Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP

)
An example of a learning experience in the Natural Sciences

MATTER AND MATERIALS G 4
RADE
WHAT CAN WE FIND OUT ABOUT MATTER?
1 2 3 4 5 What is Matter? What are solids, liquids and gases? What solids, liquids and gases are around us? How do we measure solids, liquids and gases? How much can a medicine spoon hold? 6 Investigation – How can we measure the quantity of a liquid? 7 How do we measure the amount of matter we have? 8 How do we measure the amount of gas we have?

We welcome the wide use of these materials. Please acknowledge PSP. ©PSP 2008

DEVELOPED BY WESTERN CAPE PSP TEAM AND TEACHERS
These materials were written to support teachers in their work with learners around the content area of Matter & Materials. While this is not a complete work schedule, it offers possibilities for teachers to include other learning experiences and to extend and develop this further. This example learning experience shows how you can work towards the following learning outcomes in the Natural Sciences. LO1: Scientific Investigations The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts LO2: Constructing Science Knowledge The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge LO3: Science, Society and the Environment The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

Courses presented by Rose Thomas and Nontsikelelo Mahote Booklet designed by Welma Odendaal Illustrated by Nicci Cairns and Janet Ranson
Western Cape Primary Science Programme Edith Stephens Wetland Park Lansdowne Road Philippi 7785 PO Box 529 Howard Place 7450 Tel: 021 691-9039 Fax: 021 691-6350 e-mail: info@psp.org.za website: www.psp.org.za
The PSP is grateful for support from PETROSA

Contents
Section 1
1. Learning experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1–24 2. Assessment tasks LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Section 2: Teacher resources
Task cards to Photocopy

1. Task card 1. Solids, liquids and gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 2. Task card 2. Assessment for LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 3. Task card 3. How do we measure solids liquids and gases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 4. Task card 4. How much can a medicine spoon hold? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 5. Task card 5. How can we measure the quantity of a liquid? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 6. Task card 6. Assessment for LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 7. Task card 7. How do we measure the amount of matter we have? . . . . . . . . . .35 8. Task card 8. Measuring the mass of different objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 9. Task card 9. Assessment for LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Traditional story: Umgwebi uSokhetye/The Great Judge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

Section 3
Extracts from the National Curriculum Statement for Natural Sciences Grades R-9 1. Core knowledge and concepts for Matter and Materials (NCS) . . . . . . . .43–45 2. Learning Outcomes and assessment standards (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46–51

Section 1
1 1. Learning experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1–24 2. Assessment tasks LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

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Key concept
Everything around us is made of matter

What is Matter?

Teacher Task

Introduction
Introduce learners to a selection of objects on your table, eg a plastic bag of air, a glass of water, a book, etc. Then point to all the things around you in the classroom, eg chalk, walls, tables, floor, etc. Ask your learners: What are all these things made of? What is the ‘stuff’ they are made of? Where did this ‘stuff’ come from? Accept many different answers and explanations from learners.

Introduce and explain
Introduce the word ‘matter’ and explain that scientists use this word to describe all the ‘stuff’ that things are made of.

MATTER

1

Note to teachers
Everything in the world is made of ‘matter’. All matter is made from very small particles. These small particles are called atoms. (Atoms occur naturally throughout the Earth, and in the water and in the atmosphere on Earth.) There are many different kinds of atoms. So we get many different kinds of matter. For example, copper is made from copper atoms. Water is made from hydrogen atoms combined with oxygen atoms. Scientists like to classify matter in different ways. One way is to classify it by the kind of atoms that it is made of. The study of chemistry is the study of different kinds of matter and the atoms that make up the matter. One way of classifying matter is to classify it into the three forms or phases of matter which occur naturally. These are solids, liquids and gases. Some substances occur naturally in one form. For example, coal is found as a solid; oxygen in air is found as a gas; and saliva is found as a liquid. Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether something is a solid, or a liquid, or a gas. This is because different substances can behave more like a liquid in some conditions, but more like a solid in other conditions. For example, when syrup is warm, it’s like a liquid because it pours like a liquid. But when it is cold we can’t pour it. It’s more like a solid, although it takes the shape of its container. It’s the same with porridge. Porridge is runny when it’s hot, but solid when it cools. Uncooked rice can be poured, although each grain retains its shape like other solids. Sometimes a solid or liquid substance also gives off a gas, which we can smell but we can’t see. For example, a hard-boiled egg gives off a smell. So does fruit juice. However, many things around us are made up of a combination of more than one form of matter. For example, an orange has a skin which is solid. It has juice which is liquid. And it gives off a gas which helps us to smell that it’s an orange. Another example is soda water in a bottle. The bottle is a solid. The water is a liquid. And the bubbles are a gas (carbon dioxide). We also know that some substances can change their form or phase. For example, ice is a solid. But when we heat it, it becomes a liquid – water. When we heat it even further, it becomes a gas – water vapour. Water is one of the few substances that occur in all three phases naturally on the Earth’s surface.

Water is one of the few substances that occur in all three phases naturally on the Earth’s surface.
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What are solids, liquids and gases?

Key concept
We find matter in three different forms: solids, liquids and gases

Teacher Task

Introduction
Introduce the terms: Solid a book Liquid water in a glass Gas air in a bag Show more examples of solids, liquids and gases, eg cool drink, wood, cardboard box, balloon or ball with air, point to the air around us, etc.

Preparation
1. Hand out boxes containing common examples of solids, liquids and gases eg cloth, oil, inflated balloon, helium balloon (ask at the Spur), tea, chocolate, water, bean, milk, bottle of air, glass bottle, fruit juice, tea bag, bottle of car fumes, biscuit, egg shell etc. 2. Label all the objects with their names. Ask the learners to read the labels before they do the task.

Learner Task
28 for ee page S sk rner Ta the Lea hotocopy. p Card to

Sorting, drawing and writing
1. Sort the things in your box into solids, liquids and gases. 2. Write and draw pictures to show which things are solids, which things are liquids, and which things are gases.

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SOLIDS Cloth Oil

LIQUIDS

GASES Bottle of air

Ruler

Milk

Smell of vinegar

Bread

Tea

Air in a football

Rice

Juice

Bottle of petrol fumes

What can all solids do? All solids keep their shape.

What can all liquids do? All liquids can pour. All liquids take the shape of the container.

What can all gases do? All gases take the shape of their container. All gases can escape into the air.

Consolidation
Check that each child has sorted the objects correctly and that s/he has recorded the sorting correctly at her/his table. You can do this by getting children to call out the answers. Correct and explain where necessary. They can then check their own work and make corrections. Read through the properties in the last row of the table and explain them to the children.

Explain
Explain that the properties of a solid are the things that all solids have in common. The properties of a liquid are the things that all liquids have or can do. The properties of a gas are the things that all gases have or can do.

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What solids, liquids and gases are around us?

Key concept
Some everyday substances and objects are combina tions of solids, liquids and gases.

Teacher Task

Discussion with class
Ask the class: What other solids, liquids and gases do you know of? Can all things (matter) be sorted into just these three groups (categories)? (solid, liquid or gas) Is it easy to tell whether something is a solid or a liquid? Is porridge a solid or a liquid? Does it have gas in it? Does it have a liquid in it? When it’s cooked, is it a solid, or a liquid, or a gas? What about coca cola, is it a solid, liquid or gas? Accept many different answers and explanations from your learners.

Teacher and Learner Task

Making a class display with learners
Ask your learners to bring other examples of substances from their homes to make a class display. Sort the items into solids, liquids and gases and name them. Ask learners to write labels for their substances. Make space for a display in your classroom. Tell your learners that they are going to do individual writing. Ask them to copy the sentences into their books and complete them. Then they must make one or two sentences of their own.

Learner Task

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THE THREE FORMS OF MATTER Everything in the world is made up of matter. Matter comes in 3 different forms. The 3 forms of matter are — — — — — —, ————— — — — — — —— — — — — and — — — — — —— — — — ————— ———— ————— ——— A cloth is a ——————————————— Oil is a —————————————————————— Chocolate is a —————————————————— There is ————————— inside a balloon. ETc …
Teacher Task
Playing with words
Play a game in which learners suggest action words (verbs) that describe what solids liquids and gases can do, and what we can do to them. When you do this activity, use more than one language. This will help the learners to develop their understanding of the properties of the three forms of matter. Write up your learners’ responses in the form of a mind map. Try to encourage your learners to think of as many words as they can. You want to build up a rich collection of words. LIQUIDS What can liquids do? What can we do to liquids ? Pour/chitheka Drink/sela Spread/smeer Splash Overflow/phuphuma Flow/vloei Stir/zamisa/roer Mix/meng Run/baleka Trickle Dribble Drop Spit/tshica Etc GASES What can gases do? What can we do to gases? Squeeze Blow/vuthela Pop Smell/joja/ruik Burst Squash Escape Whistle Exhale Inhale/sezela Etc

SOLIDS What can solids do? What can we do to solids ? Cut Break/yaphula Build Drop Stack Crush/cola Bang Push Pull/tsala/trek Fold/songa/vou Bend/goba/buig Etc

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Teacher Task

Demonstrate and explain
Use a lemon or orange to demonstrate that many everyday objects are made up of a combination of solids, liquids and gases. The lemon skin is a solid. Scratch the skin and the lemon gives off a gas that you can smell. Use other examples as well. For example, boiled egg, raw onion, cut a tomato, a bottle of coca-cola, etc.

Learner Assessment Task for LO2
See Assessment Standards for LO2 Grade 4 on page 46. Also Assessment Task Card for LO2 on page 29.

What solids, liquids and gases are around us?
Some things around us are a combination of solid, liquid and gas. The purpose of this assessment task is for learners to: Name and describe objects, materials and organisms Sort objects and organisms by a visible property.

Instructions
1. Bring as many things as you can from your home, which are a combination of solid, liquid and gas. Explain to your group about the solid, liquid and gas in each one. 2. Write and draw in your book about the solids, liquids and gases from your home. Your writing and drawings must show everything you understand about solids, liquids and gases. When you write, use some of the words from the word game.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA What solids, liquids and gases are around us?
Assessment for LO2 Assessment task
Write and draw in your book about the solids, liquids and gases at your home.

Assessment criteria
Learners must: Choose suitable examples of objects from home that are a combination of solid, liquid and gas. Draw pictures of the objects that show understanding about the solids, liquids and/or gases in them. Make drawings which are clear, neat and detailed. Provide labels or captions for the drawings using key words such as, solid, liquid and gas as well as appropriate verbs generated in the word game.

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4

How do we measure solids, liquids and gases?
Thinking about measuring
There are lots of solids, liquids and gases in our lives. Sometimes we need to measure how long or how much of something we need. Is it important to be able to measure solids, liquids and gases? What do you think?

Key concept
In every day life we measure solids, liquids and gases for practical and safety reasons.

Class discussion about measuring
Encourage your learners to talk and share their experiences about measuring matter and materials in their lives; for example, measuring how much petrol, weighing the baby, buying a certain amount of food, measuring how much building material, buying clothing of the right size, etc.

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Teacher Task

This task is to introduce a reason why in certain circumstances we need to measure solids, liquids and gases. Tell your learners a story which explains a reason for measuring. (You can tell them a story that you know, use the one below, or make up a story that shows how important it is to measure. Also see the traditional story on page 40) Once upon a time there was a little girl called Thandi. She lived with her grandmother. One morning she woke up feeling terrible. She was hot and sweaty and her chest was hurting. When she tried to get out of bed her legs felt weak and wobbly. She coughed and coughed, which made her chest even more sore. Thandi’s grandmother could see that something was wrong. She put her hand on Thandi’s forehead and it felt very hot. She could hear Thandi coughing and wheezing. She got a big fright. She began to look for the medicine that the doctor had given her the last time Thandi had such a high temperature. This liquid medicine would help to lower Thandi’s temperature and make her sleep. It would also help to stop the pain in her chest. Thandi’s grandmother searched for the medicine. At last she found it in the box above the sink. She read the instructions on the bottle to see how much to give Thandi. Then she looked for the medicine spoon but all the spoons were at their Auntie’s house. She had borrowed them for the party the next day.

Use examples of medicines from the chemist, homeopathic medicines and herbal remedies – or ask your learners to bring examples from home. You will find that all of these have different ways of measuring the dose. Sometimes it is measured in drops. Sometimes it is measured in spoons. And sometimes it is measured in millilitres.

Note to teachers

So Thandi’s grandmother took the medicine to Thandi and told her to drink just a little bit from the bottle.

Discussion
To help learners understand why it is important to measure substances What do you think happened to Thandi? Did she get better? Did her grandmother do the right thing? What should she have done? Do traditional healers measure the amount of medicines? How do they do this? Look at a bottle of medicine. What measurements are shown on the bottle? Is there more than one? What do these measurements tell us? Why do some medicines have directions on the bottle? What do the directions tell us? Why should we follow the directions properly? Why should we always only take the recommended amount (measurement) of this medicine? Do you think it is important to measure accurately? Why? Why do you think the amount of medicine is different for adults and children? Can you think of any other situations where it is important to measure matter accurately? Do people measure gas? Why is it important to measure gas accurately? Do people measure solids? Why?

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Learner Task
or e 30 f See pag er Task rn the Lea hotocopy. p Card to

How do we measure solids, liquids and gases?
Measuring medicines
1. Bring some empty medicine boxes and bottles to your class. Look for the instructions found on them. Sometimes there is a paper with instructions inside a medicine box. 2. Read the instructions and find out how much medicine must be taken. 3. Then make a list in your books like this:

MEASURING MEDICINES
Name of medicine Dose: Amount of medicine
For a child Panado syrup Panado tablets Grandpa powders Borstal Enos For an adult

Discuss
Discuss these questions with your group Questions 1. Why do we have to measure some medicines before we take them? 2. Why is the dose different for children and for adults? 3. What will happen if a child is given an adult’s dose? 4. What will happen if an adult is given a child’s dose? 5. How will you find out what the dose is of a medicine?

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5

How much can a medicine spoon hold?
Note to teachers about measurement
When scientists measure matter, they use many different kinds of measurements. We are focusing on one type of measurement, called the volume, in this learning experience. This measurement is used when we want to find out how much space a certain solid or liquid takes up. This measurement is called the volume. We measure it in units called millilitres (ml) and litres (l). Millilitres are very small units. They are used for measuring small quantities, which take up a small space. Litres are large units. They are used to measure larger quantities, which take up a larger space. A medicine spoon is used to measure powdery solids and liquid medicines. Medicine spoons usually have a measurement on them so that the medicine dose can be accurately measured. A medicine spoon usually contains space for 5ml of liquid or powder. The space that the liquid or solid occupies in the spoon is called the volume. This is a measure of the quantity of liquid.

Key concepts
Most medicine spoons have an indication of a measurement on them. Sometimes they have a measurement for a full spoon (5ml) and sometimes they have a measurement for half a spoon (2.5ml).

Teacher Task

Preparation
Provide different liquids for the learners to measure, for example, sugar-water, water, cool drink, milk, etc. Provide different powders for the learners to measure, for example, Maizena, salt, sand, flour, coffee, etc. Demonstrate the following procedure to the learners.

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Learner Task
See page 31 for the Learner Task Card to photocopy.

What quantity of liquid or solid do we have?
Measuring the quantity of liquid or solid in a medicine spoon
How much water in one teaspoonful?
1. Take 1 medicine spoon of water. 2. Suck it up into a syringe. 3. Read how much water is in the syringe. Volume = 4. Squirt the liquid from the syringe into a measuring cylinder. 5. Read how much water is in the measuring cylinder. Volume = Use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of other liquids. Record Liquid Syringe Measuring cylinder volume = . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml

Now use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of powder. You will not be able to suck the powder into the syringe. You must pour it into the back. Powder Syringe Measuring cylinder volume = . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . .volume = . . . . .ml

Consolidation
Help the learners to come to a conclusion about what they have found out. They will find that the quantity of liquid or powder in the spoon is always 5ml, no matter what liquid or powder you use. Write the following question on the chalkboard. Help them to answer it and ask your learners to write the question and answer into their science books.

HOW MUCH CAN A MEDICINE SPOON HOLD?

1 medicine spoon always measures a quantity of 5ml, no matter what liquid or powder we use. The liquid or powder occupies a space of 5ml in the medicine spoon when it is full.
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Key concepts
We measure liquids in units called millilitres (ml).This is for very small amounts of liquid. We also measure liquids in units called litres (l). This is for larger amounts of liquid. There are 1000 millilitres of liquid in 1 litre. When we are measuring the quantity of liquid, we say we are measuring the volume of the liquid.The volume tells us how much space the quantity of liquid takes up. So the volume of a liquid is measured in millilitres and litres.

INVESTIGATION How can we measure the quantity of a liquid?
Teacher Task
Introduction
Introduce and explain the concept of volume. Introduce and explain the units for measuring the volume, (ml and l). Remind your learners that these units are used internationally to measure volume. Remind your learners about medicine spoons as well. Remind them that medicine spoons can hold 5ml of liquid.

Preparation
Prepare your learners to carry out an investigation. They must work out how to measure the quantity (the volume) of water that will fill different containers.

Investigation
The purpose of this investigation is for learners to: Experience the size of different volumes of water Find out that a big volume is made up of multiples of smaller volumes. This will help them to begin to convert from smaller units to larger units. Apparatus For each group you will need: Plastic medicine spoons A baby food jar A 500ml cool drink bottle/box A 1-litre plastic milk bottle A 2-litre milk bottle A funnel (You can cut a coke bottle to make a funnel.) A bottle or jug of water.

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Note to teachers
Some baby food jars have measurements on the side. Point out these measurements to the children. Show them that the small baby food jars contain 100ml of liquid when they are filled up to the neck of the jar, not up to the lid. This is a useful measurement because they can put 20 of the 5ml medicine spoons of water in it to fill it to 100ml. These jars are also useful because when you use them to fill up the 500ml, 1l and 2l bottles, the calculation will be easy for the children. Let them work out for themselves how they will go about measuring the quantity of water in their containers. Remind them to pour carefully. When you select 500ml, 1l and 2l bottles for this activity, try to use milk or juice bottles because the liquid in them is generally filled up to the neck. Draw your learners’ attention to this. Then you can tell them to fill up their bottles to the neck and after that to do the calculation. In the case of bottles that are used for fizzy drinks (like coke bottles), the liquid is not filled up to the neck. A space is left for expansion of the gas in the bottle. If the children use these bottles and fill them up to the neck, then they will measure a bit more than the 1l or 2l printed on the bottle. When learners do their own investigation, they can choose any container and fill it up to the neck. Then they can do their calculation. In an investigation you can expect many different containers and answers from different learners. But you must check that they have used a suitable method to measure, and that their calculations are correct.

Learner Task
See page 32 for the Learner Task Card to photocopy. PREDICT
How many do you think will fit into the bottle? How many medicine spoons of water will fill the baby food bottle? How many baby food bottles of water will fill the small fruit juice bottle? How many baby food bottles of water did it take to fill fill the small milk bottle? How many baby food bottles of water will fill the big milk bottle?

Group activity

How can we measure the quantity of a liquid?
Measure and calculate the amount of water that will fill different containers. Remember 5ml of water can fill 1 medicine spoon. 1. Use the water and containers to measure how much water will fill each container. Record your findings.

DO
This is what you must do Pour water

COUNT
How many did fit into the bottle? How many medicine spoons of water did it take to fill the baby food bottle?

CALCULATE
How much water did you measure? (ml or l) How much water is there now in the bottle?

Pour water

How many baby food bottles of water did it take to fill the small fruit juice bottle?

How much water is there in the bigger bottle?

Pour water

How much water is there in the small milk bottle?

How much water is there in the bigger bottle?

Pour water

How many baby food bottles How much water is of water did it take to fill there in the bigger the big milk bottle? bottle?

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Teacher Task

Consolidation
Check that your learners have carried out the activity and done the calculations correctly. Make sure that they have completed their table correctly and that their answers are correct.

Learner Task

Writing Task
Write the following questions on the chalkboard. Help your learners to write the questions and the correct answers in their books. They can draw the container.

WE MEASURED HOW MUCH LIQUID WE HAVE
1. How much liquid do we have in a medicine spoon? We have ————————— of liquid in a medicine spoon. 2. How much water do we have in a baby food bottle? We have ————————— of liquid in a baby food bottle. 3. How much water do we have in a small juice bottle? We have ————————— of liquid in a small juice bottle. 4. How much liquid do we have in a small milk bottle? We have ————————— of liquid in a small milk bottle. 5. How much liquid do we have in big milk bottle? We have ————————— of liquid in a big milk bottle

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See pages 44 for the Assessment Standards for LO1 for Grades 4 & 5, and page 33 for the Assessment Task Card for LO1 to photocopy.

Assessment Task for LO1
INVESTIGATION
To measure how much water will fill my container.
The purpose of this investigation is for learners to: work out a way to measure and calculate how much water will fill a container carry out the procedure they have planned using small measuring instruments report on the procedure and the results obtained

Instructions
1. Bring any container from home. 2. Talk about how you will find out how many millilitres (ml) of water will fit into your container. 3. Carry out your plan. 4. Draw and write to tell how you found out.

Suggested drawing and writing frame to help learners record what they did.

This is my container

Predicting:

I think my container will hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doing:

This is what I did . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................
Calculating:

This is my calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................ I calculated that my container holds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of water My prediction was correct/incorrect
Was your prediction a good one? Explain why to your group.

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Assessment Task for LO1 (cont.)

Teacher task Group reflection
Conduct a group discussion that helps the learners to reflect on their investigation. Use these questions to help them. 1. Compare your prediction and your final answer. How good was your prediction? 2. Was it easy to measure the quantity of liquid in your container? How accurate were your measurements? 3. Was it easy to make accurate measurements? What was difficult to do? 4. How important is it to make accurate measurements and calculations? 5. What would have helped you to be more accurate?

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Investigation: To measure how much water will fill my container
Assessment for LO1 Assessment task
Measure how much water your container will hold

Assessment criteria
Learners must: Bring a suitable container Make a reasonable prediction of the quantity of water it will hold Work out a reasonable and accurate way of finding the volume of the container using known measurements such as medicine spoons and small bottles Draw and write a method that shows their understanding Show any calculations Compare their answer and prediction and reflect on the accuracy of their prediction.

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7
Key concepts
The amount of matter in a substance is called the mass. We measure mass in grams (g) or kilograms (kg). We can measure the amount of matter (mass) in a substance using a beamer balance.This measurement is used when scientists measure the amount of matter there is in a solid, liquid or gas.This measurement is called the mass. We measure it in units called grams (g) and kilograms (kg). We use grams (g) for small amounts of matter. We use kilograms (kg) for larger amounts of matter.

How do we measure the amount of matter we have?
Teacher Task Introduction
vious lea rning experienc es we ha ve measured the volum e or quantity of liquids and powders. The volum e tells us how m uch spac e somethin g takes u p or can occupy. B ut when we measure mass we are measurin g the am ount of matter in it. For exam ple, a very large piece of polystyre ne will have a big volume b ut a small am ount of m atter in it (mass) . A small piece of lead will have a sm all volume b ut will h ave a very large amo unt of m atter in it (mass). A loaf of bre ad will have a sm all mass but a brick wil l have a large mas s.

Note to teach er In the pre

Talk with your learners about shopping for food. Show them some food packets from sugar, mealie meal, flour, rice, a box of tea, and so on.

y on ol P

Ask your learners: When we shop for sugar, how do we know how much sugar we are buying? (Draw their attention to the measurements on the packets and get your learners to read them.) Do all food packets have the same amount of food in them? What units are used on the packets to measure the food? Which units are used for the bigger amounts? Which units are used to measure the smaller amounts? Introduce the word mass to the children and explain the concept. Also introduce and explain the units g and kg. Explain how to measure mass by demonstrating how to use a beamer balance. When we use a beamer balance we put the substance we are measuring in one side and a known mass in the other side. If the two sides balance, then the masses are the same.

When these marks are in line it is balanced

Beamer balance

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Learner Task
See page 35 for the Learner Task Card to photocopy.

How do we measure the amount of matter we have?
Use a balance to measure how much matter 6 medicine spoons hold. Bring some substances from home that you would like to measure. Substance 6 medicine spoons of rice 6 medicine spoons of sugar 6 medicine spoons of water 6 medicine spoons of flour 6 medicine spoons of sand 6 medicine spoons of stones 6 medicine spoons of salt water 6 medicine spoons of tea 6 medicine spoons of salt 6 medicine spoons of oil 6 medicine spoons of sugar water What quantity (volume) How much matter do you have? (ml) mass do you have?(g) 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml 30 ml

Teacher Task

Consolidation
Make a class graph with your learners to show how much mass there is in 6 medicine spoons of different kinds of matter.

Graph to show the mass of 6 medicine spoons of different kinds of matter

Mass (g)
rice

sugar water flour sand stones salt tea water

salt

oil

sugar water

6 medicine spoons of different kinds of matter Which substance has the most matter (mass) in 6 medicine spoons? Which substance has the least matter (mass)in 6 medicine spoons? Did any substances have the same amount of matter (mass)in 6 medicine spoons? Do all substances have the same amount of matter (mass)?

19

Suggested Writing Activity Possible sentences
Ask your learners to draw pictures in their books, and to write sentences about what they found. For example:

DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES CONTAIN DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF MATTER • Six medicine spoons of rice has 100g of matter. • Six medicine spoons of water has 60g of matter. • Six medicine spoons of ………………………… has …………… of matter.
Teacher Task
Comparing
When we compare things, we have an opportunity to introduce the words less than, more than, and the same as. For example: The mass of the flour is less than the mass of the oil. The mass of the sugar is more than the mass of the flour. The mass of the salt is the same as the mass of the sand.

Extension Learner Task

Measuring the mass of other objects
Ask your learners to bring in other things and measure their masses using a beamer balance. For example, they may bring erasers, pencils, coins, bottle tops, small stones, and any other small objects. Try to get them to bring in things of different sizes. Polystyrene objects work well because even if the object is large, it has very little mass. Metals also work well because even small pieces of metal have quite a high mass. Ask your learners to record the masses of the objects and then draw a bar graph sequencing the objects from those with the least mass to those with the most mass.

Learner Task
See page 37 for the Learner Task Card to photocopy.

Measuring the mass of different objects
1. 2. 3. 4. Bring some objects from home or school. Find the mass of each object. Record the mass. Draw a graph showing the different masses. Start with the smallest mass. Then record each mass in order. End with the largest mass on your graph.

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Record the mass
Object (Draw or name) Mass (g) 4g

Graph to show the mass of different objects

Graph to show the mass of different objects

bottletop

Pencil

Eraser

Ruler

Consolidation
1. Discuss the following questions with your learners. Refer to the results of their measurements in order to decide on the answers.

Questions
Do all objects have the same amount of matter? Do all objects have the same mass? Do bigger objects always have a bigger mass? Do smaller objects always have a smaller mass? 2. Then get your learners to write the questions and answers into their books. 3. Write the conclusion with them.

Conclusion: Different objects have different amounts of matter. The amount of matter which something has, does not depend on its size.
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8
Key concepts
A gas is made up of particles of matter and so we can measure its mass. It is difficult to measure the volume (the quantity) of a gas. This is because a gas will spread out until it fits any size of container. So the volume of the gas changes depending on the size of its container.

How do we measure the amount of gas we have?
Teacher Task Thinking about measuring gases
1. Ask your learners What gases do we use around the house? Do people ever need to measure a gas? When? How do you think you can measure how much gas you have? Would it be easy to measure a gas?

Finding out about measuring gases
2. Then ask your learners to find out whether the gas in gas bottles (eg BP gas and Cadac gas) is measured in grams and kilograms or in millilitres and litres. They must also find out if you can buy different amounts of gas, and make a note of the different amounts of gas we can buy. Learners can look at the gas bottles at home or they can find out at garages and places where gas bottles are filled.

Note to teacher
The gas we buy is always measured in kilograms, not in litres. It is difficult to measure the quantity (volume) of the gas. This is because gas just spreads out to the size of its container. If a certain mass of gas is put in a small container, it will have a small volume. If the same mass of gas is now put into a bigger container it will spread out to fill the container, and its volume will be large, even though it is still the same amount of matter.

Teacher Task

Explain
Draw the following diagram on the chalkboard and explain what it represents to your learners.

1 kg gas

1 kg gas

1 kg gas

1 kg gas

You can tell the learners that: There is the same number of particles of gas in each of the containers. You can count them on the picture. We can squeeze them into a small container. Or, we can put them into a bigger container. If we put the same number of particles of gas into a bigger container, they spread out. But the number of particles stays the same. The amount of matter is the same. It has the same mass of 1kg.

22

When we want to buy gas, we want to be sure of the amount of gas matter we are paying for. So the gas is squashed (compressed) into the bottle until a certain mass (measured in kg) is reached. Then you know that you are buying a certain amount of that gas matter.

1 kg gas 5 kg gas 25 kg gas 45 kg gas 90 kg gas

Learner Task

Look at some gas bottles
What is the amount of gas matter in the bottles? Are there different sized bottles? How much matter do these bottles contain? Draw and write to explain how much gas is in the bottles you looked at.

1 kg

5 kg

2 5 kg

4 5 kg

9 0 kg

How does the person who fills up the bottles know when the bottle is full?

Discuss
The purpose of this discussion is to prepare the learners for the assessment task for LO3 Lead a class discussion using questions like this: What sort of gases do we use in our lives? What sorts of devices (things) need gas to make them work? Why do these devices need gas to make them work? Why are these devices useful to us? The following are some examples of such devices: • a bicycle pump • a football • a bicycle or motor car tyre • a compressor to pump up tyres • air brakes on a bus • a compressor which powers a jack-hammer • pumping a primus stove • a gas stove to cook • a parachute • a kite • a deep sea diver’s air tanks • aerosol cans • the doors of a bus which use compressed air, etc.

23

See the Assessment standards for LO3 for Grade 4 on page 48 and see page 39 for the Learner Task Card to photocopy.

Assessment Task for LO3 The gases in our lives – we use gas to make things work
The purpose of this assessment task is to: understand how gases are used in our lives identify technological devices that use a gas to make them work explain the purpose and usefulness of these devices.

Assessment task

Learner Assessment Task for LO3 The gases in our lives
We use gas to make some things work. Devices that use gas are useful to us.

Discuss
1. Think about the places where you live. Are there any things that use gas to make them work?

Look at home
2. Look at home for all the things that need a gas to make them work. Think about how the gas makes each thing work 3. Explain to your group how each thing works. 4. Explain what each thing is used for.

Do
5. Draw and write about the things that use a gas to make them work. You must show that you understand how gas helps each of the things to work. You must also show how these devices are useful to us.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Assessment task
Draw and write to tell about the things that use a gas to make them work.

Assessment criteria
The learner must: Provide suitable examples of technological devices that make use of a gas to work, eg. a bicycle pump, a football, a tyre, a compressor to pump up tyres, a compressor which powers a jack-hammer, air brakes on a bus, pumping a primus stove, using a gas stove to cook, a parachute, a kite, the doors of a bus which use compressed air, a deepsea diver’s air tanks etc. Provide information about what these devices are used for. Show some understanding of the purpose of the gas in the device. Provide a suitable heading. Draw clearly and write legibly using suitable key words.

24

PERIOD 1 Explain properties of solids, liquids and gases Learning exp. 3 Introduce: What solids, liquids and gases are around us? • Make a class display Learner writing task • What solids, liquids and gases are around us?

PERIOD 2

PERIOD 3

PERIOD 4

PERIOD 5

Learning exp. 1 Introduce: What is matter?

• Learners sort draw and

• Playing with words • Introduce objects with
combinations of solid, liquid and gas • Prepare learners for assessment task – learners must bring some objects from home

Learning exp. 2 Introduce: What are solids, liquids and gases? • Show examples

write about solids, liquids and gases • Check sorting • Consolidation • Ask learners to bring examples for a class display

PERIOD 6 Discuss questions about measuring medicines Learning exp. 5 Introduce: How much can a medicine spoon hold? • Demonstrate procedure

PERIOD 7

PERIOD 8

PERIOD 9 Learner task What quantity of liquid or solid do we have? • Consolidation

PERIOD 10

SUGGESTED WORK SCHEME

Assessment task for LO2 • Learners write and draw: What solids, liquids and gases are around us? • NB Decide when to give feedback about assessment task

Learning exp. 4 How do we measure solids, liquids and gases? • Class discussion about measuring

Learner task • Measuring medicines

Learning exp. 6 • Introduce investigation – How do we measure the quantity of a liquid? • Introduce and explain measurement of volume and units • Discussion about apparatus

PERIOD 11

PERIOD 12

PERIOD 13

PERIOD 14 Assessment task for LO1 Learners do investigation: To measure how much water will fil my container? • NB. Decide when to give feedback about assessment task

PERIOD 15 Learner writing and drawing task to record their investigation

Investigation Learner task • Measure and calculate the amount of water that will fit into different containers

• Consolidation about

• Check corrections for
writing task • Prepare learners for assessment task • Ask learners to bring containers from home

measuring amount of water • Learner writing task about: We measured how much liquid we have

25

26
PERIOD 18 PERIOD 19 PERIOD 20

PERIOD 16

PERIOD 17

Group reflection about the accuracy of the investigation Learner task • Measuring mass and recording • Check measuring and recording compare the masses of different objects Learner extension task Measuring the mass of other objects • Recording

Learning exp. 7 • Introduce: How can we measure the amount of matter we have? • Explain concept of mass and units • Demonstrate how to use a beamer balance PERIOD 23 PERIOD 24 PERIOD 25 Assessment task for LO3 Learners do assessment task on: The gases in our lives • NB Decide when to give feedback about assessment task

• Consolidation • Learner writing task to

PERIOD 21

PERIOD 22

SUGGESTED WORK SCHEME (cont.)

Learner extension task continued • Drawing a graph • Consolidation • Discussing questions about measurements on gas bottles • Explain about the amount of gas matter in different bottle sizes

• Learners draw and write

• Prepare learners for
assessment task • Discussion about devices that work with gas • Prepare learners to look at home for devices that need gas to work

Learning exp. 8 Introduce: How can we measure the amount of gas we have? • Discussion about measuring the amount of gas • Prepare learners to look at gas bottles at home

This is a work sc suggested assumes heme. It 5 periods. 0-minute M own adj ake your ustment s.

Section 2
Teacher Resources
Task cards to Photocopy 1. Task card 1. Solids, liquids and gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 2. Task card 2. Assessment for LO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 3. Task card 3. How do we measure solids liquids and gases . . . . . .30 4. Task card 4. How much can a medicine spoon hold? . . . . . . . . . . . .31 5. Task card 5. How can we measure the quantity of a liquid? . . . . . .32 6. Task card 6. Assessment for LO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 7. Task card 7. How do we measure the amount of matter we have? 35 8. Task card 8. Measuring the mass of different objects . . . . . . . . . .37 9. Task card 9. Assessment for LO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Traditional story

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

27

LEARNER

TASK CARD

1

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

Solids, liquids and gases
Sorting, drawing and writing
1. Sort the things in your box into solids, liquids and gases. 2. Write and draw pictures to show which things are solids, which things are liquids, and which things are gases. Solids Liquids Gases

What can all solids do? All solids keep their shape.

What can all liquids do? All liquids can pour. All liquids take the shape of the container.

What can all gases do? All gases take the shape of their container. All gases can escape into the air.

28

ASSESSMENT

TASK CARD

2

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

What solids, liquids and gases are around us?
Assessment task card for LO2
Some things around us are a combination of solid, liquid and gas. Instructions 1. Bring as many things as you can from your home, which are a combination of solid, liquid and gas. Explain to your group about the solid, liquid and gas in each one. 2. Write and draw in your book about the solids, liquids and gases from your home. Your writing and drawings must show everything you understand about solids, liquids and gases. When you write, use some of the words from the word game.

29

LEARNER

TASK CARD

3

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How do we measure solids, liquids and gases?
Measuring medicines
1. Bring some empty medicine boxes and bottles to your class. Look for the instructions found on them. Sometimes there is a paper with instructions inside a medicine box. 2. Read the instructions and find out what how much of the medicine must be taken. 3. Then make a list in your books like this:

MEASURING MEDICINES Name of medicine Dose: Amount of medicine
For a child Panado syrup Panado tablets Grandpa powders Borstal Enos For an adult

Discuss
Discuss these questions with your group Questions 5. Why do we have to measure some medicines before we take them? 6. Why is the dose different for children and for adults? 7. What will happen if a child is given an adult’s dose? 8. What will happen if an adult is given a child’s dose? 5. How will you find out what the dose is of a medicine?

30

LEARNER

TASK CARD

4

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How much can a medicine spoon hold?
Measure the quantity of liquid or solid in a medicine spoon
How much water in one medicine spoonful? 1. Take 1 medicine spoon of water. 2. Suck it up into a syringe. 3. Read how much water is in the syringe. Volume = 4. Squirt the liquid from the syringe into a measuring cylinder. 5. Read how much water is in the measuring cylinder volume. Volume = Use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of other liquids.

Record:
Liquid Syringe Measuring cylinder volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml Now use the same procedure to measure medicine spoonfuls of powder. You will not be able to suck the powder into the syringe. You must pour it into the back. Powder Syringe Measuring cylinder volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml

1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml 1 spoonful of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volume = . . . . . . . . . .ml

How much can a medicine spoon hold?
.........................................................................

.........................................................................

.........................................................................

31

LEARNER

TASK CARD

5

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How can we measure the quantity of liquid?
Group activity
Measure and calculate
Measure and calculate the amount of water that will fill different containers Remember 5ml of water can fill 1 medicine spoon. Use the water and containers to measure how much water will fill each container. Record your findings.

PREDICT
How many do you think will fit into the bottle? How many medicine spoons of water will bottle? bottle? How many baby food bottles of water will fill the small fruit juice bottle?

DO
This is what you must do Pour water

COUNT
How many did fit into the bottle? How many medicine spoons of water did it take to fill fill the baby food

CALCULATE
How much water did you measure? (ml or l) How much water is there now in the the baby food bottle?

Pour water

How many baby food bottles of water did it take to fill the small fruit juice

How much water is there in the bigger bottle?

How many baby food bottles of water did it take to fill fill the small milk bottle?

Pour water

How much water is there in the small milk bottle?

How much water is there in the bigger bottle?

How many baby food bottles of water will fill the big milk bottle?

Pour water

How many baby food bottles of water did it take to fill the big milk bottle?

How much water is there in the bigger bottle?

32

LEARNER

TASK CARD

6

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

Investigation How much water will fill my container?
Learner Assessment Task Card for LO1
To measure how much water will fill my container
1. 2. 3. 4. Bring any container from home. Talk about how you will find out how many millilitres (ml) of water will fill your container. Carry out your plan. Draw and write to tell how you found out.

This is my container

Predicting:

I think my container will hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doing:

This is what I did . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................................................... .......................................................... .......................................................... .......................................................... ..........................................................
Calculating:

This is my calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................................................... I calculated that my container holds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of water My prediction was correct/incorrect
Was your prediction a good one? Explain why to your group.
33

Learner Assessment Task Card (cont).
Group reflection
Discuss these questions with your group
These questions will help you to think about what you have done. 1. Compare your prediction and your final answer. How good was your prediction? 2. Was it easy to measure the quantity of liquid in your container? How accurate were your measurements? 3. Was it easy to make accurate measurements? What was difficult to do? 4. How important is it to make accurate measurements and calculations? 5. What would have helped you to be more accurate?

34

LEARNER

TASK CARD

7

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

How do we measure the amount of matter we have?
1. Draw a picture of a beamerbalance to show when the masses are balanced on both sides. 2. Use a beamer balance to measure how much matter 6 medicine spoons hold. 3. Bring some substances from home that you would like to measure. Beamer balance

MEASURING
Substance What quantity (volume) do you have? (ml) 6 medicine spoons of How much matter mass do you have? (g)

rice

6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………… 6 medicine spoons of …………………………………………

35

Graph to show how much mass there is in 6 medicine spoons of different kinds of matter
y

mass (g)

x

rice
6 teaspoons of matter

Questions about your graph
Which substance has the most matter in 6 medicine spoons? Which substance has the least matter in 6 medicine spoons? Did any substances have the same amount of matter in 6 medicine spoons? Do all substances have the same amount of matter?

36

LEARNER

TASK CARD

8

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

Measuring the mass of different objects
1. 2. 3. 4. Bring some objects from home or school. Find big things and small things. Find the mass of each object. Record the mass. Draw a graph showing the different masses. Sequence the masses from the smallest to the largest on the graph.

Record the mass
Object (Draw or name) Mass (g)

Graph to show the mass of different objects
y

mass (g)

x

different objects

37

Questions
Do all objects have the same amount of matter? Do all objects have the same mass? Do bigger objects always have a bigger mass? Do smaller objects always have a smaller mass?

Conclusion
Different objects have different amounts of matter. The amount of matter which something has, does not depend on its size.

38

Assessment

LEARNER

TASK CARD

9

TASK CARDS TO PHOTOCOPY

The gases in our lives
Assessment Task Card for LO3
We use gas to make some things work Devices that use gas are useful to us

Assessment Task
The purpose of this task is for you to understand that we use gas to make things work.

Discuss
1. Think about the places where you live. Are there any things that use a gas to make them work?

Look at home
2. Look at home for all the things that need a gas to make them work. Think about how the gas makes each thing work. 3. Explain to your group how each thing works. 4. Explain what each thing is used for.

Do
5. Draw and write about the things that use a gas to make them work. You must show that you understand how gas helps each of the things to work. You must also show how these devices are useful to us.

39

Traditional story about measuring
Umgwebi uSokhetye
Kwathi kekaloku ngantsomi, kwakukho iimpuku ezimbini. Zaye zangena ndlwini ithile zagqogqa, zagqugqisa zifuna ezingakutyayo. ‘Yiza uzekubona. Nasi isonka samasi! Esingaka sona! Sizakutya sonele!’ Yasebeza yatsho enye ibiza ugxa wayo. Zazama ukwahlulelana ngesisonka kodwa suka zaxabana. ‘Hayi suka ucinga ukuba ndingafumana isonka esingaka ukubasincinane ndakugqiba ukuza necebo lokuya kuzingela?’ Yatsho enye impuku ingonelisekanga sisabelo sayo. ‘uNotshe! Ndim osibhaqileyo esi sonka samasi. Ndimele ukufumana isixa esikhulu kunawe!’ yatsho le mpuku iligqabi ngumsindo. ‘Khawukhe ume ngomsindomfondini. Ndicinga ukuba khesiye kumgwebi u Sokhetye asisombululele le ntsumantsumane.’ Zanduluka zigxalathelana ukusinga kwaSokhetye. Zifike zawubeka umcimbi kuSokhetye umgwebi omkhulu. ‘Ndinikeni isonka eso, ndinahlulele ngokulinganayo kuba ibe imiyizamo yenu nobabini ukuze nisifumane esisonka samasi’ Wasithabatha isonka umgwebi waluma amaqhekeza amabini wawabeka esikalini sakhe. Kuthe kuba lamaqhekeza ebe engalingani, wazama ukuwalinganisa ngokuthi alume afake kuye emlonyeni. Waqhuba ezama ukuwalinganisa. Grenye-grenye watsho ngomkhulu umthamo, wafaka emlonyeni. ‘Yoo! Saphela isonka sethu madoda! Sinike Mgwebi nokuba azilingani,’ bakhale batsho oompukwazana, batsho basithi hlasi isonka sabo samasi babaleka naso.

What comes up from this story is the importance of knowing how to use a meausuring instrument properly.

The Great Judge
Retold by Nontsikelelo Mahote Once upon a time there were two little mice. They went into a farmer’s house searching for food. ‘Come and see,’ whispered one of them to his friend. ‘I’ve found some cheese. It’s so big we shall eat and feast!’ The two mice tried to share the cheese but soon they quarrelled. ‘I deserve better! I came up with the idea of hunting in the first place,’ argued one of them. ‘But I found the cheese and I deserve a bigger share!’ shouted the other angrily. ‘Hold on, I have a better idea! Let’s go to the Great Judge to sort out our argument.’ So off they went to the Great Judge with the pieces of cheese. The Great Judge listened to the two mice as they told him about their argument. He reprimanded them for nearly destroying their friendship over a small piece of cheese. Then he put both pieces of cheese on a balance. ‘Gr-u-m, gr-u-m, gr-u-m.’ The Great Judge deliberately bit a mouthful off one of the pieces of cheese as he tried to balance the cheese. One side of the balance went up and he had to take another bite. This time he took a bite from the other piece of cheese, as he tried to get the two pieces to balance. ‘No! No! No! Stop! You’re finishing our cheese. Give it back to us, even if they’re not equal,’ screamed both mice. And they grabbed what was left of the two pieces of cheese and ran away.

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Section 3
Extracts from the National Curriculum Statement for Natural Sciences Grades R-9
1. Core knowledge and concepts for Matter and Materials (NCS) . . . . . . . .42–44 2. Learning Outcomes and assessment standards (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44–49

41

Matter and Materials
The paragraphs below have been extracted from the NCS policy documents. We have numbered each paragraph and supplied a heading for each paragraph. This makes the paragraphs easier to work with.The paragraphs describe the knowledge and concepts the learners must know.

CORE KNOWLEDGE AND CONCEPTS IN MATTER AND MATERIALS
Properties and Uses of Materials Structure, Reactions and Changes of Materials

Unifying statement: We can classify materials by their Unifying statement: We can modify materials in properties, in order to establish types and patterns. ways we choose, through our understanding of their Properties determine the selection of materials for sub-structure. particular uses.

Foundation Phase
1. Sorting materials according to their different 2. Mixing different substances Substances can be mixed and sometimes changes properties Materials have different properties such as texture, can be seen, such as the dissolving of a solid, or new colour, strength and heaviness, and can be classified by colours when food colourings/paints are mixed. these properties. We make things with materials which have the properties we want.

Intermediate Phase
1. Boiling and melting points of different substances 4. Temporary and permanent changes to materials Pure substances have melting temperatures and boiling Some changes to materials are temporary but other temperatures which are characteristic for each changes are permanent. 5. Changes brought about by heating substance, and help us to identify the substance. 2. Materials, their properties and classifying them Substances change when they receive or lose energy Materials are evaluated and classified by their as heat. These changes include contraction and properties (such as hardness, flexibility, thermal expansion, melting, evaporation, condensation and conductivity or insulation, electrical conductivity or solidification. (Links with Energy and Change) 6. Dissolving-factors that affect the speed of insulation whether they can be magnetised, solubility dissolving and rusting). 3. Metals, ceramics, polymers and composite The dissolving of a substance in a solvent depends materials on variables which affect the rate of dissolving. Major classes of materials are metals, ceramics (including glasses) and polymers (including plastics and fibres). Composite materials combine the properties of two or more materials.

42

Properties and Uses of Materials
Senior Phase
1. Different states of matter and their properties Substances in different states (‘phases’) have distinct properties such as crystalline structures, or compressibility/incompressibility, or tendency to diffuse. 2. Absorption and radiation by different surfaces Dark-coloured surfaces get hotter than light-coloured surfaces when exposed to radiating sources of energy like the Sun. Darkcoloured objects radiate their energy as heat more readily than shiny light-coloured objects. (Links with Energy and Change) 3. Magnetism and electrical charging Some materials are magnetised by electric currents or magnets. Some materials can be electrically changed by rubbing them with a different material. (Links with Energy and Change) 4. Conductors and resistors Some conductors and circuit components reduce the current in an electric circuit to a significant extent and are called resistors. Resistors can be selected or designed to control currents. 5. Separating and purifying mixtures A pure substance cannot be separated into different substances while a mixture can be separated usually by physical means. Differences in properties can be used to separate mixtures of different substances (by methods such as filtration, distillation, evaporation, chromatography or magnetism). (Links with Matter and Materials) 6. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen – properties reactions and commercial uses Specific gases may be separated from the air or produced in reactions, and have many uses in industry and other sectors of the economy. Oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide have characteristic properties and reactions by which we can identify them. 7. Extraction of raw materials Extracting useful materials from raw materials depends on chemical reactions and methods of separation. 8. Processing and producing raw materials – effect on the environment Raw materials, from which processed materials are made, must be mined, grown or imported from other countries. Raw materials that are mined are non-renewable and mining has environmental costs. Growing raw materials involves choices about the use of arable land and water catchment areas

Structure, Reactions and Changes of Materials

9. Particle model of matter A particle model of matter can explain physical changes of substances such as melting, evaporation, condensation, solidification, diffusion and heating by conduction. 10. Acids and bases, reaction of acids Many household substances are acidic or basic. Indicators are substances that react with acids and soluble bases to produce products that have distinctive colours. Acids and bases neutralise one another to form salts. Acids have characteristic reactions with metals, metal oxides, hydroxides and carbonates. 11. Energy in chemical reactions Many chemical reactions need some energy to get started; many chemical reactions give off energy as they happen. 12. Atoms, elements and compounds Elements are made of just one kind of atom, whereas compounds are made of two or more kinds of atoms in fixed proportions. Elements may react to form compounds, and compounds may be decomposed into their elements. Energy input is needed to break a compound into its elements, whereas energy is given out when elements react to form a compound. 13. Reactions with Oxygen Oxygen has characteristic reactions with metals and non-metals, forming oxides. Some of these oxides dissolve in water to form acidic or alkaline solutions. Some metals react more readily with oxygen than other metals. Corrosion of iron is an economically important reaction which can be prevented through an understanding of the reactions between iron, water and oxygen. 14. Cellular Respiration The reaction of oxygen with food releases energy in the cells of living things. (Links with Life and Living)

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WESTERN CAPE PRIMARY SCIENCE PROGRAMME (PSP)
The Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP) has been operating since 1985. The PSP is an in-service education organisation that aims to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the most disadvantaged primary schools. We develop teachers’ knowledge and skills and support them in their work with learners. We focus on the critical learning areas of the Natural Sciences (including Environmental Education), Language, Mathematics and the Social Sciences. The PSP offers a variety of courses, develops learning experiences together with teachers and offers support in their classes. Based on this interaction with teachers, the PSP produces innovative materials, including teacher resource books, learner task cards and display material. All our materials are written in easily accessible language; include careful concept progression; many activities and investigations, and include good suggestions for assessment. The PSP has a vision of an excellent primary schooling for all South Africa’s children, where all educators are highly skilled, committed and confident; and are well prepared and resourced to teach. Contact us for more information Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP) Edith Stephens Wetland Park Lansdowne Road Philippi. PO Box 24158 Lansdowne 7779 South Africa Tel: 021 691 9039 Fax: 021691 6350 Email: info@psp.org.za Website: www.psp.org.za NPO: 015-822

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