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SEMESTER 1-2013

FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS IV

TITTLE:

TRANSIENT DAMPING ANALYSIS

4/25/2013

Student number: 21141631

Vunda CF

Lecturer:

Mr. John Wimbush

....................................................................... 6 3...........................................................................................................................................................................Conclusion ...........Over damped circuit ......... 8 4.. ............... 2 2................................... 8 4.............................................................................................2.......... 8 3................................................ 5 Table 3: Over damped.............. 5 2.................Electronic equipment: ..................................................................................... 8 3.................Contents Abstract ........................Critically damped circuit ........................................................................................Effects of transients ............... 9 List of tables Table 1: Under damped................ 6 Figure 6: Over damped current and voltage wave forms........................ 8 1 ...............................Avoiding problems caused transients......................................................................................Reference ................................................................ 3 Table 2: Critically damped ..............................................................Under damped circuit.......................................3............................................. 6 Figure 5: Over damped circuit diagram ......................................... 8 4............. 3 2...........3-Over damped circuit (ξ>1) ..................................Lighting: ........................... 3 2......................................... 9 6...................................................................................3........................................................ 4 Figure 3: Critically damped circuit diagram ..............................................................................................Effect of the damping ratio on the response of a circuit.................................The theory ..................................................................................1-Under damped circuit (ξ<1)............................................................. 5 Figure 4: Critical damped current and voltage wave form .......................................................................................................................1............................................................2-Critically damped circuit (ξ=1) .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 1-Introduction .................... 9 7.........Motors: ...........................2....... 9 5............................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 2: Under damped current and voltage wave form .... 8 3...............................1................................................................................................ 8 4....................................................................................................................................................................... 7 List of figures Figure 1: Under damped Circuit Diagram ............................................................................................

the circuit being closed for a long time and suddenly at instant t=0 it’s opened. The circuit is under damped if the damped ratio (ξ) is less than 1. are beyond the control of the circuit designers and are more difficult identify. and a capacitor (49. etc. and over damped if the damping ratio is greater than 1. section 2 studies the behaviour of an under damped circuit. Some transients may be voluntary and created in the circuit due to inductive switching. These transients. section 3 describes the behaviour of a critically damped circuit and section 4 studies the behaviour of an over damped circuit. 2 . inductance. Other transients may be created outside the circuit and then couple into it. In this paper. and may be easily suppressed since their energy content is known and predictable. we will study the behaviour of an RLC circuit whose response varies according to the different damping ratio applied. also checking the current and voltage waveforms across the resistance. critically damped if the damping ratio is equal to 1. 1-Introduction In this experiment. unlike switching transients.Abstract Transient in electrical circuits results from the sudden release of previously stored energy.9μF). The circuit is made of a resistance. or other such phenomena. substation problems. commutation voltage spikes. measure and suppress. These can be caused by lightning.

then the equation becomes: 3 .(2).18A 63. this is a second order differential equation. .2.ω= ξ . so L= .4 i(0)= 376. R= . The table-1 and the following steps show how the current expression can be determined.319Ω ωn = 31419. α= .143 ω = 30421. the circuit will have following equation: Ri+ +Vc=0 -----.25 vs= 120V ωn = Formulae .(1).66 sec trans.(4) .09x + 1. putting the data in the equation we get: 1. we need to determine certain parameters: The resistance (R).59 x +i=0 ---. and the inductance (L). i(0)= 5x Calculations L= 20.68rads α = 7854.9μF fn= fn =5Kz ξ = 0.(3).1-Under damped circuit (ξ<1) Before we simulate the circuit for under damped condition.The theory Figure 1: Under damped Circuit Diagram 2.3x H R= 0. Table 1: Under damped Givens: C= 49. and to solve for i(t) we use the following equation: x + +i =0 -----. since the damping ratio (ξ<1) so this is an under damped circuit.period=318 sec When the switch is opened and t=0. Which as the following solution: i(t) = B +C -----.

so C= -291. substitute (7) and at t=0 into (6) we get: -11.i(t) = B + C and i(0)= 376.42 Figure 2: Under damped current and voltage wave form 4 (A) . then equation (5) becomes: i (t) = 376.18 .(6) = -11.291.4C.(5).18A ------.82x --(7) = -7854.42.143B + 30421.143B 7854.4B + 30421. then at t=0.143C -30421.4C Then from (1): = = Hence.82x ----.18A substituting in (5) we get: B= 376. Now differentiate equation (5) with respect to “t” we get: =-7854.

65x + i =0 ---.275Ω ωn = 31419.12A When the switch is opened and t=0. so L= ξ .31419. and to solve for i(t) we use the following equation: x + +i =0 -----. Table 2: Critically damped Givens: C= 49.09x + 63.12A ------. The table-2 and the following steps below show how the current expression can be determined .(4) . the circuit will have following equation: Ri+ +Vc=0 -----. ωn = .(6) 5 .(2). then at t=0. since the damping ratio (ξ=1) so this is critically damped circuit.68 C ----.(1).12A substituting in (5) Now differentiate equation (5) with respect to “t” we get: =.2.3x H R= 1.(5). Which as the following solution: i(t) = -----. and i(0)= 94. this is a second order differential equation.68rads i(0)= 94.2-Critically damped circuit (ξ=1) Figure 3: Critically damped circuit diagram Before we simulate the circuit for under damped condition. putting the data the equation is going to be: 1.9μF fn =5Kz ξ=1 vs= 120V Formulae fn= R= .(3). and the inductance (L). i(0)= Calculations L= 20. then the equation becomes: i(t) = We get: B= 94. we need to determine certain parameters: The resistance (R).

Then from (1): = = Hence. The table-2 and the following steps below show how the current expression can be determined.86 x i (t) = = -11. substitute (7) at t=0 into (6) we get: -11.82x -. then equation (5) becomes: (A) Figure 4: Critical damped current and voltage wave form 2.68B + C. and the inductance (L).(7) =. we need to determine certain parameters: The resistance (R).82x = -31419. so C= -8.3-Over damped circuit (ξ>1) Figure 5: Over damped circuit diagram Before we simulate the circuit for under damped condition. 6 .

(2).117192C.1 ------. putting the data in the equation is going to be: 1. and to solve for i(t) we use the following equation: x + +i =0 -----. so L= ξ ωn= . ---. .(1).92 and C =105.1A i(0)= When the switch is opened and t=0.55Ω ωn = 31419.75B .(6) Now differentiate equation (5) with respect to “t” we get: =.1A substituting in (5) we get: B + C= 47.3x H R= 2. then at t=0.(4) . substitute (8) and at t=0 into (7) we get: = -11.75B .09x + 1.(5). solving equation (6) & (9) simultaneously we get the following: B= -57.273 x +i=0 ---.9μF fn= fn =5Kz ξ=2 vs= 120V R= Formulae . Which as the following solution: i(t) = B +C -----. and i(0)= 47.02.(7) Then from (1): = = Hence. since the damping ratio (ξ>1) so this is an over damped circuit.02 (A) 7 . Calculations L= 20. ϒ1= – ϒ2 = – . then the equation becomes: i(t) = B +C ------.75 ϒ2=117192 i(0)= 47.92 +105.117192C ----.(3).Table 3: Over damped Givens: C= 49.8423. the circuit will have following equation: Ri+ +Vc=0 -----.(9) so. therefore equation (5) becomes: i (t) = -57. .82x -. this is a second order differential equation.(8) -11.82x = -8423.68rads ϒ1=8423.

Transients can interrupt the normal timing of the motor and result in "micro-jogging". 3. Equipment could lock up or produced garbled results. 4. noise. 3.Under damped circuit The under damped response the decay of the transient current is with oscillation (sinusoid). Motor winding insulation is degraded and eventually fails 8 .1. This type of disruption produces motor vibration.1. These types of disruptions may be difficult to diagnose because improper specification and installation of transient voltage surge suppression equipment can actually INCREASE the incidents of failure as described above.Effect of the damping ratio on the response of a circuit.Figure 6: Over damped current and voltage wave forms 3.Effects of transients 4. and excessive heat.2.2.3.Electronic equipment: Electronic devices may operate erratically.Motors: Motors will run at higher temperatures when transient voltages are present. 3.Critically damped circuit The critically damped response represents the circuit response that decays in the fastest possible time without going into oscillation.Over damped circuit The over damped response the decay of the transient current is without oscillation 4.

critically damped or over damped.pdf http://www. 2006. 6.pdf http://www. 2. Internet links http://www. thyristor surge protecting device. BOYLESTAD.J.onsemi.4. J. & MAYBAR. MERSEREAU.3.com/technical-info/designtp/dt97-3. It is also directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit. Pearson Prentice Hall. R.pdf 9 . Upper Saddle River. metal oxide varistor (MOV). etc. Circuit analysis: a systems approach. Prentice Hall. L. M.PDF http://www. & JACKSON. several techniques are being used such as: Gas discharge tube. and early bulb failures. 2000. One of the most common indicators of transient activity is the premature appearance of black "rings" at the ends of the tubes. R. Prentice Hall. reduced operating efficiencies. R. N.J. 5. S. 2003.J.com/lit/an/slva233a/slva233a. because it is the one which determines the nature of the circuit.Reference Books 1. transient voltage suppressor. Upper Saddle River. Introductory circuit analysis.irf. Upper Saddle River.Avoiding problems caused transients To avoid problem caused by transients.com/includes/docs/pdfs/about/news/outagestatus/powerquality/avoid _pwr_disturb.Lighting: Transient activity causes early failure of all types of lights. The greater the damping ratio the bigger the resistance and the smaller the current.pge.ti. N. J. 7. Circuit analysis: an integrated approach. N. ZORNESKY.com/pub_link/Collateral/TND335-D. 3.Conclusion The damping ratio plays a vital role in an RLC circuit. H. Fluorescent systems suffer early failure of ballasts. If the circuit is under damped.

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