173-174. IW. 108.

often in the form of laudatory verses or encomia for the promotion of a newly composed work. . – approbation (appreciation) note or statement attached to a manuscript.

XIV.GLOSSARY 115 blurb (SA. 335- WDTU   W .

143.  ID-in jamaÑa al-¨XU I ZD-T UDED DO-suà U EDÑ DK PLQ EDÑ  T OD TDUPDÃDK . 136. compact writing (KM. IV. sifr 13. 182. muqarri„ – blurb-writer (BL. %/ $0 QRV     122. qarma¨ah – fine. comp.  qarmadah. 313). 5: al-qarmadah wa-al-qarmaÃah diqqat al-NLW EDK 73  6. 186). muà ODÑah.

80). 86. HT. JM. 41). IV. 682. ‘divider’) – tool (most probably a compass) used in leather work (lil-naqsh) (IA. 112: al-qurnah al-yumná. index. see also UA. trimming (ST. reed pen (IK. 471: baŒU – reeds from a seashore and ¦XNKU – reeds from a rocky ground. qurnah – corner (MB. AA. 393: not defined). qirmah see VL\ T. 103. 153. miqa¦¦ SO PDT ÁÁ) – (pair of ) scissors (UK. 59. . 181. taq¦ ¦ – shaving. IV. 91-92: wa-\XT O KXZa al-miqaÁÁ wa-al-miqÃaÑ wa-al-PLTU   wa-al-jalam). (qalam) al-muqtarin – script derived from al-ULT Ñ.19. miqsam(ah) (lit. qa¦¦. DS. EI. 60. the main characteristic of which is that it is executed in lines grouped in twos with a large interline spacing between each group (AS. IK. IB. MB. 42. al-qurnah al-yusrá). 146. EI. IA. qa¦ab(ah) – reed. 69).

116 GLOSSARY qa¦G U – tin. qa„m – syn. 130. miq¦amah – plaquette (for nibbing a calamus) (KU. qaÃà (nibbing) (IK. 154). 32). 86). qa„ P DK. comp. qa¦amah. MP. 153). miqaÃÃ. qu¦ PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. tin-based ink (UK.

LM. AA.. leather (IW.) breadthwise (KD. the point itself. qaÃaÃtu al-qalam qaÃÃDQ LGK qaÃaÑtu min Ãarafih al-PDEU OL-\DVWDZ  6$ . KU. qa¨¨(ah) – cutting (of the point of the nib). 109-110. 102. 2-463. II. – white hide. 39: waqad ikhtalafa al-NXWW E I TDÃà al-qalam Ñalá khamsat madh KLE. sifr 4. cutting (of leather. IK. I. KK. 72-74. nibbing. 50. etc. 93). KM. 701: wa-kull qaÃÑ Ñar an qaÃÃ. 153.

LL. 462. 39: fa-à Ðifah taquÃà mu¨DUUDIDQ I MDP Ñ al-DTO P ZD-KXZD LNKWL\ U < T W DO-MustaÑÁLP  LM.e. al-qa¨¨ al-muŒarraf – oblique point of the nib (SA. 42: fa-DPP DO-mu¨arraf fa-yakhtaÁÁ bi-al-mu¨aqqaq wa-alray¨ Q ZD-al-mu¨arraf yuraqqiq al-muntaÁLE W ND-al-alif wa-raÐs alO P. II. 551: mu¨arraf – ‘reed pen nibbed bliquely. i. longer than the left’. having the right ‘tooth’ of the nib higher. I. LM.

straight point of the nib (SA. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim – ‘nibbing in which the pith and the exterior of the reed are made of equal length. 1742. qu¨ ¨ah – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. see DOVR LVWLZ Ð. ivory. . opposite to muÁawwab’ (LL. II. 154). al-qa¨¨ al-mu¦awwab – ‘nibbing in which the exterior of the writingUHHG LV PDGH WR H[WHQG EH\RQG WKH SLWK RSSRVHG WR T Ðim’ (LL. MJ. al-qa¨¨ al-PXVWDZ – even. II. 217). II. 2996. 462). 217). miqa¨¨(ah) SO PLT ÃÃ) – nibbing plaquette (made of wood. MJ.

LS. 54. SA. 62. aqÃ Ñ ) – format (of a sheet or codex) (EI. 70: qaÃÑ al-N PLO DON PLO DO-NDE U TDÃÑ al-niÁf. 131: alqaÃÑ al-NDE U DO-qaÃÑ al-ÁDJK U. IV. MM. 83: qaÃÑ niÁf al-waraqah.GLOSSARY 117 etc. thumn al-waraqah al-NDE UDK QLÁf al-thumn. SK. II. qaÃÑ al-thumn. ND. niÁf al-waraqah al-NDE UDK WKXOWK UXEÑ. qa¨¶ (pl. AT. MK. 133).742. for nibbing a calamus) (UK. 45. IP. 468. qaÃÑ al-rubÑ. MB. 76. 105: maqaÃÃ. 65.

decoupage (ER. VI. qi¨¶ah 1. principle of the interlace.g. al-T ¨i¶ wa-al-maq¨ ¶ – ‘cutting and the cut’. calligraph (AC. piece of poetry) 2. piece of something (e. piece of calligraphy. .  irs (AG. 475). 42: adhantu bi-wa Ñ al-kitbah li-mu¨arrir K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PXE UDNDK 1. 110). FRPS T OLE T ¨i¶ – artist skilled in the art of paper cutting.

muqaÃÃa¶ ). mishraÃ. qi¨¶at al-taµU NK see taÐU NK miq¨a¶ SO PDT ÃiÑ ) 1. (pair of) scissors (IK. . taq¨ ¶ 1. decoupage. WS. also qa¨¶ah – art of paper cutting. 144.  (5 9. tear(s) 6- QR I K NKDUP ZD-taqà Ñ 6- QR DZU T PXTDÃÃaÑah) 3. 21) 2. papercut(s). 107). instrument for fixing or removing decoration from book covers (TS. SLHFH RI FDOOLJUDSKic decoupage (ER.. 9. comp. cutting instrument (DM) 2. PA. mysterious letters at the beginning of 26 chapters of the QurÐ Q (. 11. format (of a book) (TL. 475).  +'   T ÃiÑ. VI. 90) 4. splitting (of a word at the end of the line) (MS. collage. AG. 91). filigree work (IP. 85: wa-\DQEDJK DQ \DN Q WDTÃ Ñ al-NLW E murabbaÑan fa-innahu taqÃ Ñ $E ±DQ IDK ZD-huwa aysar Ñalá al-rafÑ wa-al-wa Ñ wa-al-muà ODÑah. muqa¨¨a¶ W – disjoined.

 'K DO-Qa¶dah (al-VKDU IDK DO-¨DU P.

abbrev. – the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar.  26 .

 qufl SO DTI O TXI O.

– clasp (for fastening bookbindings) (NH. . 377).

qalb. ST. 15-17. AG. 15. AG. taqfiyah – backing (TS. al-TDI µ al-musa¨¨aŒ – straight. AG.118 GLOSSARY TDIDQ TDI µ – spine (back of a codex) (TS. 15. 107). al-qalb al-PDN Q – transposition (of letters) (MQ. 107). 107. 15. al-TDI µ al-muqabbab – round back (TS. ta¨U I T OLE T ODE SO TDZ OLE. flat back (TS. comp. 641). 14. AG. 107). 20). index.

 PRXOG 8.  .

19.  IRUPDW RI D sheet or book) (TS. no.3. MK. index. 83: mujalladah ÁDJK UDW DO-T OLE $'  T OLE DO-N PLO – LQ IROLR T OLE DO-niÁf – in quarto. LC. 28- T OLE DO-WKXPQ T OLE DO-thumn al-ÁDJK U T OLE DOthumn al-NDE U T OLE DO-rubÑ al-NDE U. KC SDVVLP I DO-T OLE DO-NDE U I T OLE UXE Ñ  I DO-UXE Ñ  I al-UXE Ñ OLO-ÁLJKDU I DO-WKXP Q  +7 OLQ DO-ULE Ñ wa-al-WKLP Q KJ. 26. 14. ST. 26.

FI. 93) 4. 43). miqlab SO PDT OLE. FRPS TDÃÑ 3. stamp (for book cover design) (IA. folder (IB. 214. 59. JL. 88. FZ.

7XUN PLNOHE.

– envelope flap (MT. 83. WDTO G – imitation of the master calligrapher’s work by reproducing it from memory (MY. DW. TLO GDK SO TDO Ðid) – round center-piece (on book covers) (LC. 26). qalam SO DTO P TLO P. 202-203). 68).

  76 .  SLHFH RI ZRRG ..

copper pen. as opposed to qalam alnuŒ V. 45-87. 232.  calamus. see TW. 153: al-qalam al-XQE E min al-qaÁab wa-al-TLQQ ". 13 (AA. IK. TC. KU. 44-465. also qalam al-qa¦ab. SA. 69: al-DTO P DOqa¦DE \DK. reed pen. i.e. II.

handwriting. AT. MB. al-qalam al-) V DO-5 P . UK. script. 356. 144. hand. ductus. EI. MP.. 59-64. . 471) 3. qalam al-U VK VHH U VK qalam al-sha¶r – brush pen (UK. MB. -50. IV. 133-134. 71-75. 38-39. 100).

see khaÃÃ. al-DTO P DO-PDEV ¨ah (al-\ ELVDK.

VHH PDEV Ã \ ELV .

al-DTO P DO-sittah – the six main calligraphic scripts based on the SULQFLSOH RI SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WDQ VXE. al-muqawwarah) see tarà E layyin. an appellation given by Ibn al-1DG P WR VRPH  DQFLHQW VFULSWV XVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ FHQWXULHV RI Islam (FN. used in talismans and amulets (IT. muqawwar. I. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK – ‘weighed scripts’. al-qalam al-mushajjar – cryptographic script.GLOSSARY 119 al-DTO P DO-mura¨¨abah (al-layyinah. 11-12). otherwise known as the alphabet of Dioscorides. 335).

IK. al-thuluth. al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. miqlam(ah) SO PDT OLP. al-ray¨ Q DOnaskh. al-DTO P DO-u¦ O – principal scripts from which other scripts are derived (AS. DO-mu¨aqqaq. 153. 85). Iran and Turkey throughout the medieval and postmedieval periods (AS. and used extensively in the main Arab lands. 144). TXO PDK – a shaving (from a reed) (KU. 145).

 SHQ ER[ FDVH.

..  I DOVLNN Q wa-al-miqaÃÃ LMWLP ÑXKXP PDÑa al-DTO P I DO-miqlamah.$  Q.  $.. SA.  VDZ ÐDQ N QD PLQ QDIV DO-GDZ K DZ DMQDEL\DQ ÑDQK  . .

 FRPSDUWPHQW IRU UHHG SHQV LQ WKH ZULWLQJ FDVH GDZ K.

'6 179: al-miqlamah wa-hiya al-M QDK DOODW WDN Q I K DO-DTO m wana¨ZLK PLQ O W DO-GDZ K $7 .

For a list of words used for such containers see SL. trimming (a reed). WDTO P – paring. 49-51. 43. 85). KR. 109). chest (LL. II. qan¨arat al-OLV Q – fore-edge flap (KF. . qamŒah – small tool (resembling a wheat grain) (TS. 79). 11. I. AG. II. qim¨ar(ah) SO TDP Ãir) – container (made of reeds woven together for storing books). 2565). hence miqlam D NQLIH IRU WDTO P (IK. 43.

as LQ V Q T I DQG Q Q 8'  /0  ZD-al-PXTDZZDV KXZD DOODGK O \XPNLQ DQ \XIUD  ÑDOD\KL WKDO WK QXTDà Ñalá samt w ¨id ka-dawr alQ Q ZD-al-V Q ZD-al-T I ZD-na¨ZLK . AS. comp. tarà E WDTZ V al-DTO P DO-muqawwarah (al-muraÃÃabah.120 GLOSSARY WDTZ U – rounding (of letters) (AS. muqawwas – sublinear stroke (line) forming an arch of the circle. III. al-layyinah) – curvilinear scripts such as al-thuluth. 11. 144). 37). WDTZ V – V\Q WDTZ U WDGZ U URXQGLQJ RI OHWWHUV HVSHFLDOO\ descenders) (KH. 144). al-WDZT Ñ and al-ULT ÑÁ(SA.

 qawl SO DTZ O.

XII. tract 2. MU. 238). PDT ODK 1. T OD \XT O ID-\XT O DEEUHY / / 55. short composition. in commentaries and glosses XVXDOO\ LQWURGXFHG E\ T OD RU TDZOXKX DEEUHY   DV ZHOO DV IDrespectively (CI. MI. TP. chapter in a composition (such as in the Fihrist of Ibn al-1DG P. 190. II. passage. 154. 155. treatise. – quotation. xiv.

 qawlabah – PRXOGLQJ RI SDSHU.

$%  '0.

83. I. 283. 222: wa-kaÐannahu matá fasada maÑahu shayÐ abÃala tilka al-T Ðimah. 90: yaktub al-PXVWDPO DZZDO DOT ÐLPDK µPDMOLV DPO KX VKD\NKXQ IXO Q¶. DF. 190. KF. I. 377. 86. 82. III. 327. folio (folium) (MK. FRPS T OLE T µimah SO TDZ Ðim) – leaf. KF.

erect. al-qa¨¨ al-T µim see qaÃÃ. rectilinear (of letters and scripts) (e. PXVWDT P – upright. . RN. mDEV Ã. comp.g. 22).

GLOSSARY 121 taqwiyah SO WDT ZLQ.

U T \ Q IDLQQDKXP \DO]LT Q DO-NLW E EL-ZDUDTDK PLQKX ELO K GKLKL DO-baà Ðin wa-tusammá al-WDT Z  03 .  DPP DO-Ñ. – HQGSDSHU 8.

qayd SO TX\ G. al-waraq al-muqawwá see waraq.

.  µFH TX¶RQ QRWH FH TX¶RQ FRXFKH SDU pFULW¶. committing something to writing. composition (TE. 17. statement. qayd al-IDU JK VHH IDU JK WDT\ G 1. 73  WDT\ G EL-al-NLW E 6' . qayd al-tamalluk see tamalluk. – note.

 FRPS WDGZ Q  FRS\LQJ WUDQVFULSWLRQ 7( .

371: naqaÃtu al-NLW E ZDaÑjamtuhu wa-shakaltuhu wa-qayyadtuh. diacritical pointing (of letters) (BA. 113.. . IK. binding. 62) 4. III. sewing endbands (headbands) (MB.  tying. IA. 87: muqayyadah – SRLQWHG // .

 SO WDT \ G WDT\ G W.

43). N JKDG N JKLG N JKDGK SO NDZ JKLG NDZ JK G NXJK G $- 136). no. glossator (AM. gloss (LC. author 2. – marginal note. N JK ¨ 67 SDVVLP.187). muqayyid 1. N JKL¨. 153. IB. **** al-N I DO-PDVKN ODK (al-PDVKT TDK) see shakl and shaqq. N ]DQ – mallet (UK. 27).

leaf (of paper) (AJ. al-kalŒ . al-N JKDG DO-. waraq. WS. 77-85). 136). SO NDZ JK Ã. N JKLGDK – sheet. al-5 P . see waraq. IV. 98-105. etc.VO P . WS. 77) – paper (EI. AE. . comp. 419-420.

85-86). downward sloping curved stroke (from right to left or vice versa. in papermaking) (OM). 374). WS. ¨ayy al-NK JKDG see Ãayy. N JKDGNK QDK – paper mill (HN. kubbah (pl. 136.122 GLOSSARY NDJKJK G N JKLG  NDZ JKLG – paper maker (AJ. as in the beginning of w Z. munkabb – inclined. kubab) – ball (of fibre.

8'  /0 .

kitbah (MH. 49-53. TH. talismanic word (used as an invocation against worms and insects. known in the Maghreb as kaykataj.107. mun¨anin. 43: i¨EDV \ NDE NDM DO-ara DK \ ¨DI Ì \ $OO K \ $OO K \ $OO K &0  \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM \ NDE NDM KXZD DO-¨ ILÌ huwa huwa faqaÃ. comp. makbas – bookbinder’s press (QS. 393). 40. mikbas. II. UA. SD. II. q.) (US. KL. II. AG. katb. Ranunculus asiaticus. TS. 21: naskh al-NLW E 7+ .) 2.v. 440. WDNE V – pressing (QS. 416). CM. Asiatic crowfoot (bot. 416. NDE NDM 1. 91. 169).

 NLW E NLW EDK – writing. copying. composition. kitbah – WKH ZRUG µNDWDED¶ RU µNDWDEDKXK ¶ DEEUHY   7( . transcription.

FDOOLJUDSKHU. used as part of the signature or autograph of the writer (copyist.

+. Turkish ketebehü. wa-DMD]WX ODKX DQ \DNWXE I NLW EDWLK DO-kitbah. 183: al-LM ]DK bi-al-kitbah. NI. N WLE SO NXWW E NDWDEDK. 45: ‘hence katabah. becomes a term equivalent to colophon’). CT.   DM ]D ODKX EL-al-kitbah.

comp. mu¨arrir. . 554-760). scribe. scrivener 2.  VHFUetary. IV. amanuensis (EI. 180). fully-fledged (licensed) calligrapher (NI.

GLOSSARY 123 NLW E – writing. 705. book. maktabah – library (EI. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah. 23. lin. II. PDNW E SO PDNW E W.. maktab – place designated for writing. chapter in a book (SL. al-NLW E DO-awwal – ÑUthmanic canon. spine (of a codex) (HT. IV. al-NLW E DO-mukarras VHH NXUU V al-NLW EDK DO-PDQV EDK – see khaÃÃ.) . NLW ENK QDK NXWXENK QDK – library. document. EI. piece of writing. asfal (sufl) al-NLW E 1. 384). 388: mukattab). wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. IK. a¶lá (¶ulw) al-NLW E – head (of a book or document). VI. tail (of a book or document) 2. letter. 86). NXWXE – ERRNVHOOHU . codex (MA. I. 197-200). 53. 207-208).   V T DO-NXWXE \ Q 46 .115). V. KD. NH. booklet. archetype. copying (KK.

mukattib (e. KD. master calligrapher (KK. sifr 13. – piece of calligraphy. Ibn al-‚ Ðigh al-Mukattib) – teacher of calligraphy. muktib. calligraph (DP. II. IV. 53). 705).g. LVWLNW E – FRS\LQJ RQ UHTXHVW IRU D SDWURQ. 4. 51. KM.

9 VLIU   LGK DPDUWXKX DQ \DNWXE ODND DZ LWWDNKDGKWXKX N WLEDQ .0 . ..  26 .

akŒal – dark-blue ink (or black with bluish luster) (DG. paste obtained from tragacanth (DM). I. no. takŒ O 1. mikŒalah SO PDN ¨il). 391: ka-al-PLQVK K 8$ 393). 414) 2. IR. kohl. miktharah – receptacle (for paste) (DD. mukŒul – kohl container (UA. mikŒ O see mirwad. outline (of letters) (DH. 230). pointing (of a wall) (FT. outlining. kuŒl – antimony. NDWK U µ – tragacanth. 187).383: ÑLGGDW NKDWDP W EL-khaÃÃLKLP PDNW EDK EL-aldhahab al-muka¨¨al bi-al-O ]XZDUG. 393.

68). misÃarat al-tak¨ O  ILQH WKLQ. comp. RXWOLQLQJ RXWOLQH RI GHVLJQV RQ book covers) (IB.

OLQHV LQ .

124 GLOSSARY writing) (UK. 142: al-GLTTDK I UDVP DO-¨XU I.

AG. 110: tak¨ O DO- irs.  VPDOO SDOOHW-like tool (used in the interlace) (TS. tak¨ O al-ÃDZ O. 33. 12.

sic.  71  ZD-W  aÑ N I EDÑ  alKDZ PLVK LVK UDWDQ LOá annahu ‘kadh I DO-aÁl’). IB. kaŒOLE Q – screw press (UK. NDGK – thus. abbrev. 42). for the use of ‘ÁDZ EXKX NDGK ¶ DQG µODÑDOODKX NDGK ¶ VHH 73 . 154. 0.

184). WLNU U. ditto- NXUU V DK. TM. WDNGK \DK – WKH NDGK -statement (MI.g. 48. takarrur – graphic error. 162). mukarrar (or al-Œarf al-mukarrar). dittography (e.

6\U.

SO NDU U V.

NXUV DO-Œajar – support (for a stone slab) (IA. .  . AA. 100. 154: wa-huwa jawf al-quÃn wa-\XT O ODK DO-ÑuÃbah. CI. 131. WDNU V – collation (of quires) (HT. TS. 132). 468-471. II. 60). quire (gathering). SA. 107) 2.92). NXUV – book cradle. IK. II.9 VLIU   VXPPL\DW EL-GK OLND OL-WDNDUUXVLK ay in LP P EDÑ LK LOá baÑ .0 . lin. 700). 14. 84. SK. II. 48. passim. comp. KU. x. 321: alNXUU VDK OL-DQQDK Ãabaqah Ñalá Ãabaqah. kursuf(ah) – tow (wad of raw cotton or wool used in an inkwell) (KK. KD. AG. abbrev. II. TS. SL. reading stand (MD. ra¨l. 60).  DOVR al-NLW E DO-mukarras – codex form of a book (AB.

GLOSSARY 125 kirsh SO NXU VK.

 WDNU VK – letter-head or serif in the shape of a barb RU GRW EORE.

- QR  . .

mukarram – honorific (epithet) of muÁ¨af. FRPS WDUZ V NDU P.P P Ñ$O LEQ $E „ OLE. QurÐ Q NKDWPDK WDNU P – WKH IRUPXOD RI EHQHGLFWLRQ µNDUUDPD $OO K ZDMKDKX¶ XVHG DIWHU WKH QDPH RI WKH .

 al-mukarram – epiWKHW RI WKH PRQWKV RI 6KDZZ O DQG 6KDÑE Q TY.

363). miksar SO PDN VLU. kurah – wooden ball (for burnishing paper) (NH.

I. kash¨ – erasure (by means of a pen knife or scraper) (MM. – fold (in a leaf of paper) (OM). 237: bi-al-ÁDGU O EL-al-sinn kashà I DOwaraq). 58). of bashr (LF. 79. syn. al-taµU NK EL-al-NXV U see taÐU NK NDVK GDK – long line or stroke (like a long fat¨ah) used to embellish the script (MN. 274. 391). knife (for making erasures) (IR. 137. NDVKN O – FRPPRQSODFH ERRN FRPS WDGKNLUDK NXQQ VK . NH. IR. DD. miksha¨ VLNN Q DO-kash¨ – scraper. TP. 128). 389.

kuÑ E.126 GLOSSARY ka¶b (pl.

tongs (MB. 61. JL. 94). 82). DE. AJ. inlay (SA. passim. 84. 406). dast. kindah – sexagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JN. 109). al-ka¶b al-muhallal – round back (MB. 442. II. 92. comp. usually 25 sheets (PT. NXQQ VK DK. KR. rizmah. DM). 97. 39. 92. 109. WS. 95. al-ka¶b al-murabba¶ – straight. 145. – spine (back of a codex) (MB. 90). NDOO EDK NXOO EDK – (pair of) pincers. 977. WDNI W – inlaying. kaff(ah). main de papier). AB. IA. 109). flat back (MB. kaff al-waraq – quire (Fr. FT.

SO NDQ Q VK.

. commonplace book (LC. 25. HB. – 1.

al-taµU NK DO-NLQ µ see taÐU NK . mukannan – named by (known by) his/her kunyah. kunan) – SDWURQ\PLF FRQVLVWLQJ RI DE RU XPP IROORZHG by the name of the son/daughter (EI. V.  kunyah (pl. FRPS WDGKNLUDK NDVKN O  V\Q RI EDUQ PDM Rr fahrasah (in the Maghreb). 395-396).

I . originally and properly speaking. IDK )1  ID-awwal alkhuà à al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-khaÃà al-0DNN ZD-baÑdahu al-0DGDQ WKXPPD al-BaÁU WKXPPD DO-. an early script DVVFRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VFULEDO FLUFOHV RI .GLOSSARY 127 (al-kha¨¨) al-. I 1.

363. comp. AV. 11-13. FN. 27ff. ±LM ]  kaykataj – talismanic word (used in the Maghreb as an invocation DJDLQVW ZRUPV DQG LQVHFWV.  JHQHULF QDPH XVHG ORRVHO\ IRU a host of early Arabic ‘non-proportioned scripts’ currently distinguished as the ‘±LM ] VFULSWV¶ µ(DUO\ $EEDVLG VFULSWV¶ µ1HZ $EEDVLG VW\OH¶ DQG WKH ‘Abbasid bookhand’ (see e.g. 8-9. OD). MV.

76  $*  86 .

85). laŒaq (pl. MP. FRPS NDE NDM **** O ]XZDUG O ]DZDUG – lapis lazuli. 119. 29. 27. SA. WDOE V – sizing (of paper) (OH. azure ink. paint (UK. ultramarine. JM. II. al¨ T OL¨ T. 145. (qalam) al-luµluµ – script akin to al-thuluth al-NKDI I LH SUREDEO\ al-tawq Ñ ) in which vertical and flat strokes are less than five dots in length (AS. 114. 139). 478).

insertion (TP. . ilŒ T. mulŒaq – omission.

JA. I. liÁ T lazm – pressing (TS. TM. LC. laŒP 6XOD\P Q – screw press (UK. IB. 24. 185. 154.. OL] T – paste. 279).14).128 GLOSSARY  . 42). II. milzam(ah) SO PDO ]LP.  LGK QDTDÁa min al-NLW EDK VKD\Ð fa-al¨aqahu bayna alsuà U DZ I Ñur  al-NLW E ZD-huwa al-la¨aq. 703). adhesive (KD. comp.

14. 481) 2.169. 107. DD.  ERRNELQGHU¶V SUHVV 8. 133.24. large paper clip (made of copper or other metal to hold the head of a leaf or roll or quire in place while copying) (AT. 12: Ñ G DOQDV NKDK RU PD¨mal min khashab yafta¨ wa-yaÃZ ID-yu aÑ Ñalayhi akiW E DO-muntasakh minhu ¨attá yartafiÑ Ñan al-ar  wa-yastDQLG M QLE KX LOá law¨atay al-malzam). SA. 15. n. 390) 3. IR. book cradle (TW. copyist’s book support. AG. II. WA. I. 230. SA. 481. malzamah SO PDO ]LP. II.  76  11.

abbrev.  TXLUH RIWHQ HQFRXQWHUHG LQ 0DJKUHEL lithographed books. /&  /( . where each gathering is numbered separately).

 VKHHW OHDI RI SDSHU.

index. 20. JL. lin. 13. 119. qan¨arat al-OLV Q see qanÃarah.109. $'  /( 137) 3. alsinah) – envelope flap (ST. large size bifolio (bifolium) (TC. PXWDO VKLQ – ZRUQ GDPDJHG 7:  I VLIU PXWDO VKLQ. HT. MM. 25). 25. OLV Q (pl. ST. 90. LC. 132).

 .

391. wrapper (DM). spool (DS. OL] T la¶nah – curse. II. the formula of malediction ‘laÑanahu $OO K¶ RU µODÑQDW $OO K Ñalayhi’ . laqab SO DOT E. 480. 26). or (MI. II. malediction. milaff 1. lin.166). DM). RA. 145. 530). lafŒ – tooling. stamping (HT. ODIIDK OLI IDK SO ODI Ðif) – roll (of parchment or paper) (AB. 181. mulaffaq. DD. SD. al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah – made-up copy (KC. alÁiqah) – paste. abbrev. passim). 131. 167. I. comp. IR.GLOSSARY 129 li¦ T (pl. adhesive (SA. 230) 2.

WDOT P – inlaying. I. implement for collecting shavings (small fragments) DIWHU HUDVXUH 8$  OLP VK QD DO-qalam. 109) 2. – nickname. inlay (FT. 406). . V. (pair of ) tongs. mulaqqab bi – known by (referred to) his/her laqab. 618-631). honorific title (EI. milqa¨ PLOT ¨ SO PDO T Ã) 1. DD. tweezers (MB. 391: yalquà EDT \ P \DÌhar bi-al-waraq min athar al-kashÃ). pincers.

lak. lakk RU O N '* . 11. LM.130 GLOSSARY mustalqin – line. stroke sloping (descending) from right to left and YLFH YHUVD DV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI N I Á G \ Ð DQG U Ð) (UD. 49).

glazed. namq. copying (TE. q. 11. 109). burnished (e. ODPP ¶ – glossy. AG.v. lawŒ(ah) SO DOZ ¨. al-WDGKK E DO-ODPP Ñ. ODPO PDK – small tool (resembling an elephant’s tusk ?) (TS.).  ODF FULPVRQ UHG SLJPHQW RU LQN 06  wa-al-lak lil- DPP W ZD-al-fat¨ W ZD-al-NDVU W 0% -86) 2. lamq – elegant writing. 140). varnish (AB. 16). comp. law¨ W. lacquer.g.

II. lawŒ al-ta¦O E – see taÁO E ODZZ Œ – master decorator. (Turk. al-ma¦ Œif al-mulawwaŒah see muÁ¨af.123. 142-143. HT. headpiece (FT. 5) 5. 99. gloss (DM). levha) large panel (of calligraphy.or tailpiece) (LC. wooden board (TS. WDOZ Œ – marginal note. 11. lawŒ al-¦DG UDK – frontispiece.  WDEOHW RI DQ\ KDUG-surfaced material) (SL. OM) 4. illuminator (HD. 29. MS. 402). 31) 6. usually framed). 125). 58-59) 2. MB. lin. head. panel (in decoration). wooden tablet (for burnishing gold or paper) (UK. pasteboard (ST. . illuminated piece (such as frontispiece. 24. 25. 124) 3.

105. central medallion (on a book cover).GLOSSARY 131 lawzah 1. oval figure 2. 38). 11.v. IB. almond-shaped tool or stamp (UK. raÐs al-lawzah. 44. TS. 109. AG. WDOZ ] – rounding (‘giving an almond shape to’) of the initial stroke of such letters as Á G Ã Ð and ¨ Ð (KH. MB.). see also nuqÃah) 3. PLOZ T SO PDO ZLT. 60: lawzah wa-niÁf. mandorla 4. 156. also known as sarwah (q. IA. 31. 59. lozenge-shaped element (in a Mamluk book cover design).

230. II. stirrer (for mixing ink) (SA. 208). MJ. lawn SO DOZ Q. 45. IR. 133. AT. – spatula. 478. IB.

. V. pigment. AI.  1:  WDUN E DO-DOZ Q. tint (EI. 148. 698-707. – colour. JA.

tinting (of paper). LC. 86: layyaÃtu min alTDODP O ÃDK TDVKDUWXKX. 86. polychrome illumination (WA. O ¨(ah) – bark (skin) of the reed (BA. WDO\ ¨ 1. 370: qishr al-qaÁab. see also the quotation under sha¨m). shaving off the bark of the reed (IK. 27) 2. IK. WDOZ Q 1. 11. III.

.  SODFLQJ D O Ãah in the slit of the nib to increase the intake of ink (KD. 111-119. O TDK (pl. IK. O I DO-shajar – bast fibres. MB. 370). 20. 13. also PLO T (UA. 203) 2. 26-29. n. MP. AT. tuft of unspun silk. wool or cotton used in an inkwell) (ST. 160) 3. MP. 26-29. coloured ink (SA. II. 133). colour. UK. index. 477-478. tint (AD. 393) tow (wad. 55. III. 79-84. II. 702. BA. 84. paper pulp (OM). MJ. liyaq) 1.

370) – compartment for ink (KD. III. amliqah) 1.132 GLOSSARY PDO T (pl. 700: al-QXTUDK DOODW \XMÑDO I K DO-PLG G ZD-al-Á I $7 . also PLO TDK (BA. II.

 FRPS M QDK  WRZ RI FRWWRQ RU ZRRO.

 . %$ ...

38: al-khaÃÃ al-OD\\LQ KXZD DOODGK I KL DO-WDGZ U. 144. layyin – curvilinear (of a letter or script) (AS. KH.

 al-DTO P DO-layyinah – curvilinear scripts. **** matn SO PXW Q. muraÃÃab. such as al-thuluth. alWDZT Ñ and al-ULT Ñ. muqawwar. comp.

 FRQWHQW WH[W.

111: al-matn al-ÃDU TDK DO-PXPWDGGDK PLQ \DP Q DO-Áulb waVKDP OLK ') 9  Dl-PDNW EDK I PDWQ DO-NLW E ÑDG DO-¨ VKL\DK MH. VI. Rf a ¨DG WK DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP the chain of transmitters who handed it down) (SL. EI. text-column (MU. main body of the text (as opposed to margins). 89: ya biÃXK I PDWQ DO-NLW E WKXPPD \DNWXEXK TXE ODWD GK OLN I DO-¨ VKL\DK $' . 1. V. II. 843) 2.

 RULJLQDO PDLQ.

WH[W DV RSSRVHG WR a commentary. shar¨ or gloss. ¨ VKL\DK.

25). MD. also known as fa„„ Œ al-naskh. 214. SD. 109. DEEUHY 9$ QR  MM. 251-252) or jard (?) al-matn – colophon (LC. IX. 843) 4. Œard al-matn (HN. P WLQ – author of the original composition. central panel (on a book cover) as opposed to the border (FZ. II. 139: wa-ODKX I NLW EDW VKDU¨ PDP] M EL-al-matn an yumayyiz al-matn bi-NLW EDWLK EL-al-¨umrah. 222: wa-qalam al-naskh yatafarraÑu Ñanhu qalam al-matn wa-KXZD JKDO Ìuh wa-qalam al-¨DZ VK ZD-KXZD NKDI IXK $6  -0 -66). . 568). 53). EI. VI. al-naskh alfa„„ Œ and al-wa„„ Œ – larger version of al-naskh (NA. (qalam) al-matn. TP. LC. 1. 24. matn (as opposed to a FRPPHQWDWRU VK UL¨) (JN.

SA. 67-71. JL. hence mumaŒŒa¨ – blind tooled (FI. 58. LVWLPG G PD¨¨. 471-477. al-waraq al-P Œ see waraq. MP. 13. ¨aÃÃ. tamŒ ¨ 1. 121-122. VLIU   WDNKO à al-NLW E ZDLIV GXKX EL-al-qalam. n. pl. or licking) (TP. comp. erasure. supple) (by rubbing it with a piece of wood) (ST. khirqah.) . 216). 15-18. UK. tamŒ ¨ bi-al-dhahab – gold tooling (FI. Á UDK majmajah – scribbling (KM. 21. tam¨ ¨ – elongation (of letters) (KU. 86. amiddah) – soot ink. EI.v.) .52.115: PLWK O DO-VDP Ñ ). tamŒ U – polishing (burnishing) with an oyster shell. maŒ UDK (q. 79-90.  I ÁLQ ÑDW WDMK ] DO-raqq wa-Áaqlih wa-tam¨ ULK ZDÁabghih). LVWLPG G – the manner of dipping the pen in the inkwell (SA.GLOSSARY 133 PLWK O (pl. ink (in general) (SK. PLG G (pl. . 89). process of softening leather (making it flexible. II. 134-135. III. obliteration (by means of a cloth. AT.  madd. blind tooling. 36-37). 79: dalk) 2. MB. UK. KR. IV. 38. 38. apograph (CD. III. 138-140. 127-131. 320: summiya al-PLG G PLG GDQ OL-annahu yamudd al-qalam. amthilah) – copy. comp. TP. 238). 55. VI. comp. BA. maŒw – ink removal. MP. MJ. index. MJ. 1031). IV. KH. AE. 90). ¨ibr. transcript. 371).

midan) – knife. midyah) (pl.5  . (al-kha¨¨) al-0DGDQ see ±LM ] DQG . pen knife (SA. mudan. I  mudyah (madyah.134 GLOSSARY al-0DG QDK (al-munawwarah). also known as 0DG QDW DO-1DE – Medina. II. SK. 0DG QDW DO-6DO P – Baghdad (DM). 103- 8$  . 465-467.

WDPU „ see  abbah. ta E E al-sharŒ al-PD]M DO-PDP] M. FRPS VLNN Q marrah – spatula (for mixing paper pulp) (OM).

wiping (MB. mimsaŒah – pen wiper (IR. . 391). 202). 60: misann almis¨) 2. sword (for rubbing leather) (UK. 481-482. sackcloth (DG. 166. see shar¨. DD. IA. 230. mashµalah – WKH IRUPXOD RI VXEPLVVLRQ WR WKH ZLOO RI *RG µP VK Ða $OO K¶ 0* . AT. SA. 114). I. masŒ – rubbing. 110. 133. II. coarse haircloth. misŒ 1.

 FRPS LVWLWKQ Ð. .

SK. scribbling (MM. hasty. 262: al-mashq huwa madd alXU I I DO-NLW EDK 70  6. 55) 2. transcription (TE. inelegant hand. 60. 146: al-jamÑ wa-almashq.I. 16) 3. AA. mush¨ – comb (IA. mashq 1. 133: wa-al-mashq fa-huwa surÑat al-NLW EDK PDÑa baÑtharat al-¨XU I 0+  VKDUU DO-NLW EDK DOPDVKT $$  PDVKDTD « LGK DVraÑa al-NLW EDK 73  7( .  ZD-yasta¨VLQ Q DO-PDVKT I DOV Q ZD-al-VK Q LOO I DZ NKLU DO-NDO P 6$ . elongation (of letters) (JA.. 116-117. 230). I. copying.GLOSSARY 135 mish¨. IR.

48. 4. 151). fine elongation. 134: ÑDQ . 89: al-mashq huwa al-khaÃà I KL DO-khiffah. 164) 6. MY. calligraphic hand (CM. calligraphic exercise. elegant. KT. 16. 83) 5. for example.EQ 6 U Q annahu kariha an tuktab al-maÁ ¨if mashqan…li-DQQD I KL QDTÁ D O tará al-DOLI ND\ID \XJKDUULTXK \DQEDJK DQ WXUDGG VHH DOVR $9  ‘Mashq. mashqah 1. KK. 320: almashqah al-maddah al-GDT TDK ZD-al-khaÃà al-PDPVK T KXZD DOPDPG G. calligraphic model (AD. (kha¨¨) al-mashq – one of the ancient scripts (?) used originally by the scribes in the city of al-$QE U DQG FKDUDFWHUL]HG DV OLJKW KDYLQJ D slanted alif and. copying from a model (TE. according to some opinions. unsuitable for the copying of the QurÐ Q )1   ID-DPP DO-ZDUU T Q DOODG QD \DNWXE Q DO-maÁ ¨if bi-al-khaÃà al-mu¨aqqaq wa-al-mashq….’). is a technique that can be applied to any kind of script and is not an independent style of its own. fine elongated stroke (SK. IK.

 WDLO RI WKH OHWWHU P P /0  LOO DQQD PDVKTDWDKX I DOnaskh qaÁ UDK.

183). PXVK T ŒDU U – VLON WRZ ZDG. P VKLT – calligrapher (NI.

'' . .

autograph (DM) 2. signature. signed attestation/ UHDGLQJ VWDWHPHQW 27  ODPP Ñuri D K GK DO-NLW E LOD\\D QDÌartu wa-taÐammaltu bi-P \D¨Z KL ID-wajadtuhu muà ELTDQ OLO-ÁDZ E ID¨akamtu bi-Ái¨¨atih wa-am aytuhu nammaqahu… A¨mad al-4   . FRPS O TDK ¨ im„ µ 1. signing.

136 GLOSSARY bi-PDG QDW 1 NGDK.

27). al-muÑaÌÌamah) – Mecca. TS. LC. 411). LC. 88. FRPS QDÌar 3. AG. plane-like instrument (TS. 11. execution statement (containing the calligrapher’s name) (MN. 60-61). polisher (NH. 107) 2. al-musharrafah. VII. LPO µ SO DP OLQ. maghrah – ochre pigment (FT. I  mimlasah 1. 88. ex-library. al-maghrah al-¶. 107). 390. milk – ownership (OS. etc. 31. 8).U T \DK – reddish brown ink (SA. also malasah – burnisher. ex-dono. EI. Makkah (al-mukarramah. (al-kha¨¨) al-0DNN see ±LM ] DQG . also referred to as qayd al-tamalluk (OS. 478).). For various expressions used in ownership statements see OS. PLON \DK WDPO N WDPDOOXN – ownership note or statement (such as ex-libris. AG. 11. II. 25.

85-94) 2. SDVVLP :6 -13. I. KF.  GLFWDWLRQ $. work (known as al-DP O .

725-726). famulus (AI. VII. 287: Vermittler – PXEDOOLJK PXOT  muktib). writing down (of a dictated text) (EI. SURGXFHG WKURXJK GLFWDWLRQ mumlin – dictation master (AI. LVWLPO µ – repetition of a dictation by a specially appointed famulus. stamp (EI. SL. GA. 725-726. VII. mustamlin – tradition transmitter’s clerk. signet. 48). 472-.VII. muhr – seal. passim. II. EI. passim.

. VII. FRPS NK WDP WDPK U – sealing. stamping (EI. 472-473).

GLOSSARY 137 muhraq SO PDK ULT.

 JOD]HG FORWK VLON XVHG DV D ZULWLQJ VXUIDFH.

KM. sheet. II. AE. leaf (of paper) (SA. IV. 482: al-muhraq wa-huwa al-qirà V. 105-106. 79-82. 8-9. sheet. WS. sifr 13. 50-52) 2. II. (IW. 472. leaf (of any writing material) (KD. 704: wa-al-qirà V ZD-al-Áa¨ IDK wa-al-sifr wa-al-PXKUDT VDZ Ð) 3.

 mawzah – burnisher. 63). P Vá (pl PDZ VLQ DPZ V. polisher (IA. 60.

$  maws. UD. 169: li-bary qalam al-qaÁab wa-iÁO ¨ al-NLW EDK . trimmer (TW. 16: al-maws al-6K U ] . – pen knife.

P µ al-ward – rose water (MP. 64).  PLPZDK ODK «ZD-W UDWDQ WDN Q PLQ DOnu¨ V ZD-min al-¨DOD] Q ZD-JKD\ULK. 226. PLPZDK P ZDUG \DK – water container (for diluting ink) (SA.  1+  '' . V. 25). LC. P µ al-dhahab – gold ink (MU. II.

inlaying (SA. tilting (of a script). FRPS PLVT K WDPZ K 1. 12. 442) 2. script) (UD. SA. II. hence P µil – inclining. WDPZ K EL-al-¨DO µ (al-dhahab) – gilt (FT. 403). . 45). II. coating. gilt (SD). slanting (of the line. LP ODW DO-qalam – tilting of the pen.

5: nabaqtu al-NLW E ZD-nabbaqtuhu saÃÃartuhu wa-katabtuh). PDUJLQDO DQQRWDWLRQ '0 7+  WDQE K Ñalá al-ghalaÃ). KM. 40). JM. nota bene. remark (in the body of a composition). IV. (qalam) al-PDQWK U – QDVNK RU ULT Ñ/naskh-based script (characterised by large spaces between words) (AS. copying (TE. 146. WDQE K – note. QDZ MLGK VJ Q MLGK. 16.138 GLOSSARY **** QDET WDQE T – elegant writing. sifr 13.

– OHWWHUV VXFK DV E Ð DQG W Ð (TU. minjam – mallet (ST. IB. 9: wa-al-na¨t na¨W Q QD¨t baÃnih wa-na¨t MDZ QLELK. 21. 232. paring. index. UD. 36). trimming (of a reed) (IR. 43: P MDPDK). naŒt 1.

482). nuŒ V – copper. . ¨amdalah. etc.g. e. (MG. copper-based ink (UK. 133-134. 35).  DEEUHYLDWLRQ RI WKH W\SH called contraction in which two or three words are fused into one portmanteau word. I. basmalah. MP.

GLOSSARY 139 QDNKE LQWLNK E Puntakhab  VHOHFWHG SDVVDJH  SO LQWLNK E W PXQWDNKDE W.

II. DM). muntakhib – compiler. KR. 95. selector (DF. 94-95). 97. 384). 82). munkhul – sieve (IR. – anthology (EA. I. 230. narjasah – y-shaped nonagonal or decagonal element (in a Mamluk book cover design) (JL. nasab SO DQV E.

tribe. – lineage. 967-968). pedigree (EI. religious sect or school. VIII. genealogy. nisab) – descriptive adjective (adjective of relation) indicating an individual’s birthplace. al-kha¨¨ (al-NLW EDK. VII. 53-56). ending in – (EI. etc. nisbah (pl.

DO-PDQV E DK.

1127 (in Muslim India). sifr 13. which according to the Mamluk tradition.5. a script which emerged in the 8/14th century in Persia and later was used extensively in Turkey and India (EI. The MamOXN QDVNK ZDV ZULWWHQ VDQV VHULI WDUZ V ZKLOH WKH 2WWRPDQ QDVNK DQG . also QDVNKDK WDQV NK QDV NKDK LQWLV NK LVWLQV NK – copying. see khaÃÃ. par excellence. ER. 1126 (in Turkey). KM. In Turkey this script was often (but incorrectly) known under the name of ta¶O T. 21). index. IV. naskh-ta¶O T). (qalam) al-naskh – book hand. belonged to the mu¨aqqaq family of scripts. KK. IV. IV. PXQ VDEDK – collation (of quires) (ST. 57) 2. transcription (TE. naskh 1. 696-699). 17. 1124 (in Persia). (kha¨¨) al-nasta¶O T – hybrid of naskh and ta¶O T (thus properly known as naskh-i ta¶O T.

in Persia. 149) 2.140 GLOSSARY the Persian naskh of the 10/16th century and later often featured the VHULI RQ WKH OHWWHU O P RI WKH GHILQLWH DUWLFOH 7KH VHULI RI WKLV OHWWHU LQ the Ottoman naskh was often right-sloping. 89). al-nuskhah (al-kutub. XVI. xv. abbrev. 412: – nuskhahaÁl. al-naskh al-mu¶W G./ QR UDI ¶ al-naskh. catalogue (AD. I. 26). variant reading (varia lectio). LM.171). but erroneously. nusakh) 1. CA. recension (MU. al-nuskhah al-GXVW U VHH GXVW U al-nuskhah al-far¶ see farÑ. VIII. II. n. commonly. xiv). 36. LE.      $5  $. 47: wa-al-naskh lil-¨DG WK ZD-al-WDIV U ZD-na¨ZLKLP  /0  DO-naskh iÑU EXKX DTDOO min al-ray¨ Q ZD-I KL WDÑO T ZD-Ãams fa-qaruba min al-ULT Ñ. 146. naskhbased (related) hand of an idiosyncratic (informal. pl. IV. personal) nature (CI. badal) 4. while the serif in the Persian naskh was mostly left-sloping (AS. 1127. list. 182.  0. LM.in Muslim India). properly ‘pertaining to naskh’.in Turkey. archetype (LC. al-nuskhah al-mufakkakah VHH PDIN N PXIDNNDN al-nuskhah al-mulaffaqah see mulaffaq. al-makh¨ ¨ W. CM. EI. version. used as a synomym of al-naskh proper (NC. 1123. al-naskh al-fa„„ Œ see matn. 1125. al-nuskhah al-a¦l (al-nuskhah al-mu¶tamadah.131: balagha qir Ðatan wa-PXT EDODWDQ ZD-taÁ¨ ¨an Ñalá nuskhah muÑtamadah) – exemplar. 47. CD. comp. 106: wa-NLW E µDO-%D\ Q ZD-al-WDE\ Q¶ QXVNKDW Q Oá wa-WK QL\DK ZD-al-WK QL\DK DÁa¨¨ wa-ajwad) 3. 138. 141. copy (EI. transcript. CI. QDVNK 1. al-naskh al-V GDK – regular naskh hand (HI. nuskhah (pl. MZ. 45: wa-min al-ray¨ Q DO-QDVNK /0  DPP TDODP DO-naskh wa-alwa   ¨ wa-al-¨DZ VK ZD-al-PDQWK U ID-asqià PLQT UDK . I. al-naskh al-wa„„ Œ see matn.12) 2. 128. 123. IV.

DO-VDIDU \DK – ‘pocket book’ (small size manuscript produced for travelers) (TC. 26). unicum. al-nuskhah al-umm – holograph. 26). archetype (LC. Q VLNK SO QXVV NK. al-nuskhah al-waŒ GDK (al-IDU GDK) – single surviving copy.

 QDVV kh SO QDVV NKDK.

PDQV NK PXQWDVDNK – manuscript (AK. 17. scribe (TE. 348. 47). MA. TW. ¶ G DO-QDV NKDK see Ñ G . 16. passim). WB. muntasikh – copyist.

style or composition. layout (mise en page ) (FK.g. III. epistolography (EI. documents or state papers. I.GLOSSARY 141 QDVDT WDQV T – text arrangement. of letters. 1014/2: faragha min ta¨U Uih Ñalá h GK DO-nasaq). . 9. letter-writing.. no. munshiµ  VHFUHWDU\ DPDQXHQVLV (. 1241-1244). e. LQVK µ – construction.

I. 134. IK. 67). 278. 136). 94. 173. AI. nashr. PLQVKDU PLQVK U SO PDQ VK U. FRPS N WLE  author (usually referring to poetry) (SS. WDZVK U – sprinkling of a freshly copied text with VDZGXVW QXVK UDK QXVK UDK (also XVK UDK ZXVK UDK) – sawdust (for drying ink) (JA. WDQVK U. TD. I.

– saw (for work with wooden ERDUGV.

76   $*  .$  PLQVKDUDK NDE UDK PLQVKDUDK ÁDJK UDK 8$  IRU FXWWLQJ UHHGV.

AT. PLQVK K – paste-receptacle. 480. dhurah) (OM). MB. QDVKVK I – blotting paper (DM). 480: al-QDVK DO-muttakhadhah min alburr aw al-NDWK U Ð). IB. PLQVKDU \DK – chevron (FT. OM. II. IA. I. 50. IR. 133. 390. UDTT PDQVK U see raqq. I. nashan – wheat starch. 395). 230: minshaµah). starch paste (made of sorghum. 13. . starch paste (TS. SA. minshafah – blotter (TD. 136). 21. index. 12. 21). index. compartment for paste (in a writing case) (SA. DD. 60. 106. tanshiyah – pasting (ST. ST. II.

handle (SK. 249.142 GLOSSARY na¦b 1. 241. ni¦ E 1. 137).  . straight line. 103: niÁ E DO-VLNN Q 6$ .. 239: al-madd ka-alnaÁb wa-ka-al-naÁbayn.133. 269: al-O P QDÁE WKXPPD E Ð al-khaÃÃ) 2. the letter alif (IR. 240. pallet-like tool (HT. . stroke.. lin.

IA. up-stroke (SA. MB. 101. IB. 103. 43. 59). 156. also ni¦ b al-dalk – burnisher (IA. 49: fa-almuntaÁLE KXZD DOODGK \XV PLW T PDW DO-N WLE.  folder (instrument used for folding sheets of paper when binding) (UK. III. munta¦ib – ascender. 59) 3. 47. 11. UD. LM.

218. tan¦ O – elongation (of letters) (SA. FZ. 140: wa-KXZD PDZ TLÑ alPDGG W DO-musta¨sanah min al-¨XU I al-muttaÁilah).g. JL. 217. III. 93. 88. ZM. e. reading note. min¨aqah SO PDQ Ãiq) – decorative element. medallion. 43). na„ar – study note. statement (usually introduced by ‘naÌDUD I ¶. panel and the like (in illumination and book cover design) (FI.

  &0 QR QDÌDUD I KL ZD-taÐammala maÑ Q K ZD-daÑ OL-P OLNLK. $+  .) .

un„ur – ‘see’. FRPS PXà ODÑah. abbrev. XVHG LQ WKH PDUJLQ IRU QRWDELOLD QRWD EHQH DORQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG TLI VHH WDZT I.

nuÌÌ U. Q „ir (pl.

170). II. na„m. comp. versification. tan„ P – composition (in verse or prose) (AM. curator. no. I KL QD„ar – µSKUDVH V\Q I KL WDÐammul) implying doubt and insinuating politely that the words to which it relates are false or wrong’ (LL. shiÑr.  DGPLQistrator of a waqf 2. 2812). .

no. sifr 13. MJ. PLQT U – serif-OLNH VWURNH V\Q WDUZ V TY. II. al-waraq al-naf¨ see waraq. 5: al-NLW E I DO-¨ajar). IR.GLOSSARY 143 nafkh – gaufrage (KJ. QDTT U – carver. nafÃah) – pockets of air. 230. nafa¨ (sg. 23). minfadh – punch. awling (MB. 208. 503: Áu¨¨i¨at watunuqqi¨at). 391: for sewing of quires). 481. 5). passim). 133.3. IV. WDQT Œ. 392). bubbles (between the doublures and the cover board) (NH. naqr – inscription. II. revision (KF. awl (SA. tanaqquŒ – correction. engraver (KM. epigraphy (KM. I. sifr 13. engraving (on stone). IV. DD. nafdh – punching. AT.

/0 .

 niqs SO DQT V QXT V.

IV. 469. 49. 5). 471. IK. – ink (KK. KM. 84. naqsh SO QXT VK. SA. sifr 13. II.

105. PLQT VK SO PDQ TLVK PDQ T VK. 931). illumination (EI. 400). epigraphy (FT. engraving. naqr 2. MB. TS. inscription. VII. comp. IA. 63) 3. QLT VKDK 1. tooling or stamping (of leather) (UK. 156. painting. 29-32.

. IA.  0% 105. ERRNELQGHU¶V WRRO 8. 59).

sifr 13. Q TLVK – calligrapher (AW. carver. 266). QDTT VK´NK QDK – Ottoman imperial painting atelier (workshop) (EI. copying (FK. 159). miniature painter. 931-932). engraver (KM.144 GLOSSARY QDTT sh 1. 5) 2. illuminator (PA. WDQT VK – writing. 304: wa-qad waqaÑa al-IDU JK PLQ WDQT VK K GK DO-NLW E. IV. VII. 141. designer. 155. III.

III. III. naq¦. 58). vocalization (by means of dots) (SA. 38). 16-17) 2. KH. nuqaÃ. haplographic error. III. letter-pointing (TE. SA. nuq¨ah (pl. naq¨ 1. 16-17. nuq¦ Q QDT ¦ah SO QDT ÐiÁ) – omission. TE. SA. 160. haplography (TP. 151. 16: al-naqà qad \DN Q EL-maÑná al-shakl.

 GLDFULWLFDO SRLQW GRW +.EQ 0XTODK wa-al-naqà Á UDW Q D¨DGXKXP VKDNO PXUDEEDÑ wa-al-akhar shakl PXVWDG U.  T OD .

IA. IA. numrah. . Q TLO (pl. citing. abbrev. transcription (MU. copying. MB. nimrah – number. copyist. exact copy (apograph). naqalah) 1. translation. orthographer (LT. 218) 2. 12. 60: nuqÃat al-lawzah. 368). extract. 137. calligrapher (TE. AW. RIWHQ UHSUHVHQWHG E\ D KRUL]RQWDO OLQH IRU U Ð ZLWK D ORRS DW LWV HQG UHSUHVHQWLQJ K Ð used . figure. naql 1. 33. QDTT ¨ – vocaliser. translator. transmissLRQ WUDGLWLRQ H[HPSODU ). 138: naqaltuhu min khaÃÃih. 16. 68) 5. nuqÃah lil-WDGKK E QXTÃDK NDE UDK OL-EX\ W DO-lawzah). Q TL¨ SO QXTT Ã). HT. XII. 133. TE. quotation 3. ‘facsimile’ of the master calligrapher’s work (DW. QR T ELOD Raw at al-PXU G Q PDÑa naqlih fa-Áa¨¨a) 2. 105. 16) 4.  VPDOO WRRO SRLQW IRU FUHDting dots on leather) (TS. quoting. 59: nuqaà mudawwarah.

embellished writing. numbering. written over the word in the text and repeated above the relevant gloss in the margin and bearing a superscript number) (RA. namq WDQP T – elegant. 62. 91). SK. AM. 119: ¨usn al-NLW EDK QDPTXK :5 .GLOSSARY 145 among other things as a reference mark. copying (TE. 53. KK. 45. 16. 53. WDQP U – marking (providing) with numbers.

45. 180: adhantu liQ PLT K GKLKL DO-qiÃÑah al-PDUJK EDK 7( . HOHJDQW FRPSRVLWLRQ (of a text) (DM). NI. Q PLT PXQDPPLT – calligrapher (AC.

369. copying (KH. 5: namnamtu al-NLW E qarmaÃtuhu). AW. elegant. sifr 13. namnamah 1.1). compact writing (KM. 119. embellished writing. n. munamnamah – miniature (figurative) painting. 237). WDQP O – compact writing. copying (SK. QDP TDK – piece (of calligraphy). 38). calligraphic composition (NI. 181. AA. painted illustration (KF. 105) 2. calligraph. IV. QXZZ U SO QDZ Z U. II.

– floral design. QDZ UDK – corner stamp (smaller than turunjah. of maÃP V q. used in the decoration of an envelope flap) (ST. 43). PXQ ZDODK LM ]DW DO-PXQ ZDODK – authorisation note or statement (allowing the transmission of a work by means of handing over the .) (LM. arabesques (on book covers) (LC. 26. having an open counter (ant. 44). 22. al-munawwarah – epithet of Medina. 69). index. IB. PXQ U – syn.v. of mufatta¨. IB.

498-450. 27). III. 86- Q ZDOWX K GK DO-NLW E N PLODQ ZD-huwa sabÑDW DM] Ð. KF.146 GLOSSARY shaykh’s copy to the student) (MF. II. EI. Q Q SO DQZ Q Q Q Q.

106. KD. 700. – inkwell (SK. II. 82: wa\XT O KL\D DO-GDZ K ZD-al-Q Q ZD-al-UDT P. IK.

II. I. xiii. 285). SL. xi. LQWLK µ – end. termination. CI. LQK µ SO LQK Ð W. abbrev. GA. II. 87. used as a paragraph mark or textual divider. CI. / / / (for intahá) (MW. 110.

– FROODWLRQ VWDWHPHQW DQGRU LM ]DK EHJLQQLQJ ZLWK WKH ZRUG µDQK KX¶.

+   ID-NDWDED ODKX LQK ÐDQ I NKLU NLW E DO]DN K PLQKX. .

 **** DKG E (sg. hudb. hud hud SO KDG KLG. 36). hudub) – OHWWHUV VXFK DV U Ð DQG ] Ð (TU.

– hoopoe VHH WDENK U.

.. WDKGK E 1. I. 23).. 17: katabtu Ñalá Ìahr juzÐ ahdaytuh ilá ÁDG T O  08 . correction. epitome (EA. revision (DM) 2..  ZD-hiya al-QXVNKDK DOODW DKG K LOá Sayf alDawlah). abridgement. LKG µ – dedication (FN.

author. MG. rounding (of the spine). I. 69. al-waraq al-KLO O see waraq. 483. IA. mustahall – WKH ILUVW QLJKW RI WKH PRQWK HJ I PXKDOO PXVWDKDOO. backing (MB. 73) 2. al-ka¶b al-muhallal see kaÑb. compiler (SS. 181. also haylalah – WKH GRFWULQDO IRUPXOD µO LO KD LOOá All K¶ (AD. 108) 2. WDKO O 1. X. 72. EI. 109. abridger.GLOSSARY 147 muhadhdhib 1. 61). epitomist. muhall.

 . VKDKU NDGK 6$ 9.

 K PLVK SO KDZ PLVK.

   ..  PDUJLQ ') ..

/&  0.  PDUJLQDO note. . abbrev. gloss.

. glossing.. WDKP VK 1. annotation (TT. K PLshah – LQWHUOLQH %$ . 193: hammasha al-NLW E Ñallaqa Ñalá h PLVKLK.  \XT O DM EDKX I K PLVKDW NLW ELK LGK NDWDED ED\QD DO-saÃrayn).

 PDUJLQDO QRWH JORVV $. .

 muhammash – glossed. 102: sifr muhammash bitaÑ O T PXKLPPDK. annotated (TW.

IR.. syn. LKP O ¶DO PDW DO-LKP O – mark distinguishing an unpointed letter from its pointed counterpart (for various practices see TP. raÐV HJ 6$ . 57. K PDK – head (of a letter). 90). al-ŒXU I DO-muhmalah. 4. unpointed letters (TP. 244). . GL. MH. al-PXKPDO W – letters without diacritical points.. 57.  K PDW DO-alif).

transcription in full. 25. page (MU. face. 182: mujalladah  akhmah ta¨WDZ Ñalá ÑLVKU Q NXUU VDWDQ I kull wajhah ÑLVKU Q VDÃUDQ ') . IV. 25) 2. 31. upper cover (TS.   I VDEÑ TDZ Ðim waZDMKDK Z ¨idah). epitome (DM). upper part (of a document or textblock) (TS. 43-45). 31) 3. ¶alá al-wajh – copying. recto (of a document or leaf) 4. wajh(ah) 1. ‘tomcat’s face’) – WKH OHWWHU K Ð in the form of a rounded (as opposed to ‘almond shaped’ – mulawwaz) double loop ( .. wajh al-hirr (lit. II.. making a complete copy (of a manuscript or collection) (SL.148 GLOSSARY **** M ] P MD] – abridgement.

. 6$ .Oá) – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 82). -92). 109). 29. al-wajh al-WK Q (al-wajhah al-WK QL\DK. wajh al-kiW E – upper cover (AG. MK. al-wajh al-awwal (al-wajhah al..

KM. 154: wa-ZDMKXKX E Ãin sinnayh. IV. wajh al-waraqah see waraqah. 95: wa-\XT O OLO-NLW E D\ an mawaddah wa-majallah wa-wa¨y. 29. 5. KK. – verso (of a leaf) (LC. 464. waŒVK see sinn. 82). MK. 53). 218). wajh al-qalam – inner side of the nib (KU. SA. . II. sifr 13. MJ. waŒy – writing. piece of writing (in an unspecified form) (IK.

no.73). 95. DA). piece of writing (see wa¨y above) (IK.GLOSSARY 149 mawaddah – writing. no. waraq SO DZU T. al-DTO P DO-PDZ] QDK see qalam. lobed medallion (DH.73). muwarrad – floriated (of design) (DH. WDZU NK see taÐU NK wardah – rosette.

 -195.KXU V Q  DO-6K P  DO-0LVU  al-7LK P  DO-0DJKULE  DO-$QGDOXV  VHH HJ 6$ 9. such as alwaraq al-6DPDUTDQG  DO-%DJKG G  DO-. WS.  SDSHU IRU YDrious types of paper. 85-.

 FRPS N JKDG  SDUFKPHQW $( .

 $5  . abbrev. piece (of paper. leaf. parchment or leather) 2. folio (folium). waraqah 1.

 VPDOO WRRO UHVHPEOLQJ D YLQH OHDI.

25). al-waraq (al-N JKDG. 11. 29). (TS. khalf al-waraqah – verso (of a leaf) (LC. AG. wajh al-waraqah – recto (of a leaf) (LC. 109).

al-waraq (al-N JKDG.VO P – ‘Islamic paper’ (paper produced by Muslims) (WM. 85). I. DO-.

al-waraq al-¶ GLP – waste paper (HN. 75. I. 77) 2. European (usually watermarked) paper (WM. DO-5 P 1. al-waraq (al-N JKDG. French paper (PT. 31). 378).

waraq damghah (tamghah) – stamped paper (DM). VI. DO-EDODG – local paper (as opposed to imported) (PT. 193. SA. OM). 30. al-waraq al-KLO O – Venetian paper (bearing a crescent watermark. paper bearing an imitation watermark. Tre Lune) (PT. . 31).

150 GLOSSARY al-waraq al-NK P – unglazed paper (PT. 32). al-waraq al-ma¦O Œ (al-ma¦T O.

32. al-waraq al-PDGJK ¨ – papier maché (FI. WS. 87. WS. JL. 84). 82). SA. MS. al-waraq al-muqawwá 1. al-waraq al-mujazza¶ (al-naf¨ or waraq al-DEU . 88. – glazed paper (PT. 35. 380). pasteboard (JL. II. 107. cardboard (FT. al-waraq al-P Œ – wove paper (HN. 104) 2. MD. 394). 487.

WR. bookseller. copying. 148) 2. 161). LC. IB. 69. IV. 495). 22. II. scribe (SL. 82. 558-561). 28. al-waraqah al-wus¨á – middle leaf (of a quire) (ST. II. JL. 66: fa-N WLE DO-khaÃà huwa al-ZDUU T wa-al-mu¨arrir). index. KF. professional copyist. 81. al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK VHH O P DOLI ZLU TDK  SURIHVVLRQ RI WKH ZDUU T  FXlture of the handwritten book. ZDUU TDK – paper-mill (MA. 87. MP. 94). – marbled paper (DM. MN. stationer. foliated arabesque design (ST. 380). 22. transcription (WS. 93. bookbinder (QS. 88. (al-kha¨¨) al-ZDUU T see mu¨aqqaq. I. maysam SO PD\ VLP. foliation (as opposed to pagination) 3. WS. 14. FI. al-waraq al-mu¨arraŒ – laid paper (HN. I. 65). EI. 9. WDZU T 1. index. IK. ZDUU T PXZDUULT – papermaker. vegetal (curvilinear) decoration. 16.

135). stamp (AB. mawsim SO PDZ VLP. – tool.

washŒ – decorating. II. ZXVK UDK VHH QXVK UDK . 65). festival. MP. CI. 10). index. For dating by feasts see taÐU NK PDZV P EL – entitled (e.g. decoration (of book covers by impression and stamping) (ST. – feast. 22.

stamping (of leather) (HT. lin.GLOSSARY 151 washm 1. drawing (AD. 186) 2. 93) 3. diacritical pointing (of letters) (IK.125. writing. . also WDZVK P – tooling.

 FRPS UDVKP WDUVK P mawshim SO PDZ VKLP.

stamp (HT. UK. awÁ O ZDÁO W. wa¦l. 147: altawshiyah al-naqsh wa-al-zakhrafah). wi¦l. lin. 18. – pattern (created by tooling). washy. tawshiyah – polychrome illumination (TE.126). wu¦l (pl.

knife (used by the waÁÁ O . VI. vox reclamans (NM. 90). collema (kollema) (WS. SA. piece. also Z ¦ilah – catchword. NZ. connection (between two sheets when pasted side by side) (MB. 88. 195: fa-qaÃÑ al-%DJKG G \XWUDN I KL VLWWDW awÁ O ED\  an wa-tuktab al-EDVPDODK I DZZDO DO-V ELÑ ) 2. 144) 3. 812. 234. 683. 65) 2. wa¦lah 1.  straight line (drawn with a ruler) (SD. leaf (of parchment or paper forming an integral part of a roll. 110). II. HB. line of paste (kollesis) (AJ. darj). 10.

$' .

 wa¦¦ O – manuscript decorator (who cuts the margins of leaves. arrangement (of a text) (MU. ¦ilah – pallet-like connecting tool (used in the interlace) (TS. aw  Ñ ) – composition. ÃDZ O (qalam) al-wa„„ Œ see matn. VI. 3132). comp. 161: person involved in ‘reparation et montage des marges’). 222: ¨usn al-wa Ñ wa-riÑ \DW DO-PDUV P. replaces them with coloured papers and draws lines to cover the joints) (AD. I. 62. 187. 12. KF. wa„¶ (pl. PA.

376). Z „i¶ – compiler. IV. . author (DF.

152 GLOSSARY taw¨iµah – preface. prologue. proem (DM). P ¶ G PDZ¶id SO PDZ Ñ G.

TM.  . – collation session (TP.192: faLQ N QD GK OLN I VDP Ñ al-¨DG WK NDWDED µEDODJKD I DO-P Ñ G DO-awwal aw al-WK Q ¶ $. 56.

awÑiyah) – 1. wi¶ µ (pl. ME. case. 575) 2. box (MS. container (OM). 16. 19. DA). ZDI ¶ah – pen wiper (IK. wifq SO DZI T. 87: ZDT ¶ah.

autograph. 124. taking something down in writing (SL. X. KM. motto. – talismanic seal (in the form of a square) (DT. writing something down. WDZT ¶ 1. I. 96). AD. royal edict.. (qalam) al-WDZT ¶. 108). KF. X. I. 69. 392. 392-393) 3. signature (EI. 125) 4. LC. 189. al-WDZT ¶ W – smaller version of the . . QR QDTDOWX min khaÃÃ al-muÁannif wa-waqqaÑa Ñalayhi bi-khaÃÃLK K GK Áa¨ ¨. al-WDZ T ¶. stamp (IK. 28. 10) 2. IV. 6: al-WDZT Ñ an yul¨iq I DO-NLW E VKD\Ðan baÑda al-IDU JK PLQKX ). sifr 13. P IDT – seal. 28. LC. decree (EI. 189). gloss. apostil (usually signed) (AD. 100. waqabah VHH M QDK ZDT ¶ah VHH ZDI Ñah.

GLOSSARY 153 thuluth script (characterised by a liberal use of hairlines. tashÑ U W.

g. 90). 90. Z TLI – donor (of a wakf) (e. waqf 1.9 1123. II. WDTU Ì (q. LC. a standard opening phrase of reading notes and blurbs. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-WKXOXWK \DK – ODUJHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. al-WDZT ¶ al-mu¨laq – UHJXODU VL]H WDZT Ñ script (SA. 43-46. WDZT I SO WDZT I W..in Turkey). 47: wa-al-WDZ T Ñ yuktab bi-hi alWDZ T Ñ al-NLE U DOODW OLO-XPDU Ð wa-al-qu  K ZD-al-DN ELU (. also ¶DO PDW DO-waqf – pause-mark or abbreviation (written O ]LP M Ðiz) (KH.g. II. al-PDZT I – object of the endowment (e. 73-77. 187). LM. al-E Ð al-PDZT IDK VHH 6$ . 38) 2. (AS. unfinished stroke (e. JM.) (BL. LM. WDZT I (KF. 63).in Persia. al-PDZT f ¶alayhi – beneficiary or usufructuary (of a wakf). reading. KF. 61. 146). II.v. KH. AS.. 146. endowment. 473) – endowment certificate or statement. KF. PDZT I 1.29. number of volumes and titles of the books) (OS. 1125. (qalam) al-WDZ T ¶ al-ULT ¶ \DK – VPDOOHU YHUVLRQ RI WDZT Ñ script (AS. 441). bequest note (OS. LM. 146.g. 146. wakf 3. waqfiyah. III. perusal (from waqaftu Ñalá – ‘I have read’). 69). 428-442). above the line in the text of the QurÐ Q HJ 38) 2. 100. .

logograph. K P – omission (IK. 123). 28).  PDUJLQDO QRWH VLGH-head (preceded by the word ‘qif’ (also qif Ñalá) or its stylised form. 95. comp. 95. 6: wakata al-NLW E ZDNWDQ naqaÃahu). overlining (TP. AA. sifr 13. IV. wahm – mistake. taÐammul 2. error (IK.) (LC. It was used extensively in Maghrebi manuscripts for notabilia. . 122). which resembOHV WZR XQSRLQWHG E ÐV RU W Ðs. wakt – letter pointing (KM. 55). AA.

154 GLOSSARY **** al-O P DOLI DO-muŒaqqaqah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ D loop at the base (SA. III. III. 96). 95-96. 58: wa-al-O P DOLI DOmu¨DTTDTDK NXOOXK PXIDWWD¨DK O \DM ] I K DO-Ãams bi-¨ O $6 146). al-O P DOLI DO-ZDUU T \DK – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ LWV triangular base ( . SA. III. al-O P DOLI DO-mukhaffafah – WKH O P DOLI OLJDWXUH FKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ MRLQLQJ WKH IRRW RI WKH DOLI WR WKH H[WUHPLW\ RI O P RQ WKH EDVH OLQH (SA.

maÁ ¨if. ray¨ Q QDVNK. DQG XVHG LQ WKH 0DPOXN SHULRG H[FOXVLYHO\ LQ WKH rectilinear family of scripts (mu¨aqqaq.

144). al-DTO P DO-\ ELVDK – rectilinear scripts (such as al-mu¨aqqaq and al-ray¨ Q. \ ELV – rectilinear. ant. 97: wa-O \DN Q K GK DO-VKDNO LOO I TDODP DO-naskh wa-P VK NDODKX ZD-I TDODP DO-mu¨aqqaq wa-P VK EDKDK 0-  $6 146). 6$ III. of raÃb (of a letter or script) (AS. **** al-\ µ al-U ML¶ah VHH U MLÑah.

  8'  $6  /0 ... 6$ .

 FRPSPDEV Ã. yad SO D\GLQ D\ GLQ.

\DU ¶(ah) – reed. DM. 701: faLGK ODP \DNXQ PDEU \DQ ID-KXZD \DU Ñah wa-al-jamÑ \DU Ñ ). 42). reed pen (IK. – hand. used in the expressions such as ¶alá yad. UA. II. in the hand of) (OT. I \DG. 393. . 86. KD. bi-yad and ¶an yad (copied by. FRPS \DP Q DQG NKDÃÃ.

CM.39: katabahu muÐallifuhu bi\DP QLKL DO-G WKLUDK. no.GLOSSARY 155 \DP Q – right hand (e.g.

 PD\P Q DK.

– RQH RI WKH KRQRULILFV HSLWKHWV.

. RI WKH ZRUGV NLW E ULV ODK QXVNKDK DQG WKH OLNH &. .  DO-nuskhah al-mub UDNDK DOPD\P QDK.

 .

Additions aux dictionnaires arabes. Algiers. AH = Ñ ELG 6XOD\P Q DO-0DVK NK  $QP  al-WDZWK T I DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE I DO-qarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar. AG = Adam Gacek. ed.ABBREVIATIONS 1. A. AC = Adam Gacek. “Das arabische Papier”. 1967. von Karabacek. AF = Oleg F. AD = E. AK = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Ñ$O PDW DO-NLW EDK DO-Ñ$UDE \DK I DO- . Ivanov. transl. Damascus. “Arabic bookmaking and terminology as portrayed by Bakr al-. ed. Fagnan. 1989. 1981. Beirut. “The art of illumination”. 1414/1994. Gray. 5 (1990-91): 106-113. Akimushkin and Anatol. Mu¨ammad Bahjah al-$WKDU  %DJKGDG&DLUR  $+ AB = Johannes Pedersen. 1923.1. Sources/References -AAA = Mu¨ammad ibn Ya¨yá al-‚ O  Adab al-NXWW E. Al-. “Arabic calligraphy and the ‘Herbal’ of al*K ILT  D VXUYH\ RI $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV DW 0F*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\´ Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. B. Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. Max Weisweiler. ed.DU P LEQ 0X¨ammad al-SamÑ Q  Adab al-LPO Ð wa-alLVWLPO Ð. Arabische Paläographie. The arts of the book in Central Asia.LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ ÑÁat al-WDVI U¶´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Vol. AJ = J. 1979: 35-57. Riyad. AI = ÑAbd al-.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE PXQGKX QDVKÐatih |attá Ña€r al-LE Ñah. 2 (1989): 37-53. Paris/ London. AE = Adolf Grohmann. ±aydar Ghaybah.VKE O LQ KLV µ. 2-3 (1887): 87-159. Wien.

15.ABBREVIATIONS 157 makhà à W DO-naqà wa-al-shakl wa-LVK U W XNKUá”. Manuscripts of the Middle East. London/Oxford. After Timur: QurÐans of the 15th and 16th centuries A. Montreal. AO = Adrian Brockett. “Arabic paleography: the development of early Islamic scripts”. The Abbasid tradition: QurÐans of the 8th to the 10th centuries AD. 1982: 1. The art of the pen: calligraphy of the 14th to 20th centuries. McGill University. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Descriptive catalogue.D. 382-398. binding and paper”. AT = Ni  O ÑAbd al-Ñ$O $P Q ³$GDZ W DO-kLW EDK ZD-PDZ GGXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-. Safwat. AL = . 4 (1989): 144-149. 1996. “Arabic numerals”. “Al-Ñ$O P W ZD-al-UXP ] Ñinda al-muÐalOLI Q DO-Ñ$UDE TDG PDQ ZD-¨DG WKDQ´ Al-7XU WK DO-shaÑE . AQ = David James. Mu¨VLQ 0DKG  /HLGHQ  AM = Adam Gacek. Manuscripts of the Middle East. London/Oxford. 1996. AV = François Déroche.VO P \DK´ Al-Mawrid. 1.4-5 (1963-4): 22-37 [436-451]. AS = Adam Gacek. by Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  5DEDW   -360. Ars Islamica. 2 (1987): 45-67. 1992. AR = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. “Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors”. 8 (1941): 65-104. London/Oxford.4 (1986): 131-137. ed. nos. Al-MaÁ GLU DOÑ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK DO-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah 1790-1930. 1992.LW E DOI OD\ODK ZD-laylah. no. AP = Nabia Abbott. decoration. AW = Nabil F. “Aspects of the physical transmission of the QurÐ Q LQ WK-century Sudan: script. New York. Arabic lithographed books in the Islamic Studies Library. . AN = Richard Lemay.

Leiden. CM = Adam Gacek.. Montreal. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of the ‘0DT P W¶ RI ±DU U 06&DLUR$GDE . CL = Jan Just Witkam. CD = Arthur J. 1991. “A collection of QurÐanic codices”. CT = Pierre A. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. 1958. 27-28 (1981): 177-196. The Chester Beatty Library. Dublin. -CCA = Adam Gacek. “kBlurbsl WDTU Ì) from fourteenth-century Egypt”. 1982 . Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies. London.O V DO-%DJKG G  %XO JK DO-DUDE I maÑrifat a|Z O DO-ÑArab %HLUXW ' U DO-Kutub al-Ñ. 1984-85. 4 (1991): 35-53. CI = Adam Gacek. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands.OP \DK >"@ BL = Franz Rosenthal.158 ABBREVIATIONS -BBA = Ma¨P G 6KXNU DO. Arberry. MacKay. Arabic manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: union catalogue. Oriens. Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University.

no. DB = R.4 (1971). M. London. Iskandar.S. Paris. Blachère. Dictionnaire .´ Transactions of the American Oriental Society. N. 61.Z. Denizeau. Dictionnaire arabe-français. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library. Chouémi and C. CW = A. De Biberstein Kazimirski. 1967. 1960. -DDA = A.

“The diploma of the Egyptian calligrapher ±asan al-5XVKG ´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Goiteinls ‘A Mediterranean societyl. A dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic-English. “Deux fragments coraniques maghrébins anciens au Musée des arts turc et islamique dlIstanbul”. fasc. fasc. Dictionnaire arabe-français. 1967. Paris.. NY. ed. de Premare. DR = Donald P. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. DF = Mu¨ammad ibn Sayf al-' Q $\GDPXU Al-Durr al-IDU G ZD-albayt al-qaÁ G.LW E DO-GKDNK Ðir wa-altu|af.D.2 (1938): 141-151. ed. 59 (1991): 229-235. DQ = François Déroche. Beryus. Revue des études islamiques. Little. 1994. Beirut. DT = Tawfik Canaan. ed.M. 1994.. Frankfurt.-L. A dictionary of the Arabic material of S. J.1986. 0DPO N studies review. ±amd al-. Ithaca. 4.ABBREVIATIONS 159 arabe-français-anglais: langue classique et moderne. Wiesbaden. 4th ed.1 (1937): 69-110. Archeological studies. DS = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  Ma¨P G 6DO PDK &DLUR  ]awÑ al-Áub| al-musaffar. DC = A. 4 (1989): 44-55. DD = ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  Al-Durar alIDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-DU T 0DNNDK DO-MuÑaÌÌamah. DM = Hans Wehr. DH = A¨mad ibn al-5DVK G LEQ DO-Zubayr. “The decipherment of Arabic talismans”. 1984. . “Documents related to the estates of a merchant and his wife in late fourteenth century Jerusalem”. 2 (1998): 93-193.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-<DP PDK  DE = Martin Hinds and El-Said Badawi. 5. DP = Adam Gacek. DG = Werner Diem. Paris. Kuwait. 1989. Cowan. . 1993 .

1993. ER = Encyclopaedia Iranica. New ed. Leiden.d. London/ Oxford. 1986. Istanbul. transl. London (later Costa Mesa.S.S. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK FI = M. The decorated word: QurÐans of the 17th to 19th centuries. 5 . London. 1998. Dimand. 1979. Anna Cantadini and Tim Stanley.EU K P = KLGDK “Fahrasat al-makhà (1976): 164-168. 1995: 93-101. EI = The Encyclopaedia of Islam. “Llemploi du parchemin dans les manuscrits islamiques: quelques remarques liminaires”.. 1995: 17-57. n. eds. -FFD . 1999. The codicology of Islamic manuscripts.VO P \DK. 1997. FK 5DP]DQ ùHúHQ HW DO Catalogue of manuscripts in the Köprülü Library. ed.160 ABBREVIATIONS DW = Manijeh Bayani. New York. Baghdad.. EM = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG ³(DUO\ PHWKRGV RI ERRN FRPSRVLWLRQ DO0DTU ] lV GUDIW RI WKH µ. E. Calif. Yarshater. Meisami and P.EU K P 0XU ZDK ) DO-makh TDU Ð W WDE T \DK Beirut/Damascus. Starkey. 1982 . Encyclopedia of Arabic literature.EU K P .). 1960 . A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá. Cairo. Proceedings of the second Conference of al-)XUT Q Islamic Heritage Foundation. London. -EEA = J. EP = François Déroche. FM . FJ = IÑWLP G < VXI DO-QuÁD\U  Fann al-WDMO G Ñinda al-0XVOLP Q. Al-)XQ Q DO-. à W´ Al-Mawrid.LW E DO-khiÃaÃl”. Part 1.

Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1966. Baku. Wiesbaden. Cairo. A¨mad Mu¨ammad Ñ Và. -GGA = Grundriss der arabischen Philologie. . HN = Ñ \LGDK . 50-99. herausgegeben von W. Histoire des bibliothèques au Maroc. 1967. FT = Oktay Aslanapa. 6 (1991): 41-58. ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q &DLUR  5. Khudozhestvenno-tekhnicheskie materialy i terminologiia srednovekovoi knizhnoi zhivopisi. FZ = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T Al-)XQ Q DO-]DNKUDI \DK DO. Cambridge.U. Fischer. HD = A. 1982. Cairo. Kaziev (Gaziev). 1994.VO P \DK I DO-ÑaÁr al-Ñ8WKP Q . A Grammar of the Arabic language. HT = Adam Gacek. GL = W. transl. )XQ Q DO-Turk wa-ÑDP Ðiruhum.ABBREVIATIONS 161 FN = Ibn al-1DG P Fihrist lil-1DG P %HLUXW ' U DO-MaÑrifah. -HHB = Ahmed-Chouqui Binebine. kalligrafii i perepletnogo iskustva. Rabat. Istanbul. 1987.EQ $E ±DP GDKls didactic poem for bookbinders”. 3rd ed. ed. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft. 1992. Wright. 1987. 1978 (reprint of the Cairo edition of 1929). HI = Mu¨ammad Murta á al-=DE G  ³±ikmat al-LVKU T LOá kutt E DOI T´ 1DZ GLU DO-makh  W. ³.EU K P 1DÁ U ²arakat nashr al-NXWXE I 0LÁU I DOqarn al-W VLÑ Ñashar.

ID = JaÑfar ibn Ñ$O DO-'LPDVKT  Al-. 1983.\   LEQ 0 Vá al-Ya¨ÁuE  Al-.1981. J.M ] W DO-|DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 0X|ammad % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁEDK Q .EWLK M EL-Q U DO-6LU M. of Chicago. Beirut. 1973. IB = G. “ÑIlm al-makhà 144-145. Déroche and F. 8.2 (1979): 221-284.H. Beirut. IP = ±usayn Ñ$O 0D¨I Ì. ed. 5 (1976): IR = ShaÑE Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-!WK U DO-4XUDVK  ³$O-Ñ. 1997: 57-63.OP Ñ ilá maÑrifat uÁ O DO-ULZ \DK wa-WDT\ G DO-VDP Ñ. no. )DKP 6DÑd. Petherbridge. Bosch. à W´ Al-Mawrid. Richard.August 18. ed. Qum. Cairo/ Tunis. Cairo. A¨mad ‚aqr. “Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-MuÌaffar”. 1981. Paris. 1319 A.162 ABBREVIATIONS -IIA = Adam Gacek. IH = A¨mad al-±XVD\Q  . 1389/1970. May 18 . 1995: 123-136. Univ. The Oriental Institute.Q \DK DOUDEE Q \DK I DO-ÃDU TDK DO-ShaÑE Q \DK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient.. . IT = Mu¨DPPDG 0DU \ W  ÑIlm al-taÑmiyah wa-LVWLNKU M DO-muÑammá Ñinda al-ÑArab. 1401 AH [1989 or 1990].1987? . ed. “Human element between text and reader: the LM ]D LQ $UDELF PDQXVFULSWV´ The codicology of Islamic manuscripts. IJ = Jan Just Witkam. Chicago. F. IM = Ñ. IN = A¨mad ibn MaÐP Q DO-%DOJK WK  Al-. IK = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ 0X¨ammad ibn al-6 G DO-BaÃDO\DZV  Al-Iqti  E I VKDU| adab al-NXWW E.VK UDK LOá ma| VLQ DO-WLM UDK. Islamic bindings and bookmaking: a catalogue of an exhibition. Damascus. London. Carswell and G.

Al-0DQ KLO. JM = Mu¨ammad ibn ±asan al-„ E  . Ph. 6 pl. S. 20. ed.PLÑ ma| VLQ NLW EDW DO-NXWW E. 1982. .LW E DO-WDONK Á I PDÑULIDW DVP Ð alDVK\ Ð.1961..PLÑ li-DNKO T DO-U Z ZD. Damascus.EU K P “Jildat muÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU yah”. 1985.. 0DMDOODW . JN -DP O DO-' Q LEQ DO-MuÃahhar al-±LOO  Al-Jawhar al-na{ G I shar| maniq al-7DMU G.D. 1962.LW E DO-Ñ$UDE DO-makh  wa-Ñilm almakh  W (= Le manuscrit arabe et la codicologie). ed. Riyad. ¨  Kashf al-ghi Ð.1 (1958): 81-106. KB = A¨mad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$\\ VK 6XND\ULM Kashf al-|LM E ÑamPDQ WDO Tá maÑa al-Shaykh al-7LM Q PLQ DO-a€| E. KC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-. -KKA 6XKD\ODK < V Q DO--XE U  Al-Kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-taDZZXUXK I al-ÑuÁ U DO-Ñ$EE V \DK. Algiers. ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. 1997. Baghdad. JL = ÑAbd al-Laà I .. 1969. Cairo. ÑIzzat ±asan.l.G E (Cairo). KD $E +LO O DO-Ñ$VNDU  .XOO \DW DO. 1363 [1984]. Qum. University of Michigan. 1962.G E DOV PLÑ. Beirut.n. KF = Ayman FuÐ G 6D\\LG Al-.KL] QDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr al-Sulà Q DO-±asan al-awwal”. “Islamic wiraqah ‘stationeryl during the early Middle Ages”. 1317 KH = Mu¨ammad ibn SaÑ G 6KDU I  Khuà à al-maÁ |if Ñinda al0DVK riqah wa-al-0DJK ULEDK PLQ DO-qarn al-U ELÑ ilá al-Ñ VKLU DOKLMU . s. -JJA = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  Al-. KG = JaÑfar ibn Khi r al--DQ [1889] (lithographed). no. 38 (1989): 7-103. [Tehran?].ABBREVIATIONS 163 IW = Muhammad Faris Jamil. 1983.

1316-21 A. KR 6LK P 0X¨ammad al-0DKG  'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. RDVK G DOÑ.Q Q  /RQGRQ  -91. ed.H. 1.LW E TDEOD LNKWLU Ñ al-ÃLE Ñah”.H.240 (1984): 61-68.VO P . 2. 1. no. KK $E DO-4 VLP Ñ$EG $OO K DO-%DJKG G  ³.164 ABBREVIATIONS KI =DN 0X¨ammad ±asan. no. London. 1978. Cairo.2 (1973): 43-78. 1981. Safadi.LW E DO-maÁ ¨if”. KM = Ñ$O LEQ . KN = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ 6DÑ G DO-' Q  Al-MuqniÑ I UDVP PDÁ |if al-amÁ U. KS < VXI DO-. Fehervari and Y. Materials for the history of the text of the QurÐ Q. no. KT = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ $E ' Ð G DO-6LMLVW Q  ³.VP ÑLO LEQ 6 GDK .DWW Q  ³. ed. 1937: 125-161. “Al-. by Arthur Jeffery. KU = Ñ$EG $OO K LEQ -DÑIDU LEQ 'XUXVW \DK 'XUXVWDZD\K. 1 (1963): 26-48. Á KL = G.LW E DO-NXWW E ZDifat al-GDZ K ZD-al-qalam wa-taÁU IXK ´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid.LW E. no.KDWDP W DO-‚a¨ ¨ al-%XNK U ´ DaÑwat al¨aqq. Mu¨ammad ‚ GLT 4DP¨ Z  Cairo.3 (1964): 1933. Leiden. 2 (1946): 9-18. Al.LW E DO-mukhaÁÁaÁ. KJ = Ñ8WKP Q DO-KaÑÑ N ³DO-Khià Ãah al-7 QLV \DK´ Majallat al-maktabah al-Ñ$UDE \DK (Cairo). 1400 years of Islamic art: a descriptive catalogue.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK ZD-al-bashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO-7XU WK DO-.

Wiesbaden.XZDLW 1977.LW E DO-zuhd. ed. KZ $VDG LEQ 0 Vá.LW E DONXWW E. . ed.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð DQG ÑAbd al-±usyan al-)DWO  . . Raif Georges Khoury. 1976. . .

500). Descriptive catalogue of a collection of Arabic manuscripts in the possession of E. Ben Cheneb. -MMA = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad ibn al-± MM DO-Ñ$EGDU DO-) V  AlMadkhal. “The library of šay° K OLG DO-âDKUD] U DO-1DTãDEDQG «´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. Al-MaÁ GLU DO-Ñ$UDE \DK OL-taÐU NK al-Maghrib: al-fatrah al-muÑ Áirah. 2 (1987): 68-87. 1984. Arabic-English lexicon. Localities and dates in Arabic manuscripts. Cairo. Rev. Manuscripts of the Middle East. LT = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³/DP¨at Ñan taÐU NK DO-khaÃÃ al-Ñ$UDE I al-gharb al-. 5 (1990-91): 123-136. LL = Edward William Lane. “Liste des abréviations employées par les auteurs arabes”. Cambridge. MB = al-Malik al-MuÌDIIDU < VXI LEQ ÑUmar al-*KDVV Q  Al-Mukh- . by Mu¨ammad al0DQ Q  5DEDW   361-382. 48 (1989): 21-29. Brill. 1929. LM = ±XVD\Q LEQ < V Q LEQ 0X¨ammad al-. LS = Frederick de Jong and Jan Just Witkam. Baghdad.S.VO P LOá al-qarn 19”. LC = Adam Gacek. 1992. LB = Jan Just Witkam. “The language of catalogues of Arabic manuscripts”. Revue africaine. 1911-1931. 302-303 (1920): 134-138. LD = P.ABBREVIATIONS 165 -LLA = Lughat al-ÑArab. WLE Lam|at almukhtaÃLI I ÁLQ Ñat al-khaÃÃ al-Áalif. ed. 1978 (catalogue no. +D\ 0X¨ammad al-'DZVDU  Kuwait. Leiden. ed. Samarrai. van Koningsveld and Q. “Lists of books in Arabic manuscripts”. 1790-1930. MELA Notes.J. LE = M.

1391/1971.U T . ed. | MI = Mu¨ammad Ri á al-0 PDT Q  MuÑjam al-UXP ] ZD-alLVK U W. Cairo. ME = A. Beirut. “Le muÁ¨af de la Mosquée de Cordoue”.4 (1986): 185-248. no. . 1913.d. Mu¨ammad Ñ Vá 1989. MH = Ñ8WKP Q LEQ DO-‚DO ¨ al-6KDKUD] U  Muqaddimat Ibn al-‚DO I ÑXO P DO-¨DG WK. Beirut. 20 (1970): 88-137. Beirut. A medieval Muslim scholar at work: Ibn „ Z V DQG KLV OLEUDU\. 1992. 230 (1938): 551-575. MF = al-±asan ibn ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P DO-5 PDKXUPX]  Al-Mu|addith al-I Áil bayna al-U Z ZD-al-Z Ñ . Damascus. ML = ÑAbd al-Ra¨ P LEQ Ñ$O LEQ 6K WK DO-4XUDVK  MaÑ OLP DONLW EDK ZD-PDJK QLP DO-i€ EDK. MD = Mu¨ammad ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] 0DU] T ³$O-MuÁ¨af al-VKDU I GLU VDK IDQQ \DK´ Majallat al-MajmaÑ al-Ñ.OP DO-Ñ.166 ABBREVIATIONS ‚ taraÑ I IXQ Q PLQ DO-ÁunaÑ. Beirut. ed.G DO-Mawlá.O W DO-NLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. Mu¨ammad A¨PDG . 1972. 1349 [1930]. Mu¨ammad Ñ$MM M DO-Khaà E Beirut. 1995. Lamare. 1992. Leiden. MK = Etan Kohlberg. MC OL¨ \DK . Journal asiatique. MJ = Mu¨ammad ibn A¨mad al-=LIW Z  ³0LQK M DO-iÁ EDK I PDÑrifat al-khuà à wa. n. 15. MM = ÑAbd al-% VLà al-Ñ$OPDZ  Al-MuÑ G I DGDE DO-PXI G ZD-alPXVWDI G. ed. 1980. Damascus.XZDLW 1 M =D\Q DO-' Q MuÁawwar al-kha al-Ñ$UDE . MG -DO O DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q DO-6X\ W  Al-0X]KLU I ÑXO P DOlughah wa-DQZ Ñih . MN = Ñ$I I DO-%DKQDVV  MuÑjam mu€ala| W DO-kha al-Ñ$UDE ZD-alkha  Q.

Wiesbaden/ Stuttgart. 14. 55/57 (1987/89): 343-379.S. no. no. Cairo. MT = Adam Gacek. no. pt. “Maîtres et disciples: la transmission de la culture calligraphique dans le monde musulman”. N.6 (1993): 641649. MY = François Déroche. “Makhà à W ÃLEE \DK Ñ$UDE \DK I 0DNWDEDW DO'LU V W DO-6KDUT \DK DO-. Revue des études islamiques. Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée. 1936-38. London/Oxford.2 (1989): 201-203.4 (1962). 52.. MR = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. 1992. MP = Martin Levey.IU T \DK´ WUDQVO Ñ$GQDQ -DZZ G DO-„umÑah. ed.EU K P DO-6DPDUU Ð  ³$O-MukhtaÁDU W ZD-al-UXP ] I DO-tuU WK DO-Ñ$UDE ´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK DO-8UGXQ . 32 (1987): 105-114. MW . Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Mu¨\ DO-' Q ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q 5DPD  Q 'DPDVFXV  MS = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DÐU NK DO-muÁ¨af al-VKDU I EL-alMaghrib”.1 (1969): 3-47. 75/76 (1995): 81-90. Al-Mawrid. . Materialien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte. MQ = A¨mad Rizq MuÁÃafá al-6DZ ¨LO  ³0LQ TD  \ DO-¨arf alÑ$UDE  DO-taÁ¨ I ZD-al-ta¨U I´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. “Les manuscrits arabes datés du IIIe/IXe siècle”. 18. 15. 1976-87. MV = François Déroche. “Mediaeval Arabic bookmaking and its relation to early chemistry and pharmacology”.LQ Q  Al-Manhal alU Z I PXNKWDÁar ÑXO P DO-|DG WK DO-QDEDZ . MZ = Rudolf Sellheim. The master scribes: QurÐans of the 11th to 14th centuries. MU < T W LEQ Ñ$EG $OO K DO-±DPDZ  MuÑjam al-XGDE Ð.ABBREVIATIONS 167 MO = David James. Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK.

A. NT = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-0DTTDU  Naf| al- E PLQ JKXÁn alAndalus al-ra E. Damascus. 1367/1949.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. 2 (1987): 8-17. 13-14 (1960-61): 159-194. “Al-1XZD\U ¶V FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI $UDELF VFULSWV´ Manuscripts of the Middle East. NI = Ñ$EE V DO-Ñ$]] Z  ³1XÁ nos.LW E DÁ-ÁLQ ÑDWD\Q¶ RI $E +LO O DOÑ$VNDU DQG WKH µ0DÅal as-V Ðir’ of ]L\ Ð al-' Q LEQ DO-AÅ U´ Oriens. 45 (1977): 1-87. NO = Dimitri Gutas. Cairo. 1. “Nouveaux documents sur scribes et copistes”. “Notes and texts from Cairo manuscripts. “Notes on some old manuscripts of the ‘Adab al-N WLE¶ RI . 1 ILPELU  HG . ND = J. NZ = A¨PDG 6KDZT %LQE Q “NiÌ P DO-taÑT EDK´ Fann fahrasat al- . NM = ÑAbd al-Ñ$] ] DO-‚ ZLU  ³1DGZDK DO-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ZDÑilm al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Ñ ODP DO-kutub. 2 (1987): 126-130.168 ABBREVIATIONS -NNA = A¨mad ibn ÑAbd al-:DKK E DO-1XZD\U  1LK \DW DO-DUDE I IXQ Q DO-adab. 13. Cairo. NC = Adam Gacek. II: texts from Avicenna’s library … ”. Bonebakker.VO P \DK DÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K OLWK OL-MuÐassasat al)XUT Q OLl-7XU WK DO-.3-4 (1971-72): 180-186. “ Na¨wa muÑjam taÐU NK OL-muÁÃala¨ wanuÁ Á IXQ Q ÁLQ Ñat al-makhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ ‚L\ QDK ZD-|ifÌ al-makhà à W DO-.2 (1992): 679-683. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 1418/1998: 341-393. Sadan. Á I LM ] W DO-khaÃà à Q´ Al-Mawrid..EQ 4XWD\EDK WKH µ.EU K P 6KDEE ¨. 1342/1923 . 1928. no.VO P  . Revue des études islamiques. NS = S. NH . NW = Mu¨DPPDG LEQ $E DO-Khayr al-±DVDQ DO-'LPDVKT  Al1XM P DO-VK ULT W I GKLNU EDÑ{ al-ÁDQ ÐiÑ al-mu|W M LOD\K I Ñilm alP T W (!). London.

Peinture et arts du livre: essai sur la littérature technique indo-persane. Prilozi Orientalnu Filologiju. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée (forthcoming). 26 (1976): 199-212. M. “The paper trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”.W. OH = J. Houdas et les écritures maghrébines”. OM = Adam Gacek. “O. by FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR  -O- OD = François Déroche. Modernization in the Sudan: essays in honour of Richard Hill. PT = Terence Walz. Paris/Teheran. New York. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 5 (1960): 124-143. -PPA = Yves Porter.ABBREVIATIONS 169 makh 65-72. OS = Adam Gacek. Daly. OT $GDP *DFHN DQG $OL <D\FLR÷OX ³2WWRPDQ-Turkish manuscripts in the Islamic Studies Library and other libraries of McGill University”. ed. 1992. “On the making of local paper: a thirteenth century Yemeni recipe”. Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH HW la codicologie). Rabat. 1985: 29-48. . 2 (1987): 88-95.H. “Ownership statements and seals in Arabic manuscripts”. “Observations on the text and translation of al--DUV I ¶V 7UHDWLVH RQ µ+LVED¶´ Journal of Semitic studies. PK = S. Derek Latham. Aliþ “Problem kratica u arapskim rukopisima sa spiskom arapskih kratica iz 16 vjeka”.  W PDGNKDO ZD-qa{ \ . Fontanus: from the collections of McGill University. 1994 : 75-81. 10 (1998): 41-63.

RI = W.4 (1986): 259-270. RN = Nabia Abbott. Hanaway and Brian Spooner. Chicago. “Shar¨ al-manÌ PDK DO-mustaà EDK I Ñilm alNLW EDK´ HG +LO O 1 M  Al-Mawrid. 195772. .EU K P 6KDEE ¨ ³6LMLOO TDG P OL-0DNWDEDW . a new direction”. SD = R. no. Reading nastaÑliq: Persian and Urdu hands from 1500 to the present. 1938. 1960. 2 (1956): 339-372. -RRA = William L. Beirut. Costa Mesa. Bookbinder. Badr A¨mad ]ayyif. Cairo. 4DZ Ñid fahrasat al-makh Ñ$UDE \DK. 1995.  W DO- QS = Mu¨ammad SaÑ G DO-4 VLP  4 P V DO-ÁLQ Ñ W DO-6K P \DK. ed. Paris. 1 (1987): 21-38. Paris. Beirut. Chicago.PLÑ 4D\UDZ Q´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. SL = Nabia Abbott. Studies in Arabic literary papyri. 1383/1963 (reprint of ‘al-„abÑah al-$P U \DK¶ 1920). -SSA = A¨mad ibn Ñ$O DO-4DOTDVKDQG  ‚ub| al-aÑshá f ÁLQ Ñat alLQVK Ð. Dozy. Bull. SJ . 1973. 3rd ed.170 ABBREVIATIONS -QQF = ‚DO ¨ al-' Q DO-Munajjid. SM = Ibn al-BaÁ Á. 1410/1990. “Rebinding Islamic manuscripts. The rise of the North Arabic script and its ¯urÐ QLF GHYHORSPHQW. 1967. SK $E -DÑfar A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-Na¨¨ V ‚LQ Ñat al-NXWW E. Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes. 15.

Paris/Istanbul.Q Q  London. TB = Ya¨yá ibn Sharaf al-1DZDZ  Al-7LE\ Q I QurÐ Q.H. 1303 A. . 5DVK G DO-Ñ. 1997: 135-150.VO P . “Un traité à l’usage des scribes à l’époque nasride”. Damascus. MS (Paris. TD = ÑAbd al-±ayy al-. no. TF 0XU G DO-5DPP ¨ ³7DV I U 0DNWDEDW DO-4D\UDZ Q DO-ÑDW TDK´ 'LU V W DO-makh  W DO-. ed. Damascus. 1995. 41. ed. Rabat. ed. arabe 6844).H.LW E DO-WDU W E DO-LG U \DK ZD-alÑDP O W ZD-al-ÁLQ Ñ W ZD-al-PDW MLU ZD-al-| ODK DO-ÑLOP \DK. 1994: 11-32. G E |amlat al- TC = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³7DTQ \ W LÑG G DO-makhà à al-MaghriE ´ Al-Makh  al-Ñ$UDE ZD-Ñilm al-makh  W /H PDQXVFULW DUDEH et la codicologie).K Q ³6DP Ñ W PXÐallaf W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. -TTA = Yvette Sauvan. Ricard.VO P \DK ED\QD LÑWLE U W DO-P GGDK wa-albashar: aÑP O DO-MuÐtamar al-7K Q OL-MuÐassasat al-)XUT Q OLO7XU WK DO-. 1989: 49-50. Bibliothèque nationale. TK = Mu¨ammad ibn Mu¨ammad al-4DODO V  Tu|af al-NKDZ ÁÁ I uraf al-NKDZ ÁÁ. TE = Adam Gacek. François Déroche. 1925. ST = A¨mad ibn Mu¨ammad al-6XI\ Q  ‚LQ ÑDW WDVI U DO-kutub wa¨all al-dhahab. P. “Some technical terms relative to the execution of Arabic manuscripts”. 1346-49 A. 1965. MELA notes.ABBREVIATIONS 171 SS = A¨PDG . Rabat. Paris. 50-51 (1990): 13-18.1 (1997): 55-90. TI = „ KLU LEQ ‚ OL¨ al--D] ÐLU  7DVK O DO-PDM ] LOá fann al-muÑammá wa-al-DOJK ]. Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. Beirut.DWW Q  . TH = A¨PDG 6K NLU TaÁ| | al-kutub wa-ÁunÑ al-IDK ULV DO-muÑjamah wa-ND\I \DW  ab al-NLW E ZD-sabq al-0XVOLP Q ZD-al-IfranM I GK OLN.

172 ABBREVIATIONS TL %XUK Q DO-' Q DO-=DUQ M  TaÑO P DO-mutaÑallim DU T DO-taÑallum. 1991. HG 0DUZ Q 4DEE Q  %HLUXW  TM = Badr al-' Q 0X¨DPPDG LEQ -DP Ñah al-. TT = ÑAbd al-+ G DO-Fa O  Ta¨T T DO-WXU WK. Damascus. +LO O 1 M  7XQLV  TW = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  TaÐU NK DO-ZLU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK ÁLQ Ñat al-makh  al-0DJKULE PLQ DO-ÑaÁr al-ZDV  ilá al-fatrah almuÑ Áirah. TN = ÑAbd al-6DO P + U Q Ta|T T DO-nuÁ Á wa-QDVKUXK .LW E DO-WD\V U I ÁLQ Ñat al-WDVI U´ ed.LQ Q  Tadhkirat alV PLÑ wa-al-PXWDNDOOLP I DGDE DO-Ñ OLP ZDO-mutaÑallim. n. xx-xxxii. [Includes a facsimile of Chapter 6 from ‘al-Durr al-na  G IL G E DOPXI G ZD-al-PXVWDI G’ by Badr al-' Q DO-*KD]] @ TQ = al-Khaà E DO-%DJKG G  7DT\ G DO-Ñilm HG < VXI DO-ÑIshsh. Ñ$EG $OO K . Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient. . 1982.EU K P DO-.VKE O  ³. 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42. F. TS %DNU LEQ . Tu|IDW O DO-DOE E I ÁLQ Ñat al-kha wa-al-NLW E. Hyderabad. “Technical practices and recommendations recorded by classical and post-classical Arabic scholars concerning the copying and correction of manuscripts”. TU = ÑAbd al-Ra¨P Q LEQ < VXI LEQ DO-‚ Ðigh.DQQ Q Revista del Instituto de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid. Rabat. Déroche.d.VLU 5L\DG ' U DO-YaP PDK   -393. ±amd al-. Jedda. TP = Adam Gacek. Kuwait. 1353/1934. 1989: 51-60. ed. Paris/Istanbul. -UUA 1 U DO-' Q DO-Ñ8VD\O  ³8UM ]DK I O W GDZ W DO-N WLE´ AlDurar al-IDU Ðid al-munaÌÌDPDK I DNKE U DO-| MM ZD-ÃDU T 0DNNDK al-MuÑaÌÌamah. pl. ed. 1949. by ÑAbd al-4 GLU LEQ 0X¨ammad al-AnÁ U DO--D] O  ed.

DaÑwat al-|aqq. WS = ±DE E =D\\ W Al-:LU TDK ZD-ÁLQ Ñat al-NLW EDK ZD-muÑjam alsufun.2 (1977): 45-56. 1981-83. 1983. 17 (1971): 43-172. Ñ WB = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I Ñahd al-Sulà Q DO-Ñ$ODZ 0X¨ammad al-7K OLWK´ DaÑwat al-|aqq. 18. -WWA = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  ³$O-:LU TDK DO-Ñ$ODZ \DK Ñabra sabÑat XT G PLQ al-miÐah al-KLMU \DK DO-WK OLWKDK Ñashrata”. Beirut. Manuscripts of the Middle East. DaÑwat al-|aqq.ABBREVIATIONS 173 UD = Ñ$EG $OO K DO-+ W  Al-Ñ8PGDK ULV ODK I DO-kha wa-al-qalam.4 (1982): 10-24. . UK = al-MuÑL]] LEQ % G V ³ÑUmdat al-NXWW E ZD-ÑXGGDW GKDZ DODOE E´ HG ÑAbd al-6DWW U DO-±DOZDM DQG Ñ$O ÑAbd al-Mu¨VLQ =DN  Majallat MaÑhad al-Makh  W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 23. Beirut. WM = A¨mad ibn Ya¨yá al-WaQVKDU V  Al-MiÑ\ U DO-muÑrib wa-alM PLÑ al-mughrib. no.10 (1975): 80-92. Graz. no. 1 (1986): 49-53. Verzeichnis der arabischen Handschriften. Dublin. -VVA = Wilhelm Ahlwardt. US $GDP *DFHN ³7KH XVH RI µNDE NDj’ in Arabic manuscripts”. 16. HG +LO O 1 M  %DJKGDG  UI = The unique Ibn al-Bawwab manuscript: complete facsimile edition of the earliest surviving naskhi QurÐan. Hildesheim/New York. 1992. no. Chester Beatty Library. WR = Mu¨ammad al-0DQ Q  “Al-:LU TDK DO-0DJKULE \DK I ÑaÁr alÑ$ODZ DO-awwal”. 1980.

Oá / -XP Gá al. 2. 6 pl.XOO \DW DO.174 ABBREVIATIONS -YYM 6XOD\P Q DO-%DONK  <DQ E al-mawaddah li-GK DO-qurbá.NKLUDK / = juzÐ MD]PDK MDZ E M Ðiz (see under waqf) = jalla shaÐQXK WDMO O. 17.G E (Cairo). Tehran. 1308 [1890-1] (lithographed). no. Technical terms in the glossary = aÑlá All K PDT PDKX = ilá NKLULK / PQ / LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = intahá = baÑGX E E ED\ Q 5DMDE = taÑO TDK / = taÑ Oá = WDWKO WK / / = Jum Gá al.1 (1955): 43-48. Ñ -ZZM )DU G 6K ILÑ  ³=DNK ULI PXÁ¨af bi-' U DO-Kutub al-MiÁU \DK´ 0DMDOODW .

= ¨ Ðil (ta¨Z O ¨D\O ODK.

/ = ¨DVEXQ $OO K (¨asbalah) / = ¨ VKL\DK = taÐNK U PXÐakhkhar). nuskhah (ukhrá) / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = nuskhah-badal = nuskhah-badal. nuskhaha Ál = mukhaffaf = 'K DO-±ijjah = 'K DO-QaÑdah 5DE Ñ al-7K Q  5DMDE 5DE Ñ al-Awwal 5DE Ñ al-7K Q / / = ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah) = ra¨LPDKX $OO K WDU¨ P.

numrah / = ra¨LPDKX $OO K (tar¨ P. ra L\D $OO K Ñanhu (tar iyah).

= ] Ðidah = TDGGDVD $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨DKX WDTG V.

Á ¨ib. VXÐ O = al-VK UL¨ = shar¨. ÁDZ E (ÁDZ EXKX. Áa¨ ¨. ShaÑE Q 6KDZZ O = LQ VK ÐD $OO K LVWLWKQ Ð) = ShaÑE Q = aÁl.

 Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah). ‚afar = Áa¨ ¨ = aÁl / / / / / = Áallá All K Ñalayhi (Áalwalah) = ED\  . ra L\D $OO K .

 abbah (ta E E.ABBREVIATIONS 175 anhu (tar iyah).

faqaà / = à ED $OO K WKDU KX / / / = aà OD $OO K Ñumrahu = Ìann . = Ãurrah. rajÑ. laÑDOODKX UXN Ñ = laÑDQDKX $OO K / / / / / = Ñalayhi al-VDO P WDVO PDK. Ì KLU XQÌur / = maÑà IDK WDÑVK UDK VDP Ñ. ÑDQ IXO Q IDUÑ. Ñ UL a.

/ = Ñazza wa-jalla = ÑDMMDOD $OO K farajahu / = maÑà IDK / = 5DE Ñ al-Awwal = 5DE Ñ al-7K Q = laÑallahu = ghalaà / = I Ðidah = fa-taÐammal(hu). fa-tadabbar(hu) / = I Ðidat al-aÁl = fa-T OD = fa-\XT O = T OD TDEOD WDTG P PXqaddam). waraqah Ñ / / / / = qaddasa $OO K VLUUDKX RU U ¨ahu (taqG V.

= 'K DO-QaÑdah = qawluhu / = NXUU V DK.

malzamah. Rama  Q / = nuskhah (ukhrá) = K PLVK / = taÑO TDK / = intahá = waraqah = \XT O . NDGK  NDWDba(hu) = katabahu = badal (baddilhu). aÁl. Mu¨DUUDP O ]LP see under waqf) = al-mu¨DVKVK = muÐakhkhar muqaddam = al-muÁannif = Rama  Q = maÑÃ IDK = muqaddam muÐakhkhar = ED\ Q QXVNKDK XNKUá). tamma. ShawZ O = laÑDQDKX $OO K = matn.

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PART TWO BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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G’Ibn al-Bu© U G’après le manuscrit Reisülküttab 262 de la Bibliothèque Süleymaniye d’Istanbul”.M ] W ZD-al-WDZWK T W DO-PDNW EDK I al-ÑXO P DO-QDTO \DK ZD-al-ÑDTO \DK PLQ DO-qarn 4 h.. ilá .M ] W DQG VDP ¶ W (for LM ] W in calligraphy see the section on calligraphy below) A¨mad. Rivista degli studi orientali. A¨mad Rama  Q Al-./10 m. 9  . 48 (1973-74): 55-74.

“An early eighteenth-FHQWXU\ LM ]DK issued in Damietta”.1-2 (1974): 3-7. 1967. R. *OHDYH 5REHUW ³7KH LM ]D IURP < VXI DO-Ba¨U Q G. nos./16 m &DLUR :L] UDW DO-7KDT IDK +D\Ðat al. 4 (1981): 82-103. ——— “New light on the origin of the term ‘baccalaureate’”. Le Muséon. Taxation in Islam.WK U DOMiÁU \DK  % VK  Ñ8PDU 0 Vá “Dawr al-Ñilm: al-LM ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK´ Al-7XU WK al-Ñ$UDE . Islamic quarterly. Leiden.L. M.Y. and Young. Ben Shemesh.J.BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 10 h. A. 18. 87 (1974): 445-465.] Ebied. [Vol.1 contains 25 pages of specimens of VDP Ñ W.

26 (1994): 75-96.H. MuÃ Ñ al-± ILÌ.S. Les . 1974:92-110. P.M ]DW DO-¨DG WK DOODW NDWDEDK 6KD\NK DOmu¨DGGLWK Q « 0X¨DPPDG % TLU DO-0DMOLV DO-IÁIDK Q  1110 h 4XP 0DNWDEDW $\DW $OO K 0DUÑDVK DO-Ñ PPDK  A. “Al-. Amsterdam. al--DO O DO-±XVD\Q  0X¨ammad Ri   ³' Z Q DO-LM ] W DOmanÌ PDK´ 7XU WKXQ .K Q $¨PDG ³6DP Ñ W PXÐDOODI W DO-‚DJK Q DO-OXJKDZ \DK´ Majallat al-MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. 32 (1994): 115-123. -DOO E ±asan. A symposium on Islamic studies organized in cooperation with the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. no. Iran. “Ten Arabic manuscript-volumes of historical contents acquired by the Leyden University Library after 1957”. . . [Contains a number of specimens of VDP Ñ W.H. ed. 1998. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies. 18-19 October 1973. “A propos de la résurgence des ouvrages d’Ibn Qutayba sur le ¨adiÅ aux VIe/XIIe et VIIe/XIIIe siècles.M ] W DO-ÑLOP \DK Ñalá Ñahd al-Dawlah al-Ñ$ODZ \DK LM ]DW DO-Shaykh al-0XU ELà al-'DO Ð OL-$E Ñ$O DO-< V ´ DaÑwat al-¨aqq. Gérard. van. 35-36 (1414 A. Ibn „ O Q DO-'LPDVKT  0X¨ammad ibn Ñ$O HW DO 1DZ GLU DO-LM ] W wa-al-VDP Ñ W Ñala\K NKXà à NLE U DO-¨XII Ì wa-al-mu¨adGLWK Q DO-0DNN \ Q ZD-al-MiÁU \ Q ZD-al-6K P \ Q 5DUH licenses and hearings). al--DZKDUM  0X¨ammad Ñ$GQ Q ³$O-. Amsterdam. WR Sayyid Mu¨amDG 0DKG %D¨r al-Ñ8O P G-8)”. 326 (1997): 97-102. 41. Studies on Islam.M zah wa-DKDPP \DWXK I DOmakhà à al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-BaÁ Ðir (Cyprus).): 270-372. al-±XVD\Q  A¨mad.1 (1997): 55-90.] Lecomte. 'DPDVFXV ' U DO)LNU%HLUXW ' U DO-Fikr al-MuÑ Áir. Koningsveld.

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1996 – . 34 (1994): 57-75. Suppl. Leder. Oriens. “ Dokumente zum ±DG Å in Schrifttum und Unterricht aus Damascus im 6.”. Pierre A. Stefan./12. Damas: Institut français.1. Teil 2 (1969): 562-566. /HGHU 6WHIDQ 6DZZ V < V Q 0X¨DPPDG DQG 6 JKDUM  0DÐP Q MuÑjam al-VDP Ñ W DO-'LPDVKT \DK OHV FHUWLILFDWV G¶DXGLWLRQ à Damas. 550-750/1155-1349. “Certificates of transmission on a manuscript of WKH µ0DT P W¶ RI DO-±DU U 06 &DLUR $GDE . Jhdt. MacKay. LQ GHQ DOWHQ arabischen Handschriften”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.

‚DO ¨ al-' Q ³.H): 115-117. “Al-. 6KLVKLQ ùHúHQ. Ayman FuÐ G “Al-6DP Ñ wa-al-TLU Ðah wa-al-muQ ZDODK ZDTX\ G DO-al-PXT EDODK ZD-al-muÑ UD ah”. ed.P P \DK´ 7XU WKXQ .s. FayÁal al-±DI\ Q &DLUR MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK  -101.1 (1408 A. new ed.1 (1407 A. Michaux-%HOODLUH ( ³(VVDL VXU OHV VDP Ñs ou la transmission orale”.M ]DK DO-NDE UDK OLO-Sayyid Ñ$EG $OO K DO--D] ÐLU ´ 7XU WKXQ . 7 (1989): 238-252. ——— “Al-.4 (1971.1 (1985): 7-20.1 (1955): 232-251. Hamdard Islamicus. no.´ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.M ] W DO-sam Ñ I DO-makhà à W DOTDG PDK´ Majallat MaÑhad al-Makhà à W DO-Ñ$UDE \DK. al-Munajjid. 8. 8: 1019-1020. no. “Al-. 1DVKDEL +LVKDP ³7KH µLM ]D¶ DFDGHPLF FHUWLILFDWH LQ 0XVOLP HGXFDtion”.H): 172-182. 6HOOKHLP 5 ³6DP Ñ ”. 3. Hespéris.M ]DK DO-ÑilP \DK ZD-LVK PXK I DO¨arakah al-ILNU \DK EL-al-Maghrib”.2 (1406 A. 4 (1924): 345-355.. n.M ] W Ñinda ÑXODP Ð al-. no. 1. al-0DVO W  0XÁÃafá. 0DMDOODW ' U DO-²DG WK DO²DVDQ \DK. EI. 61. no.H): 107-114. no. 1. al-6DPP Q DO-± ÐLU  0X¨ammad. Fann fahrasat almakhà à W PDGNKDO ZD-qa  \ . no. 2.. Sayyid.

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72. Riyad. The calligrapher’s craft. 1998. Grube. Ahuan Gallery of Islamic Art. Hoare. 1976. Oliver.K OLG $¨PDG DQG 6D\\LG $P Q 6XOD\P Q ³0DU MLÑ al-khaÃà al-Ñ$UDE ´ Al-KhaÃà al-Ñ$UDE PLQ NKLO O DO-makhà à W. London.3 (1997): 481-526. . Ernst J. Calligraphy and the decorative arts of Islam.1987. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1406 [1986] : 241-254. Summer exhibition. no. al-< VXI . London. 259-267. [See also the English version : Arabic calligraphy in manuscripts.´ Majallat MajmaÑ al-Lughah al-Ñ$UDE \DK ELDimashq. New York. 1-27 June 1987.] b) Exhibition catalogues 'HUPDQ 0 8÷XU Letters in gold: Ottoman calligraphy from the Sakip Sabanci collection. Istanbul. Bluett.

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Hamidu Bobboyi. Hunwick. ISBN 90 04 10524 7 . Index du Grand Commentaire de Fah . The Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa to c. 1996. O. Bildatlas zum Sport im alten Ägypten. S. Volume I. ISBN 90 04 10051 2 Band 19 al-Zwaini. L. und Herb. M. A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect used by Scribes from Canaan. Stefan Reichmuth and Muhammad Sani Umar. A. with the assistance of Razaq Abubakre.). ISBN 90 04 10444 5 Band 25 Rainey. I: DER NAHE UND MITTLERE OSTEN ISSN 0169-9423 Band 12 JAYYUSI. ISBN 90 04 10068 7 Band 21 Hoftijzer. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen. 1994. ISBN 90 04 10129 2 Band 17 Neusner. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Kartwel-Sprachen. S. Tanz und verwandten Themen. Jagd. References and Index of Texts Cited. J. and Jongeling. ISBN 90 04 09599 3 Band 13 HUNWICK. M. 1994.). ISBN 90 04 10522 0 Volume III. B. R. ISBN 90 04 10523 9 Volume IV. S.HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK Abt. Hofheinz. The Writings of Central Sudanic Africa. (eds. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. 1980-1993. ISBN 90 04 10421 6 Band 24 Fähnrich. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. V. M. ISBN 90 04 09450 4 Volume II. Judaism in Late Antiquity. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 18 Orel. A. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Verbal System. Marín. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Particles and Adverbs. ISBN 90 04 09799 6 Band 16 Neusner. Mosak Moshavi and B. 2: Ab-bildungen.1: Text. 1994. Orthography.C. Chief consultant to the editor. Y. 1994. With Full DefiniKinberg. and Stolbova. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. Ibrahim. 2 Parts. A Lexicon of al-Farra tions. V. 1994. O’Fahey. Editorial Consultant: Albrecht Hofheinz. 1995. 1996. 1994. K. and O’FAHEY.L. (eds. With appendices by R. Manuel de recherche.). (ed. 1995. V. La civilisation phénicienne et punique. Judaism in Late Antiquity. J. H. R.). (ed. W. Bd. Spiel. ISBN 90 04 10009 1 Band 20 Krings. ISBN 90 04 10362 7 Band 23 . Porten. 1994. ISBN 90 04 09974 3 (Set) Band 15 Haas. and Peters. 1995. Bd. A Bibliography of Islamic Law. J.). Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. S. Part One: The Literary and Archaeological Sources. A.r al-Dı n al-Ra zı . (ed. 1995. 1996.T. Abu Salim. Steiner. Nouns.Lagarde. Roman Loimeier. E. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. und Sardshweladse. S. Compiled by R. ISBN 90 04 10521 2 Volume II. I. V. ISBN Set (2 Parts) 90 04 09821 6 Part One: æ . Compiled by John O. 1994.æ’s Terminology in his Qur æa -n Commentary. Arabic Literature of Africa. Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Pronouns.F. ISBN 90 04 10494 1 Band 14 Decker. 2nd ed. J. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. 1900. Band 22 . N.). Radtke and K. ISBN 90 04 9820 8. ISBN 90 04 09817 8 Part Two: M . Vikør. K. Materials for a Reconstruction. with the assistance of M. M. ISBN Set (4 Volumes) 90 04 10503 4 Volume I. (éd. Phonology. O. English Summaries and Extensive Citations. Numerals.

D. Judaism in Late Antiquity. 1999.2. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. 1997. 1999. The Mishnah. 1999. ISBN 90 04 11262 6 . Terms and Topics. and Porten. A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic. A. 1999. ISBN 90 04 09846 1 Band 30 Sharon. B. ISBN 90 04 11492 0 Band 46 Neusner.E. ISBN 90 04 10988 9 Band 40 Neusner. ISBN 90 04 11538 2 Band 49 Avery-Peck. Index of Names. Translated from the German by M. B. ISBN 90 04 09648 5 Volume II. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP). 1998. ISBN 90 04 10878 5 Band 36 Westendorf. ISBN 90 04 10614 6 Band 29 Corriente. Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. ISBN 90 04 11348 7 Band 44 Hunger. and Wyatt. The Empire of the Mahdi. Religious Perspectives 1999. Vol. Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches 1998.1: B. ISBN 90 04 11282 0 Band 42 Drijvers. ISBN Set (2 Volumes) 90 04 11347 9 Volume I. J. Handbuch der altägyptischen Medizin. III. The Mishnah. A Bibliography. F. 2000. 1999. Systematische Bibliographie der Hethitologie. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. J. N. Judaism in Late Antiquity.J. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic. V. ISBN 90 04 10056 3 Band 27 Strijp. 1998. Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. 1999. 1999. T. Alphabetical List of Publications 1999. 1999. ISBN Set (2 Bände) 90 04 10319 8 Band 37 Civil. J. van. G. H. Social Perspectives 1999. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Vol. W. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora 1998. ISBN 90 04 10499 2 Band 33 Gessel. D. ISBN 90 04 10127 6 Band 45 Neusner. 2: 1988-1992. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. J. Bibliography of Philosophical Thought in Islam. Vol. 1997. 1996. H. H. and Neusner. Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. 1.F. 1999. ISBN 90 04 010745 2 Band 28 Sivan. M. III. Vol. Mesopotamian Lexicography. M.G. 1997. ISBN 90 04 110836 Band 31 Török. Judaism in Late Antiquity IV. L. ISBN 90 04 010448 8 Band 32 Muraoka. 2 Volumes. The Kingdom of Kush.L. G. 1997.1. Cultural Anthropology of the Middle East.W.J. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. ISBN 90 04 11491 2 Band 47 Khan.H. and Pingree. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene. ISBN 90 04 11284 7 Band 43 Daiber. ISBN 90 04 11007 0 Band 38 Siegelová.Band 26 Halm. and Sou‘ek. The Rise of the Fatimids. ISBN 90 04 10201 9 Band 35 Hachlili. 1: A. 1999. J. H. ISBN 90 04 11186 7 Band 41 Neusner. J. Bonner. H. ISBN Set (2 parts) 90 04 10809 2 Band 34 Klengel. 1999. W. ISBN 90 04 11510 2 Band 48 Takács. 1997. J. R. ISBN Set (3 Bände) 90 04 11205 7 Band 39 Watson. R. 1999. and Healey.

U. R.J.J. The Arabic manuscript tradition. Neusner. B. 2) ISBN 90 04 11645 1 (set) Band 51 Holes. Theory of Israel. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. Judaism in Late Antiquity V. C.. R.4. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. A. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. J.2. ISBN 90 04 12003 3 Band 58 Gacek. World View.Band 50 Tal. Dialect. 2001. (2 Volumes) 2000. 2001. and Chilton. ISBN 90 04 12001 7 Band 57 Avery-Peck.. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls.J. J. A. Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. ISBN 90 04 12061 0 Band 60 Marzolph. Neusner. Where we stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism. ISBN 90 04 11892 6 Band 54 Krahmalkov.E. The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls. 2000. Band 56 Avery-Peck. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral. Judaism in Late Antiquity III. A. A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. ISBN 90 04 11858 6 (dl. and Neusner.. J.1. ISBN 90 04 11771 7 Band 55 Avery-Peck. A. 1) ISBN 90 04 11859 4 (dl. ISBN 90 04 10763 0 Band 52 Jong. and Chilton..J. Comparing Judaisms. 2001. Vol. 2000. de. A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. and Neusner. ISBN 90 04 12000 9. 1 : Glossary 2001. and Society in Eastern Arabia. Culture. ISBN 90 04 11868 3 Band 53 Avery-Peck. The Special Problem of the Synagogue. 2001. A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. ISBN 90 04 12100 5 .. Narrative illustration in Persian lithographed books.3. 2001. Ch. B. A. J. A. 2001.