Sleeping sickness


 Transmitted by a Tsetse Fly  Found mostly in Africa and North America  Higher Risk in Rural areas  Two types:  Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (East Africa)  Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (West Africa) .

Without treatment. there is progressive loss of weight and involvement of the central nervous system. .Disease Symptoms  Characterised by a chancre at site of a bite  Initial symptoms include severe headaches.  In the late stage of the disease. anaemia and rash. enlarged lymph nodes. insomnia. the disease is invariably fatal.

rhodesiense causes a more acute illness. b.Disease Pathophysiology  T. b. with onset a few days or weeks after the infected bite . gambiense causes a chronic illness after an incubation period of weeks or months  T.

Precautions & Prophylaxis  No prophylaxis available  Avoid any contact with Tsetse Fly.  Difficult as they can bite through clothing  Tsetse Flies Bite During the Day  Not repelled by any insect-repellent products  Bite can be identified easily as it is painful  Travellers should seek medical attention promptly if symptoms develop .

.  Movement and the colour blue attract tsetse flies.Precaution  Awareness of risk and insect bite avoidance is the only method of preventing infection. therefore windows should remain closed when driving through endemic areas.  Tsetse have been known to follow moving vehicles.

.Treatment  Immediate referral to tropical disease specialist  Both parasites can be detected in the blood films  In African trypanosomiasis the parasite can be isolated from the initial chancre and occasionally from cerebrospinal fluid if the central nervous system has been invaded.

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