Specs: 316, 316L & 317L

(UNS S31600) / (UNS S31603) / (UNS S31703) Chromium-Nickel-Molybdenum

General Properties
Alloys 316 (UNS S31600), 316L (S31603), and 317L (S31703) are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels such as Alloy 304. These alloys also offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture, and tensile strength at elevated temperatures. Alloy 317L containing 3 to 4% molybdenum is preferred to Alloys 316 or 316L which contain 2 to 3% molybdenum in applications requiring enhanced pitting and general corrosion resistance. In addition to excellent corrosion resistance and strength properties, the Alloys 316, 316L, and 317L Cr-Ni-Mo alloys also provide the excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.

Chemical composition as represented by ASTM A240 and ASME SA-240 specifications are indicated in the table below. Percentage by Weight (maximum unless range is specified) Alloy 316 Alloy 316L Alloy 317L 0.08 0.030 0.030 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 16.00 16.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 20.00 10.00 10.00 11.00 14.00 14.00 15.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.10 0.10 0.10 Bal. Bal. Bal.

Element Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Phosphorus Sulfur Nitrogen Iron

Alloys 316 and 317L are considerably more resistant to solutions of sulfuric acid than any of the other chromium-nickel types. these alloys are much more resistant than other types of stainless steels. As shown by the laboratory corrosion data below. and 317L are more resistant to atmospheric and other mild types of corrosion than the 18-8 stainless steels. . The molybdenum-bearing Alloys 316 and 317L stainless steels also provide resistance to a wide variety of other environments. the Alloy 316L and 317L grades are preferred for the welded condition since low carbon levels enhance resistance to intergranular corrosion. however. the acid concentration has a marked influence on the rate of attack and should be carefully determined. In such media. 316L. At temperatures as high as 120°F (38°C). They are also widely used in handling hot organic and fatty acids. these alloys offer excellent resistance to boiling 20% phosphoric acid. Where condensation of sulfur-bearing gases occurs. One known exception is highly oxidizing acids such as nitric acid to which the molybdenum-bearing stainless steels are less resistant. Service tests are usually desirable as operating conditions and acid contaminants may significantly affect corrosion rate. This is a factor in the manufacture and handling of certain food and pharmaceutical products where the molybdenum-containing stainless steels are often required in order to minimize metallic contamination. A notable exception is in environments sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones on susceptible alloys. Generally. In such applications. In general. the Alloy 316 and 316L grades can be considered to perform equally well for a given environment. media that do not corrode 18-8 stainless steels will not attack these molybdenum-containing grades. The same is true for Alloy 317L. both types have excellent resistance to higher concentrations.Resistance to Corrosion General Corrosion Alloys 316.

571) (9.1 (1.169) (0.08 0.2 55. they are not recommended for such use.718) (7. Although these alloys have been used with mixed success in seawater (19.9 (1.2 (0.018) (0.816) (1. where PRE = Cr+3.3 94. and 7% Ni is designed for use in salt water.465) (0.Boiling Test Solution 20% Acetic Acid 45% Formic Acid 1% Hydrochloric Acid 10% Oxalic Acid 20% Phosphoric Acid 10% Sulfamic Acid 10% Sulfuric Acid 10% Sodium Bisulfate 50% Sodium Hydroxide Corrosion Resistance in Boiling Solutions Corrosion Rate in Mils per Year (mm/y) for Cited Alloys Alloy 316L Alloy 317L Base Metal Welded Base Metal Welded 0.2 97.3Mo+16N.9 (3.137) (16. however.9 18.4 (16.615) 0. Where short periods of exposure are encountered.003) (0.306) 48. Such "sensitized" steels are subject to intergranular corrosion when exposed to aggressive environments.594) (0. such as in welding.024) (1. reflecting the better pitting resistance which 316 (or 316L) offers due to its Mo content.2 119.36 (0. The Alloys 316 and 317L stainless steels all perform without evidence of corrosion in the 100-hour. Alloy 304 stainless steel is considered to resist pitting and crevice corrosion in waters containing up to about 100 ppm chloride.140) (1.8 31. Intergranular Corrosion Both Alloys 316 and 317L are susceptible to precipitation of chromium carbides in grain boundaries when exposed to temperatures in the 800 to 1500°F (427 to 816°C) range.0).155) (3.48 0.531) (0.615) (1.72 0.009) 23.4 (1. 25% Cr.000 ppm chloride). The Alloys 316 and 317L are considered to be adequate for some marine environment applications such as boat rails and hardware and facades of buildings near the ocean which are exposed to salt spray. Alloy 317L with its higher chromium and molybdenum content.60 (0.003) (0.12 0.810) Pitting/Crevice Corrosion Resistance of austenitic stainless steels to pitting and/or crevice corrosion in the presence of chloride or other halide ions is enhanced by higher chromium (Cr).60 1. molybdenum (Mo).094) 0.030) (2. Alloy 2507 with 4% Mo.6 85. offers even better resistance to pitting than the 316 alloys. is more resistant to intergranular .377) (1.2) is better than that of Alloy 304 (PREN = 19.971) (2.2 51.9 43.3 658.015) 124.687) 77.027) (0.487) 635. with 31. Alloy 317L.130) (1.4 32.420) (1.427) (1. 5% salt spray (ASTM B117) test. and nitrogen (N) content.% Mo and PREN = 29.96 63.393) (2.5 44.4 (0.3 24.053) 71.6 54.5 56. respectively.4 20.2 44. A relative measure of pitting resistance is given by the PREN (Pitting Resistance Equivalent. The PREN of Alloys 316 and 316L (24.1 356.7.012) (0. The Mo-bearing Alloy 316 and Alloy 317L on the other hand will handle waters with up to about 2000 and 5000 ppm chloride.12 0.224) (1.9 66.2 298.15) (0. including Nitrogen) calculation.833) (0.

Where vessels require stress-relieving treatment.9) 41 (1. For applications where heavy cross sections cannot be annealed after welding or where low temperature stress relieving treatments are desired. Although the low carbon "L" grades offer no advantage as regards SCC resistance. Stresses result from cold deformation or thermal cycles during welding. they are better choices for service in the stress-relieved condition in environments which might cause intergranular corrosion. Annealing or stress relieving heat treatments may be effective in reducing stresses. thereby reducing sensitivity to halide SCC. Alloys 316L and 317L possess the same desirable corrosion resistance and mechanical properties as the corresponding higher carbon alloys and offer an additional advantage in highly corrosive applications where intergranular corrosion is a hazard. Heavier cross sections over 7/16 inch (11.1 mm) usually require annealing even when Alloy 317L is used. Also stress relieving between 1100 to 1500°F (593 to 816°C) may cause some slight embrittlement of these types. (2) residual tensile stresses. they still are quite susceptible. Accelerated cooling from higher temperatures for the "L" grades is not needed when very heavy or bulky sections have been annealed. it should be noted that continuous or prolonged exposure at 800 to 1500°F (427 to 826°C) can be harmful from this standpoint with Alloys 316L and 317L. ASTM A262 Evaluation Test Practice B Base Metal Welded Practice E Base Metal Welded Practice A Base Metal Welded Intergranular Corrosion Tests Corrosion Rate. and (3) temperatures in excess of about 120°F (49°C). Although the short duration heating encountered during welding or stress relieving does not produce susceptibility to intergranular corrosion.7) 23 (0. This provides resistance to intergranular attack with any thickness in the as-welded condition or with short periods of exposure in the 800 to 1500°F (427 to 826°C) temperature range. short treatments falling within these limits can be employed without affecting the normal excellent corrosion resistance of the metal.0) No Fissures on Bend Some Fissures on Weld (unacceptable) Step Structure Ditched (unacceptable) 26 (0.6) No Fissures No Fissures Step Structure Step Structure Alloy 317L 21 (0. the low carbon Alloys 316L and 317L are available to avoid the hazard of intergranular corrosion. .attack than Alloy 316 for applications where light gauge material is to be welded. Although the Alloys 316 and 317L are somewhat more resistant to SCC than the 18 Cr-8 Ni alloys because of their molybdenum content.6) No Fissures No Fissures Step Structure Step Structure Stress Corrosion Cracking Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in halide environments.5) 24 (0. Conditions which produce SCC are: (1) presence of halide ion (generally chloride). Mils/Yr (mm/a) Alloy 316 Alloy 316L 36 (0.

530-940 hours 1002 hours 1000 hours Cracked.027 g/cm3) 29 x 106 psi (200 Gpa) 11. Cracked. Physical Properties Structure When properly annealed. Cracked. Since the rate of oxidation is greatly influenced by the atmosphere encountered and by operating conditions. 4-24 hours 21-45 hours 72 hours Cracked. Boiling Seacoast Exposure.9 x 106 psi (82 Gpa) . Ambient Temperature Halide (Chloride) Stress Corrosion Tests U-Bend (Highly Stressed) Samples Alloy 316 Alloy 316L Alloy 317L Cracked. Melting Range: Density: Modulus of Elasticity in Tension: Modulus of Shear: 2450 to 2630°F (1390 to 1440°C) 0. 16% for Alloy 316). --144-1000 hours No Cracking No Cracking No Cracking Oxidation Resistance The Alloys 316 and 317L exhibit excellent resistance to oxidation and a low rate of scaling in air atmospheres at temperatures up to 1600 to 1650°F (871 to 899°C).29 lb/in3 (8. Alloys 316 and 317L are primarily austenitic. Boiling 33% Lithium Chloride. Cracked. Small quantities of ferrite may or may not be present. When slowly cooled or held in the temperature range 800 to 1500°F (427 to 816°C).Test 42% Magnesium Chloride. Boiling 26% Sodium Chloride. No Cracking. Boiling 40% Calcium Chloride. Cracked. The performance of Alloy 316 is generally somewhat inferior to that of Alloy 304 stainless steel which has a slightly higher chromium content (18% vs. carbides are precipitated and the structure consists of austenite plus carbides. 48-569 hours 21-333 hours 22-72 hours Cracked. no actual data can be presented which are applicable to all service conditions. Cracked.

2 x 10-6 19.8 x 10-6 Coefficients cm/cm/°C 16. 29.5 x 10-6 The overall heat transfer coefficient of metals is determined by factors in addition to thermal conductivity of the metal.8 W/m•K 14.Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion Temperature Range °F 68 – 212 68 – 932 68 – 1832 Thermal Conductivity Temperature Range °F 68 – 212 °C 20 – 100 Btu•in/hr•ft2•°F 100.02 at 200 H (oersteds). fully austenitic condition. 316L and 317L austenitic stainless steel plate as required by ASTM specifications A240 and ASME specification SA-240 are shown below. Specific Heat °F 68 200 Electrical Resistivity Alloy 316 317 Magnetic Permeability Austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic in the annealed. The magnetic permeability of the Alloys 316 and 317L in the annealed condition is generally less than 1.1 x 10-6 10. . The ability of the 18-8 stainless grades to maintain clean surfaces often allows better heat transfer than other metals having higher thermal conductivity.6 °C 20 – 100 20 – 500 20 – 1000 in/in/°F 9. Microhm-cm.2 x 10-6 10.5 x 10-6 18.0 31.108 0.1 74. Value at 68°F (20°C) Microhm-in.0 °C 20 93 Btu/lb•°F 0.1 79. Permeability values for cold deformed material vary with composition and the amount of cold deformation but are usually higher than that for annealed material.116 Jkg•K 450 485 Mechanical Properties Room Temperature Tensile Properties Minimum mechanical properties for annealed Alloys 316.

000 25.000 (515) 40.Property Yield Strength 0.65 1.015 0.72 Mn 17.2% Offset psi (MPa) Ultimate Tensile Strength psi (MPa) Percent Elongation in 2 in.051 0.000 30.000 (515) 40.33 16.11 3.46 2.84 1.000 (485) 40.15 Mo .0 75.080 0. 316L.025 1.48 Cr 12.72 Mn 17.78 16.48 Cr 13. 316L.16 12.015 0.11 3.75 Ni 2. and 317L of the following analyses are shown below.79 10.17 18. or 51 mm. Brinell (RB) Minimum Mechanical Properties Required by ASTM A240 and ASME SA-240 Alloy 316 (S31600) Alloy 316L (S31603) Alloy 317L (S31703) 30.75 Ni 2.0 217 (95) 217 (95) 217 (95) Effect of Cold Work Deformation of austenitic alloys at room or slightly elevated temperature produces an increase in strength accompanied by a decrease in elongation value.025 1.50 10. Hardness Max.000 (205) (170) (205) 75.15 Mo Elevated Temperature Tensile Properties Representative short time elevated temperature tensile properties for Alloys 316. Analyses Tested (See footnote) Alloy 316 316L 317L C 0. Alloys 316.50 1.84 1. and 317L flat rolled products are generally available in the annealed condition.17 18.02 2.0 70. Analyses Tested (See footnote) Alloy 316 316L 317L C 0.16 12.

0 47.400 22. has led to their extensive use in cryogenic applications. Heat treatment may be necessary during or after fabrication to remove the effects of cold forming or to dissolve precipitated chromium carbides resulting from thermal exposures.0 32. Temperature °F 75 Fatigue Strength The fatigue strength or endurance limit is the maximum stress below which material is unlikely to fail in 10 million cycles in air environment.400 75. creep and stress rupture become considerations for the austenitic stainless steels. in combination with their low temperature strength and fabricability.400 71.0 40. °C 23 Energy Absorbed Ft-lb J 65 – 100 88 .600 ----292 ------183 161 156 ----Ultimate Tensile Strength psi MPa 82.0 71.400 ------26. surface roughness. a property which. form of stress and mean value.0 78. Percent in 2 in.600 71.0 Reduction in Area. Representative Charpy Vnotch impact data for annealed Type 316 at room temperature are shown below. no definitive endurance limit values can be given which are representative of all operating conditions.0 24.2% Offset psi MPa 42.134 Heat Treatment Annealing The austenitic stainless steels are provided in the mill annealed condition ready for use.0 71.0 47.0 51.500 23. For austenitic stainless steels as a group.0 Stress Rupture and Creep Properties At temperatures of about 1000°F (538°C) and higher.0 80.0 26.450 68. Impact Resistance The annealed austenitic stainless steels maintain a high level of impact resistance even at cryogenic temperatures.0 55.700 18. (51 mm) 68.0 70.400 50.650 30. Considerable variation in the creep strength and stress rupture strength values is reported by various investigators.0 48. Substantial variability in service results is experienced since additional variables such as corrosive conditions.0 54.000 568 521 492 491 493 472 349 212 124 Elongation. For the Alloys 316 and 317L the solution anneal is accomplished by heating in the 1900 to 2150°F (1040 to .150 71. For this reason. Percent 81.Type 316 (Bar specimen tension test procedures) Test Temperature °F 68 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 °C 20 93 204 316 427 538 649 760 871 Yield Strength 0. and other factors affect fatigue properties. the fatigue strength is typically about 35 percent of the tensile strength.0 35.

Cooling should be sufficiently rapid through the 1500 to 800°F (816 to 427°C) range to avoid reprecipitation of chromium carbides and provide optimum corrosion resistance. Welding The austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the most weldable of the stainless steels. . pierced. For weldments to be used in the as-welded condition in corrosive environments. Be careful to avoid copper or zinc contamination in the weld zone since these elements can form low melting point compounds which in turn can create weld cracking. and (2) preservation of corrosion resistance of the weld and heat-affected zones.5% Mo) or Alloy 625 (AWS ERNiCrMo-3. depending on section thickness. and 317L "matching" filler metals are formulated to solidify with a small amount of ferrite in the microstructure to minimize cracking susceptibility. Forging Initial Finishing 2100 . High-molybdenum weld deposits may experience degraded corrosion resistance in severe environments due to micro-segregation of molybdenum. Attention to lubrication during forming of the austenitic alloys is essential to accommodate the high strength and galling tendency of these alloys. In every case. the molybdenum content of the weld filler metal should be increased.1750°F (927 . are routinely fabricated into a variety of shapes ranging from the very simple to very complex. including the Alloys 316 and 317L. However. These alloys are blanked. because of their greater strength and work hardenability. The low carbon "L" grades are designed to minimize or avoid sensitization. the greater the likelihood the welding thermal cycles will allow chromium carbide precipitation (sensitization). To overcome this effect. the metal should be cooled from the annealing temperature to black heat in less than three minutes. and formed on equipment essentially the same as used for carbon steel. The excellent ductility of the austenitic alloys allows them to be readily formed by bending. 316L.955°C) Fabrication The austenitic stainless steels. which could result in intergranular corrosion. Alloys 316 and 317L cannot be hardened by heat treatment. the power requirements for the austenitic grades during forming operations are considerably greater than for carbon steels. Alloys 316. The higher the carbon level of the material being welded. stretching. deep drawing.1175°C) temperature range followed by air cooling or a water quench. and spinning. Fully austenitic weld deposits are more susceptible to cracking during welding. it is advisable to utilize the low carbon Alloys 316L and 317L base metal and filler metals. weld deposits containing 4 percent or more of molybdenum may be desirable. Alloy 904L (AWS ER 385. Two important considerations for weld joints in these alloys are (1) avoidance of solidification cracking. They are routinely joined by all fusion and resistance welding processes.2200°F (1150 . 9% Mo) filler metals have been used for this purpose. For some severe applications for the 317L alloys. For this reason. 4.1205°C) 1700 .

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