Architectural Design

Edited by AndreasC Papadakis

OF E LEMEN T S A R CHITECTURE
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EDITOR Dr Andrcas C Pap.dakis Firs! publishcd in Crcat Brihin in 1983 by /rcl it.crural D.sign tn ifrDlina ol thc ACADEMY GROUP LTD, 42 LEINSTER GARDENS, LONDON W2 3AN Dktributed to rhc radc in ihe Unired Statcs of Amc.ic. by ST MARTIN'S PRESS,I?5 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK. NY IOOIO ISBN: I 85490 17?X Sccond cnlargcd cdition, 1992 Copyrighr @ 1983, 1992 rhc Acrdcmy Croup Lrd All righrs rcsencd The entirc contcnts of this publicatiol r!! copyright.nd cannot bc r.goduccd in any mattltcr whsts@vcr wirhout wrincn pcamissionfrom lhc publishcrs AD Profilc 49 is published as pan of .Arcrrrl"ctwal DesiSnVol/untc 53 9/10"1983 Translstcd from the Gcrman by Romrna Schncidcr. Origin.l rcrt prcpat d for public.tion by Dcitrnar Srciner. Photogrrphs illusuating lh. El€mcnts of Architccturc by JohannKdiftncr unlcss othcrwis€ crcditcd. Front and ba.k coe.r: Typological slndics of rcctangular buildings lnd U-typcs snd tow€rc by Rob Krier. lnsidc front and back cov?r.' Studcnt drawings of rhe intc.ior of thc Post Offic. Savin$ Bu*, Vicnn! by Otto wagncr and thc staircas€of thc An History Muscum, Vicnna by G Scmpc. and KV Hascnaucr. a

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EL EMENTS OF ARCHITE CTURE

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THE WALL

The mostobvious, pethapsevn the nost archoic, buildinS techniquei to lor stoneand thusto lom an homogeneous constructed ||.,ass. A long watt |.|.utteither be thick eaouehto stondalone ot it needs to be suppo ed by a systen of pillan, bs and tenacia|, outer cov ng or zet\|ork.

THE COLUMN

In a niraculous liligrce natrre has l?ft us a mosnifc.nt .ac!.lop?.lia ol pnssihilities nhith tould be e\ploite.l ia btiUins. For thousan.ls oJ\edN the basicloms of dtchit..lure hdv heen shen sisDricatt iueryrctdtion in stote. Thenodeltin! oJthe shdft. the hasednd tlrc capital sith thei onplex isml and srnrcturclrcquir.nrcnts hdsnto R.l to peiection oter the co .s? oJlime.

THEHOUSE

and erits, Theenclosing andprotectingwll, the difrercnti;tiot ol roons idside,r'indo"s os to"rces ol light. doors as entrunces toda!. Folloeing the needno lonSer be questioned the rcoJto k.ep out the ruin and cokl . . . all this,thenatkalb. rcchni.alb ot in the archiectunl oesthetic \'e muststaft again,IeaninS to build f.on t hef ndanenlols. desttuction of a de.p-.ootednadition in the twenties.

THE CITY

TheBeonetrj of the single hotse de fts itsJofte lrom the.on|tust uith li|ing nature.TheBreaterthe dehsnyondth. nunber olhouses, the 8rcott the displacenentof naturc ond the eAvircnnentond thus the nore inportant the artificial spaces b..on.. Sne.t and squorcs are the ,ehicles of public life, r'hile qtiet cells in the fo.n oJ.ourtJards arc places ol rcfuge, intinacy and rctrcat.

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CONTENTS

A' LINDEI{UFETX.I I. BETIN SIA,iIDAC. I''9

ARCHITECTUML PROFILE DESIGN No 49

EL EMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE
ROB KRIER
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Introductionby AndreasPapadakis andKennethPowell I I A Criticism of ModemArchitectur€ or About the Downfall of the An of Building 12 ELEMENTSOF ARCHITECTI.'RE 25 ELEMENTSI: INTERIORS 26 The Typology of Interior Spaces26 The Art of Composing Spaces36 210 Cciling andFloon ColumnsandPiers 44 Doon z16 Windows 49 Staircases 55 ef.ff"feVfS tr: FACADES 60 ' Enrericcs andPoials 69 Arcades 70 GroundFIoors 7t ' Bay-Wfurdows, Balconiesandloggias 72 RoofsandAttic Storrys 74 ELEMENTS ltr: GROLTND-PLAN AND BUILDING F9 RM 76 SquarcBuitdings ?8 RccungularBuildings 8l T-shapcdGr,ound Pfans 82 LTypes 85 U-Typcs 85 Building Comcs 86 Interior Courtysrds 90 OutsidcStaircrscs 92 Prosoect94 TowersandMonumcnts 94

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Th.lttarkcl Placcin Karlsruhe lookin! lowardsthe Palacc

Tle Circus in Karlsruhe

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FOREWORD
To the Second Edition

It is with sreat pride that we are reissuing the Elemcnts of Ar..hitectr,z by Rob Krier. When this issue ol Architecnu'al Desig, was first published in 1983 it was an instanr successwith both studentsand academics and quickly became a set text for a number of architecturecoursesthroughout the world. This \\as the first part to be published of Rob K er's book.4 rchitectu..l Conpos ior. When $e whole $ork appeared a few yearslater it was receivedequallyenthusiastically. In the words of one reviewer.'lt is, in its way, a masterpiece . . . [t is an immensely rich resource book,not merelyfor use in architecturaleducationas Krier himself suggests, but as an inspiredseriesof lessonsin good architectural design'. It is a greatpleasure for us to reprintthis issueand to takethe opportuniry to includeeight ofKrier.s magnificent colour drawings including the Wall. the Colrnn, the Holr.t. and lhe CiA. Rob Krier is a theoristand an architectcommittedto seeking out iuilamenral architectural truths. His anal)sis oftraditionalarchitectural form is set in thecontextofpresent-day needs. He cutsth6ugh many of the simplisric fallaciesthat lie behind modern architectural criticism and revealshow the architecural agendaremainsconstant.By severingarchirecture's association with changingfashion he sho\\'show it respondsto the b{sic human requirements which are unfulfilled by designalone. while remaininga vital medium fo communicate the most significantsocialand spiritualvalues. Krier does not fit readilyinto any of the contemporary stylisticcategories. lhoughhis traditionalism is, in some ways, deepand sincere.He is a definiteeclectic,whoseview of'rrtrdition' is original and far from sfatic. He looks at tradition not as a static quantity, anchoring humanity to the past, but as a measureof the present.Krier's analysisof traditionalarchitectural form is set in the context of present-da) needs- he is not a simple reactionary - but looks beyond them. The essence of Krier's work is to be soughtin his deepbelief in the powerof beautyand order_ not an artificially imposed, authoritarian order but that order which is pafl of the power of nature in the world. He reflects the Modern Movement's anempt to redefine the image of a church, a house or a museum and restores the place of symbolism, a guiding force through history Krier is not just a theorist.His buildingsare at one with his theory.demonsrrations of the power of tradition in lhe face of what he sees as an anarchic and destructive sabotageof ancient values. His influence on architectural design in the years since rhis book first appearedhas been immense and does not look set lo diminish. In times of confusion and decay, as well as of rebinh and creativity, Krier reassens constant values. He is a true humanist who, Iike the artists and philosophers of the Renaissance,does not reject the past but looks to it to instruct and inspirc the future. Andreas Paoadakis

A Criticism of Modern Architecture or About the Downfall of the Art of Building
This essay,and the typological studiesof the elements of architecture whichfollow, arc extracbd from Rob Krier's nngnum opus, ArchitecturalComposition,currentlybeingprepared for publication by AcademyEditions (seepage 88 for d.etaik), This 'critical and admonishing'essay, in Kier's oumwords, 'shouldseme asa logical link, connecting analyticondappliedtheory,ondit shoud be citical in orderto selectivelyfiber theachievements in architecture ofhalf whattheyrepresent.'The a century,to examine ttpologies ond,he accomponying etamplesof studentwork were madeover a pefiod ofyeals duing coursework ot the TechnicalUnirersity in Vienna, where Rob Krier has been Professorof Architecturesince 1975. ArchitecturalDeriSnis pleased andproud to be able to publishthese ettracts from what it considerswill be one of the most imponant works of architecturol theory of the twentiethcentury. I do not intendto put cenainpersonalities on trial, or to produce a lexical review with the aim of analysing every architectural contribution on the basis of its theoretical stability. WhatI wantto do is to takea goodlook at architectural which,widely tendencies supponed, haveinfluenced wholedecades; furlher, I wish to sepamte theoretical substance from fashionable trends,and to formulate propositions according to my own personal conviction. These will allow me to makea critical statement, and to give an outlookon an architecture which outlasts the present. Modern architecture, in a disastrous way, has ruined cities throughout the wholeworld. The lossof spatiality in the modern city is mostespecially Someyearsago, I published deplorable. a book on this traumatic issuein whichI tried to fathomthe reason for thisdestruction,* Spatial urbansystems havcbeen radically and callously ignored, whilethe repertoire of architectural composition just as brutally,to become hasbeendegraded the mostprimirive formulae; andall this with poor economic andtechnical 'reasons'. took placewith fte euphoricsupponof theentire This development
a Ufian Spac., Acad€rny Edirions,1979 PiazzaNavona.Rome

professional worldwhichiurally,duringthetimeofthe post-Second World War buildingboom,sawthe chance to realise thearchitecnrral revolution dreamtof in the Twenties. The principles of tie CIAM Athens Charter, whichconcemed theseparation offunctions in the city (zoning),were incorporated into building law ar an international levelandcarried outwiththerigourandscrupulousness of bu.eaucratic machines. This deplorable stateof affairs was primarily helped by the indescribable miseryin Europeafter the World War. But oddly enough, Second in Warsawfor instance, where thesituation wasworst,areas in ruinswhichwereimDortanl were for thecity'sidenlity rebuilt wirha heroic cenainq. Ofcourse this operation wascriticised by somepeople as producing merely people stage-sets. Yet thePolish hadbeen disgraced wirhour being at fault. They therefore madeWarsawa symbolof rheir national strength. Ourmodem cities andtheirbuildings aremerely functional objects, withoutanyethicalmeaning. Theyare simplyproduction areas or housilg esurtes whichpeople occupy avidlybutleave withour sonow,because uglhess sooner or lalercreates coniempt anddisgust in everyhuman being, andsometimes lgds ro delinquency. The masshousing shortage was abuse? by specularors in order for themto become richin a shonperiod of time.Theprofit-seeking people attitude of these forcedthebuildingindustry intotheuseof prefabricated systems andceftain othermaterials regardless oftheir durability.The planners, as if struckby madness, agreed to this profiteeringr by building extremely densely, theymade it even easier for buildingcompanies to makefastmoney-a viciouscircle,still rotating,but now conscious of its limits. Someplanners even welcome theconsumer/disposable ideology asa substitute for nonexistent architectural concepts. The revolution of modemorchitecture hasfailed, Evenif it is journalists difficultfor professionals to admitthisfact,for years and lay-people havebeenheaping reproaches on us andhavegivenus themostappalling repons.Citizens'initiatives, morethanbefore, problems. vehemently takeupurbandesign Thepress outand spies huntsdown, with moreandmoresuccess, the dubious operations
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The samestred after reconstrucrion

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of big buildingcompanies. Industrialisation hasnot leadto the perfection and reductionin priceof buildingcomponents as it wasexpected by Le Corbusier and his generation. All thst has beenachieved is that through mechani2ation, thearchitectural detailhasbe€nsubmined to the laws of production terhnology.Ofcoursetheca.lculation of the maximum yield simplifics the consrructional solution. Also, reducing productiontime often offcnds sgainstall practicalreasoning. Decadence in architecture and the ruin of buildingcraftsmanship go together, and canonly recovertogether. Yet I have hopethat, despitcthe discrcditarchitects and the building industry have brought uponthemselves by theirown faults , theremight be a chance for a 'renewal'. Mankindin our century continues to demonstrate its apocalyptic power.Thebrutality destructive ofself-slaughrcr is re0ectcd in all pansof industrialised problem society. Thearchitectural thatworriesme is no doubtoneof the mostobvious. bui cenainlvnot the mostthrearening problem tie twentieth ceniuryhasgivenbinh to. Thearchitectural problem will neither explode nor emitfatalradiation. But the illnesses which may be created by chemicals which newbuildings arc stuffcdwith, I hardlydareto foresee. We wait with distrust anddesperation for theresults ofall these experiments which haveplunged us into a meaningless venturc. Of cqurse theindividual case does notmanersomuch,but a host ofbad architecturc bccomes tlreatening.A few ugiy ouildingswould not be thatserious a threat,but if theyspread rc that in theendhardly one per centof real qualityis leff in buildingactivities,then the
ComDutcr Ccntrc. Vicnna

time would havecome to sit up and take notice. Unfortunately this ugliness,this private kitsch, in millions of variations floodingcity boundaries and countryside in the form of singlefamily houscs, is not viewedthat way by their inhabitants, as it is the casewith their standard upholstered fumiture and wall decorations. Education, which at one time everyone enjoyed,has suffocated underempty acs&eticism.A society,wealthier andbetter schooled thanever before, is in dangerof wastingaway b€cause wh-ich ofirs selfishress, is ofrenaccompanied gestures. by ridiculous In philosopbical terdS,thisdevelopment seems ro represenr a logical resuh.ln historical tc.ms it is certainlynot tle only example of this kind ofdevelopment. Bui thedecadence in culrureto which I refer is by no means confinedto theprivate sector;it is evenmore obvious in thesegigantic,hypenrophicbuilding complexes. Aristocratic powerwas successfully foughtagainst, andwhen it finally ccased left with an immensely to exist, we were indeed lavishbut tasteful heritage. Ifthe modern bureaucratic powerstrucandtechnocratic tures werc takenby storm what would then be left? Only a gigantic rubbish heap ofuseless equipment and,ofcourse,a scorched earth. Can we, with good conscience, cntcr into a heritageof such dubious value? Who would be willing to take over all this hideousncss; who would further enjoy all theseshapeless idylls? I think we will put the 'throw-away'ideologyinto pracriceand pull down all the rubbish.This would be necessary anywayfor economlcreasons, Suchis the sadstaning-point of contemporary architecture. He who has not yet realisedthis shouldop€n his eyesand nameme
Bourg€ois dining room in rhe 'inlemlional modemg:sryle

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the modern buildings in his close vicinity which will go down in building history for having met high architectural demands. I live in rhe centre of a metropolis called Vienna. If I think about the banalities which for the last 30 years have emetged from a ground that is pregnant with tradition, I am on the verge of tears. The illustrations which accompany this essay have been deliberately picked from anonymous modem architecture to be found in all our cities. I am convinced that rnany lay-peopleconsider theseexamples as serious contempo.ary architecture. After all, similar crireria are applied when, from a holiday catalogue,somebodymakesa decision about his 'seaside hotel'. What then should one be guided by? In caseofdoubt, certainly by the buildings which are close to the hean of the ruling panies; in vienna these would be the UN-City, the (hospital),the FEnz-roseph railway station Allgemeine Krankenhaus or the Hilton Hotel, which is also frequentedby Willy Brandl. \ 'hat also gives certainty is the taste of big companies and banks which, by way oftrendy architects,try to pep up their image and, indirectly, their products and scrvices. So it is that lay-people are spell-bound and ter.orized by the taste of magnates,who abusearchitecture for their own publicity and to be celebratedpublicly as culhrral patrons. As an exampleofhow evidentthe opportunism ofpowerful clients and architectscan be nowadays,I would like to mention two building programmes in Vienna concerning the Ballhausplatz and which have becomepolitical issues.After tlteir Schwarzenbergplatz, first glass-facadedesigns had been successfully rejected by local initiatives, architectsand clients changedtheir anitude and architectural sytle, proposing for the iwo sites buildings with historicist facades. Nobody knows whether these games were an attempl to deceive the citizens, or wheiher they were meant to be an ironical affront. The architectsconcerned,being among the busiestin vienna, They are too clever are experiencedtradesmenand entrepaeneurs. not to have a precise strategy for these kinds of prestige objects. Anyway, different groups got very concemed about the aichitectural tradition of vienna and initiated meetings and panel discussions, certainly to the amusementoftbeir supposedenemies. These 'enemies' however, veered round to go the 'alternative \r'a) : the citizens were invited to discuss proposals, to reject or agree. (heir choices being manipulated according to the strategy of clienls and architects. These 'link' (left) tactics for the fooling of citizens are disgraceful. Architecture has been degraded to a masque, ' hich changes accoiding to a required role in a strategy. It was characteristic of the ensuing discussion that the plans were never were discussed. l-ater it bp{cme apparent dealt with. Only the facades lhat the former did not exist at all. The 'Mother of the Arts' must have gone asiray in a brothel. She has fallen to the marke! value of a car-body. If this is not capable of being changed abruptly we could end this chapter with some lascivious swear-words, and could better devote our time to a good game of golf. So much for the 'ahospherical'. Nou'we can begin our analysis with a relaxed and enlightened mind. At the beginning of this century, the revolt against traditional architecture took place in several stagesand with different shades of opinion. The garden city movement fought against the overgrowing of the city. Art Nouveau, Vienna Secessionor artists and architects like Antoni Gaudi, Tony Gamier, Otto Wagner, Josef Hoffman, Adolf loos, Henry van de Velde, and many others, attemptedsuccessfully to halt the industrialised historicism of the nineteenth century. At the moment I live in an apanment block typical of the last cenrury, and enjoy the room heights and the cross-section of the three front rooms. But everything which lies behind this front is not wonh mentioning,althoughthe flat is 27 metresde€p. Twelve metres in front of my window is a facade which could be ours, decorated with rhis successfulindustrial ornamentationin Neo-Classicalstyle, exchangeable, but more bearable than an aluminium-profile facade.

Salzburg, accommo&tingNature' Ilodern alpinehorelarchirecrure.

v i c nnr .b!i l di nSbl Stl bc r '...fol l os i ngc l os el fF i s c her l onEr l ac h.O uoW agne r .nd Loos .. (quorilrion by rhe archncd lbou his building)

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Srcet in Vicnna,lar€ nin€reenrh ccorury

ClasgowSch@lof An by C.R. M&kinrosh, 1697,t9O9

:asa Mili|, Barc.lona,by A. caudi, 1905-10

All this of course doesnot rcachthe levelof architecture. The youngartists andarchitects of the nineteenth centurydetested this kind of work for which the busyplasterers werein demand, and intended to put an endto suchactivities. Theywercseeking forms whichwouldbe goodenough andthemes to takethe placeof the classical stylessuchas$e Rornanesque, theCothic,theRenaissance, the Baroque andNeo-Classicism, whichin the nineteenth cenftry wereemployed arbikarily. Mackintosh achieved thislibefation by takirg refuge in geometry. He did withoutclassicat symbols andrilied oi thea'estheiic valuis in well-proponioned inherent forms.surfaces andstructures. The wayofcomposing uaditional thebuilding bodyandirsinteriorwere notquestioned by him, His conception became very influential for a.chitectural developmenr in the twentieth century. Wirh Gaudi,the tiberation from the classical linguagehappens almostlike a sensuous eruption.The sculptural quality of his a.chitecture canbesolely anributed to $e artist Gaudi. His individual playwiih interpretations is too irrational to seta precedent. Where his architecture was takenas an example, the results were often awk'yard geometry is alsoa good faLt pos. Still, straight-forward protection for mediocre architects. The realmof irregulardesign canonly be mastered by extremely talented artists. This may be a warningto all those youngarchirects who think thatihe spontaneous individual line andliberation from geometry are the pre-conditions for becoming an artisticpersonality. TheCasa Mila, thisimmensely powerful just architectural event, cannot be repeated at everycorner.k is a uniquebuilding.The analysis of theCasa Mila, a sreel-srructured building on a freeplan witha sculpted sandstone facing,reveals a very interesting building tlpe whichwasonlypossible because of newQechnology. Butthis qualitywhichwascerrainly is a specific norexploired superficially by Gaudi.Evenif he had hadto usea traditional solid structure. a similareffectwouldhaveresulted. Thepassion for constructional subtlelies is deeply rooted in theCatalan building rradition, andGaudi certainly benefited from this background. Whoeverbuilds up and teaches an architectural theory must examine everytheorem in te.msofits universality. This means that the margin of possibleinterpretations of principleshas ro be anticipated, and all tangibleexp€riences in history have to be reviewed for practical application. Thus, onlysolidprinciples remain a matter for instruction in orderto guarantec sound high qualityof \4ork.The truly greatanistshaveindeed a command ofthis alphab€t, buttlreyarealsoaware of its limils.with theirsecure instincts. they only abandon approved rulesonce,aftera long search, theyhave founda yet unknown variant. The Art Nouveau movemcnt wasan international revoltaeainst the historicalstyles being rrivialised.The classicaldecoiative werereplaced elements by floral andotheromaments borrowedfrom nature. But although the results werefresh,powerful andofteneffusive,as best seenin the works of Horta, van de Velde and Guimard,they were too individual in rheir inlerpretation and therefore could not last for long. Theartisb ofthe Viema Sec€ssion lcd by Ono Wsgner,Hofftnan, Plecnik etc.hadessentially a moreclassical anitude andabstained gestures. fromexpressionist Wagner's Post OfficeSavings Bankin Viennaand Hoffmann'sPalaisStoclet in Brussels are wonderful highlighlsof thismovement, WhereHoffsun still formallycelebrates thedetail,Wagner exposes theconsttuctive andtechnical qualities of the building's parts. Because of the numerous engine€ring buildings he executedfor the 'Sradtbahn'network and the Donaukanal, his attention was drawn on the designqualitiesof unmasked construcrive details. The banking hall of thePostOffice Savings Bankis designed with greattechnical precision as glasssteelarchitecture, which until thenwasonly appliedto hallsand Sreennouses.

CasaBarlld.Barcelona, by A. C.udi,

Mdtro sration,Pafls. by H. cu'mard. 1899-

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PalaisStoclet, Bruss€ls, by J. Hofrmann,1905-l I

Maisondu Peuplc,Brusscls.by V. Hona, 18 -99

Roadbridgcovcr thc rivcr Norderelb€ by Mcycrs,Haue6 and Picp.r, IEE4-EE

Watcr Tower, Hamburg, by von Lindlcy and dc ChaEauncuf.1854

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Compcririon desiSn for rhe Chicago T.ibuneby A. Loos. t9:l

In retrosp€ct, oneis amazed that in the nineteenth cennrry architecwere kcpt at a distance ture and engineering from cachotherand that the latter,wherc it was found to be necessary, employed the classical ordersas if ashamed of its nakedness. Adolf Loos alwaysplaycda specialrole in the scene in Vienna. He did notjoin any group,andvehemently cririciscd theromantic air ofthe Viennese snrdios underHoffman.Horv hisbanleagaiost Ornament should beunderstood is evidentin his ownwork. He had passion for panelling the walls with precious mate als. He also -a used hollow piers and non-supporting beamswh€n,in his terms, this was required by the composition of rhe room. Somc of his intedorsweredecoGted with classical friezesin plaster: the Doric r-columns which emphasise lhc main cntranceof the Goldman commercial building at Michaelerplatzin Vienna are me.e (to be naughty). 'decorations' To accomplish lhis architccture, long spanning concrele beams werc inse ed storeyby storey which, in r-the phoographs gavethe impression ofthe carcasse. ofbeingsuitabl€ for oblong window bands.Far from it! They were filled in with bricksand, after plastering, a simpleperforated facadc appeared. 'ruughthess' This Viennese is noteasyto tolerate. VeryoftenLoos ltook up contradictory themeswhich he then piecedtogetherlike collages.Different facades in one building are oft€njoin€dtogether as if they have nothing to do with each other. The interior of spaces, (room-ptan) composiiion according to his 'Raumplan' anddivcrsified,and surprising in termsof sconcept, is interlocked -

their different heights.One of his projects,the administration buildingof the HeraldTribuncin Chicago, is oneof the strangesr aodmostmisleading statements in recent architectural history,not only because of its gesture, but becaus€ of its anticipation of many representations in contemporary an andarchitecture. Loos was a biting critic of tlre International Style,and I canonly unde.stand his entryfor theHeraldTribunecompetition asa grandiose affront against modernism l la Gropius,Hilberseimer, et al.

'The Bi8 Screw. Designfor a monunenton Karlaplan. ClacsOld€nburg. Stockholm.1966

I think thatif this buildinghadb€enrcalised, ideaandrealitywould not haveaSrecd with eachother.This builCing, in amongall the

b€comes a culrunl objecl HansHotlein.vienna 1963i T.ansfomntion, a technical

Karlski.che,vienna. by J-8. Fischervon Erlach.l7l6-21

other kitsch. would have looked monstrous and ridiculous s drawings picture similar American situations. Steinberg of the Herald Tribune Building, one Consideringtie app€arance this gigantic Doric column wilh the wondersof the might associate Antiqueworld. But lhis is not possibleif one reflectson its meaning. An office tower among many others in an American city with millions of inhabitantswould soon have lost its spirituality. vienna, benefiting from her topographicalsiruation. has always been a place where cultural controversieshave been fought out. its splendidalliancewitl Here, the southGermanBaroqu€celebrated foreign sqles in the masterly collage of the Karlskirche by Fischer von Erlach. Hildebrandt was by no meansan orthodox classicist. His Upper Belvederefor Prince Eugenis a marvellcusarchitechrral It is a building which is not deepin plan, yet its clear achievement. geometricalfacadeand carved decoration Sivesthe impressionof a gigantic complex when viewed from the city. The enormous with is still experienced of$e bulldingson the Ringstrasse solenLnity the) cannotcompetewitl pleasure. alfiough asculruralachievemens the unique musical creations of Beethoven.Schuben or Brahms' crearionswhich have not been surpassedanlwhere in $e world. Gottfried Semper, who was commissioned to design the Burgtheatre.left Vienna headover heelsafter only three years. He of the viencould not cope with the intrigues and the manoeuvres nese partner Hasenauer with whom he had to wolk. and who beslowed Semper's plans with an effusive local hue. So the depot,asoneofhis with the exception ofthe stage-set Burgtheater. late works has little in common wilh the strict discipline of his buildings in Zurich and Dresden. andWebern ofBerg. Schdnberg ccntury thr'nrusic In thet$enri!'th hr\ !Jin!'.1irn internati,)n!lrr'putrti(9. The ver) fL'$ modcrn buil,lin!. in vicnnx huve n,'t rcach.'dlhc.rrnrclcrcl. Like Ne,rcentur). lhe clear. Classicisnet the beginningof lhc ninctecnlh supported in rational Ilod.rn trlovenrcnl $'us onl) halt--hc'arledl) Vienna. Only in the romantic exp.essionism of the Viennese 'Cemeinde'(conununity)buildings ofthe T$enties and Thirties has a generationof architectsfound its identity. This tendency.which was paniall) rooled in rhe school of Ono Wagner, gained spontaneous public acknowledgement because many details employed xere known by the population as classical motifs.

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Firit Coun Th€atre,Drcsd€n.by G. Semper.lElS--4!

Ph' ofthe Bid turrenb€r8' quaner. Berlin. by A. Klein. 1930

nrade fun ideology certainly whoadhered to theBauhaus Architects colleagues. The laner were of their Viennese of the playfulncss andfor thatreason thcy werenot traditionalists, assecret branded (courtyard for a long time. These'Hof-Siedlungen' appreciated quality, in terms ofurban especially have a panicular spatial estates) as linearhousing estates; whencompared to the schematic design in Karlsruhe by walter Gropius theDammer-stock cstate for example has in Berlin.(Thissubject andSiemensstadt o. Onkel-Toms-Hiine
wiug€nsEin's House.vienna. designed by himsclfdown lo lhe lastdeBil

l8

Former slage,set dcpoi, Vicnna. bt c. ScnrDer. c 1875

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'Karl Seirz-Hol. vierna. b! F. and H. Gessncr.1926

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beendealtwith at lengthin my book lJtban Spoce,and therefore I can do better than to repeatmyself, but concentratemy thoughts I hopenobodyminds on thearchiteltuieof thebuildingsthemselves.) homecity, is alwaysthe focus my adopted that Vienna,at preseot In a similar way in which I teachmy students of my rcflections. ofarchitectural to learnexemplarilyfrom this city, my observations from this background. eventsreceivetheir orientatioin at the Akademiefiir despite his lechrreship HeinrichTessenow, for five ofApplied Art) which lasted Kunst(Academy Ang€wandte ye€rs,neverbeaame an 'echterWiener' (real Viennese).But b€cause language, he cenainly architectural restrained of his very honest, not only ofcouncil cstates thearchitects hadsome followersamong however,shouldbe pointedout in Tessenow's in Vienna.Oneaspect, at a time when many work. Shortlyafter the tum-of-the-century, with heroic designthemesof the ninearchitecs were still concerned teenthcenNry Tessenowconcentratedall his efforts on workers' his 'Cit6 lndustriellc' housing.In Rome,Tony Garder wasdesigning were ofthesedrawings andfreshness time. The beauty at thesame and in Gamier'sactualbuildings.Both Tessenow's neverreached for hereasbeingrepresentative catlbe compared Gamier'sprojects future generations. the one of the tradi ln everyculturalera thereare two carnps, The two are mostly and the other of the avant-gardists. tionalists standardbearersof the sameage and educationalbackground but the one cautiously to culturalheritage; with differentattachments tradition.Anirudes tradition,theotherboldly questioning weighing can changeqrith the life of an artist. However, at the time of not themostpolitecomments for breadandrecognition, comp€ting These,however,will be knowinglysmil€dat thirare Cxchanged. ty, forty yea$ later ... the other 'progressive'... One 'reactionary', Can art b€ the one or the other?After a short time ideological and what is left can be put in simplewords: hostilitiesdisappear he was proficient,but incaPable. An lives solelyon $e quality of meaningand lhe embodiment cautiously, b€ handled of it. All a/ r,acpublicityshouldtherefore ai leastuntil suoerficialeffecs havedied down. Even in times where culture is imposedby dictators, the socalled reactionaryand pieces ofan will only revealtheirtrue artisticquality opportunistic for everybodyafter the ideologicalasp€cts recognisable andbecome The altist is at liberty to frecly choose havebecome meadngless. sloPhimselfthrough He only disqualifies his means ofcxpression. has piness in termsof skill and design.Cezanne and incapability andportraits; landscapes with his innocuous a fantastic <euvre created with their violins, bonles8nd cuttings:Morandi with the Cubists etc, And noneof them askedPermisof vessels his arrangements sion of the public to do this or that. Sometimesthe price for the artist's freedomin his choiceof themeandway ofexpression is lifeof the artistic quality undervaluation long isolationanda concomitant of his work. The anist's biggest enemy is t]le airogance of the and familiar. what is established 'cultured' public. It only appreciates judgementwhereno commoninterpretation If oneasksfor p€rsonal everything exists,lhen a spiiefulcriticismbreaksout condemning This hasalwaysbeenthe case,andthis touchtbat is not undeNtood. stone of every new artistic generationis at the same time its challenge. my criticism of the contemporaryarchitecturalscene In this sense should not be understood simply as being bitter about failed They help me to clarify my point, to strengoen my successes. positionevenat the risk ofjudging unfairly. RecendyI wasaccused of working beyondthe 'Zeitgeist' (spirit of the age). lndeed, for years this is what I have been doing with all my strength and this. to thecritic who hasunderstood My congratulations devotion. However, to be prc4ise,I have always tiought that I was working beyondconiemporaryne€ds,and that this was the reasonwhy my

(Dalcroze lnttitute),Hell€rau.l9l0 Cymnasium

by H. Tessenow Housingeslalen€arSchwechat

D.awing from Ct, /a/6r'islle by T. Gamier, l9O4

'tfr,f, .'.,.iqi.\,

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A b a |l o ' r d c l a Mo u ch e . L ],D . b y T . Car nr er . Iq09- tJ

MaisonCassaodre, Versailles. by A. PeEer.

wasnot in dernand. archibcrure That it wasall to do with prescribing a 'Zeirgeist'nevercameinto my tnind. The .Zeitgeist'is solely created by artists and not by the public.It is a very naturalthing thattheoldergeneration hasto copewith theirachievements being questioned, andtherefore we do nor mind their struggling against us. We for our paJtwill not be supercensitive either,but nevertheless askfor a fair battle.Despitc all hindrances, betterarguments and achievcments alwaysreceive $e merit they descrve. To re-capitulate the aim of this essay, I would likc to mention words have only the purposcof putting my rhat my extensive criticismon a solidbasis.I am not concerned aboutthe normal ofgenerations, change but thattheans worldwide are beinemade To positandproverhishasrequired bankrupr. rhislong prJlogue. However, the dispute 'reactionaries' between and .avant-gardisis' anothcr has aspect; dreformer,building on a safe repenoire, benefit from immediate succcss; thelatter,seeking newways,are existentially threatened. Today,asthe 'Modernc'in all its banalityis enjoyingcultural acknowledgement, whorriesto avoidthis everybody cul-de-sac by wa) of thorough studies of historyis brandedas a reactionary. Nolr it is hewhois called to b€ar thepioneer's standard andto sufferthepriyations of a renewer. In bothcamps,only the besttalents will survivethe hardest test,while strugglingfor the realisation fo their ideas. Tony Garnier,who won the Prix de Romein 1899,renounced programmc theraditional B€aux-Ans anddevoted himselfto a theme ncglected in thenineteenth century: theindustrial city. His architecoral concepts areof ingenious clarity andvoid of any decorative romanticism. Ifone looksat Carnier's design for the prix de Rome in theBeaux-Arrs publications, onewill niricerhatir is slill tully in line with thebourgeois fashion-architectuC of the fin de sibcle. All themoreastonishing is his reversal afterwards, which hadvery muchto do with his sojourn in Rome.His projects are disciplined by an almostantique attitude. He wasusingthe qualitiesof reinforced concrete, srillnewandrevolutionary at thetime,andrefined thisnewmaterial by wayofan aesthetic whichrespected design its inherent constructional rules and logical composition. Uae citl industrielleis abook whichbelongs to the mostbeautifultheorerical contributions ofthis century. Garnier hada strong influence on the 'Moderne'whichwasdeveloping in the Twenties. But persooally he rejected the ideaof becoming a promoterof this scene.His buildings, however, did not fulfil the expectations of his powerful early work. Unfortunately heended up in a structuralism, I la perret, whichwaspopular in Frarce.Yct hisOlympic Sradium andhisabattoir of La Moucheremainoutstanding achievem€nts . Thus an avantgardist became a bourgeois traditionalist. It wassimilarwith perret. Perret'searly work conhasts in 0le same way with his later buildings in l,e Havre.UnlikeGarnier,Tessenow developed from being a poetictraditionalist inro a classicist of the Thirties. This pre-S€cond World War scene, socolourful andrich asit was, was abruptlyendedin the middleof the Thinics when, on the Continent, dictators politicalpower.Theofficial architccassumcd tural canonfor public buildingsin Germancities prescribeda primitive andinflatcd whichhadnothilg to do with Neo-Classicism the delicacy andelegance of the era of Schinkel, Weinbrenner or Klenze,Buildings in rural areas wereto represent the 'Heimatstil' (homeland rtyle). Only industrialbuilding wasspared regimentation andcouldrealise clearmodem construction withoutDroblems. The debate on thearchitectural historyofthe Third Reichis immensely burdened,despitethe fact that it is an issueof the past. The new rulersquicklyrealised thatneither theaesthetics nor thetechnology of ModernArchitecture weresuitable to serveas tbe Dretence of theParty.The same applied to ModemAn wirh its critical social aspe.ts.The sob€rbuilding bodieswereanythinS but popular, their not tully developed, building technologies andtherefore not reliable enough.To impressthe masses, thc Nazis fell back upon the

Alb€n Sp€€r's studio.Obersalzb€rs, l916

by F. Schuppand M. Krcmm.r Factory in W€stphalia

approved monur|€nt!.Iorderswhich, givenfie pressure of time they were und€r,couldstill bemastered in termsofcraftsmanship.Thcrc was no time for new developments, and thcy did not want to run anyrisk. Thc modelfor a lateNeo-Classical monumental architecture wasfoundin *rc USA, andin colonialcities.Here, not only public buildiogsbut also banls, officc buildingsand business prcmises wercall alikein termsof thestyledescribed above.That the Nazis used the best materialsand craffsmanshipfor the few pompouscditices they were able to build, canhardly be criticised. They sought to disguise the brutality of their regime with 8n appropriate(in thcir terms) architecture.In the history of urban grandeur'. design, thc plansfor Bcrlinarcof'cxcessivc The urban geography would,bowever, haveb€nefited from them.If one€xaminesthc diffcrcnt stagesof planning, it appearsthat the initial proposals were muchmoredifferentiated andsympathetic to the urban structurein termsof scale.Only later did they becomecoarse in texture and lort in terms of space.A gigantic domed building of Boullde-like wasto establish dirnension thehigh point in tbis B€rlin apotheosis.Sometimes one is temptedto think to oneseli 'Thcy should have built all this stuff instcadof makirlg a war.' But this would probably have meantthat the fascistswould have been in power for an evenlonger period of time. Io the EsstemBlock this which could is p€rpehDted. kind of idiolic despotism The Stalinallee (development plan) wcll havesprungfrom Sp€cr'sBebauungsplan
DomedHall planncdfor Berlin by A. Sp€er.l9J8

by meansof an oppressivearchitecture,becametha symbol for th€ rise ofa young, comrnuniststatewhich did not wa to be one. Later ofsocialismwcrc fadingaway,thefeeble on, assoonasthe images archiiectural thcory of capitalism came back into fsvour. If today the Berlin Wall was pulled down, the difference betwe€nthe two wouldonly beeconomic.Otherwise Germanies East andWestdo not coDtradictcachother on the levcl of gcDeralcultural taste.The East simply did not succeedin finding an architectural languagefor its kind of society. It was oot possible*cause its social order is that of a policc state. I was very shocked to find the Wall being dealr with as an journal publishedin East arcbitecturalmonumentin an architechrral joke. Berlin. Wc do rot car€ for this kind of macabre A schizophrcniadrug scemsto exist in modern statcs, ihe effert of wbich is very unpleasartatrdpainful. That 8 majority of the world allows itself to be placedunder schizophrenictyranny cart only be explainedby an analysisof power mechanisms which have got out of the handsof society.Or are there indeedpleasant s€nsations about self{estructioo? Or are there any natural automatawhich, in caseof surfeit, order self{estruction? Literature, music and art anticipatedthc apocalyseof the Fonies long before it happencd.I fcar that the state of architecture, this mute imagery, has to b€ understoodas a waming of an imminent

EsstB€rlin,by Paulicl. Hcnselmann. Hopp,t-cucht, f\arl-Marx-Allcc(formcrlySlalinallcc), lnd Hannlann, l95l-5? Souradny

22

No 6, Sandwingasse, Vienna,c 1860

_No

42. Linke wienzcile. vienna, b) Kmunke and Kohl. 1896-97

spiritualabyss.The last time thatthis abyss opened up wasafrer mankind had inflictedthe biggest self-destruction in its existence. I remember lheboomof thebomb€rs very well. Buttodaytheywould soundlike light music in comparison with the vast amountof destructive material available now. How canbeauty evergrow on sucha brutalbackground? culhre is interconnected Architecnrral butdivided intotwo parts: the wide basisof commonfunctional buildings for dwellingand working,and rising from that,the smallapexof buildings which accommodate special functions for society. k is legitimate to design the latter in distinctmanner,in orderrhatthey differ ftom functionalbuildings. During the nineteenth centurywhenthe bourgeoNte wasgettlng rich, it emb€llished its reside ial premises wirh all the atuibutes which were usedby the dethroned aristocracy to standour from the got so confused masses. The architecturallanguage that it became wayof distinguishing publicbuildingsfrom necessary to find another privateones.The former, therefore, were isolated from adjacent buildings andsetinto a square, a parkor sitedon thetop ofa hill. But this stcp soonfoundits followers. ln the Twenties the frecstanding objectassgchb€came desirable for benerliving, working and resting in general.Only one aspectwas not taken into giventhat everyMy hadthe same consideration; rights,this demandwouldhavemeant thedcath ofthe city. Todaythisno longer needs to be proved.Moderncitiesarethe built evidence. The majority of Americans claim thattheydo not wantto haveanything elseotherthanolemodem'anti-city'; 0tatonly some'fanatics'would still preferNew York, Boston or SanFrancisco. [,et us wait and if, br4ause seewhat happens of a newenergy crisis,legshavelo be uscdfor walkingagain.MaybethenAmticans will remember the good old Europ€ancity again! The confusionin architectural language becameeven more profound after the Second World War. As historical architectural hadbeenabused features somuch,architects thought thartheyhad been left without any good examplesand thercfore anemptedao thespecial significalc€ express ofa building by wayof employing novel methodsof construction.For the last thirty yearsthe whole rangeof exotic structu.es has beentried out, for example, on churches. Flickingthroughpublications with this subject, dealing oneshudders at somuchki6ch. In aerms alsoofground-plan design, conceivable hasberr put to the test.The underground anything churchat lrurdes, or the oneby Nervi beside SaintPeter's,can garages. at best be calledwell-structured Thesebuildingshave nothhg to do with churches. Manymodemchurches canb€ mistaken for b€ingindustrial halls;some of themare dcliberately designed that way to suppos€dly reducethedistance the churchand between the faithful, To undermine the sacredin this way, given the significance of churches in thehistory ofarchitecture, is for methe worst asp€ct of our present culturaldecline. Temples andchurchcs have been acknowledged andvalued at all times,evenby unbelievers, asthemostnoblesymbolic buildings. They received the bestof artisticand anisanachievement. They exemplifiedthearchitectural traditionofan epoch.After theantique, they also became the most magniilc€ntinterior public spaces. Are thereany other functionsavailablenow to compensate for thc loss of religiousfeeling? Thc reading roomsin publiclibraries,therestilg rooms in swimming pools or spon centles, stationhalls, concert hallsor theatres? Noneof these functionscancver reachthe mystic of a placeof worship.Everyhurnan andsymbolicsignificance b€ing is touched by lhe enigma oflife aoddeath. Thefatefulandinscrutable of cxistence dimensions atld non-eistenceare asoverwhelming as theyarc frightening.Nature,in its monumcnblityandbquty, bcing thebackground for every0ing thathappens, ordycautiously reveals its secrets. To soothe his fearsandto calm his senses, manhas erectedsymbolic placeson earth for the spiritual interpretation of

Designby Archisram,London. l960s

his being.Thesebuildingsserved of mediation as places between him and the unnameable enigmas; the addressee in this fictitious dialogue: a glorifiedhuman being,a God:thebuilding: an idealised accoBrmodation for the supernatural. I do not klow whetherthis subjcctis definitelylost in architecNre. For the time being,I am pith the sacralbuildingswhich historyhaspassed satisfied on to us.We canlive with these for another whilelonger. If anideacannot genuinely be celebrated anymore,whatelsecanone do but stick worldpeople to things oneis goodat?In thisconsumer arenotvery interested in spiritualvalues. At the beginning of the Fifties, the confusion aboutformsgave a freshimpeNsto thedevelopmcnt of newstructures. T€chnology waslessloaded a termthanform, andimmune from id€ology. After a shon periodof time, theaftitudespread thatoncetheconstructional requirements had beenmet, one haddonejusticeto architecture. ln a similarone-sided way, effons werealsoconcentrated on lhe solution of functionalproblemsand cost-effective construction processes. pcriod, Butdespite themiseries areofcourse of thepost-war there examples of an 'archite.tural' anitudetowards design,and nowada;-s some buildings from that time gain symparhydespite their clumsiness. Onephenomenon, however,hit fie devastated middleEuropequite unexpectedly: prosperity an exploding economic andin connection

with that, an unrestrainedbuilding boom. In order to encourage building activities, governments offered special finance and depreciation schemes which could easilybe abused.It is maybeonly too naturallhat in this competitionbet$een 'more money' and 'more architecture', the Muse was the loser. Ir is a long time ago that a p€rson who commissioneda building demandedthe best skills of architectsand craftsmen, becausehis building was to demonstrate his honourable positionin society.Also, the house of the poor and tie house of the rich were easily comparablein terms of elegance.despiterhe difference in expenditure and embellishment. The idea of making a lot of money in a shon period of time has destroyedthe quality of a building as such. Even rhe majority of buildings that do not needto meet high architecturaldemandshave lost tle elegancewhich I have mentionedabove. That is also due to the fact that b€cause ofquick indusrrialisation, rhe building crafu have been ruined. Responsiblefor all this are first and foremost the architectsand planners who, burdened by growing competition, scll their souls and professional credit with the empry phrase: 'If I don'r do it, anothercolleague will'. Can rhis faral lack of s€lf-resp€ctstill be overcome?Who is the first one whose eyes must be opened, the one r,,ho buys or the one who produces?Both are cheatedat the momenl. The client who relies on cheaptechnologywill soon have to pay for its defectiveness.He will also be bored quite quickly with superficialarchitecturalcosmetics. The architecthas rricked himself out of the most elementary professionalfulfillment; and I cannot imagine that the easy rnoney he earns can make up for the shame of blunt opDortunism. There aii no less talented archikcrstday than in rhe pasi. But now, to a much greater extent, they are condemnedto inactivity or their crearivity isjust not askedfor. Very often they take refuge eitler in the arts scene where it is still possible to get fair acknowledgement, or they lecture at schoolsofarchitecture which guaranteeanistic freedom and survival But without practical challenge every theory is meaningless.I would very much like to prove my argumentswith my own work iosteadof letting others do this for me. But to build under today's conditions is a damned hurniliatingbusiness,not very sympathetic to the fulfillment of theoretical and anistic ambitions.

Iffusrrations in this anicle are either from rhe archives of Architectwal Jahrhunden, Propyhen-Verlag. Berlin; Herben Ric]rfn. Der Architekt, Dpri8n,Academy Editions, andRobKrier, or fromthefollowingsources: Geschichte eines Berufes, Henschelverlag; ProAlben SWet,Architektur, ActeU. Modeme Kunst,Berlini Archigram Croup,London; Paolo Faroce. plladn.Berlin:Sreinberg's Pdp"rrdck,Ro\rohlr: WaheFMuller-Wutkow, Piozza d holia, Bra'x.anre Editrice; Johann Kraftner(phorographer); Heinrich Architektw der Z+'anzigeiahrc in Deutschland, langewiescheKonigssein; lleltgeschichte Kulka,AdoALoos,Likker'Verlag; Bemhard desArchrie*tu/e, l,eitner,me Architecturc of lvienerFassaden Belser/Elecrrai des19 LudwigWirgenstein.New York, 1976;C6sar Maninell,Cd!d/, Edilorial Jah undens,BOhlau-Verlag, Wien. 1976. Blume,Barcelonai ProplldenKunstg.schichte , Bandll, Die Kunstd.s 19

EL E M EN TS AR C H IT EC TU R E
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ExplanationsRelatingto the Typology of Interior Spaces
The diagrarn shows in the horizonlal lhe geometlical ground-plan forms:square, triangle, ci.cle and the amorphousfigure; and in $e vertical thepossibilitiesof transfonnation of these basicelemenls by way ofaddition, penetralion, buckling, breaking, accentuationof the perspective, or effect of depth and distortion. Theseop€rations ar€ put togetherside by side withoutany valuation.The examples presented bere,however, areonly a fraction of thevariants created so far by humaningenuiry. At thispoinrI \rould like to suggest rhat,from $e historyof building, one shouldpicrurethe greatvarietyof forms for oneselfand refreshit againandagair by *ay of drawing exerciser. Addition Addition is rhe most elemenrary principle of order.Wilh $e mostsimpleway ofaddition,the elements are only closelyjoined and form an accumulation or a group.Their relationto each other ensues from the proximity, a so-called topological relation(Norberg-Schulz) .esuhing in an irregular,amoaphous shape. In contrast to thal,geometrical relation means which a relation is created by a geometrical principl€of order, e.g. by axialityor parallelity. The basilica serves asanexample in whichseveral similarelements ofspace arearranged in parallel.ln th€perspe€tive of depth,a seriesof impressions of closed spaces ofnaveandside-aisles emerges, whereas in the transversedirection, becauseof rne transparency of theorderof columns, theentire spacecan be perceived.By augmentingthe heighls ofside-aisles towards thenave,lhe latler is especiallyaccentuated and the orienlation towardsthe altar is emphasised. We have here the different heightsof spaces as a meansof design to express the hierarchy of spatial elements. Penetration l. Two or several spaces of different geometrical andmerge into a new form overlap onespace, or evenboth, shape. In this proccss will be deformed,i.e. their formal separation would be senseless, because it would yield fragments. 2. Two spaces beingoverlapped retain thelr independence, remainrecognisable, and toSether quality.The crossing create a new spatial of$e cathedral is aclassical lie longitudinal example: penetrate aisle and the lransept eachotherand which is emphasised form a commonspace by a domeor a tower, 3. Whentwo spaces overlapin a way rharone within includes theother,thisgivesriseto space space. If the interior space is bordered by rows from the enclosing of columnsand segregated space, theentire space rernains lo b€experienced Classical examples of this kind simuhaneously. penetrarion of spatial areto be foundin Eglprian Baldachin Temples. The closerthe two spaces nearlyequal movetogether, i.c. if theybecome wift in size,onegets theimpression of or. space Louis Kahn. for example, a doubleenclosure. setscifcularspaces intosquare bounds for lighl penetration. Through diffe.entopenings in the walls, the light is filteredwhen required, and indirectlyled inlo the interior. bisic Funher possibiliries of transforming geometrical formsarctheprocesses ofbuckling, and fragmentation. bending.breaking,s€paration This happensmosdy if severalelemenlsof shapeshouldbe joined different geometrical toge$er, and if onehasto adjustto the other. Ler us imaginean octaSonal spacewhich is surrounded by a conidor. Because of the given geometryof the octaton,il haslo b€ buckled severaltimes, in a srnseto submititself to the form. However,it can achieve an Seom€trical independent spatialquality if the bucklingpoin6 , by expansion, arernrdeintojoints. Or another example, which very often can be found in in the nineteenth century, housingconstruclion work for instance: in a given in weinbrenner's
ground-plan form, which very often resuhed from the shape of the site-p€rhaps a triangle as rhe residual site benreen two streets-dle main spa.-e! were insened as independenl forms-as circle. square or oval, Between them and the exleror skin, spacesofdeformed shaperernained,*hich sometimes had lhe awksard effecr of being me.ely remnants. becausetbey originated from something which was of more importance- So they offered $e possibilir) of accommoddrrng technicalfacililies. Bul ofien lhey are independent locali(ies of the 'in between' and have enoush spadal charm to accofirmodate staircas-j. for The 'perspectivedistonion'. i.e. the aflificial fiunipulation of the effecl of depth.can b€ crered by simple geometrical tricks, as Scamozzi did w i t-hhi s stage set' i n l he Teatro O l i mpi c o i n V i cen7n: and B emi ni i n bothhi s desi gnfor S ai nr Peler's Square. and his famous staircasein tlte Valican, the Scala Regia. The 'dislorlion' of a geometrical form can ln most cases ha acibuted ro faleful. historical The examplesofinterior spaceslisted here do not in any way represenl a complete lypolog\ . The publish€d drawings have emerged from exerciseswili my studenlscarried out in the first year of lheir course. I am of the opin ion thal rhe decisions which form the design of a space. or a building, can only be completely undersbod if they have been apprehendedrhrough dra$ing them. Il may be noted lhat my students draw €xclusively in Vienna, so that they learn to recognize the city in which they sody with all its aualrtie\ and the characteristicfeaturesof rt. local architectural rradition- That modern architecture thcreby gets the shorter end of consid€ration is not surprising. Th€ good examplesin modem archhectureaie anyway loo

Interior Spaces
As the saning point of architecnrral comgosition, lhe srnallest spatial uniry, tle interior room, shouldfirstly be srudied.Normally an interior hasfor its bounds: space walls,piers,ceilingand floor, beingthe traditionalelements. Windows anddoorsserve asconnections with theexterior, By these,the technical elements of a spaceare determined.It becomescornprehensible and describableby the definition of irs size, proporlion (relationships between length,height

retbr and width) and shape. These componedts they directlyto the firnction of theroombecause of peoplc,the accomallow for the r€sideoce of cermodation of fumilurcandlhe execution tain activities. Shapesand ainospheres of spaces can b€ the geometryof describ€d.At first we rEcognize a room, e.g. cube,cylinderor differentforms we canalso sp€ciry$e exact mixed together. by relarinS sizesand identify $c proponions length, widrh and height. Although we still describe rooms accordingto rheir basic geometricalfoftls, clear and simple spaces

nowadays havean almost€litisl character. The so-called liberation of spacesby modern architecture term hasgiven rise to the unfonunate 'flowiog space'. Spaceswere separated inlo areas, only able to function, but without contributing Therepressron to b€tter functioning. a truly free ofclear geometry hasnot resulted.in and poetic solutronof room forms, but in which no loogerallo$ a deformedstructures, meaningful relationshipb€tween wall and op€ning.The naNre of a room is very much which dernarcates determined by its enclosure, it from the exteriorand rurnsit into an intenor

space. kt usconsider thegeometry: a sphere has a maxim!m €nclosure. ln geometrical terms. ir cannot be connected!o another form. In accordance with lhat, the circutarroom is not directional and rests in itself. Symmerry emphasises independence, In a rectangular space. the enclosure is createdby the uninterrupted relalionship b€twe€n |hefourwalls,especially the inteSrity of the comers. Rounded comers emphasise lhe enclosinS character of fie \r'alls. By differentlreatmcnt of the surfaces n rerms ofcolourandtexture. by arrangentnl o[ openings andincid€nces of lighr,theenclosure ofa space can ei6er be emphasised or b.oken. More difficult is rhed€scriprion oflhe quality of a space. Very oftertwhenwe describe their characrer, we talk aboutsmall, spacious, low. high, oppressive, friendly,comfonable. coldor warm rooms.Very oftenfor these appraisals of a space,not only ils geometrybut also irs attributes arecaucial. In thissense everyinrcrior space offersa complete 'culturalimage'.gi\.en by proportion, light p€netration,strucure. furnitureand accessories, Already the accenruation of the surfaces confining theroomadds ro i!5character: dividing venical and horizontal elements, floor texlure. and mouldings on ceilingand walls. * omaments extensions. bays,colours andmaterials etc.The basic formsareequally changed by piers sranding free in theroom-Newspaces 'within thespace' are crealed.Accordingto rheir purpose, the! - aniculateand structurei they form transparent wallsdividingthe space. we move andbecause rn lhe room.newperspectives. vistas andspace relationships emerge againand again. With thc kno*ledge of theseeffecrs. the archilect cangive to a roomthecharacter which suitsils function andsignilicance, He cancreate a sacred space which makes p€ople worship.a lecture-hall helpingpeopleto concenlrale on - listening, or an office room which, b€cause of its functionalism, places work in theforeground. Finally.owingto E-adition, symbolic meanings canbe anributed !o certain forms.Archeoloeists and ethnologists have inrensively conceired - themselves wirhrhesignificance ofcenainforms ofspace. Psychologists too,likeC.G.Jung,rnade imf,onam contributions to tle exploration of archetypes. Hanns Sieder. rhroughertensive ..- researchin his book U4onnen der abendldndischenBaukunst (ArchaicForms in Westem Architecrure), comesto lhe follo\r'inqmesls: 'Considering ... existingforms,excluding each olher in the circularor reclangular house, ii is - conceivable from what is krown about the differentstages in change of house construclion in ltaly and Creece,that we can lrace back prccisely thegenesis ofa reclangular house born - out ofa circularhouse via ovalandapse-shaped preliminaryforms. Decisions of tlat kind in favourof the circularor the rectangular house are rootedin the entiteexistence of $e human beinS;lhey are not at all left to the free will. Culures not yetfon*d or no longersound,,nate that fotmlessbuildingt.' Siederalso mainGins cerlain geometricalforms of spacesgavc expressron to a corresponding physical ard - spiritual atritllde: 'A nondirectionalcircular spac€ allows for relaxation andconcenfation.An oval-shapedspace encloseslwo points of encounter. The form of theapse hasrisenfrom

the feuerschism ('firescreen ) ro the s)mbolic place of spirirual promulgadon. A broad space becomes a place of prepararion. a longitudinal spacea route leading to some\rhere.Bo$ spatial directions meet in the square-L\e crossing-the place of ritually structured concenration. Of course $e mythically influenced a(itude conceming rhe effect of spacesdoes nor applv to such a degree to contemporary archilecture, e.g. housingconstrucrion.Bur it is cruciallo bear in mind thar cerlain rooms fumighed in a cenain

way can actually and significandy stimulare and i nfl uence the spi ri t and emori ons of rhe inhabitan6. This should also be undersrood as a waming to those who think lhat size and form ofa room are only ro be determined by lhe space rcquirementsof sondard furniture. and therefore forgel about o$er spatial qualiries. Only if we in understanding succeed the relaiionshipbet*een form, proponion, effect and usefulness can wc achi eve a meani ngful and w el l -bal anc ed composhion.

XEI: I CEOM ET RIC A L GR OU N DFIGLR E S II ADDITION III PENETRATION

IV V VI V II

B U C K LIN G S E GME N TA TION P E R S P E C TIV E D IS TOR TION

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SquareInterior Spaces
The square remains clea.lyrecognizable ar besl by means of an all-round symmetrical arrangement ofopenings. A we -balanced sDatial effectwithouldircctionis shownin illustration I, in whichtheope[ings areplaced on lhe room axes. Going be)ond lhis. $e spacecan be strucoredby \r'ay of a subrle.squaregrid of pilasters, door lintelsandbeams. As thegeometry of the spaceis specially supported, the square achcvesan elen more po$etful expression (illuslration 2). Also in illusrration 3, we nave a square ground-plan,but a space with a completely differenl centre ofgravitybecause of lhe pier and cross-vault. Here.lhe tectonics of the vault are more important than lhe ground-plan. In illustralion 4 to 7, examples of srructures are shown which-ofren for technical or functional rcasons-in giveto thespace each case entirelydifferenlrelations anddirections. They alterthescalc,andareconfusing whenil comes lo describing theproponions. Whendividedby meansof a row of piers (illustration4), two equallyrelevant recEngular spaces are creareo. By thedivisionofthe square into rhreepartsin one direction(illustralion5), the emphas$is laidon the mainsDace' in rhemiddle. Thisinlensification can be reversed if lhe middleparl whichoneenters is narrower lhanthetwo boroer areas. In thiscaserhespace in tlte middlegains lhecharactcrofa route,andsolheareas on each sideb€cornc moresignihcant. Illustralion6 shows an enclos€dspace with a skel€lal canopy construction inside. A sDace within a sDac€ emerges. By that. the shape ofthe entirespace is intensified;thecanopy defines analmosrsacred area and the edgesbecomea silent zone; a threshold which,although ar€a existing inside the spacc,doesnot fully belongto it. The fully skeleral inlcriorspace (illusrralion Z) is of course only co0ceivable ar a largerscale. Hereonerhinksof a space designed for special tunctlons: fte vasrhlposlylehall of the Creat Tcmple of Ammon in lGrnak wilh irs 134 sandstone columns: thebase of theterrace in lhe ParkCiiell (Barcelona) by Gaudi;or the Danreum projectby Tenagni.Illustrations 8 and 9 show thecentnlisationof thesquare by way of rounded or bevelled edgcs. These'manipulations of the edges' , however,needto be minor in proportion to lhe sides, in ordcrto avoidindistinct spaces. Otherwise this superimposition may iasily provoke associations wirha circular or octagonal spaca.

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Distorted.Basicallv Square,Geometries
Suchspaces only poss.ss thenotionof.ccntality, found in the originalbasicgeomericalform. Because ofbaysandfronral $resholdarcas, the followingexamplcs (illusrmlion I to 3) havean interm.diate position betwecn 'purespaccs' and a series of spaces. Windowsanddoorsin thebays form panicular architectonic rridr strong spaccs individuality. They almosr forcethe rniddleof the space to rcmain void bccaus€the us€r's attentioDis focusedon rhe bays.

{ illustmtions 4 and 5) Stations of a rout4with a smallcntrance arca which functionsas a'bordar-crossine'.Thc anteroom has a clear oricntation: a rictangre whichaccompanies $a oura andprepares usfor themainspace. Thismainspace hasde form of a square, butonly at its finalwindowfrontdo€s lhe routcend,Thc roulcis mainlyrccognizable by ils sericsof spaces in p€rspcctive. Suchan effectis prohibited in illusfarion4 wherefour colunlns form an additional spatial fihe., wbich psychologically'stops' thc route.

Rhythmic Segies of Spaces

Rectangular Interior
Spaces
The simplc, rcctangular spacewitb an opcn pitched .oof (illustrarion 6) is anarcherypal form for the housc. lt is to be foundas seDulchre. as wcll asbam or gardenhouse . This foim of space is a Soodaramplcof the significancc of used nat€rials.From the rush-hut to thc solid stone shrine, lhc meaniagand charactcrof thc space can thcrebybe subjectcd to a completetransformation.Thc sudacetexrure det€rmincs thewhole rangeof what is prccious to $ hatis nErely rmkeshift. This is somerhing that applies in gcneral !o cvery spacc, but herethis fact is panicularly cvldent. ln rectantular (illustrations spaces 7 and 9), the location of the olanings is panicularly si8nifica . Ifrhey areposirioned in lhe shortsides (illustration7), tie roomtains ar airy aEpsphcrE with a cleir alignm€nt alongits longitudinalaxls. By inscning rowsofpiers,d|istendency is morc manifcst. Thc dark side-zoncs can be assigned lo secondary purposcs and activities. A longitudinal barrel (illuslrarion 9) cnphasises cvcnmorethcclosed crossdir€ction,

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Octagonal Interior Spaces \-,---r''r The variants of ocugonalspaces prcsenred here (illustrations I and2) have.according toconrem_ pomryunde$tanding, quiteanexoticcharact€r. Nevenlrless thcydo rcveal some advanrages. By wa) ot stretchtng. octagonal spaces develop a clearlydefinedmiddlezon€and two narowine edgeareas. The roomlherebygainsan inrimati stability.
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The crucialproblemwith cross-shaDed intenor (illustrations spaces 3 to 7) is rhevaluation of the two directions. Illustration 3 shows me interpcnetration of two rectangular spaces of tle sam€ kind. lfone focoses only on rheinncrpan. tie equivalence oflhe spatial areas is withoulany doubt still existent. But this spacealso has opentngs-doors or windows-which because of different valuations,immediatelyestablisna hie.archy b the spatialareas.I would like in this contextto cite Palladio'sVilla Rotoitda as an erarnple. a buildingwith a similar ground-plan wher€ the cffecl of the different prospects is norieable,A spacc havinganirtrinsichiemG*ny of dir€.tions will beachicv€d, if for examDle Ine proportion ofone part is changed. Illusrr;don4 sho*s the effectthat can be gainedby suchan arangernent:onc port of thc space is elevated and th€rebydemotcsthe side pans to bays. A focus to the centml space(illuslrations 5 and 6) is reachcd by a crcss-vauh, or evenmote so, by elevating $c crossing arca.This space. whichis called 'crossing' in centralised planchurches, has a supreme symbolicand mythicalsignificance.

Circular Spaces
Illustration 8 showsa rcundwall-shellwithura squareroom, cstablishing a panicular innerarea. By the principlc 'spacewithin space'residual are3srcnain $hich have becn develoDed ro pcrfection, espcciallyby thc American architecf Iaris K!hn, with thc r.sult t|at iDtcrEsthg spatial enects were crcated. Thc circular sDacein illuslrEtion 9 bclongs tikesquare andcrois to rhc

30

ELEIIENTS OF ARCHITECTURE l: INTERIORS

'archetypal forms' of architecture. The axtreme spatialconsequences rcquirea well{onside.ed discrerion as ro practical application. Psychological havealsoto bc takeninto aspects consideration; not cvery humanbcingcancope p€rmanently with sucha polre.fuI form. The overlayinS of two basicforms-the square and ihe circle-has b€€natlempted in illustration 1. Comparedto the altitudeof the cube, the cyclinderis lower and lherefore four segments remain as bays. This is an exampleof the differentiationof heightsin a room and the resullingeffects.Nowadays, lhinkin8 io three dimensionsis very oftenneglecEdwhen it comes with the souare to desien.The circulaLsDacc canopyin the middle{tuiration 21 inteniifies the significanceof the centralspace.At thc sarnc time lhe roomgivestheimpression of openness. with rnrny side-rooms A hetcrogeneols space and bays(illustiation 3) delermines its centre by way of an insenedcilcular space formed by piels and which coveredby a dome.This is a technique can alsobe appliedto lal€r adaptations ofexistinS whercone oftenachieves valid architecspaces Nral results.Circular spaces, to d€veloptheir ne€da certain sparialiryand functionaluscfulness, minimum dimension which should not be underestirnaled. Esp€ciallyheightandform of lhe ceiling are crucial. In illustration4 a hiShcircular spaceis cut throughby a bridgewhich,because ofits transparent strucNre, allowsp€rception of the olcrall space. This example alsohintsst the fact lhat circular rooms,beingnondirectional, are often used in a boundarypositionas the mediation of spaces with multidirectional structure. Illuslration 5 describes two cyclinders which interlock. The transparent tangenlialzooe offers a fascinatingarperienceof space. A famousexamplein architectuml history is the holse of lhc Russian conslructivist Constantin Melnilov. Illustrarions 6 and 7 show circular spaccsin eachcasebeinSrelatedto otber rooms. The laier are designed as loggias or anterooms which surround the central space. These place on the circular spac€an anangements aftbiYalentrole. On the one hand,it is a space of tranquilliry, void of fumiture and other asa kind equipment. On theotherhand,it serves ofdlstributor, beingin thc bcstpositionto connect different routes and meanings.Illustotion 9 of actually belongsto thc them€:composition spaces. In plan, sqlarc, octaSon ands€mi-circle form a rhylhmic scquenc€ of spaces.It is imporlant io note how cle3rly geomelricalfonns can be broucht into correlation.

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Addition and Penetration of Spaces in Practical Examples
The basicformsdealt wilh abovecan give rise !o innumerable combinations of spaces; so it is oul of thequestion that theemployment ofclear forms restrictscrcative irnagination.Considering the mightyheritage ofarchitecoral history,the aberrations of modernarchitecnrre haveproved one fact: spaces which canbe described, which are conceivablein real lerms, havethe advantage of multifarious waysof utilization; still-and this fact cannot be pointed out often enough-a buildingerists in g€neral longerthanits initially assigned utilization. Illustralion I shows a square, tenrshaped spacc,fonned by an inner shell which s€pamtes i( from a cor.idor. The roule leadsfrom a represenlational staircase-inserted in an ellipse-lo an ante-space lllter into the main room. In illustration2 a directionalaectangular space leadsto a semi-circulaa one which hasa relieving effect, promising a pleasantvtsta. Narrownessof the two spacescreatcs an lmportant tension.In the space which is shown in illustralion 3, it is the vaulting of the reclangular spacewhich createsa relationship withthesemi-circular forecourts. Iltusrrations 4 and5 picture examples ofsimpleseries of spaces: through an entaanceafea one reaches a rectangular room whichis terminated by a semicirclewhichis ils culmination. Illustrations 6 and 7 provethatit is alsopossible io give reclangular spaces a centre by way of widening and the superimposition ofa cenrral circularspace. The laslrwoexamples, illustrations 8 and9, dealwith a rectangular spacewith curvedends.It gains differ€nl spatial effects by way of irs inner configuration or widening.

ELEME:{TS OF ARCHITECTURE It INTERIORS

(illuslrationsI to 3) are not Oval-shapcd spaccs a mcdification ofcircular spaces, but standasan indep€ndent type which, sincethe Renaissance, hasalways becns€€n as a contrast to the circle, Th€circlereprescnB a moncaentric view oflife, the oval shapea duo-centricone. Thc circle was favoured by the conservative,neo-classical lhaorisls(Albcni, Brasunte) in the RcDaissance, whcres the modehs (Penrzzi, S€rlio) preferred the oval, vrhich reached its prime in the Baroqu€.* Of cours€ from a formalpoint of vi€w, lheovalallowsfor similaroperations asdo€srhe circle. However,similar to the rectangle,the oval is dircctional. Triangllar spaces(illusr.ations 4 to 6) are conceivable as specialftrrns becausc of thatr pointed eages, whicharc?ifficuhro tulty urilize. For praclical reasons,the triangl€ is oftcn deformed; theedges arecut off or rhethreesides are roundedoul. The T.inity churchcsof the Baroqu€ areknownexanplcs ofthis. For secular purposes, thetriangleis suitable asmgdiation of threedistinctdircctions oftraffic routes,or if a tnrnk roadsplits into two less importantones. Sp€cial (illustrations7 io 9) $dch from shapcs all possible polygons to the irregularlymodelled space-urccave. To and this chronology, it may bc rernarked thatall spaces shouldhavein commondefining bordcrs.A spaceshouldalwaysallow itself to b€ defurd, describcdand understood wi$out one havinS to takerefugein its airnospherical values to besin with.

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35

ELEIIENTS OF ARCHITECTURI Ir ItiTERtORS

cxplainingsparialrclatioNhips inrcrpr.tadonof Pailadio'sSround'plans Diagraounatic

The Art of Spaces Composing
I would like to cuided by thc work of Palladio, horv spaccsshouldbc brought itlo dernonslrate scqucnccin ordcr to crcatespatial andaesthctic relationships. It is not sufficicnt to be well acquaintcdwith $c quality of a single spaceas such. One must also be ablc to join spaccsiD a way that togcthar ihcy nukc an intercstinS composition. l T.atro Ollnplco, Vlcenza l5t0 The auditorium dcviatesfrom the semi_circular of vitruvian typc, conunonat lhat dme, bccausc lack of spacc. It is . half amphithcatrcin plan with .isint tiers of scats.At thc l.v.l of fte toP ticr, the spaca is terminated by a colonoadc columns consisting of blind and frec-standinS giving acccssto thc stairs which src siNatad in spacc thecomets.This sclf-co ainedgeom€ldaal appeaBasif ins.ned into an irrcgular larger onc. by wry of The stageis linked with th. audiencc a rcctilinca! scenaeJrons. a .ichly structured facadewidt fivc openiogsthrouShwhich scvan 'slrccts'are visiblcin exrggcrat€d Pc$pcctivc. a city in sc!lin8, reprasenlhg This pcnnancnt style, only allowed fo! tha pcrforRcnaissarrcc mancc of classicalplays. 2. Pdrzzo Porto. Vlcebz! 1549 The ccntrdl spaccof this complcx is an inner courtvad which is siuratrdbctwccntwo lic kal oalaccblock. onc for thc uscof thc matcr aid iis houschold,and thc other for Sucsls.The two ba*_ are situatad tivinS arcis widr idcnticalfacadcs ween two public strcats. Ona antcrsthe palacc through a vcstibulc with four colunut slrpPortinS a cross-vault.Frcm thcrc a narow corridor lcrds to cenral conilc which on clch sidc ha fivc axca. Thc $ace bctwc€n thc i*o columns in thc ccntrc is biggcr than thlt bcNecn lhc othcrs:6,3/6,3/8/6,3/6,3 (frct). Thc colurn$ arc iwo srorryshigh lrd suppolta Sdlcry on lhc lcv.l of lhe upper floor which is also hcld by srnatlcr pilastcrsopposiElhe columns.Thc only clcltEnt that has no symnEtrical countcrysn is thc rnrn at onc si& ofthccoutt' which is situatad stairc8sc yard a{ually distant from thc two cntranccs. Pa.lladio's intentiol was !o focusattcntionoo lhc cortilc, bcint drc mo6t bcauritul pan of lhc Dalacc.Thc staircsscis rathaamodestin lcrms latSc-scale ncvcrcraatcd Palladio of spatiality. the difrarenlfloors. betwccD spaces connccting

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Ground'plans of proj€ctsby Palladio

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It was only in thc Barcque that the st ircase becamea theatrical evcnt. h thc Venetian NDe of palaceit alwaysrenaineda secondarv element. Much more imponrnt wasthe rhyfhm of spaccs ro be experienced whcn walking throughthe roonE: the vicissiNdeofwide andnafiow, squaE and rectangularspacrssuggesting ei6er to llnSer of to continueone's way. 3. Palazzo V.lnrrara, Vlc€||'o 1565 The scquence of spaces in this palace corrcsponds in a rnalv€llousway to a cadenc€ ofdiffercni light intensity. One entersrhe building throlgh a dark narrow corridor which leads to a dim arcaded hall. the transparcncy of which givesaccess to rhe brighr squarcinnerSounyard.The spacc trerwe€nthe columnsdifinishes from the middle towardsthe sidesr2/4/4n W4/2 (fr,t\ . Th.reforc lhe light penetration is morEintensein the middle of th€ spacc where one actually walks. On the o6er sideof the counyardoneentersaSaina dim hall which mediales b€tween Ihe exteriorand interior,andwhichon bothsides is narowedby one verticalaxis. Thena dark corridor, which is shonerthanthe fi.st one, leadsinto a tarocn which has a proportionof 2:1. 4. Palezzo Thlene. Vtcenza 1542/,16 The ground-planof this palaccis one of lhe mosl intercsiingin Palladio'searly work, From a lripartite en!"nce hall, the ponal of which is cmphasis€d by a ponico,onearrives in a square inner courtyard which is surroundcdby an arcade. The comers sccm to be denscr b€€ause their hish rectangular openhgsareonly 4 feerwidc whe; lhe normal opcningsare 8 fert *ide. The same rhythn is applied to thc orSanisation of the upper floor. Of inte.rst is the varicty of differc spatial geomet.ic! which ar€ aftangedround the coulOfard within the wholc complcx forming a consistcntscrics of sluces. Squareaoorns alterDatewith oblongor tnnsverser€ctargularspaces. Comersare aniculat€d by way ofthe ocbgonal room-width bays.The stalEscs atr oval in phn. 5. Pslrzzo Porto, Plsz?r Cartello, Vlcenza t57l Only two window axeshavebcenbuilt from this dcsiSn Oottom riSht). The facsdc's dominan! featurcis a tigantic order of colums. A spacpus tripanite cotftnce hall was rneqnt to lcad to a courtyard consdrutedby a rcc(angleand a scfircircle. Thc concaveback wall absorbs rnovcnEnl in the dilcction of ahelongitudinal axis. Spiral starrcases are grcupcd around the courtyard for acccss to thc buildinc.

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6. Villa Rotonds, Vicenzs 156tu7 The Villa Rotonda is themostconsistent e*unDle of a symmetricalplan. The idea for such a composttronwas cenainly also due lo the topographical characlerof lhe si!e, a gently slopinghill. Palladio's inrention,ro conslrurea relationshipbctween rhe laodscapeand tfie building. is manifesred by way of the broad extemalstairson all four sidesof rhe villa. As they rise rowards the house,they form a buift continualion of thenahiralhill. The entrances on all four sides areemphasised by porticoes for the enjoyment ofthe viewsall round.Inside,thetwo main axes nrn ihrough narrow halls, slightly wider on the entry axis, and meet h a rouncl cenlral space which is rwo-storeyshigh and covered by a dome.In conlmst to theplans which I havedescribed before,it is not theaxisofdeoth that is the rnainprinciple in this case,bur ihe hamoniousarrangement of rectangulalrooms with a circular rnainspacein lhe centre 7. Vlls Pisani, Bagnolo di Loniso lS42 The main entrance is situared on a iouitudinat sideof the spacious rectangular courtya;d*,hich rsmostlysuftounded by an arcade. Thecorunrns ofthe arcade areinterrupted in theenlrance arca waytoa tliple flighrofslairsanda ponico. Srvulg The vestibule le3ds direcdyinrothe cross-shapd vauhedmain spac€. The passage ro rhe garden rslhrougha lransverse recbngularloggiawhich hastwo semi-circular terminations on the snon sides. t. VUla Pisad, lltontagnana (psdur) l5S2 From th€ streetand an outsideshircasc. one arrivcsdirectlyin rhesquare main room wirich, by way offour free-standing columns supporting a transverse barrel vault, is divided into mree zones,A corridor givesaccess to the loggia where the positionof the columnscortesponds to that of the main space.From here on! has access eilher to the upperpart of rhe buitdingby way ol two oval staircases on eachshon sideof the loggia.or onecondnues on axis into the garden by way of an outsidesbircase. 9. Chies. d€l Redentore,Venice 1576 The ground-plan consists of three spadalar€as which correspond to different funitions. The church is enteredand a long rectangular nave providesrhe spatialframe for the Drocessional routeof$e faithful.Thedirectionof movemenr is emphasised by lhe longitudinatbarrel vault and the doublecolumnsof both sidesof the nave, which in €achcaseconstiture a niche.The nav€ terminates al rhe most imponant pan of $e church, the s€lf-containcd chancel which is coveredby a dome and is accessible from all sides.The space is er argedon rhreesidesby way ofaps€s.The backofthe middleaDse is a *all of columns through which the cioir can be viewed. 10. Tempietto Barbaro, Mss€r l5t0 A rectangulaa porticogivesaccess to a circular domedspac€.To this spacechancels are attrched which arc situat€d on the prolongationof thernain axes.They haveroundedback walls and ther€by conespond to thc form of the main space. The entire compositionis orientatedtowads the cenlre, as with the Villa Rotonda.

ll. ChicsadeueZlt.Is, Venic€ 1579 A recuotlc, whichis enclosed from theoutside, includes a basicallysquarernain spaccin its centralarla covercdby a dom€.The edges of dis room arc bevelledin order to rn€diate souatcand circle. A r€ctangular anteroomsupponinga ba.rel-shaped vault is extended in front of lhc mainspace. In contrast lo th€Tempieno Barbaro (10), the entrance axis is orientated towards a singlechancel *hich is anached ro theopposite sideof lhc rnainspacc. 12, Chlessdi S. Luci., Venice t564 Herc also,we havean cnclosed. nearlysqlare

plan,whichhasnoprojecrions oradditions. Fmm an anteroom one arrivesin a rectangular main spacewhich is covered by a transverse barrel vauk.Thechancel is situa(ed in rheprolonqarron of de longitudinal axis\ idr semi-ciicular n-iches added to it; it is flantedlo the left andrherighr by mjnorsquarechapels wirl compound column! in thecomers. Theemphasised tr;nsverse direction ofthe mainspace creates a calminq counterbalance to themovement axisofentran; to alLr. 13. Palazzo Capra, Vicenza1563-64 Similarto the Palazzo Pono (2). a rhythmical, syrnmetrical sequence of spaces develops along

DiaSramnuric inrerpr€rarion of Palhdio s grcu'd,ptans erptainhg composnio, (conrinued) of spaces

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to eachother at aiSht angles sPaces rectangular which, when taken wirh similar dimensions room The lransverse form a T-shape. together, added lo ils shon sides apses hassemi-circular main tle rectangular From tlere one reaches of|he four col roomwhichpicksup the motive is enlarghall. This sPace unmsfrom lhe entrance axis.A small ed to theleft andriShtby a second thetransitionto thecounyardand, loggiacreates 14. Project for r Prlsce in V€nice 155f, inlo siaircase todreoYal a very evenlfulsequence on theleft, givesaccess This projectdiscloses axis.The square lhe house. of spaces alonga lonSitudinal by way of four free_ entrance hall is structured above. 15. Project for a Prlace ln venlce columns carryinga cross-vault standing lils with tbe formerexample when compar€d basically by lwo room is folloeed -This (contrnued) b) Palhdio pllnsof projeds Ground to a the axisofdeplh. A narro\! corridorleads widened anteroom and futallylo a quietsquare sup_ by an arcade inner counyardsurrounded Tmvers_ portedby four free-standing columns. narow ing the counyard,the roomsSradually inlo a lo88lafollo{ed by a seconcl again,leading and la.gercourtyard.

projectshowsa similar organisation; however, rhe situation is different. The transverse entrance hall is biggerand againis rectangular columns. A by four free-standing constituted shortnarrowcorridor leadsto a snuller oblong hatl which to the left receivesliSht from the and to the riShl givesaccess adjacen! courtyard, A second short corridor to the main staircase, hall inlo thecourtyard leads throlgh an arcaded which, on its opposi(eside, is conlined by a arcaded hall. s€cond 16. Pslazzo Angsrano, Ylc€nza 1564 by a sequence of The ground-plan is conslitulcd lhree spatial unils, rrhere one preparcs for the oext. All arcashave in commonthe motiveof the positionofcolumns bul differcndyaPplied. by way of two hall is slructured The entrance direction andcor_ in transverse rowsof columns into lhe walls. rcsponding half columnsrecessed has with anarcadc, Theadjacen! first courtyard, hall, bu! is much thesamewidth asthe entrance de€pcr.The colunmssurroundthe counyardor y a 8allery. support on threesides and,asarcades, axis gives The openfounh sideof the entmnce accessto lhe main slaircaseso that lhe narrow into the passages on both sidesof lhe staircase arcaded courtyardappearaspolongations second of arcadesof the firs! courtyard- The larSer with by an arcade is againsurrounded courtyard area.By the spacofthe staircase theexception ing oftheiows ofcolunns, the width of thetwo is takenllFJagain. olher spaces 17. PalarzoTorre, Verom 156l hasan enclosed Thisbuildingis free-standinSand reclangularground-plan. The two main of axesdelermine lhe organisation intersecting axisleads The shorter entrance differentspaces, lhen into the space, first ofall into a reclangular square main ball, and from thereagainhto a reclh€ man tangularspacewhich accornmodales The threeroomshav€the samcwidth staircase. The of thecolurnns. because andarelransparent the two sideentrances longeraxis runs throuSh which, by way of narrow corridorsand snrall anterooms,l€ads againinto the centralhall.The principlehereis the gradualwideningof spaces towardsthe cenlre. 16, ViUr Mocenico, 1564 the lowards is orientated Thc wholccomposilion centml hall as is the casewith the Villa Rotonda here is that a definitemain axis The difference are created exists,On two sidesexteriorspaces which prepare arcadcs by way of quaner-circle for lhe interior. Here we also have locatedthe nrainentrances,whoseponicoes consistof eight on the other columns,whereasthe side<ntrances sidesonly consistof six colurnns.Oneof the main by way ofsn is especially emphasised cntrdnces andthe columns hall with free-standing entrance adjacent main staircase.

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Ceilingsand Floors
Thesccxamplcsshouldonly scwe as a smali mdication of what wc havc lost in terms of trearmentofthe mostihportant surfaccs ofan intenor spacc-thc floor and thc cciling. Thc surfaceof a roomwhich wausee3chday, on which we walk all the time, cannottr€ dealt with only in terms ofuscfulncss or case of maintenaDcc. Tha sam€ applicsto rhe cciling, the tlrminatior of I space

aboveour hcads.A sprce's significanccand us€, indcpcnd€nt from its sizc, car bc adaptedand structurcdby way ofan intentionaland pair|staking fcatment of thesd suafaccs. Centralised spaccscan be emphldsrd, lincs of movemcnts can bc represcnted.No carFt covcring the entire floor can have the effect which is so clearly achicvedby scparatcbetutiful nrgson a haads:urfacai the crcalion of sriall islandswithin a space, of infonnal borders which underlinethe crnployment and structure of thc room; 8nd vhich also,

whcn looked at, give rise to a little happiness snd relief. With one cxemple, I would also likc ro explain thc clonomic aspectof a soundtr€ftlent of surfaccs. Ai thc moment timber ceilings are vcry popular. But, riany pcople pr€fer to use chcap vcnecrcd pancls, or even foarn rubb€r berns with an cmbossed wood pattcm. After somcyesrssuchjunk becomes dusty,sciatchcd and mean-lookin8, and has to bc raplacedby a ncw ceiling. Compalcdwirh this, wc still find in old housesunpaintedceilings rnadcof natural

Srudent worls on rhe thcm. of Ccilingsand Floors

40

Jmb€r. Every few years they are cleanedwith soap and brush and thcteby develop ovcr time 1 silky lustre, a patina,which makesthe matetial, n the course of decades, more and more )e5uritul. Thesc thrc! clamples demonstrate thc pnnciple of floot and ceiling corresponding to eacho0rcr. lhey show how thc two surfaces are broughtinto nlo relationshipby way of fornul and consttuccompositions.Thc first eramplc (illustra-ional tion l) is the banting hlll of Otto wagner's Post

bricks TheSlass OmceSavings Bankin Vienna. to the glassroof in ils of the floor correspond The pie6 towardsdernaterialisation. teodency cmergefiom the floor pa(itions and Penetrate the roof into infinity. Also in thc nextexample (illuslration 2) the companments of thc vault to thoseof thc floor. Thc transverse correspond in the floor, lrches of the cciling are represented principle. lhe diagonal thc rilesofwhich repeat A classical,8€omctricalordcr is applied in illustration 3. ,osef Plccnik createdan alrnost

whendesigning sacral space lheentmnce hallfor $e 'Zacherlhaus' in Viennafillustratioo4). From a shinyfloor riadc of naunl stone,black nudle columns rise and breakthroughan exquisitely positions dctailed brightcciling.Theclose of the marblecolufius,and their sitnificancc as pan of ihecomposition of thespacc asa whole,makc it necessary to leave them wilhout base and Whatis mostcrucialis the cnvelope capi(al. of the wholespace.

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|or orlhe DomedHall, PalaisRasumofsky, by L. Monroyer. t806-07

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Columnsand Piers
Cennrriesof architecturalculture havecreated an inex.haustible variety of forms of columls ano piers.In Creekarchitecturc cpochs w€rc named afte. their orders- Time and again the proponioning anddecoration ofa column or oier servedas an indication6nd characterisation of a cenain architecturalstyle. The students' dowings which accompany this chapter should merely remind us of this. h remained for our timesto giveup thecontinuous refinement ofthis archaicform. A columnhasa relationshiD wirh

thc groundand hasto carry a load; this alone should have beeosufficientenoughto tlestow higherconsiderarions on rhese lwo prop€nies. Concrete or brick piersare probl€matic due to ItE vulnerabilityof their edges, whichup to a certainheightrcquire specialprot€ction.The reason for the cmployment of banalconcr€te, steeior piersnowadays timber is v€ry simpleandclear: it i5 dueto high wages whichhavefar exceeded thcpric€of nuterials. Experimenls withconcrere picrsby Morandior Nervi, for cxample, are no longer possible because the making ofthem has bccome too exF,€nsive. Exposed steelpiershad

lo disappear from the classic reDenoire of architecture due to rigorousfire regulationsl ano fte qualiry oflimber which isgenerall! available todayis sofeeble thalit hardlt allowsforanisan treatment. Doesall thismean rheendofthe columnandpierasanelement in archilecural creation?Of course. the high wages for fabricarion arejustified. But it wouldbe imDonant to maKe societyapprcciaE the significarc; of archiccNral design andarchitecrutal themes, andlo thereby gainpublicsupporl which$ould makeit meaningful againlo learnfrom lhe Ancienrs how to us€columns as a deviceof structure,

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Easc ofa picr in rh. coldcn Hall of rh€casdcHohcnsalrburg.c 1500

Bas€of a pier, BasilicaSan Viialc. Ravcnna. 545

Ponalof thc HciliSgeislkirchc, vi€nna,by J. Pl.Cnik, l9 l0 - t I

villa Salrcgno. Sanlasofia di pcdcmonrc,by pajladio, 1569

I: INTERIORS OF ARCHITECTURE ELEMENTS

Doors
of an inlerior If one considers thc conception whelber dooror window, space, everyopening, violadons, means theviolation of thewall. These givc the roomits directionand i$ aphowever, role ln propriate Doorsplaya decisive meaninS. the visilor for theyprepare thiscontext because of the thespatial cventto come.The significance from difbe considered door shouldthercfore feren!sandDoints. is to forour rellection A cnrcialirrc-condition recognize thedoor asteing an ihporlant symbol. s€nse ifone examines This baial statefiFntrnakes al the manyversions of door formatsavailable the form present. We areusedto a door havinS of an upright rcctangle. Here lhe most popular sizeslie in lhe proponionsl:2 to l:3 (illustraofa door can this, lhe meaning tion l). Beyond vary accordinS to its purpose.A low door for whichgivesaccess to the parlourofan instance, that the old farm house,clearlycodmunicates privatearcais to bepenetrated into. Doors ofde individually by way same kind canbe emphasised on the sidesor above of addidonal openinSs (illusrralion 2). This kind of arlculation also faciliratesorientation. It is not always the scale of rhe humanbody which detenninesthe size of thc in monurnental buildings, a door.Espccially dimensionsof the openings darivc from lhe proponions of thc raceptive space. Quile often a door within a door {,as for everydaypurposes, which could be usedeasily by peoPle conceived, just wantingto go thmugh. But when rnajor eventsoccurred,the cnlite over-dimensioned of thesepalace door was opened. Descendants doors arg still to be found in bourgeois houses of the nineteenthcentury. Thc norrnal foldinSdoor of a Vieoncscbourgeoishousehad a width of 2.50 metrcs.But anda heiSht of 1.25rnetres normally only onc half wasopened(about 60cm width)-seemingly nowadaysa hardly bearable (I am always amusedto seesome 20O standard. who cameto my lecturesat theT€chnical students University in vicnna goinS in and out through sucha nanow slit withoutanyonehavi[g the ides to open the s€condwinS of the door; a good e&mpl€ of the relativityof frrnction.) More delerminedby tunction is the position of a door. But even under complicated functional constraints,it is possiblein most cascsto find an appropriateposition which is in gc.metrical harmonywith thc room. Illustratiods 3 to 6 show lo craatea pleciserelation bct\reenwall attempts and opening. Of prime imponance are the pro-

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ponions of door heighr and door lintel !o fie residualsurfaccsat the sidesof thc door opening. As a mlc ir might bc approp.iateto apply the sysiem of prolrcnionwhichdctcrmincs the ground-plan andthc clevatiolofa buildingalso io the s€condary elenrents suchas windows and doo$. lf i! is nol possiblc!o coordirlate door and wau in this way, thercarc otherdcvicesto neverthclessachievea harmoniousspace.Rclatively simpleis thecreadoo of niches in a wall or lhe concentmtion of a groupof doorsandwindows. A morcdifficult method,bu onc *hich helpsto cffich the spatial afiiosphcrc, is to insen bays which by way of piers are s€parated from the actual room and would cushion irrcgular posttionsofdoors.This 'fiher' in frontofthe opening would c.eatea propet door spacewhich is symparhctic to thc functionalstructureof the actual room (illustration O. The combination of (illustration7) is very door andwindowclemcnts appropriate, esp€cially in thecas€ ofbalconies, terraces anil loggias.It is css€ntial, however,thal a distinctionin terms of proponionand sizc betweendoor and windo\, is retaincd. Befo.e I cnd this s€ction,I would like to mentionsome technical andconstructional factors reladng o doors.The violarionof thc wall causeo by a door can b€st be ovcrcome by fair-faced brickwork.The aftangement of lintcl anddoor lcaf is determined by the logicof the brickwork stttrcore,andtheframeis s€qrredin thc rnasofy accordingly. Ifthe wallsareplastercd, thedoor fram€ in most cases si{ply surrounds the opening. And because of the incessantctack betwc€ntimber, plastcr and wallpapet, $e inhabitantrcalisesvery soonthat thesedifferent rnaterials aredifficulrtojoin properly. With old doors. these weal areas wereresolved by wayof richly prof cd framcsand the employrnent of beautitul timb€r. ln addition to that, tne decorators uscdmouldings to achievc a p.oper transidonfrom door frame to wall. (A fantastic example is Otto Wagncr's design for the managcment roorns in the Post Office Savings Bankin Vienna.The doorsare treatedas logical clcrncnts of thc conposhionof the wall surfaces; lhe *all panelsare thercforcof the ssmelimber as thc door and window fmmes.)Our contcmpomry standard door setsoffcr fela possibilities in terms of design. Today we can only conceotrateon the quality of proponions, the matcrial and colour. The st€cl frame is mercly the rcpres€ntation of a fmmc aroundlhe plain doorleaf. I think thereis no longerany signof lheold typeofdoor. SeeminSly our buildingmdus!ryis or y interestcd incoshing nahtral productssuchastimb€r into fibrcs only !o laler glue rhe stuff together agrin and to roll it imo big sheels.The tccluriqueof rnaking penelsoul of boards had led to astonishing results which b€camc rcal worksof an.

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Studert works on the them€ of Doo.s

FormerStadtbahn surionat Kadsplarz, Vi€nna. byO. wasner, 1898-9

PalmHousc vicnna.by F. OhFlann, in thcBurggaflcn. c 1900

Hous€Knips. Vienna. by J. Hoffmann, 1923-24

Kind€rschutzstarion, Vicnoa,by J. Plc{ni}, 1907-08

Th€S€c.srion Buildirg,vi.nna. byJ.M. Olbnch.1898

Zachcrlhaus, Vienna.by J. Plcinik. 1903-05

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Slrdlbahnsiador ar rhc ciin€t, Vi.nna, by O. wagn€r, I E96-97

ilindows
he theme ofthis sectionis the window ano ns rlationship to interio. space.lts effecton the the facade.is deahwith in the seclon outside, with the composition dealiDg of $e facade. Wilh respect to the relarionshipberween indow and interior space, first of all the - indow's functionas the sourceof lighr is of greatimponance. To b€ more specific,we should ralk aboutthe effectp€netrating light hason $e Lteiiorspace. To the sameextentthat a room by crcat€d by its wall surfaces, it is enliv€ned Iighr.Onemaythinkofa sunbeam strikingupon a whitewall or producing reflections somewherc rthe room.The pl6yoflight andshadecreating aight our anddark zonesin a room, motivates *,var€nessof the space-wherebynol only the source of the light, the window, remains in oui .onsciousn€ss, but alsothe illuminated surfaces f$e room:$e tertureofthe walls,a sparkling whichare given oor, fumitureor otherobjects -prominence by thelight. Thercfor€ thedesign of an interiorspace andthechoiceofmaterialsand tours, shouldalwaysuke into account theeffect f p€netrating light. * one aspect that is quite often underestimated is the qualityof light and its dependence on the rimeofthe day, season, points weather, cardinal rd intensity.All this resultsin certainthough whichwe expcrience unsn8 light atmospheres ;s harsh, soft, suMued, dazzlinS,sparkling, obscure, misty etc. It is also imponantto find rt what quantityof light is app.op.iatefor a )ace. Too little light canonly be complemented artificial illumination; too muchor too direcl -y light should be filteredwi$ the help of devices .,rch as shutters,blinds, lintels, transparent inains and plants.Also forms of doubleskin 'all construction which allow indirecl (i.e. rts ;rcnsity weatened) are a good light to penetmte and appropriate solution. I do notallow my students to design horizontal bbonwindows.because I want themfrom the of the rrrst momenton to tackle the Droblems

windowand its sigDificance for the room. In the end,lighlcoming from a ribbonwindowonlyhas a very monotonous and banaleffect on space, Therefore for housing developments, the appropriateness of ribbon windows is rather lirnited.I am of the opinion that singlesources of light offer an opportuniryfor the space to be li( in a muchmoreexciting waywhilelheyalso allow the cr€adonof areasin shadewhich are very pleasant in time of direci sunlighlpenetration. Equallydoubttul in |ermsof benefiris tle wall or cunirn wall.The excessive fullyglazed amountof lighl is exiaustingfor lhe eyes,and oddlyenough, afterhavingtom up the wall, one hasto counteract the implications of excessive equipment. lighi by way ofspecialsunprolection The room itsclf is completelyopenonly on one andlhe tension side,its geometry is dertroted. b€tween insideandoutsideis diluted.But, iffor one \vall of a toom functional or designreasons hasro be left open,it is much bette.to applyan architecturally effectivemethod,suchas a row of piersor welfo.dered bars, which would not As we are destroy, butenrich,theinteriorspace. not in favourof the ribbon window, we haveto cometo termswith the positionof the window. ln general,we can €slablishthat if a room ls penetrat€d by light onlt from oneside,whichin theextreme case couldbe directsunlighl,anuncomforlable dazzlewill easilyresult.Bu! if the main sourceof light is balanced by a smaller windowon another onewould side-the opposite be b€st- or fmm above.lhen the room will be betterlil. Even reflectivemasonrysurrounding b€tween the big windowscansoftent}tecontrast brigh! outsideand the dark inside. Nor only is rhe way in which lighl affectsihe \r'henlalkingaboutthe interiorspace significant is position of a window, but the view presented a cenainpan of The *indow f!_ames important. and makesit inlo a kind of our environment pictur€, but one which is changingconslandy, painting to themotionless very muchin constrast oo the wall which canbe an artisticsubsdnrdon for what migh! be seenlhrougha window. The by of theoutsideworld is inlensified awareness

a crosswindow,or generally by \rindowswith struc$ring bars,andbecomes wealerthebigger the windowopening is. Thuswindowsor glass walls which are too big, which open up the interiorspacc tolally,maketheroomuncomforuble; the feelingof safetyand securilyis lost. If nevenheless a generous lransitionfrom the inside!o the oulsideis desired, one shouldnot think of achieving this in an abruptway. but gradually. by way of loggias or transparent ancl projeclions (verandas lightweiBht for instance). thepoints whicharesi8nificant lf weconsiderall when dealingwith the window-such as light penetration and its effec!on the interior, Iight quality,position of the window, view from the window-then it becomes obvious l})at,strictly speaking, fie windowdeserves asmuchcareas doestle actualroom. BasicForms and Bars The square, tle triangleand lhe circle are lhe basicgeomelrical forms for the window. The latter two, however,have to be regardedas special forms.Traditionally theywereusedfor spaces of eminent or solemn significance. It is therefore recommendable to trcat circular and triangular windowswith greatcare,and to use them sparinglyso ihat their meaningis not Othe.wise theywoulddegene.ate trivialised. to graphic attribules too quickly(illusrranegligible tio[ l). The classicwindow hasa rectangular upright format. For thousands of yearsof architecture, thiskindof li*lt source hasproved to be the most economic both in terms of conslruction and in optimaltermsof functlon, Relatedto constructional considerations, the simpleargument againsl broadwindowsis that lhey violateth€ wall considerably. In termsof function,lhe uprigh windowhasevolved to meet moslsimplyandefficiently therequirements for sufficient li8ht, air and view. The square window,although representing a precise form.is a veryabstract. and.in addirion. a very banalformat.It canbe appropriate if in the composidon of a facadeit is used as a harmonizing wi$ olherforms. element together

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ELEMEMS

OF ARCHITECTURE I: INTERIORS

In anonymousrural and urban architecture, squarc window formats are almost exclusively utility spaces. Vcry rurely arc lsed for s€condary they applied to dorheslicbuildings. Scvcrd times when I thought I had discovercd a square window, it tumed out ir facl to be slightly reclan8llar. The exact squarc has also the of apFarhg disto(€d whcnvi€wed disadvantagc from a cenain anglei face to facc it takes on a horizontal fonrut. The most common window proponions resuhfrom thedivisionof thecircle into 6rer parts( I : I . I 6); the division of th. circlc and irro four pans (l:1.4); lhe goldensection; the proportion l:2.5 (illustration2). I shouldmcntion that all my recortunendations although of design, conceming differen!aspects thcy rnay soundirrEfutable,alwaysallow for filstrate exccptions. I refer only to k Corbusicr's wirdow'. 'ribbon wirdow' or Aldo Rossi's'square windo\r divisions are firsdy related to the kind of oper ng one is dealingwith. They have to comply with basic function, such?rsopcnin8. ventilation and cleaning. In addition to these, window bars c6n be employed for the aesthetic structuring of thc window plane (illustrations 3 hasbeen to E). This Lttrr desiSnrcsponsibility very much ncglectedin the rccent years. h was rhouShtto bc cnough to satisry the passionfor an unhindered view by way of panoramaglazing, which was rnadepossible by th€ producls of the Slazingindustry.Very oftenas a re$lt, the intimacy of a spaccwas destroyed:tastelcss 'cunain culturc' tr,astbc us€r'saesponsa, Bccause of all thcse rcasonsonc shouldgo back again to sensibledivisions for the window and reconcile its desiSn with that of the facade. Th€ simple divisions, dependint on the kind of openinS, are horizontal or vcrtical, and the superimposition of these two. The colunon 'window-caoss' hasbe€nquite successful. It is economic in tcrms of timbcr consumPtionand handy in terms of ventilation and clcsniDg.One can oFn sepantely by way ofthe top casarncnls of a levcr rnecharism. Thc lowcr sftlc hung casemcnts alsoallow for tbe uMvoidablecurtains to be moved asidc when lhe willdow is io be opcncd. If peoplehave fcar of heighls, Ihey can le3non the closedcas€ment and look out $rough the other oFned one (illustration 6). The cxamples in illustration 4, which show differcnt arrangcments of bars, are rather decorativc. Thescwindows aaesp€cial in l€rms of their strucure, lheir figurarion.the lension berweenlarSeaand srnaller divisions: they have an indcpendcntarchitectu€l siSnificance.The

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window surface itself becornes an imDor.ant elemen!of design. It would be precariousto replacethesekinds of windowsby synlheticor panorama glazing. They would destroy the texore of rhe facade. A successful bar patremin architecrumlhistory is the multipledivisiooof the window in fairly exactsquare (illustration5). For compartmen6 this rype, the differcnt thickness of bars ls a characteristic which resultsfrom the constructional functions of frameand thinnerelcmenls. Vertical sash-windows, common in Great Britain, allow for the greatestgraduarionof ventilalion.Both halvesof thc window can be moved upwardsand downwardsand they can remair in any F,osition-ir can come in either from tle top or the bonom. Specialforms of windowsdeak with hereare seenasderivarions of the re.langular window (itlustrations7 and 8). As regards rhe combrnationof differcnl *indow forrnats,J would like to suggest a smpre 'peasan! s maxim' (illustration9): l. Different window fomralsshouldnever line up witi eitherlheir lintelsor their sills. Otn€rwise this would be a typical result of T-shape thinking . Cut the formrls out of dark cardboard and mo\e themaroundon the facade drawing: yo! *ill leam quickly how to avoid banal solutions.The tensionof the fomraE one ro anotheris teometricallymeasurcable. 2. One shouldb€ carcful with lhe additionof identical fo.rnalsboth in the horizontalandlhe verucar direction.Ifone triesto alt€male lhe siresstorcy by storey,it will become evidenthow lively $e relationship betwe€n openingand nusonry can become(illustration9). Window Flgur€s Windos figures are created when differcnt formats are brou3ht int6 "ar15",,a interdependence. They can even ba::t in an architecturalfaame and thciefoae b.ao6rc a paaticular element oithe facade. I havesketched someexamples to explainwhatI mean:palladio (illusrrarjons l. 2 top,3). Schintcl (illu.r:arion} 2 bonom.4. 5 top and middle.r,. 7). Gaudt (illustration E),and tr Corbusier (illustrarion 9). Window figurcs are always CividcJ into different elements. Openings with different functionsand m.anings are combined!o foi,-I an 'image'.The resuhis anexciting conducr ot light into the in@riorandan archirectura! aniculation on the outside.Window figurcsnrc alsoesFrially addressed to cxt rior space.He.e the rclationship to lhc overall facadeis crucial.

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The Wlndow ss Room Dlvlder The cxamplesin this plate have treenmeasured up by sl.dent"J from old Vicnncscbuildings.They show dre refined treaunent,ahe richnessin dctail which wasappliedto th€ winlnd de significance dow. The bay window in illu$ration I is designed as a spccial room. A window is not rnercly with 'a hole in the *all', it defines a real space an ar€ain faon!of thc witrdow, a bre3st-wallzone and an erterior space.This is best describcdby a wrnthc cxpericnccwc havcwhcn approachinS dow: we are no longerinsideand not yet outside. Behind us Iics tlrc prot cting room and in front of us the exteaiorworld. The window has to be casyto reachto bc uscd. lr shouldalso tell us sonEthingaboutthe significanceand situation

l, 2 and4 also of the roomsbehind.Illustrations between exterior showwindows$ herelhe space and interior windowscan b€ used.By lhis, an is en' to diffcrcnt climatic ne€ds oDtimalrcsDonse are available sured-because severalcasements to be openedor leff closed.This work much bermodem venler than even thc most sophisticated tilaiion systems(if they work at all!), Thesehints advocatethat the window should b€ understood andnot astnnspar€ntwall. asa spatialelement A spccialtheme is inroduced by lhe arched window (illustrations2,3 and 4). Although dividing the arch is an exremely risky task in to aestheticlerms, this w.s often undertaken emphasise certainwindowsover others.In the nin€leenth cenrurythc archadwindo\t wasalao

usedin engineer-designed buildings. But the bars in the arch alrcadyusherin the dominationof the macbine(illustration3). Hcinrich Tessenophad slrong opinionsabout filling in panswhichcameinto conflictwith the when-as with lhe arched overall formi especially with an arch window-a rcctilineardivision meets so lhat unsightly residualare3sremain. As much as an archedwindow canbe very attractive,these not be brushed aside.Albeni difficultiesshould r€striction haspobably expEssed the mostsevene conceming this problemi '[n thes€Sons of Ap.rtures various desiSns have becn havenever commendedl but lhe bestArchitects andstmit Lines.'r madeUseofany but Squares

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H.HAL BRIT'I'E R Facsdelnd Window Axls Funhet reference grievance lo a conEmporary segmen6. The windows E is givenby ihcs€facsde let us irnaginethe wonderfully high rooms behind. It is rcally qucstionable whetherthe loweted ceiling heiShts in council housing represent proSrcss. suchstrikinS Ofcoursethey L ar€ cheaper than the old ones.Bathrooms and toiletsare cxpensive: but would anyMy think of ignorinS themin councilhousing becausc of cost facrors? | just want to hinr at the priorities govemus whenrnalinSbuildings. _ whichshould Unfonunatelyonc priority, the quality of the space, hasbeennost ersily renounced. And what alsob€€nlost in this contcxtis the high, reprEsentativewindow. Therefore, againan admonition H. R. schmrdt from Albeni aboutthc lreaiment of *indo$s: '...from whalever sidewe takcin theLight. we oughtto makc suchan Opening for it, as may alwaysSiveus a free Sighlof lhe Sky, and de Top ofthat Opening oughtneve.to be too low, because we are to seethe Light with our Eyes, and not with our Heels;besides the lnconyenience, $at ifone Man gets between another and the Window,rheLiShtis int€rceptcd, andall lhc rest of thc Room is darken'd, $hich never when the Light comesfrom above.' happens Withoutinlending to anticipate tle section on facades,I would like to show herc parts of facad€s which rclateto tbe vertical graduation of windows. The examples that in demonskate former times the valuationand meaningof paniculaf wasalsoapplied storeys ro dledcsign of their windows. The a.rangemcnt in these buildings reprcsented social conditions, because differcnt storeyswere inhabitedby members of differentsocialclasses. N€verthcless todaywe are attractedby this differentiation not only for nostalgic rcasons. It allowsfor sponEn€ous orientation,the racognition ofpanicular storeys and a precise archilcctunldesignation. To achicve 6is, it is norabsolutelyneccssary to usediffer€ot windo* formats for special stor€ys. Different rnat rials on the facade canalsosuppona similar effect, Albcni,1.r Eookt onArchit.ctun, 'L.onc Banish EnSlish publishcd tnnslatior byAIccTinnt.London | 965.chaDEr XIl.

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is nesaon !op. Here the motivc of lhe staircase palaces linkedwi$ a socialfunclion.In Baroque b€comes a representative thc well ofthe staircase in detail, itself is gorgeous Hall. The staircase ofaccess in heslaircase is lhe venicalelement flights.lt is full oversized andnrnsup in several building, which enablesone to ascendand of lighr and sometimesends under a mighry lescend from one slorey to the next. The ts primitive forcrunnerof the staircase cupola.The acrualpurposeof the staircase is lhe ladder. The by the nolion of representation. : is theshones! connection belween two places. dominated in relidential buildings in Vienot it is alsosteep andhardlo use.In mostcas€s typical staircases is not firmly insBlled in orde. to be used na reachedlheir prime in the nine|eenthcentury: - flexibly, and therefore lacksany properspatial curvedstairsof naturaistone,frce projeclionover .r architectonic one side, minimal lhicknessof rnaterial,generous quality.The otherextreme,the gaps bet*een flights. anistically designed rmp,allorrsforan almostimperceptible lranslbanisters and profiled handrails.The well was in on from storeyto storey.The differences leight are very easilyovercome. But the space in mostcasesilluminated by a rooflight and quite or water-taps, conlained sculpture which is requiredfor a ramp is considerably oft€n,besides rrgerrhanfor a slaircase because of the gentle stone benches.ln Orto wagner's residential asreal buildings 6ese detaitshavebeenexecuted iseof the former. masterPreces, its form determines - The functionofa staircase wascul down andat the same time shapes theenclosing space. In theyearsafterthe war, space we perceive either a straight flight or two for economic rcasonsand the large-scalestairwithouthesitation. This ppositediagonalfli8hls which cut throughthe hasbeensacrificed case in is why we havemerely functionalstaircases ,Jace.or a windinS movementwhich turns our modembuildings. They appearasan sddidon The way a skircaseruns: whetherit of disjoin@ds€ctionswith tiny landidgsand requires a-typically vertical-well; wherei( fi(s -pwards. lto the ground-plan:its construction and rnaterial minimal flights. The Senerous8ap bctwecn re all aspects flights, which allo,*ed the view from storeyto which contribute to its form. glance the chanSing storey,has almos!completelygone. A shon at history shows which fomerly wasan imporemphasis which wasgivento the staircase. The The staircase, qomanesque had tan! area of humanconmrlnication.has to be spiral staircase, for inslance, given back hs approprialc significancein a o light and havingthe shape of a tube filled a prcssed into building. solutions for stai$ on a more r€cess in the masonry or was _lecial approprialescale a.e still possible.It is not . circular (ower. lt fulfiUed the purpos€of which we find transporting people like difficult to crcatcthcm as spaces upstairs anddownstairs pleasan!, which receiveenoughliSht and allow venicalconidor. Du.ingthecothic period,the views to the outside, and which arc enlivenedby uter skin of the suircasewas a(iculated by pcnetrating througha roofli8ht.The a sunbeam columns and tracery. Light could -rcades. l.l0 metres widthsdo not needio be enormous: lherefore penetraleand it could be looked intervene to l 20 metrcsis anough,if landings c€nturywe havestair 'hrough. In the sixteenrh or restingon a vedcally beyond vJhichallow for conversation )wers which werc extended bench. a'crow'sbuildings thcybelonged to, havinS -rc

Staircases

- The mo$ imponant requLement ofa staircase is thatthedegrce ofrise is asgende aspossible, in order to rcduce to a minimum lhe effort necessary for climbing. To determine a convenient angleofrise, firsl ofall thestrideof a hurnan beingmustbetakenintoconsid€ration, which on average hasa lengrhof 63 cm. lt is assumed lhatthe movement in vcnicaldirectlon requires a double effon in comparisonwilh the horizonul one. This means in arithrnetical terms. onc trcadandtwice the riser shouldmake63 cm. The most comfortable staircas€accoading to Vicnnese traditionhasriserswhich arc 14 cm high and treads of 35 cm width. Unfortunately most staircases are steeperlpith risers of lE to 19 cm because a rcduction in floor spacecan be If lhe heiSht of steps is lessthan 14 achieved. cm, the botlom line of convenierceis .eached in altitude is onlyvery slowly because difference mastered. The staircase and its surroundingspacearean pan of the architectonic ess€ntial compositionof a building. Its function of giving accessto different storcyscan ooly be achicvcdin a meaningtulway if lhis quality is irnrnediately obvious; in olher words, if it is clear that the starrcase serves as a device of orientation in a buildinS. Todayone nukes do with lechnicaland guidinS systems insrcad of organising Sraphical rouGsand stairsin a way thatby their positioo, by wayof theirrelations to theentrancc andthcir particular form, the plan of the building can bc understood and visitoa can easily oricntate tbcmselves.If a building has !o acco[unodate s€veralsiaircases,the hierarchy of significance and frequencyin termsofuse canbe rnanifested in desiSn, whileunmistakable areas arc crcated. Form directly fulfills function. H€re the whole richnessof typologicalvariationsis at our disDosal.

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ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE I: IMERIORS

Si!ircas€ Similar to the ladder put against a wall, the Illustmtion solution. straight stairis thesimplest I showsan examplewhich is fitted into a frame is of piers and b€ams.If a stmight staircase to the different situaiedin a bigger space,access storeyscan t'e given by way of a gallery (illustmtion 2). This type works very well in public buildings. The respectivestair lo the next storcy is easyto find, and lhe gallery allows all rooms on one level to bc enlrred widDut difficulty. andther€forE Mor€ €conomicalin tennsof space, better suited for housing developments,is the well ath straightflighrsof sbirs of the square samesize as lhe landings(illustration3). Onc common solution is the developrnent of two straiSht flighrs with an inErmediate landing by an (illustralion is bordered 4). If fte landinS exlerior wall it is possibleto arrangefor the well to ger nabiralligh!. Thre€flights of slairs(ilustrations5 to 7) havc !o be seenprirnarilyas being relaledto reprcs€ntation. They alnost direcdyask in illustrafor'dignified striding'.The crGmple tion 5 is suitablefor repetitionover sevcral sbns with one fli8ht storeys. A broadstaircase at which landingis reached, until the intermediata point i! tums into two fliShtswhich arc narrower than the tirst one. However, the ctample in illustration 6, wheretwo fli8htsrisein different directions from the intermedialelanding, hasits besteffectifapplied only oncein a building.ln illustration 7 two flights of stairs from opposite onc stair. This iorm directions meetto become witr espaciallyfor passage-ways is recornmended equally two enttances, asthey canbe approached 8, The type in illusttation from both directions. which is a flight of two stairswi$ preliminary integratio[ into a high stepsleadingto it, dernands space which allows lhc *hole staircase to be lookeda! from elsewherc.A very cosdy solution is shown in illustration9, wherestairschange their dkection on cvery level to Siva access altcmalely to oppositesides.This canbe suilable for sDecial solutions.

ELEIIENTS OF ARCHITECTURE I: INTERIORS

The geonEtricalriodification of stmiShtstaircase leadsto spi.al stairs. In difficult spatialsituations, for inslance comers,a two-fligh! staircasc on a triangularground-plan can be applied(illustralion l). A variarion oflhis form is s slair risinc in lhrceIlightson thessme (illustra: ground-plan tion 2). but herc only a small landbg rcmams. Two fli8hts of stairs on a polygonalgroundplan-for examplca hexagon (iltustration 3)pmvide the well wilh a high spariatqualirr. Illustrarion 4 is more rclatedto the cxDloitation of a geometrical fo.m where thc sides of an octagonare consliotcd altemately by flighb and landings. Illustrations5 to 9 show eromplesof spiral sbircases,The verylnarrow newel slaircases (illustrations 5 and dfarc difficutt for cldcrly people and unsuilable fo. bigSer objecb to be transponed. This is not the cas€s/ith *inding staircases on half<ircular(illustririon7) oroval ground-plans (illustrations E and 9). Here { $ alsopossible to find one'sown walking rhythm by eitherclimbingon the inneror theouterside. Whal shouldbc avoided is thc alEmation of circular and straight stcps, becausethis makes it very difficult to find one's natural walking rhythm.

p€riod, vienna, c 1830 Staircasc in a buildingfmm th€ Biedenneier

vienna, Staircase in a building from the Biedemeierp€nod. Margarethenstrass€, c 1830

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for the officials Beamreosti€ge in the PostOfllce Savings Bank,Vi€nna. Staircase by O. w aS ncr,l 9l 0-1912

58

Entranc. hall of a r.sidential build if,8 in Lnndsrrass€, vienna,by ,. Brychb. I 862

'Majolik h.us at dlcR.cht wicnzeil.,VicMa. by O. wrgnci, |898

59

Facades
architectural The facadeis still themostessential thc function of communicating capable element I say'still'. having ofa building. andsignificance rn proclaimed destruction in mindits theoretical ofthe *here the ideology century the lwentieth object, visible from all sides, free-slanding The p€rfectionof the becameDredominant. 'body of had prioriryover the crealion building It is only lhestre€!. a specific'show-side'facing of the in receotyears, after the rediscovery offte publicrealmandthevalueof imponance urban life, that the facadc rcgained a new valuation. The facadenever only fulfills lhe'natural of by theorganisation dctermined requirements' behind.h talks aboutthe cultural the roonLs wasbuilt; siuationat thctimewhcn$e building it revels criteria of orderandordering,andgives of and ingenuily an accolntof thc possibilities alsotells A facade omamentatioo anddecoration. gives them of a building, usabout theinhabitatts a collectivc identhy as a communily, and of the lalter in ul(irnatrl) is the reprcsentalion Dublic. from lhe The root ofthe word 'facade'slems with the btin 'facies' which is synonymous if we 'face'and'appearance'. Therefore, wonds talk aboutthe 'face' of a building,the facade, In all thefroni facingthe strect. 1pe mean above to s€mlto that, the back is assiSned contrast Both these public or private exterior spaces. of front and back relate-roughly Dhenomena ipeaking-on lhe onehandto public rcsponsibility and on lhe other hand to the privat€ s€lfof the inhabitanls comparedwilh reprcsentation of the sreet character the more representative thebackof a buildingis moreopenand facade, with cou(yard, Sarden and communicates landscape. The often-usedframed facadernadeof liSht andglazingis too stlndardin tyPeand material too abstracl in character for housing It does nol allow for aesthetic develoDments. differentiation and is too vulnerable and to hasnothing Sucha'skin facade' transparent. do with the appropriatefacadefor a residential andconbe moreclosed buildinq.whichshould the street.in order to protectthe cealinq-towards orivarf sphercof lhc iniabihnts All these ;eouirenenlsarc sliil bestmetby the solid facade wh'osc massive,protecdngexterior wall N lo let air and liShl perforatcdby openinSs o€nerrate into the intetiorof thebuilding Also' thesolidfacade in termsofenergyconsumplion b€cause is *ithou! doubtmuchmoreapproPnarc' its exterior wall has a higherthermalstorage caused . ln Austna,the energyProblcms capacity haveal.eadybeentakeninto by glassfacades proponion In publicbuildugsa smaller account. surfaceis allowedas of windowsin a facade with previou5 compared )ears This Propodion hasat leaststopped andPlane opening between walls,and of curtain developmen! theunhindercd to Sainnewropicality. lhe solid facade hashelped of a facade,laking into The comPosition (windows, requirements the functional accoudt roof area) is door op€nings,sun proteclion. a harmonlou! todo withthecreationol essentially venicaland of goodproPo(ions, e ity by means horizolal structuring,materials,colour and SinceVilruvius architects decorative elements, have beenlrying to developmetricalrelations which would give an ideal order and strucnire to the facade-and alsoto floor plansand rooms This wasthoughtto be the way ofachievingab_ such soluteb€auty.Especiallyh the Renaissance, of numt€rs and anefipb were rcfened to systerns waslalen rulesof proportions.Plato'sphilosoPhy asa basis,aswerc thethoughlsof Neo_Platon$m. app.oved-andso Renaissance SaintAugustine ftat thewhole convinced anistswerelhorouShly and harmonious universewas a rnatiemalical creation.By suchthitikinS, ruleswerc established asfollows: '. .If fte whichwittkowcr describes p€rvade everything laws of harmonicnumbers life to themosthumble sDheres from thecelestial on canh, rhenoui tery soulsmust conform to t thisharmony...' beauty a harmonious But the aim of reaching only in this way Oneneeds be achieved cannot view Sivenfrom only to considerfiattheoblique the bottom of a buildinS, togetier with the and effects of constantlychangingconstrasts prcvenlusfrom by light andshade, depthcaused proponions ex' perceiving suchtruly calculat€d very impo(antto me it seems acdy.Neveiheless with the helPof window proponions to examine andequallyto studytheprothegoldensection, baseand total ponionsof op€ningand parap€t, will leadafter a while heightetc. This exercise harmonious to a 'narural'sense ofpleasanl, Proh is portions,e.g. a well-balanced composition. which, similar to the rhythm in architecture music, rousesemolionsin us. Thereforeit is of musicaltheory possibleto transferconceptions
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rccdy lo architectural composhion. The €vent-interval, tnlarilies of tension-relaxation, accord-conlrasl; the principleof repclition;the ^.ocessof lhe themebeing carriedihrough in planes riations; all crcat€ therhythm ofrnass€s, d lines. -Let us. for examole. reflect on winoow openingswhich repeatthemselves again and ain. which in succession wilh the wall )ments.crealethe contrasts of open-closed, smoothand rough surfaces. A! th€ -rkli8ht, sametime because repelitionthey of p€riodical _.oducea quiet orderand vary the sametheme )m storeyto storeyby way of-for instance_yrhmical diminution towards the top (appropriale becaus€ thelight qualityincreases). An importanlaspect ofstructuringthe facade to makea distinc(ion betwe€n the horizontal d thevenical elements, each of whichcan,in generaleffect. Ecmselves,createan adequaie Normauythe proportions of theelemenG should -'rrespond to thoseof the whole. AccordinSly low broad buildings,windows, bays, elc., would predominate, whereas *)ad proportions in high buildingsslender give a sens€ elements '.f th€ largebeingfoundin lhe srnalland the srnall ing found in th€ large, as it is similarly perienced in naore. principles ofa facade, -Following theordering $e constructional can b€ madevisiconditions rre, e.g. by chanoelling the bearingforcesinto :rs. This articulation ofvenicality would ema panicular effect of the facade. -asis€ How€ver, thisis notlo putconstniction too much intotheforeground or to showeverynailorjoint,

and bu! to rcveal the narure of construclion craftsmanship. Besidesconslructionlhere are many other things necessary in termsof functionor simply narrative whichaddto theanimationof elements and lintelsto the facade:\*indow surroundings rainaniculat€ ofthe windorps, the independence pipes. shune15,roof projeclions which give the masses shade, materials that emphasise (rusdcalion) matble), them(reflectinS or loosen window boxes and Virginia creepe.give the building a summeror winler appearance. The horizontallayeringof the facade results from thediffercntareas offunction.Inprinciple, a facade should never be designedwithout horizonral differentiation. A cleardiffer€ntiation is especiallyappropriatebetweenthe Sround floor, the ordinary storeysand the attic. The facade as 'built border' actsin a similar way to the portal: in Ge.rnanthe word for wall is 'wand' whichhasto do with 'uenden' (to tum) or with 'wandlung' (change); the the wall is therefore placewherelhe exlerior lums into the int€rior zone has the and vice versa. This transitional becomingmore lively if functionof exchange, the surface has a certain plasticity and if movemenl is evident. B) wayofwall Projections, ledgesand pilastersthe plan€ of lhe surface develops threeiimensionality, b€cominga relief, whereby light and shadow, foregrcund and background, becomeperceptible. of single The facade as a whole is compos€d therns€lves with elements, thelanerbeingentities an exprcssivecapabiliry of their own. The of comDosition of a facade.however.consists

structuring on lhe onehandandordering on the olher. The elemenG base,window, roof etc., which by their narure are differentthings,will alsothereforebe differcnt in their forms, colours and rnaterials. All thesepans should remain recognisable individually, although $e common language bindingtbemlo the wholehasalsoto be found, However, not every means of connectinS or matchin8 is sensiblet for instance to locatetheupperedges ofwindowsanddoors in one line would contradict the different meanings they have.lf the heightsare slaggered, the common factor could relate to similar proportionsor shadinggradations of a basic lf we do not approach the design of a facade asanautonomous workofan. but incontexl with adjacenthisloricalfacades, it is necessary lo employdiffercnt elements which sepamte the new from the old as well atones $/hichjoin and connect both.Thus$e choice ofelements should firsl of all be relaledto the language of the historicalfacades. Partsof them,or particular aspecls,will be taken across, a purponing conlinuity being achieved by such a thenutic approach. But g€nuine continuity is only qualityof lhe conceivable oncethe indep€ndent nelr facade, addits newconditions anddernands are upheld.The relationship b€twe€n old and new is in anycase adialogue, a conversation between lhe pastand the present. *RudolfWinlow€r, ,irn!r..'/ ml Pnncipl.s in thcA8e of Hunanatn,Ac^deny Ednions, lrndon | 9?3,p 27.

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This plateshows possibilities tundamental for the designof a facade. First of all, vJitlrsrnall sketches, I wouldlike to again hintat thcde.isive role geometrical proponions play for thc harmoniousapparanceof (hefacade(illustmtion I ) . Considerations of 0riskind are, of course,no! ro be separatedfrom the whole building body. If, be.auseof a disadvantageous siteor restrictive building regulations, an unsatisfactory solution of $e facade will transpire, this can be at least panially prevenred by carcfulcomposition, i.e. a deliberate zoningof rhefacade (illustrarion 2). Yet whenapplyingthis kind ofdcliberatc zoning, harmoniousgcometrical pmponions havc to be paid atention to (illustrarion 3). By the distribulion of windowsin drc facade, a panicular cffect can b€ emphasised (illustraor suspcnded tion 4). Herc thc possibilities rangefrom a regular distribution of cqualwindows to an irregular and figurative arrangemcnt. Windows can be combinedin snBll groups to form panicular figures,or thcy can divide the facade by b€ing (illustrarions almostsepamtc elemen|s 5 and6). While windows are thc most important means of composition, the facade itselfcan b€ trcared as a sculpturalpan of $e building. Specificpans (illustrated of the building can be cxpos€d ?), whereby the foregroundand lhe backgroundof (illustralion8). The Lhefacadcare determined superimposition of diffe.entbuildingparrsis yet anothcrsubjectof composition, which will be dealt with again in thc sectionon the threedimensional composition of a building(illustrarion 9).

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By means ofthepans ofelevadons, shownhere, the lheme of facadefigures running lhrcu8h venically can be explainedwith examples. llhsration l: The distriburion of windowsrs based on 6eir axes.Similarwindowproportions are reducedin sizestorey. This motive underlines the perspective of lhe facade; it makes the buildingappear higher than it is in reality, and symbolises the needfor more lighl penetration into the lower storeysof buildingsin narrow sareeis, Illustration2: Here rhe windowsincrease in sizewhich makes the facade appcarlighter and symbolises its constructive logic. Illustmtion 3: An almost'rnathernatical' order is achieved by doublinE rhenumber ofwinoo$s in eachstorey andby. a-t ik same time, reducing their formats. Thus a very active facadeprovides nevertleless the sameamountofopening space In eachstorey. Illusuation 4: Similar in appearance to the example shown in illustation l, this figure, however,is not determined by lhe axesof lhe windows but by the grouping of windows togetlrer. Illuslration 5: A figurc in ar|almostlite.al sense developsfrom this arrangement of windo*s, which is based on the coordination of differenr fonnalson one verticalaxis. Here lhe emphasis Iieson rheenrance andrheanicularion ofthe anic by way of a regular s€ri€s of equally sized Illusuation 6: This somehowuneasyfigure has a mther casual effect composedof different window forma6. Il is probablyofimponanc€at this point lo againcall one'sanendon rc the spalial effects ofinterior roomswhich canleadto such figuralionon the facade. lllustration7: A projectedbasewith rcgular openings(instead of pilastcrs),allows for the zone above to employ a new, independent, organisalion ofwindows.This is a popular rnori\ e in 'big city architecNre, wherethegroundfloor hasa separate meaning. Adolf t os appliedlhis themein his buildinBal rhe Michaelerplatz in Vie.na and the HouseofTrisan Tzarain Paris. lllustrarionE: Onevenical elementaccumulates all necessary openings ofthe adjacen!.oorns.The lwo storeyhigh glazingfolds into the tefiaces, &e middle sectionaccornnodating the sitlin8 room andthe sidesof lhe bedroorns. Illustration9: The same figure as the only opening elem€nt in lhe facade; a giganticfigure wnich runs tbrough all storeys.The scaleof the building must be able to cope with such a monumentat openlng.

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no longershowonly pansofthe These examples aredemonstrated high buildings facade. Slendcr in their total composilionand s€rve for each theme. ljlustrationl: A regularwindow composition on axes,From bottomto top increaslng based top sizes of windowsculminalein a large-scale floor. intodlreezones: 2: Clearscparation llustration a oPenings: the ground floor with large-scale wilh windowsregularlydistributed; middlearea and a light skelelalattic storey. Illustration 3: Here the sizesof the windows in a way that the wall surfaces ared'mensioned to'Piers' and'beams" are largelyreduced vary in each because thewindowsizes However, facade. call thistyp€a skeleton storey, onecannot 4: The old themeof the 'piano Illustration is emphasised nobile. the mainfloorofa hous€, hereby a closedattic zone. Illustration 5: Theext€riorflightsofstairsgive The larSe the groundfloor a public character. a clear studiowindowsofthe top floor indicate wilh the small compared difference in valuation slorey, windowsof the inlermediate hall of columns, IllustratioD 6: A large-scale a po\rerfulolder like a'stoa', constitutes almost whichcan alsoconceal lhe irregularand lively interiorof the building. windowslitsare 7: Elegant, slender nlustration arch.andform bound togeder by a con$ructional a fisure with the circular windowsof the attic an image. storiy. Thusa serialrnotiv€becomes Illustration 8: The zoninS of this facade resembles the'buildingblock' principle.Nith rts andwindowpanitions lt gives surfaces different storeys of relativelyindependent theimp.ession beingpiled up. nlustration 9i Herewe havean i.regularfacade to lhe interiororganisation according strucNred the One should not undereslimale of spaces. difficulry of distributinB*indows this freely, lo quile prec$e because it requiresadherence to oneanother. proportions relating theoPenings yel free laste canleadto a harmonious Excellent design,but a 'secret'principleof order is also Undsof composition. o[ these the foundat'on

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Compl€te composkions are also shownin this plate. Theycannot beapplied arbirrarily. bul can reinforce the whole rendenc)'of a buildin8. Illustration l: Thebase is clearl)distinguished fromtherestof thebuilding by ha\inga differenr surface.Because of the terraces beingcut out from the anic srore\. lhe building has a battlemenr-like rermination. Illustration 2t Thistacade figureunfolds from thebotlomto the top like a lree-rop or a goblet. One may also find fiat rhe significance of the individualstoreys diminishes ro\\ardsthe topIllustralion 3: Herea plastic figure.a po(ico. projects from th€bu;lding $hereb]$e enrrance is clearlyemphasised. Illunrarion 4: In conlllisr ro illunrar'on 2. (he facade figuretaper\offioqards thebp. Oddl) enough, although the orderis reversed. we do not perceive a change in meaning. Probably il is thehierarchical slructure ofthe facade assuch which suggests a hierarch)of significance. Illustration 5: A projeckd arcade is subdivided by a loggiaon first floor level.A socially useful interspace is created. rhich almosr gi!esrheidea of $eatricalsraging. lllustration 6: The galemotivein fronr of a largelyglazedfacade clearl) demonstrales the problematic nature of de figure,Sround relationship.The layering of$e facade ranges from $e opening of thegate. to thelightbackground. unljl finally the surroundinS frameof rhebuildingrs feached.

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underyround car park-with ahe entranceinlo the building.For thepedestrian, only a narrowpath alongthe*all fulefi. Thus,by pessing lhe rubbish On the way from thc slreq ino a buildios onc containers, one hurries to the safe apanment passes through diffcrcntgraduarions of whit can door, sw€lring at lhe dirty and devaststed becalled'thepublic'. Immediatcly. rheposilion entrancc; and whal else can be expected from andthearchitEctonic _ ol theentlancc sicnificancc sucha buih realiry? it is givendcrDooslratc thc role and dnction of olier badexamplesare lhe so-calledenrancc thebuilding.Thusfte nlaincnranccof a largc hallsofthe modemcenlrcsofpowcr; the ofiice publicbuildingwould norb€a tiny holelocated towcrsand insurancc palaces. We find an oFn sontewhere *herc nobodywould fud ir. Equally 8.ound floor, flattenedby the load of the ascendin8 storeys,and awkwardly structuredby wall - il would bc inapprop.iale for a modesthouseto bc approached by a rcpres€nrarional drive or partitions, greencry, mural pictures and large-scale flightsof s(airs. orientation boards. Without all this crap, thc The ponal rnarkslhe transitionfrom thc public entnncehall would bejust an arra without rreanto lhc privateintcrior.It is an clemenr ing. Oneshouldask a visitor leavirg one of dles€ -exterior of self-reprcs€nlation for the inhabitanb. The places whether or nol hc could rcmemb€r the routefrom the ponal to d|c venical means of space. H€ would not even undeKtand the access forms an individualspace or scricsof queslion.For this reasonthe following cxamples spaces: this fact is muchtoo seldom takeninlo havebeenchosenwhich clearly demonstrate thc -account. qualities spatial of cntmnccarcas. Ponals and entranceshave nowadaysbe€n mostlydegradcd to residualspaces. They rDerely A notable exampleis $e solution for the enmnce suffi cc therequirements of building regularions. to the former 'L,Anderbank' by Otlo Wagncr. The in pcrvcrsity is thccombination oflhe roundvestibule,which is non{irectional. acs as -Uppennosr entrancafot vchicles-into a counyaador a distributor(illustEtion l). Threediffercnr areas

Entrances and Portals

(banking hall, enlrancc and main staircase)are lhusheld togcther.A richly decomted an nouveau portal is pictured in illustration 2. As the actual door into the buildingis recesscd, an ante-space is crcaEd which is madcinto a Dorch. (illustration Thc nexl cxample 5; showsan inlerestinS sequance of spaces. A roundvestibule preparcs the visitor lor thc follo*iac archrtcctural event.A small flight of srairsnirmws Oe space, v/hich thcn opcos into an irrcgular hexagon. After this landing,which is scparaleo fiom thc actual stairwell by wall projections, utc roulc terminatcs in a sbircascwhich ascends in threc flights. Thcrc wcre tincs whcn even ihe cntranceareasto blockl of council flals received Oe necessary dcsign anention.This is clcarly visible in ihe example of a Vicnncse 'Cerneirdchaus'from the yca$ bct$c€n the wars (illustration4). Thc portal is emphasiscd by a fiamc of bricks. A spaciousporch o!,cns inlo a propcr vestibulc with iililing bonom stcpsof a staircase and two doors; onc giving acccssto the hous€,thc other lcading inlo thc courtyard. Hcrc a simplc cntrance has been tumcd into an cnjoyable meering place.

:. -"r--grFti$,bt!-of a buildins in Rcssctsass., Lieranda and srzircasc \ icnM. by J. Kornhiiusct. carly cighreenrh ccntury

Entrancc hall of a bourgeois resid.ntial buildinS. vicnns. c 1900

Vcstibuleofa buildinS,vienoa, 1830

69

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE [: FACADF,S

Arcades
who owns thc arcadcs?Are they relaied to the strcet or thc building? Or do thcy cven belong to ihe pavement,craating its propcr spscc?The arcade is detarmined by lhis ambivalence of application, but it is also an intcrmcdiatc space which can bc usad and irtcrpraled in rnany differenl ways. It cln fulfill semi-publicfunctions by bcing projccled in frcnt of a building whercby the usc. is neithcroutsidenor insidethe building. But thc space of the arcade is also capable of assuming an indcpandent public role. It can almo$ grow into the buildinSbchind,and ther€by beconEan arcaded building. Finally lher€arc exampleswhcrc in thc colrsc of tina, arcades Mvc bc€n fillcd in or wallcd up in o.de. to gain additional spacc.(Whcn old buildings arc in the pmcessofbcing restor€d, arc ofren hidden arcades found bchindplastcrand brick walls.) The arcade is a collcctive urbanelement. For ils construction, it is ncccssary not only to gain thc agrecmentof the neighboun in lhe panicular streclaffccted,but alsoto gain thc pcrmission, and even the irstruction, of the building authorities. Once the arcadeis built it becomes an individual urban clemcnt which is larg.ly understoodto b€ indcFndent faom lhe building behind. The rcasonwhy therr arc so fcw arcadcs buih today is probably due to a lack of commot sensc whan it comes to thc dctcnnination of common uaban elements. However, the us€fulncss andeffichrnent of thc arcadefor urban life has b€enproved for ceo$ries.

ELEME\"TSOf ARCHITECTURE trr FACADES

Ground Floors
Thc baseof a building, its grourd floor zone, is withoul doubt the mostimportanturtan clenrent ofc facade.As it constitutes thc tratrsitionto the ground, or the pavenrent, it is cxposcd to considcrablcstrain, and thercforc the matcrial uscd for this zona is usually morc durablc than that uscd for thc rcsi of thc building. The grcund floor hasa panicular impodance in urb6n life. Because this arca is most direcdy pcrceived by people, it oft€n servcs for the accommodation of shopsand olhcr commcrical enterpriscs. Givcnthe nature of business, such a ground floor zon€is alsosubjectcd to frcquent chanre.csDecially in tetr|s of its fittincs. It is to trc rccommcndcdlhc-relorclhat $c round floor be given a robust, neutralsrrucurriwhich can copc lrith 'paBsitical architccnrrc' suchas shopfittings. The examples he.c showdiff.rcnt kinds of bascs.Thcy rangc from ncutral backgrounds for largc openings to buildingswilh I rcjeltin8, evcnclos€d,charaoer,whosctroutd floors do nol, for some reason,havc a public function.

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Balconies Bay-windows, and Loggias
balconies and bay-windows, Similarto arcadcs, as indepadcntspdtialunils. loggias arc !o be s€en ganuina cdrrgcnE s of thc Theysre i'l any ces€ apanmcnt,providing a scnscof steppingout of the building-out of thc faclde-althoughstill b€in8 in thc private rcaLn. In addilion to that, lhcs€ elemcntsallow for a bcttcr vicw of uaban h thc ruc lifei they opanup 'ncw prospocls' of thc woad. scnsc To a grcater ext nt than the balcony, bay-

windowsandloggiasalsorlpfts.nt a[ cnrich[Ent of $c intcrior spacewhich lies bchind, because they divide it into spsccsof differcnt value Ano0rcrimportantargumentin favour of baywindows and loggias strcsses lheir clirnatic function.They form ! bufrer zoncto the cxterior, in tennsof lhe crFrSy which is of gtentadvantrge of thc aprrtmcnt. Expcriric swith consumption havc winter gardens andprojcctcdconservatories rcvealed intrrcsting rcsults which, rlthough kaown long ago, wcrc largely igno.cd in lhc rccent period of cncrgy wastagc.After the lsst wcrc equiPFd war, whenonly a few houscholds with rcfrigcralors, thcscPansofa building werE

often used for lhe sto€gc of food dutinS the winter. Evcn the intcrmcdiate spsce belwccn doubL Slazed windows also served for thcse purposcs. r in illustrations Two varianb ofbays atr sho*T I and 2, Th. bay-window in Otto Wagn€r's 'schiitzenhaus' in Vienna (illusmtio.r 1) is conceivcd as I little buildinS on its oll[; a Pulpit abov. thc river. Anothcr buildinS in VicDna revcals a bay elcrncnt which vcnically teachcs over the entire facadc crcating the motive of a srial building which is projectd ftom I largeone (illustration 2). Thc r*o balconicsshown in illustrations 3 and 4 are renarkable in ielms of

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3 their painstaking,constauctiona.l trcatrnentof the soffir. Bay-windows, balconiesand loggias arc also very suieble for thc irnctional strucnrrcof the i b facade. However, it goes without saying that thescelemcnts should not be distribucd on lhe surfacc at random. I would recornrnend a concenttationover s€vcfal storcys, !o allow for \- a firrther differentiation within theseclcmcnrs. This *ould also clearly increasethe legibility of the differcnt storcys. The loggiasshownin illustmtions I and2 are building projections. , exanplesof rcprcsentational nearlythree - The loggia in iltustration I measurcs squaremetrcsand tlErcby alrnostrcsembles thc sizeof s propcr room. This clca y invites possi ble useas a room. In contrastto lhat, the archcs dominatingthc loggiasin illustration 2 constiNte a rcprcsenhtional frame, and morc likely only invite the inhabitants ro hai. a brief glancear the street. Probablyhere, thc interior spaceis much more important, thc loggia rathcr seding as an additional filte. of the cxt.rior. Espcciallyat thc times whcn thc Frcnch windows arc openwould it sugSestan optical enlargementof the room b€hhd. Thc degrecto which thcs€kinds ofelernentsarr also appropriatefor the articulationofan impor-

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4 tantpatt of thc buildinS is shownin illuslrarions 3 and 4. Thc contour of a streetconrcr is talen up again by the first two storeys of a comer building (illustation 3), But, asrheanglcdrcoms do not seemto bc vcry suitablefor apartmenrs, thc comer is inl,erruptedby a cyclinder which provides space for a terrace and, in addition, monumenlalis€s the comer of the building, especiallywhen viewedfrom a distance. The big 'hole' in the facadeof the 'G€meindehaus' (illustration 4) achievesa positive m€aning by way of curvedbalconies, whichhavethe effect of the buildingmassbeingmodulaled.

ELEMEMS OF ARCHITECTURE II: FACADES

Roof and Attic Storev
Nowadays onc apparendy only corDes acrosstwo typasof roofs: the llat roof (the developrnent ard asses$De of whbh doesnot need!o be d€scribed herc in dctail), and the norrnal pitchcd roof, which by now has bccome wide-sprcadas the embodiment of lhe 'alpinestyle'. Wc should not engagc ours€lves in clich€s,bul rathe. look at the variety of possibilities and meanings that this imponant part of thc buildinS has, belring in mind that ir is a building'srerminarion rowards the sky. The meanings which languagc attaches to roofs are v€ry instnrctive. For instancc,if we rcflect on the term 'roof landscape':it risesfrom the buildings like a skin and, ovcrtoppcd by the higher silhouenesor public buildhgs, this artificial lhing becomes a secondplaneb€tween sky and canh. In Seneral, the roof involvcsan ambiguous, undefincd spac€ *hich nowadays is mostlysacrificed ofthe to a mdicalexploitation buildingvolume.But we shouldnot completely foBct this rcs€woir of secrcb and mentoncs. Here the obj€cb of the past, th. hisrory of the inhabitanls, and therefore that of the building itselfareprcserved. For all this $ere is a simpleexplanation. The altic is a frce placc, a residual space,a storeroom,a play arcafo.children.It is oftenfull of comers, moslly dark and dusty, lhc oppositcof thc cxtcrior world. The roof is the caownof the building, the evidencc of its meining showingthe pride and dignity of the buildingirself. The crown is canicd by the building body. Visuallyit is lhe tcrmination of thefacade, oftEn with 8n attic storcy inscned,by which dcvicethe roof is withdmwn fmm people's eyes. Thercfore thc top floor zon€,thc anic s|orcy, is muchmor€ important for the dcsign and compositionof the facadethan thc actual rooi The facade is prota.ted from the weather by a comicc. or by any othcrprojecting moulding. On toDof these couldbe a smallbalustaade-as if thire was a tcrrsce behind-to hide the mysterious roof. At imponant points the anic storcy is broken through by dornesand towers which simply havc the purposcof 'crowns' . Bu! let us r€Nm to the rttic storcy. The nccessityof it bcing taEatad in a spccial *ay, in terms of form and firnction, resuks from thc simplefact dtat a building hasa top ard a bonom. The touom is thebascwhich hasto communicate irs pqrticrrlar rclationshipwirh the eanh. At lhe lop cverybodyshouldknow dlat lhe building ends

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'Ankerhaui in Crab€n.vienna. by O'wagner. 1895 Palm Hoos€in the Burgganen. vienna. F. Ohmann.c 1900

Ground-Plan and Building Form

A Iong-standing error in cootemporaryarchitecnrre is the belief that therc is a logical connection between the ftrnction and the form of a buildinS;or eventhatthe laiter is a resultofthe former. Bul as this irrevocable cquationof a direct analogyof functionand space, or form, is non-€xislent, an anemptwas madeto creale an auxiliarytheory which endedin a diftused, vaguedefinition andvindication of architectu re. Seemingly tbe infinitepossibilities which lie in lhe relationship of function and form were not understood in a positive way. No ground-plan or building can be lraced back direcdy to a function. Always in architecturc, certain .rypesof spaces' will be applied. They are ulrimately relarively indeFndent from the initially required function which existedat the beginningof rhe plannng prccess. Thereforelet us asslmethal the designof a building develops frorn the interdependence of the requirements of thc users-the functionsand the typesof spaces which are providedby architecture. Requirements alonedo no! makea buildinS. tf so, all doors would be openedto 'hypenrophic ferociry'and the disruprionof buildings. The rnajority of functionsandground-plans are easilycapable of being rclatedto simple types if the oles and prccedurcsof function arc understood. Wilhin its€lf, every type provides enoughfteedomofd€sign. Experience showsthat with lhe clarity and simplicity of rhe ground-pla.n, and the form of a building, the possibilities of differcnt usesincrcase, lhe argument is put forward Qlite frequendy, that conftnementto prccisebuilding iypes would restrictrheindividuality of architectuml desiSn. But it is exacLly this excessive individuality which leads to lhe nowadaysmuch lamenl,ed wildness irt architecture and its lack of conccption. In contrast, the cxampleswhich follow show the possibililies of individualdifferenriarion of buildhgs with similar ground-plans. An addidonal aid in thedesignof a building is drcarulysis of rh€ ropoS.aphical and typological situation of the surroundings,and lhe tradition of the respective area. In principle, one should always presume lhat every site hrs its own social a|ro historical rneaning. To discover, and to investigate,ils implicltions is a pre-conditionfor the cultuml undeNtanding of an architectural design.Every placehasirs sFcific conditionsand irs hislory. Peoplehavegiven meaningto cven fte rnost desolate prairie, lhe seemingly untouched desen, and the most inaccessible mounlainare{s. bg€nds and mythsdo exist, and

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cerlaio places evoke associations for many people.No placeis a virgin pieceof land. Thechoiccof rhebuildingtype andthe building form is deFndent on lhese general specific conditiods, whichmean motethanrnasrering the requiremenG of a building'sfu$rc inhabitants andits architectural possibilities. Withourtaking inloaccount thecomplex siluationofapanicular site, a buildingis merelya trivial th.ow-away p.oduct; and without the involvemen!of tne cuhural heritaSe,every solution remains individualistic and idl€ arbilrariness. The an of architecture, the decisionon the building rype andrhedesign of thebuildinS ilself, beginwith de deliberate superirnposition ofthe conditions of $e_place#ith rhe requiremenrs of the Inhabrtants. If he la}'estheseore-condilions seriously, everyhonest will therefore architec! quickly consider a simple,und€rstandable and appropriate buildingtype. D€velopment and Composition Every ground-plan should be conceivedand developed in relation to space. Here, very often from the clien!'s sidc, the first obstaclesto understanding occur,bccause he is normallynot experienced in sparial imaginarion. But lhereis a usetulrule of thumbwhich might help in this situation: at thebeSinning of a buildingprocess, thearchitect should nev€rconfrrse or overwhelm theclient. Simplegcometrical basicforms also provide possibilities sufficient for sparial surpris€. This kidd of discipline excludes much unnecessary eslmngement, trecause it involves concrele experience and understanding, fien the work on the form of the building can be sta ed. Onceits roughcontours are lisible, the rcquirernents of refiningb€corne ihe next step. Openings are broughtinto a rhythm, and are combined to form a motive;exterior spaces, such asterraces, balconies or loggias are added,not as missing pieces, but asa kind ofsecondlayer to lhe building. Thc mostimponant problemwhen designing a building is probablj the detcrmination of the line whichhasto bedrawobetween interiorand exteriorspace. At thispoint,the wholerangeof possibilities of how to createan appropriate transilion from the privatesphereto the public realmcomes intoquestion. A change in conception occurs wherebytheseiwo different spaces haveto be takeninlo considemtion. In contrast to a muchch€rished ideologyof architectsadvocating the unlimitedtransitionof interior and exteriot, the user in genemlknows very well whereto draw the line between thes€ sDaces.

ELEITIENTS OF ARCHITECTLIRE III: GROUND-PLANAND BUILDI\G FOR,\T

SquareBuildings
geometrics For thesNdyof simple .elated to the conception ofresidential buildings, t wouldlike ftrstofall io talkabout thesquarc. The following threeplateswill dealwith fiis basicform andwill showhow it allowsfor the manipulation of lhe within. Thc mostdecisive spacc question which whendcsigning adses square roomsis probably what to do wiih the centre;whelher!o fill ir in or to keepit void. Thc square house has Roman its fircplace whereas exactly in lhecenlre, theentrancewasoI minor imponance. andtherefore siuated in a comer of the building. As a geometrical objecl,thecubemosr clearly communicates lhc notionof enclosure and also the symbol of stability. The cube therefore, among thePlatonic solids,symbolizes theearth. The subdivisions and fragmeniations shown in lhe following plaes shouldfirs! of all be understood indcpendendy of functionand use. They simplystateprincipalfonnal possibilities whichgiveriseto definable rulesofhow to solve the conflict of enclosure anddivision,and, by wayofinterior structure, how spatial effecls are chanSed. we canconsider To cofrmence thesequence the whichis orienuted all-round enclosure, owards thecentrc, where ofdivisionis emde similarity phasised I and2). Spatral by a pier (illuslralions focus is mainly dclerminedby the positionof the staircase. This is thecase in thebuildingshown in illustration 3 despite thelivrng areas running through. IUustialion 4 demonstrates thesuperrmposition ofa circulation axiswith a central stalrcase, by whichdeviccthecentre ofthe building is clearlydet€rmined. lilustration 5 concems a directional division, by whichlhebuilding is subdividedinto two, or several. zoncs representing valuatiolrs. pactice differentspatial A common is to sub{ividelhebuildint intoa mainzone and two subsidiary zones(illustration6), wherebythe main space can have its own Seometryto emphasise its particularposition.The interior fragmentation of a solid appears in illust.ation ?. The square rcmains by way of its bordcring lines.but in termsof irs iDterior.it allowsfor complete frecdom of spatral arrangcmant. Thus is left recognisable only whenviewed thesquare from the oulside. nlustrations E and 9 showcxamples of onedircclional space.One side of the squarcis accennrated by a large opening and &us constitutes the main side, thc facade,of the building.

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ELEMENTS OF ARCHTTECTTJR,EIII: GROTJND.PLAN A.I{D BUTLDTNG FORM

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The centralized vcnical arraogementwirhin a cubc is dividcd into quarlerscgmenls, eachof whichsbns at a diffe.cnthcighr (illusrration l). The shapeof the squarcis repcatcdin the gap betwecn well. This method thc stairsin thecenE"a! is alsoappliedin principlein the nexrexample (illustration 2), wherethe ccntreis constituted by an atrium. As wih rll othersimplegeometrical forms,the squarccanalsobe superimpos€d on otherf;ornls. Dlustration3 sho*s 6 cubebeirg cut throughyet havinSa ccntralhall. The conu'ast ber\r'een solid andamorphous basicforms, lhat is betweeo hard (illustsation andsoft, r€sult! in cxciting spaces 4). Differcnt forms within a compositionappcar to b€ punched out (illuttralion5), whereby rhe residual spaccs-wlA walls of differcnt thickness-disregard the olerall shapeof the enclosurc, The disintcgration ofthe square, lakingplace slepby stcp, is shownin illuslEtions6 and 9. Only pien rentainoflhc basicBeometrical form. \ hich is Thusa sccond sparirllayerdevclops, uscfulforlhc mediation ofinkrior andexterior. The squaEin general,b€inga ncutralandnondirecrionalbasic form, asks for dialectical contsasls, lik€ a fmmewhich surrounds changing inagcs. So thc inncr spaces lhemsclvcscan be createdasSconElricalforms, or lhey can follow the linesof movcment within a building.

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ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTLJRE trI: GROUND.PLAN AtiD BUILDI\G FOR\r

A sp€cialform ofthe squarcis consdnrted by the loosening of its sides andby theaccenn8don of its four comers.Massivecomer towersdefine a U:nspat€ntinterior space (illustration l), or are reducedto bay-like projectionsfrom a solid cor€ (illustration 2). Theco+xistence of two differcnr building forms is achievedby rhe surrounding cubebeingfrrgrnen@d. whcrebythesolid form Iyingb.hindbecomes visible(illusrralions 3 anq 4). A variation of this type is shownin illusrration 5. A central cylinder serves as lhe matn space andat the sametime asa distribulor, giving access to llte comcr towers eachof which have differenrspatialgeometries. k Corbusieralso concemed hims€lfwith m€ square,llluslmtion 6 showsa snrdiobuildine whichreveals a poeticstructure. Thenextexarn: ple (illustration 7) suggests a centEl core from whichvery differentspadal divisionsare possible withoutdestroyirgthc overall form of tne building. The sketchesir| illustrations8 and 9 are anemptsat strucuring a square facade.As already mentioned in thc section on facades, me rcality of a facadc Seorretrical can, by way of v6ual manipulations. developinto one with a differ€nteffecr.

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Rectangular Buildings

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RectanSularground-plansare clearly directionar: the exlen.ion of le rectangle lherEforehascenain effects on ihe division of rhe ground-plan. Also. the building has a clear direclion of movemen! which influences thc way ir is us€d, unless dis direction of movement is terminated by sub, divisions and-above all by the position ofthe Anolher aspect of recrangular ground-plans affects the design of the building irself. The different valuatioo Siven to the facades on rhe long and the short sides can hardly be changed by means ofcomposition- That means that here ti e possi bi l i ti esof del i qn are l i mi ted. O;e po\ibiliry olthitypological strucrurrng ot a rectangul .rr bui l di ng i s to si ruatethe { tai rcase i n paral l el w i th a l ong si de (i l l usrrati ons t lo 3). By so doing, a longitudinal zone is created which separates main and subsidiaryspacesfrom each other, If the l ong si de\ havea cenl re. rhe bui l di ng i . autorralically divided into two halves (illustrations 4 to 6), Thus a slaircasein the centre makes possible the division ofthe whole into two spaces of equal value (illustration 4). These can be tunher sub-di vi ded(i l l ustrati on 5). Wi th a c enrral hrl l runni ng through veni cal l y (i l l ustrati on 6), thi s ki nd of di vi si on i s even more di sti nc t.

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The exarnples of this plate shovr' superimposilions of solid and skclebl building parts. Colunns arc never only constructional eleftents, as they always createan indcp€nden!spatial layer or an additional ordcring factor to the structure of a Thereforethc rhyrhm of pieN has to be space. well-considercd. In illustrationI wc havean interiorstructure which is consriotcdby piers andpilasters. This sub{ivision almostdirecdy prcvokesa certain valuationand useof the spaces creat€d:main add subsidiaryspaces becomeobvious. The examples in illustrations 2 and4 sho\sthe of rcchngllar solidsby way of profi-agnEntation jected loggias.In illustiation5 the middlepan of a building is loos€ned to becomea centralhall, the two rernaininScomer towers forming prominent terminations to the building. A lively combinationof solid and skeleton building pans eosucs if they are superimposed (illustration 6). The rcsllr of this methodis that two differen! rectangular struc$rcs seemto be inteSraled with one another. In illustrations of 7 aod8 thesetwo principles defining a space simply co-€xist. The first (illustration example 7) showsa solidpanjuxtaposed with a hall ofpiers, whereas in thesecond examplc (illustration t) the constructional possibilitiesof solid ad skeletonare deliberately oppos€d. Finally, the rectangularsolid can also be understoodas a container which accommodales a free form (illustration9).

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T-shapedGround-Plans
of interThis type offers manifoldpossibilities pretation.It can be a centralised building with Ihree ext€nsions,a longirudinal building with an accenruated centre, or even the codbination of four centralised buildingsfoming a T-shape. One realisesthat it is the projecting part of the which constitutcs buildiDg lhe rcal challcnge for the designof thb buildhg typei is it a triumphant portico projecting fiom the facade; is it simply on the back; or are the two side an axtension lrings mercly cxtcnsions of a centralised building?Il is clear that the panicularbuilding partshaveto bc treated vcry carcfullyaccording to their valuation. Otherwise the intended meaning can easily tum into its opposite.

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The projecring pan of the building in illustration I s€erns to rcsult ftom a needfor addidonalspace. all subsidiaryroorns The lonSsideacconunodates and lhe entrance; and the staircasc pushesthe 'middle' part out towardsthe front. Thc next of four individual exarnple(illustration2) consists solids. wherebythe ccntraldark onc funclions to the building. Ii is also as the elenreniof access the centralpan ir illustration3 which givesaccess to lhe building-The sidewingsaredistinguished joinls. from it by way of transparcnt The building in illusrration4 is divided in of the transverse dircction duc to thc arranSement subsidiary rooms.The centnl pan is clearly the main space. This kind ofdivision is alsoapplied (illustrations 5 and6). in rhefollowingexamnbs HOWeVet. llle rutn so.gce nere ts even more anrculate. The simple methodof superimposing aheTwith a square polentially allowsoneto get shape rid of the dark zonesconstituted by (he inner comers(illustration 7). The exteriorpiersofthe loggiasdetermine thc form of the square;the walls the T-shape, If the exte.ior spaceis filled with pergolas(illustration 8), the whole complex is supplemenled on plan. io become a rectangle This showsthat througharchilecNral treatment to gaincompletc of residtlal spaces it is possible to 6at. we see in buitding forms. In conrrast illustration 9 one building part being almost as the longitudinalPrincipalpan is sepamted, of thb entmncc emphasised. B€cause especially pan, it receives by wayoflhe rower-likc building a cent.e.

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ELENIENTS OF ARCHITECTURX III: GROUND-PLAIi ,{\D BUILDING FORM

T-shapedGround-Plans
Within lhe main space,a row of picrs createsa hlter in front ofa bwer which is a kind ofannexe (illustration l). A ransvcrse main space is emphasiscd by thedissolurion ofrhe sidewings (illustration2). The massivecomers of the lonSitudinal partsof a building (illusrrarion 3), give the space in rhe middle its direction.This is brokcn by a light loggia p.ojecting from the building. This ryp€ hasbeenbuilt as a four room maisonene apartnent in my ploject for Riaerstrasse in Berlin. The dircclion of the main sDace of fie buitdingshownin illuslmtion4 is clearly visible. The cnclosedrectrangle can have a projected pcrgola. In illustrations 5 and6 we seethesolid partsof two buildings beingshrunkinto a corc. ln bo|hexamples theT-shape is only consti$ted by piers. A buildingwith an oppositedevelopment is shown in illustration7. The core is enlircly dissolved by a transparent staircas€ towea,and by isolation from the o(her thrce towers. If fte T-shape is superimposed wirh a circular or semi{ircular cylinder (illustrarions I and9), whichcanalsob€designed asmonumental lnain spaces, |he projecdonsrecedeto becomcmerely cmohasised entrances.

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ANDDUILDINGFOR\I trI: GROIhiI>PLAN ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

L-Types
ground-plans L-shaped areesperiallysuitablcfor arrangements of buildings bccauseof the p.otectedfree space which is c.eatcdb€tween them. The examples shownhcrearc geomet.icaltypes d€velop€d ftom a square, a quanerofwhichhas beenleft void. Theydiffer from thc functionalist L-type, wherethc living areais sioatedin lhe shoner wing and the bedrooms arc joined together in thelongerone.The disadvantage of L-shaped building ryFs liesin lhe possibility of darkcomers at $e junction. It is advisable to use lhis space for subsidiary roomsor shircases. nlustrationI shows anelamplewherethestair. caseis locatedin thejof, the space in the wings havingloggias io from. The superimposition of givesriseto ftc erterior L-form andthesquare space beingfixed (illustrarions 2 and 3). In the nexlexample walls theedge consists ofmassive (iUustration 4), whereasthe oFn sides are relievedby piers. Illusration 5 represents an assernblage of independenl building elements. A tmnsparent tower accommodating the siaircase is flaoked by rwo solidtowers. Thc nextexample showsan L-form beingsuperimpos€d with thedominatinS figure a cylind€r, whichtrccomcs of the building. The t\r'o wings are buih as verandas.

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U-Types
Thcse building fonnr still incvitablyhavc a rnasterlycharacter.The distinct symlnery wilh its defincd centre is so dominantthat a mitigalion by way of fragmentadon or similar techniqucsis difficuhto achiev€. Illustration 7 shows this classic rype. ll5 retacted courtyardis closcdby a pcrgola. The opposite cffect is Sained if a pergola constitutes the long sideof a building(illustration E). By this. the transverse ruin spaccis clcarly dcfin.d, thc two lrings bcing lcft to accommodale &e subsidiaryrooms. In ilhlslration 9 thelongsideof thebuildingis terminated by a buffer zonewitb subsidiary spaces. The ccntre is dominatedby a staircase,and thc side wings accdmmodate rwo nuin spaccs.

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Building Corners
The comer of a building is one of the most with the imponantzones and is rnainlyconcemad nEdiationof t',r'ofacadcs. During thepastdecades lhis subjectin architecorc has been largcly negl€ct€d. Nowadays, asa resuh of simplylininS part of up buildings, rhe comeras a particular the building has not receivcdthe nccessary acknowledgement and treatnent. In comrastto this, the following sketches possibililies for special should demonstmte some comer lreatment.The first examplc shows (illustration alsobeendealt I ) thatthecomerhas TerraSni with in modem archit€cture. Guisepp€ achieved constructivist Golosov andtheRussian by emphasising the comer of a simiiar results solid buildingby way of a glasscylindet..This carics thearchitrave ofthe top storeylike a huge, deriatcflalisedroundcolumn. Thc tuming of the emphasised by a projecting corncris cspccially frame which markstheactual terminationof lhe 2). In illustralion3 lhe building (illusrration psychological shearing off tha corncr is counteracted by way of an insenedpyramid,a a protection s€nsitive but perhaps too Frowerful comer of the comer. Thc rounded,retracted

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ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE III: GROU{D"PLAN AI\D BUILDING FORI1

show[ in illustration4 is emphasised by a similarly shaped row of colurns crearinga fiher and reducinglhe dark zoneofun associated with a deep comer. In illusrration 5 the comer is formedasa buildingin its own right-a tower. Thc problemof connecting the towerwith lhe steel facades is solvedby lhc employment of Ioggias. Illustrations 6 and7 alsopresenl comer towerswhich in termsof lheir proponions are to be regarded as classical solulions, Thecurve, thecircleandthe umingofacomer are, in formalterms, logicalmeans ofprolecting a comer. Parls and elements of the facade, without beingbroken,can thereby be 'wound round' from one facade to the next.The tower allowsfor a proDer lermiradonof fie sidefacades and creates an additionlh accentuation. The emptying ofa comeror, in otherwords. a comer beingopened up is shownin illustration 8. The small monumenr $ith iG outward edges lakes up thealignment ofthe rwoadjacent presenhd facades. Theexample in illusrration 9 is a useful solutionborh in conslruclional and functional terms: the steppedform and the dissolutioninto perSolas allos for a positi!e r€sponse to the otherwise larSedark zoneof a comer. By opening the top the comer rowards suchDaoblems are removcd-

Student worts on th€ thcm. of Comcr BuildinSs

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3 Illustralion l: A rnasterlylchieve|trcnt in lerms of the most subtlc and yet accentuatcd developmenl of a comcr is rcaliscdin Otto Wagncr'sPost OIfice SavingsBank in Vicnna. The surfacesof thc last vertical window axis of tha sida facadcs are drawn forward and sland oul almost like a frame, terminated by lhe bevcllcdcomarsabovc. Tle setback also accommodltes a venical window axis and signalsthe developrFnt of a diagonal prospect from lhe building. Thrcc the two vcrtrcalpojlsoflhc 'frarne' and elenEnts, th. comcr ilself are held togelherby a projccrhe of which constihrte ting comice,the consoles point of transitionof the different parts.All this by prepar€s finally for thecomerto bc crowncd Illustlalion 2: A ground-plan levcl pavilion in front of a building comcr completesthe alignmen! of tha two facadcswhich approacheach otherat an acutaan8le.The actlal comer facadc, which is slighdyconcavc and tcnacedtowatds thc !op, reccdes, Thc serbacks of thc storcyscnd al lop floor levcl which is cmphasisedby a wtdow si&atedin thevenicalaxiJ,aDdis cro*n88

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3 -ed by tvo statues. tn addition,this comer is separatrd from thc sidc facades by way of ecess€d com€rs. Illustration 3t This building shows &e -lransparcncy of mediadonof diffcrcnt building levels. The entaaiccarca rcrches symmetrically ight roundthecomer and, by way of a eall band tlove, is connectadwith the side facades.The plasterjoints at the cnd of thc sidc tacadesrDark their termination, The logSia! finally allow dle bcv.lled comcr !o widcn towardsfic rop wherEby a planc is created. This is flankcd by two flagstaffs,which hclp cvincethc comcr as trcinga complete form. Illustration 4: This cxampleshowsthe penetration of a comer. One side penetntesthe othcr and davclop6inlo 8n cxprcssivcgatewaystructurc. The srnall tralconiesat the comcr do not representthc prolongationof the facadc,but the Denetation of the comcr.

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SNdentworks on lh€ thcmeof lnGrior Counyards

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Intcrior counyardsarc not indeFndent elements, but thc outcomcof a certainkind of building. Wc should not concem ours€lveshcre *ith originel historicsl and rural forms of lhis tyF, so thc 'atdum' and other similar types of counyard buildingswill not be at issue. wlat will be dealt witb in this context are e,(amplesof counyards as thcy are foundin cities.Courtyards are semipublic spac6 which are for the us€ of thc

communityconcemed.Thcy canalsotrc pan of rn informal routc nctwork of passagesand to variousparts which give access thoroughfares of th. city (illustrations I lnd 3). A largeroofed courtyard, a hall so to spcak,is cspeciallyuscful in public buildings as a dcvice oforicntrtion. It also rcmovesthe tightnessofan officc complcx aid illumina_ ald allowsfor additionrl venti.lalion tion (illustration 2). As a rcsidentialcourtyard (illustration4), the wirhin sn urban developmcnt courtyard is a conlrDn spaceuscd by thc in' habitantsof thc adjacetl buildings. Especially

trcausc of cxcessive lraffic, the sucets and publiclife areofienrcstricted therefore in cities; lhe courtyardhasthusgaincda new significance. Today one should strive to locate apanments oricntaLd towardsa quict courtyard la$cr than which towardsthe street.This is a developmeot is only beginningbut which will rcsult in greater suppon for, and considcrationof, cdsting and new intcrior courtyards. Thc rcquired changes to traditional be buildingtyp€smust,however, madesenscof.

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visu berween Lf,rchenfeldersrrarse and Neubaugassein vienna. ninctecnth cenluR

Palais Epstcinin vi!f,na by Th. vot Hansen.1870-75

Counyard in lhe Justizpalanir vienna. by A. wielemanns. lE75-81

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

III: GROIIIiD-PLAN

A.\D BUILDING FORM

OutsideStaircases
As lhe termalready explains, outside sBircases form part of the exterior space.They are hlman strucoresof landscape. They alsoact asmarkeG in naful"al and urban environments, and cotrF rnnni;aedteir Fblic use.We cantbink for exanple of a larSe Baroqleoutside stairwhich,ahhough .elatedto an axis, also lcadsaway from i! and lhereforc cngendem moments of contemplation, Anothe. axatrple is a footpathin the coun!ryside. Ifsimply rude steps emerge in hilly terrainthen we know that this path is often used by people, and lhat it facilitates walking. Beyondlhis, outsidestaircases alsocrcatetheir own space, bccomepointsofcncounter, meeting places,oa simply points from which beautiftll viewscanbc enjoyed. I think i! is not necessary lo enlarSe ulron the fact thal thesecharacteristics havelargely b€enlost, and havebeensubstituted by thcsimplistic ideaofthe 'shortest connection between two points'. lllustratioo I showsa simple straightstaircas€ cu! into theupp€rlevelofa building.Alr€dy ar the boBomlevel, one comes underthe influence of the upperlevel because of the slair. Onecan then slowlyascend it. However,the degree to which a slaircasc is projecEdfiDm its upwardt€rmination (illustrations 2 and 3) determines the different possiblcrclationshipsbetweenthe two levels. If our sens€ of spatiality wasstill intact,we would realise the difference. What we nowadays cxperience instead is somebodyrushing up the stairs and getting confusedbecause, as is shownin illustration 4, one staircasc often tums st right anglesinto two. SlaLcaseswhich run parallel to one another (illustration 5) Siveeverylevelan indcpenoem, yet equal significancc. This arrangement resemblcs Ernces. Illustradon6 showsan almost semi<ircular staircase running up in three lights suggestinga slopc. Stairs which scpamte and come together again luve a special character because of the way they are us€d by the public (illustration 7). Peoplc meetandseparate again: they can timc theia walking slrccd cither to cncounterothersor !o avoid them. Onecould aLnosr call thisanexample of'frcedomofuse'. Illustration 8 shows an int€rcsting thoughspecial form. A slair rises like a spiml and a! the same time it narrows.From thebeginning,the us€rb€conEs awarethat the stair is going to end at a certain point. The crample presented in illustration9 again showsa cut-in staircase which is now cu cd and runs parallelto the upFErlevet.

FOR}I trI: GROUN}PLANAND BTJILDING ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTI.RE

IllusEationI rcprcsents thc opposite cffcct ofthat gainedin illustration9 on thc former plata. Herc thecurved formofthe stairgivcstheimpression that theuppcrlevelhasa graaLr significarcethan in the examplebefore. The semi-circular statcasc sho\,nin illustralion 2 cmergesfrom a garticular lcvel to lead up to the next one. Inilially one movesaway from it to comcback to it againon arcther level. The nextexample considcrs 6 staicasawhich is again cut inlo thc ground (illusiration 3). Only after havingmovcdon to thebosomstcphasonc rcally left the area coocemed. A bold variation of opposite is sho*n in illustration4. The staircas€s division into main levels and inlararcdirte (i! landings is striking.Thdollowing staircase lusrrattn 5; alsJ poSsscs an- inrermedilc landing. From half way up ooe has al.eady enrcredthe sphere of lhc uppcr lcvcl. This cffect ofan 'extErior'and'interior' to a staircase is cven more explicii in thc simple, yct in anothcr way sophisticated, aarangemcnl shownin illustration 6. Onehalfof rheslair is 'hcaped up', theother half'cut iD'. Apan from the varietyof possible lincsof movcmcnt andconncction, thc circular intermediatelanding clearly manifestsa mcaningfulccntrc. Eramplcsof rcprcsentational front slaircascs arEprescntrdin illustration7. Herc the upFr level clerrly hrs the prominent me3rling. A rarc erample for an €xterior slair is a spital staircase(illusu"ationt). As a 'functioral *inding' h is a pre-rulner---orrnaybe a rcsult---of the Towcr of Babel,evenmore rcminiscent in the lastcxampl. (illustrarion 9).

93

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE trI: GROTJNIIPLAN AND BTJILDING FORM

Prospect
Wirh the issueof the prospect, altboughir is closely related toarchitccturc, we leave lhesuojefl 'building' asan independent subi:ct ofdesign and s€l out to thint rbout public spacc. It has alr.ady bccnhint€dat that lhe obligalionofevery building is ro be integratedinro its spccific urbantissuc.A spctialproblemin this contextis presented by the 'prospecf. kl us lake the cornmoncaselhat a sfeet oa a squarcis io be lerminatedby a building-our building. Thistermination is not tb be treated as anaccidcnt;tbc facade of lhe buildinSconc€m€d hasro reacrto this specific situation. Whilc thc strcctas suchis a symbolof innniry, its l,ermination communicstes the fact that a dcstinationhas bcanreachad. This destination, thc facade of our building,mustrcspond to thisevent,mustcatch thc eyc: only then will lhe building makesense andbe intagrated inlo the urbancontext.If we are committcd to our responsibility for urban wehaveto respcct space, its laws.Thatwehave regardto thc affcct of prospectshas nolhing to do with a delibcratemonumcntalization of buildings,but with renderingrcsp.ctto $c llrtan texNre. A prospectat the end of a stleet makes the eye rcsl, givcs il a larSet, and lhcrcby symbolically shofiensthc way to the desdnation. By taking into considcration thc cffect our hcadehason adjacent streetali8nnents,we conF municatcour conccm for thc oles of thc placc wherewebuild. We shoulddot rt|akcpoople $ink abolt our buildingin rhesense thata spacc ship has landcdin their town by accident.What we should carcaboutis givinSevidence thatwe arc goingtocontinuetobuild moreforthis specific, for our. olace.

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Towersand Monuments
Buildint is always about thc occupationof a place.Architectureis aboutsettingnark. In the free cou rysidc we comc across a tower. It dirlc6 our *ay. Lighthouses, chirnneys, sleeples, ciry gates, defencc towe$ e!c. belongto thearcheqpa.l symbols of uprighEEss. Towers symtJolize the eristence of hurnanachievern€nt, thc lriumph over eanhly Inatlers.Without doubtcvery tower hasa monumcnlal charact€r asit risesabove the anvionment.Havingsaidthat I can seeb€fore

KECK HERBERT

91

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUR.EUl GROUNDPLAN AND BUILDING FORI\I

5

my inncr eye cenain modemarchitectsshaking lfone a wamingfingerat me. llonumenlality? daresto talk aboutthis lasttabooof theModeme, for oneis tooeasilyaccus€d ofhavinga lonSing a totalitarian state ofaffairs. Whata stlpid and shon-sighted fallacy!A monument is of course first and forcmosla sign of power. Only the mighty pot€ntatecould afford to rise abovehis manifestations. subjecls by way of architectlaal will 8ut he is mortal. whereas his monument outlasthim and will b€ celebrated by funrre generations Witholt thes€ asa cuhrrEllestirnony. 'signsof power' tlerc would be no suchthing as architecore:we would dwell in a desolale steppe. Monumenis alwaysVere. and still are. cult obiecb \r hich havcnF4ing andvaluefor a community. Because of their symbolism, theyexpress a commonwill or confession, Monurncnls do not ne€d to b€towers or high-rise buildings. A srnal wayside shrineat theforkingofa routcsuffices asasignof humancxislence, Bul let ustry agait andfind out whattheterm 'monunEntality'really pieceofarchmeans. It cenair y impliesa lasdng itecutre;it alsoconveys thebeauty of destnrction. On the l6rh of May lt7l, the Vend6me Column with the statue of Napolcon I was This destroyed by fiShters ofthe ParisCommune. act of overthro'*-in8po\rcr is documentedtn photographs. numcrous Many groupsof fiShters pose ill front of the dcstloycd monument.w]at do \re leam from such an cx@ple, to which many otherscould be addcd?We leam lhal lhe i5 a symbol;a symbol desructionofa monurrFnt preserve We, however, for thewill ofa socicty. and carc for the monumcnts of thc past. sometimesit appcarsthat thc rcscuadstatucof q pastsovcrcign for thadestluclion comp€nsarcs While our of entirehistoricalurbanquartcrs. of the past, societydestmysvalt,abl€testimonies it clings !o nice linlc monumcnts but is unablc to crc{e ncw on€s.Historical worshipof heroes with our undc$ianis ccrtainlynot in accordancc dinSofdemocracy. But is rherenorhing left we canbelieve in? Arc wc no lonScr in thcposidon to sct signs which, olthough not uscful, can Democracyobviousd@urlEntcommon s€ns€? ly does not stand in need of crectinS monumcnts-but it lcgitimiscs itsclf by tesdmonicsof monarchicandautocraticpowcr. From (hc rnonuments which havcnot b€€nbuilt, we canlcamabour thc self.valuation ofa society and *hat position archirccturehas in il. ,,1 societt A'hichdoet iot beli.v. in its sunirol i5 of its incapable of the tynrbolic reprcsentation aim, and thereforc incapabh of btiAinS.

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ROBKRIER

ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION
R O BK R I E R

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Rob Krier is a unique voice in toddy's archil.ctural discourse illustrations. Krier also drarvson siudenr{orks.Lnd pholographic through his commitmentto developinga relevxntand pragmaric exrmplesto support his argument, manv of which rlere commis_ lheory of architecture basedon his own experience and observa_ sioned especiallyfor this book. The culminalion of years of tions of architectural practice, and opposed to lhe eas\.. abstracl terchingand practical experience by one of Europe.sbestknown theorising so common in contemporar! architecturalwritins. architecturaflheorists , Arc.hitettural Conposifio, is without doubt Together wilh his brorher Leon. he hts perfeired a form oi a major achievement, deslined to become a standard work of p.esentation in which the potencyof his thinkingfinds its perfect referencefor both studentsand practising archirects. counterpoinlin detaileddrawings and sketches !rhich arguerhis Rob Krier is an architect.educatorand influentialtheoriston visually throughthe power of example.Following the success of architecture and urbanism. He was born in Luxembourg and his widefy acclaimed Urban Spare, a work which looked at lhe sub\equentl]emigratedto Au.rria $hefe he has lired ever.since. problemsof our citiesfrom an historical. theoretical and Dractical Krier hasproduced urbanschemes forcitiesasdiverse as Stutrsart. sli|ndpoinr.Krier now applies his ptrticular. highl) jnfluenrirl V i e n n a a n d B e r l i n . H i s b u i l r *o r k . i n c l u d e e r t e n s i v e sJci a l mode of didactic criticism to contemporary architecture in a houJingschemes in Berlin and more recentlyprojectsin Amiens continuingsearch for fundamental architectural truths. and Vienna-Krier's sculpturalwork includessix bronzesfor the Architectural Composiaio,is both a theoreticalandvisual analvsis ponsideof Barcelona ( l986). five bronzes for a castlein Luxem_ clearly illustraling lhe crealive processwhich inform. Krier.s bourg(1987). a bronzeof the philosopher Reuchlinfor pforzheim vision and praxis. Separate chapters derail the i.undamentalsof in Germany (1987), and a pair of figures for rhe Camillo Sirre architectural composition, beginning with funcljon, construction Piazza in Vienna (1988) of uhich he is also the architect.His and architectural form; the elements of architecture, including pre\ iousbooksincludeUrba Spa(e,Academy EditionsI979,and typologies for plans, facades and interior spaces. proportional On At chitecuu.e, A,cademy Edirions( l9g:). He hasbeenprofessor studiesof Gothic cathedrals, the human body,planrs, animalsand at Ihe Technicrl Unjver\ily o[ Viennasince 1975. sculpture, demonstrating their rclianceon lhe GoldenSecrion; and a seriesof critical and discursive essays on the plight of architec_ 25AeJqnn,3JJ paees i,tdtding thrc?doilbte itt cotour. .tt!efottts oter 500 ture and architects practising today.In addirionto his own didactic IS R i \ 08:070803x H ,l t,thdt^ tjg.S 0

ACADEMY EDITIONS
42 Leinster Gardens. LondonW2 3AN