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Background

A hydropericardium syndrome first

appeared in the commercial broiler

chickens in Pakistan during late 1987,

causing high mortality (Anonymous, 1988).

Later the syndrome has also affected

medium weight laying strains and broiler

breeder strains of the chicken (Anjum,

1988). The disease primarily affects liver,

heart, kidneys and lungs.

Background A hydropericardium syndrome first appeared in the commercial broiler chickens in Pakistan during late 1987,

Background

It is still inflicting heavy losses. Based on basophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes (Anjum et al, 1989), and hexagonal adeno-like virus particles in liver homogenates (Cheema et al., 1989), a viral aetiology was suggested.

Background It is still inflicting heavy losses. Based on basophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes

Background

Litchi Heart disease, primarily of broiler

chickens, was first reported in Angara

Goth near Karachi, Pakistan, during 1987

(Khawaja et al., 1988; Gowda and

Satyanarayana, 1994), and it has been

reported to be particularly important in

some countries in Asia and America

(Jaffery, 1988; Shane, 1996; Abe et al.,

1998).

Background Litchi Heart disease, primarily of broiler chickens, was first reported in Angara Goth near Karachi,

The syndrome is characterized by an accumulation of clear, straw-coloured fluid in the pericardial sac, discoloured liver and enlarged kidneys (ANJUM et al., 1989; CHEEMA et al., 1989).

The syndrome is characterized by an accumulation of clear, straw-coloured fluid in the pericardial sac,

Background

The sudden onest of the disease and a mortality rate as higher as 75% affecting the 3 to 6 week old age group and causing a sever hazard to poultry producers, particularly in the broiler industry in India and Pakistan (Gowda and Satyanarayana, 1994)

Background The sudden onest of the disease and a mortality rate as higher as 75% affecting

Background

An adenovirus was isolated from

lyophilised homogenates of livers taken

from affected birds by the Central

Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, UK and

later confirmed as a new isolate of

adenovirus designated as K31/89 by a

laboratory in Germany (Voss, 1989).

Preventive measures and treatment for

the disease are not yet available.

Background An adenovirus was isolated from lyophilised homogenates of livers taken from affected birds by the

Introduction

Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was first described in the U.S. in 1963 and since then has been reported in many countries around the world. Subsequently, it was determined to be associated with avian adenovirus (AAV) infection.

• The first AAV associated with clinical disease was isolated from an outbreak of respiratory disease in quail in 1950 . Since that time, AAVs have been found to be ubiquitous in all types and breeds of chickens (normal flora).

Introduction Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was first described in the U.S. in 1963 and since then

They have been isolated from numerous species of birds, including both healthy and sick poultry. In addition to IBH, AAV has been associated withhydropericardium syndrome (HP), egg production drops, reduced growth rate and feed conversion, tenosynovitis, proventriculitis,gizzard erosions and respiratory disease.

They have been isolated from numerous species of birds, including both healthy and sick poultry.

Initially, it was thought that IBH could only be caused by adenovirus if the bird’s immune system was first weakened by exposure to immunosuppressive agents such as infectious bursal disease (IBD) and chicken anemia virus (CAV). Recent work, however, has demonstrated that virulent strains alone can produce the disease

Initially, it was thought that IBH could only be caused by adenovirus if the bird’s

Clinical Signs and Lesions

IBH typically occurs in meat-type chickens under six weeks of age but can occur as early as six days and as late as 20 weeks. In outbreaks, there is a sudden onset of mortality that usually ranges from 2 to 10 percent but in some cases may be over 40 percent.

Clinical Signs and Lesions IBH typically occurs in meat-type chickens under six weeks of age but

Mortality will vary depending on the pathogenicity of the virus, susceptibility of the chicks (level of maternal immunity) and secondary infections with other infectious agents.

Mortality will vary depending on the pathogenicity of the virus, susceptibility of the chicks (level

Mortality generally peaks within three to four days and ceases within one week, although in some cases it may linger for several weeks.

Mortality generally peaks within three to four days and ceases within one week, although in

Morbidity is low and sick birds that do not die will recover. Affected birds appear depressed with ruffled feathers.

Morbidity is low and sick birds that do not die will recover. Affected birds appear

The primary lesion is an enlarged, pale and friable liver .

Small hemorrhages may be present in the liver and muscle and, in some cases, a straw-colored fluid is present in the sac surrounding the heart.

The primary lesion is an enlarged, pale and friable liver . Small hemorrhages may be

With HP, the lesions are similar except the incidence of fluid in the heart sac is greater, mortality is higher (Figure 2) and the age of onset tends to be later (three to five weeks).

With HP, the lesions are similar except the incidence of fluid in the heart sac

Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium
Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium
Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium
Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium

Hydropericardium
Hydropericardium

Transmission

Both vertical and horizontal transmission

plays a

role in the spread of IBH. Most outbreaks

are initiated by transmission of the virus

through the embryonated egg and hens

exposed during production will typically

shed virus to their progeny for three to

six weeks until development of immunity

occurs.

Transmission Both vertical and horizontal transmission plays a role in the spread of IBH. Most outbreaks

Horizontal spread occurs primarily from contact with infected feces. This seems to occur quite frequently and most cases are not diagnosed because they do not become a clinical problem.

Horizontal spread occurs primarily from contact with infected feces. This seems to occur quite frequently

Commercial hatching eggs may be a mechanism of spread of endemic AAV from one area to another. There is evidence that adenovirus infections can become latent and that periods of stress, such as the onset of egg production, will reactivate viral shedding.

Commercial hatching eggs may be a mechanism of spread of endemic AAV from one area

Diagnosis

• The diagnosis is made by submitting liver

samples from affected birds for

histopathological examination (formalin-

fixed) and virus isolation (frozen).

• Positive samples will have large blue

inclusion bodies located within the nucleus

of the liver cells

Diagnosis • The diagnosis is made by submitting liver samples from affected birds for histopathological examination

• It is critical to isolate the virus from IBH

positive samples so that serotyping and/or

molecular analysis can be performed.

• The most common serologic test is the

immunodiffusion test that detects the Group

I antigen. This test is not sensitive so it is

possible to miss positive birds, and does not

differentiate by serotype.

• It is critical to isolate the virus from IBH positive samples so that serotyping and/or

• Group I enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

(ELISA) is more sensitive but also will not

differentiate by serotype. ELISA can be

developed for individual serotypes but will not

detect the presence of immunity to other

serotypes. The serum neutralization test has

been used to detect serotype-specific

antibody but is labor intensive and expensive

because 12 serotypes must be included.

• Group I enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is more sensitive but also will not differentiate by

Diagnosis of the Hydropericardium Syndrome infection has been carried out on the basis of gross lesions, histopathological lesions (Gowda and Satyanarayana, 1994; Kumar et al.,

1997).

Diagnosis of the Hydropericardium Syndrome infection has been carried out on the basis of gross

• In addition to the characteristic

Hydropericardium Syndrome Nakamura et

al. (2002) observed pinpoint white foci in

the pancreas and ventricular erosins in

broilers.

• The mortality and severity of the lesions

may be greater in immuonosupressed birds.

• In addition to the characteristic Hydropericardium Syndrome Nakamura et al . (2002) observed pinpoint white

• The epidemiological factors associated

with the development of spread of

Hydropericardium Syndrome are unclear

(Akhtar et al., 1992).

Proper disinfections of premises and

equipment, restricted entry of visitors and

vaccination crews and ventilation and

proper lightening in the poultry house play

a significant role in prevention of the

disease (Abdul Aziz and Hasan, 1996.)

• The epidemiological factors associated with the development of spread of Hydropericardium Syndrome are unclear (Akhtar

Key Facts

IBH is a sporadic and infrequent disease

caused by avian adenovirus.

• IBH typically occurs in breeder and broiler

flocks less than six weeks of age. All breeds

are affected.

• Mortality averages 2 percent to 10

percent

and generally persists for one to two weeks.

Key Facts IBH is a sporadic and infrequent disease caused by avian adenovirus. • IBH typically

Sick birds that do not die will recover. Affected flocks will perform normally after cessation of mortality.

The primary lesion is a pale, enlarged liver with hemorrhages.

For diagnosis, both formalin-fixed and frozen liver samples must be submitted for histopathological examination and virus isolation.

Sick birds that do not die will recover. Affected flocks will perform normally after cessation

Many different serotypes of AAV may cause IBH but do not provide cross- protection. It is important to identify the specific serotype involved in an outbreak.

Many different serotypes of AAV may cause IBH but do not provide cross- protection. It

Most IBH is caused by vertical transmission and can be prevented by ensuring that breeder flocks are seroconverted prior to the onset of lay.

Endemic AAV can be spread from one area to another by the use of commercial hatching eggs from multiple sources.

Most IBH is caused by vertical transmission and can be prevented by ensuring that breeder

In commercial settings, most breeder flocks seroconvert by natural exposure. In rare instances, seroconversion by vaccination or exposure to contaminated bedding material may be required.

In commercial settings, most breeder flocks seroconvert by natural exposure. In rare instances, seroconversion by

Limiting the number of breeding stock suppliers and not mixing stock from different suppliers will help prevent outbreaks of IBH.

Limiting the number of breeding stock suppliers and not mixing stock from different suppliers will

IBH is more severe in birds with compromised immune systems; therefore, it is important to effectively control IBD, CAV, nutritional problems and management factors that cause stress.

IBH is more severe in birds with compromised immune systems; therefore, it is important to