CHAPTER 5: ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

5.1 Physical and chemical changes

Introduction
Living thing Non-living thing

I. Both living and non-living thing are matter II. Matter around us undergoes changes. These changes can be classified into two types - physical changes - chemical changes

Physical changes
• Physical changes in a substance is one that effect its physical properties, such as •
Shape • • • • • Volume Density State of matter (solid,liquid,gas) Colour Mass

Physical changes
• No new substance is form during a physical change. • Physical changes are usually reversible. This mean that the physical properties of the substance which has undergone a physical change can be changed back.
Water ice water

Physical changes
1. Examples
a) Changes of physical state
• Caused by heating
Ice water steam

Caused by cooling
Steam water ice

No new substance form because H2O remain H2O

Physical changes
a) Dissolving a solid in water
dissolved aqueous sugar ( larutan Sugar + water gula)

Reverse changes
Aqueous sugar evaporated sugar + water

Aqueous sugar

distillation water

sugar +

Physical changes
a) Crystallizing a salt from it saturated solution
• Saturated salt means a solution with maximum quantity of the salt dissolved on it. • Solid salt can be obtained by crystalization

Chemical Changes
• Changes of matter that produce new substance • The new substance have chemical properties which are different from the original substance • Chemical changes are usually difficult to reverse. This means that the product formed cannot be easily changed back into the reactant

Chemical Changes
1. Example
a) Burning of paper
Paper Burn ash + carbon dioxide

but Cannot be Ash + carbon dioxide paper

Chemical Changes
a) Browning of a peeled apple

Peeled apple

Exposed to air

browning apple

Chemical Changes
a) Combustion of feul
Hydrocarbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + oxygen

Chemical Changes
a) Photosyntesis
light Carbon dioxide + water (in plant) glucose + oxygen

Examples in daily life
Physical changes in Chemical changes daily life in daily life Freezing of water to form ice cube Boiling of water Dissolving sugar or salt in water Melting of wax to form different shapes of candles chocolate Melting of Evaporate of sweat Boiling an egg to get a hard-boiled egg Burning of fossil fuel in motor vehicles Respiration in living organism Decomposition of fallen leaves Digestion of food in our body Photosynthesis in green plants

Comparison between physical and chemical changes
Physical changes SIMILARITIES Substance in both processes undergo changes Both changes require energy DIFFERENCES In term of No reversible Less energy is needed Changes in physical properties only Formation of new substance Reversibility Yes Difficult to reverse Chemical changes

Amount of More energy is energy required needed Change in properties Changes in chemical and physical properties

Comparison between physical and chemical changes
Physical changes SIMILARITIES Substance in both processes undergo changes Both changes require energy DIFFERENCES In term of No reversible Less energy is needed Changes in physical properties only Formation of new substance Reversibility Yes Difficult to reverse Chemical changes

Amount of More energy is energy required needed Change in properties Changes in chemical and physical properties

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