You are on page 1of 58

'kw

Yd m0ef ta&;ok;H yg;

jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&; 'kdYta&;
wkdif;&if;om; pnf;vkH;nDñGwfrI rNydKuGJa&; 'kdYta&;
tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfwHhckdifNrJa&; 'kdYta&;

pnf;urf;vkdufem ab;uif;uGm
&yf&Gmat;csrf;om,ma&; 0kdif;0ef;ulnD apmifhxdef;ay;
pnf;rsOf;udkufnD ab;uif;onf

]EkdifiHawmf zGJUpnf;ykH tajccHOya' ay:aygufa&;onf jrefrmEdkifiHom;tm;vkH;\ wm0efjzpfonf}

jynfoo
Yl abmxm;

Ä jynfytm;udk;ykqdef½kd; tqkd;jrif0g'Drsm;tm; qefYusifMu/


'
Ä EkdifiHawmf wnfNidrfat;csrf;a&;ESifh EkdifiHawmf wkd;wufa&;udk aESmifh,SufzsufqD;olrsm;tm; qefYusifMu/
Ä EkdifiHawmf\ jynfwGif;a&;udk 0ifa&mufpGufzuf aESmifh,Sufaom jynfyEdkifiHrsm;tm; qefYusifMu/
Ä jynfwGif;jynfy tzsuform;rsm;tm; bkH&efoltjzpf owfrSwf acsrIef;Mu/

Ekid if aH &; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf


Ä EkdifiHawmfwnfNidrfa&;? &yf&Gmat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh w&m;Oya'pkd;rdk;a&;
Ä trsKd;om; jyefvnf pnf;vkH;nDñGwfa&;
Ä ckdifrmonfh zGJUpnf;ykH tajccHOya'opf jzpfay:vma&;
Ä jzpfay:vmonfh zGUJ pnf;ykH tajccHOya'opfEiS t
hf nD acwfrD zGUH NzdK;wk;d wufaom Ekid if aH wmfopfwpf&yf wnfaqmufa&;

pD;yGm;a&; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf


Ä pkdufysKd;a&;udk tajccHí tjcm;pD;yGm;a&;u@rsm;udkvnf; bufpkHzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;
Ä aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpGm jzpfay:vma&;
Ä jynfwGif;jynfyrS twwfynmESifh t&if;tESD;rsm; zdwfac:í pD;yGm;a&; zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;
Ä Ekid if aH wmfp;D yGm;a&; wpf&yfv;Hk udk zefw;D Edik rf pI rG ;f tm;onf Ekid if aH wmfEiS hf wkid ;f &if;om;jynfow
l Ydk \ vuf0,fwiG &f adS &;

vlraI &; OD;wnfcsuf (4) &yf


Ä wpfrsKd;om;vkH;\ pdwf"mwfESifh tusifhpm&dwå jrifhrm;a&;
Ä trsK;d *kP?f Zmwd*P
k jf rifrh m;a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rItarGtESprf sm; trsK;d om;a&;vu©Pmrsm; raysmufysuaf tmif xde;f odr;f
apmifha&Smufa&;
Ä rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf &Sifoefxufjrufa&;
Ä wpfrsKd;om;vkH; usef;rmBuHhckdifa&;ESifh ynm&nfjrifhrm;a&;
2 trSwf 35? 2006 ckESpf? Zlvdkifv 5 &uf

rsuEf mS zH;k aqmif;yg;


2 >> xdyfwef;pm&if;0if enf;ynm toHk;csum; 10 rsKd;
5 >> 'DZ,f[dkufb&pftrsKd;tpm;

odyeHÜ nf;ynm taxGaxG


16 >> 'DZ,fqDqdkwm
21 >> 2006 Pixar rdwq
f uf
22 ½kyf0w¬K\ pwkw¬tajctae
28 24
>>

>> tdyfa&;00 tdyfMu&atmif

26 >> 'gawG oifodygp


27 >> Brontok qdkwJh ydk;uav;
28 >> tvif;eJYta&mif
32 >> yxrajrmuf or®wBuD;&JUrsufESmudk yHkazmfjcif;

urÇmausmf wDxiG zf efw;D &Sirf sm;


44 >> rmwifvlom uif; *sLeD,m
tdyfrufudk xkwfazmfol

odyÜHESifhenf;ynm*sme,f 46
trSwf 197 (c)? yxrxyf? 33 vrf;? &efuek /f
orkdif;xJu aeY&ufrsm;
zke;f -387305/ e-mail - heritage@ct.com.mm
t,f'w D mcsKyf
armifjrifhMuG,f
wm0efctH ,f'w
D m
armifarmifMuD; 54
wpfacwfwpfcguwDxiG rf rI sm;
t,f'DwmtzGJU
ukdoefYZif? OD;aX;Munf? vJh,Of0if;
xkwfa0ol- OD;jrifhMuG,f (,m,D-942)? 197 (c)? 33 vrf;? &efukef/
yHkESdyfol- OD;armifvGif (02413) aevif;ykHESdyfwkduf? 56 '*kHawmif
pufrIZkef/ apmifa&- 500? wefzkd;- 300 usyf
22 56
odaumif;p&m tar;tajz

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 1


xdywf ef; pm&if;0if
enf;ynm toH;k csum;

10 rsK;d
armfawmfum;xkwfvkyfrI pD;yGm;a&;avmutv,fwGif
ausmfapmudwdå*kPfoa&&SdpGmjzifh [kdufb&pfum;rsm;onf
'DZ,fum;rsm;udk &ifaygifwef;vmNyD jzpfonf/
    
2006 ckEpS xf wk f Subarus R2 Type S trnf&dS armfawmfum;onf
armfawmf,mOf enf;ynmopfrsm; tjynfh vTr;f NcKH um um;aps;uGuo f Ykd
wd;k wdu
k f 0ifa&mufvmcJh onf/ ckid cf Hh aygyh g;vSoavmuf tvGef vsijf ref
oGuv f ufvo S nf/ qDpm;EIe;f rSmvnf; tHrh cef; jzpfMu&onf/

2 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


ewfum;av;[k trnfay; nTe;f qdx k m;onf/ ¤if;wGif enf;ynm wpfykH
wpfyif toH;k csxm;onf/ pufcef;usO;f usO;f av;rSmyif plygcsucf smESihf
tifwmulvmrsm; wyfqifyg&dS onft h jyif enf;ynmoH;k ypön;f rsm;pGm
wyfqifxm;&Sdonf/

2006 SUBARU R2 TYPE S

,cktcg um;avmuwGif xdyfwef; nrf;rIuif;aom tajctaeudkvnf; OD;


ae&mwGif &Sad eaom Bugatti Veyron 16.4 pm;ay;vm&onf/ wpfzef armfawmfum;
um;udk oufaoxm; ,SOfNydKifvmonf/ armif;ESifaepOf owif;qufoG,fEkdifrIESifh
tqdkyg um;BuD;onf cHhnm; xnf0g BuD; azsmfajza&;qkdif&m cHpm;cGifhrsm;udkvnf;
rm;pGmjzifh [efY[efYxnfxnf&Sd\/ vHk;0 vdkvdkvm;vm; awmifhwvmMuonf/
&yfxm;onfh tajctaerS wpfem&DvQif xkwfvkyfolrsm;tykdif;wGif aps;uGuf
uDvdkrDwm 100 EIef; t&Sdef&onftxd tompD; &Ekdifa&;twGuf ,cktcg enf;
jr§ifhwif,l&ef umvrSm 2.5 puúefYom ynmESpfckudk t"du vrf;aMumif;ozG,f
vdktyfonf/ odkYaomf uDvdkrDwm 100 a&G;xkwf vkyfukdifvsuf &Sdaeonf/ *syef
tuGmta0;avmufxd armif;ESifrItwGuf Ekid if EH iS hf tar&duefEidk if w H Ykd rS um;xkwv f yk f
"mwfqD 26.1 vDwm toHk;jyK&onf/ a&; ukrÜPDwdkYonf [kdufb&pf enf;ynm
,aeYacwf um;oHk;pGJolrsm;onf udk a&SUwef;wifEkdifa&;twGuf a':vmaiG
avmifpmqD wefzdk;wufvmaerIaMumifh bDv, D EH iS chf sDum &if;ES;D jr§KyfE&HS if; vrf;xGif
qDpm;EIef;udpu ö dk tav;xm; pOf;pm;vm ,lMuonf/ Oa&myEkdifiHrsm;rS ukrÜPDwdkY
vsuf &SdaeMuonf/ xdkYtjyif avxknpf rSmrl q,fpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm jzwfoef;&if;

BUGATTI VEYRON 16.4


bD;pMum[k trnfay;xm;onf/ tjrifq h ;kH t&Sed o
f aYkd &mufatmif vsijf refpmG wif,El idk o
f nf/
qDwidk u
f t D wGi;f rS qDrsm;tm; 12 rdepftwGi;f ukeo f nftxd
armif;ESiyf pfEidk o
f nf/

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 3


TOP 10 TECH CARS

tawGYtBuHK &xm;NyD;jzpfaom b&pfonf wpf*gvefvQif 23 ay;awmhrnfjzpf\/ odYk twGuf a':vmaiG 2 oef;udk cs;D jr§iahf y;
0efayghoHk; 'DZ,fjzifh armif;ESif rkdif &&SdaMumif; awGYMu&onf/ rdrd toHk;jyKvkdaom device cJhonf/ Stanley pepfwGif
aom enf;ynmudkom wpdkuf þodkYESifh armfawmfum; xkwf rsm;udk toifh wyfqiftoHk;cs uifr&mESifh qifqm ud&d,m
rwfrwf aqmif&Gufvsuf &Sdae vkyrf I pD;yGm;a&;wnfaqmuf&m Ekid Mf uygvdrrhf nf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh av;rsm;ESifhtwl yifwD,rf
MuqJ jzpfonf/ wGif prf;oyfrIrsm;? avhvmrI AD', D *kd rd ;f pufrsm;? uifr&mrsm;? tqifh uGefysLwm 6 vHk;jzifh
wu,f w rf ; tm;jzif h rsm;? pl;prf;rIrsm;jyKum qef; y&ifwmrsm;udk um;twGif; xdef;csKyf armif;ESif cdkif;apcJh
,aeYtcsdefxd xkwfvkyfcJhNyD; opfrIukd a&S;½I vkyfudkifvsuf&Sd toHk;jyKEkdifMuonf/ jcif;jzpf\/ ¤if;onf vrf;
aom [kdufb&pfum;rsm;\ aeMu&m 2006 ckEpS w f iG f txl; 2005 ckEpS x f wk f armfawmf aMumif;qkdif&mwGif vufukdif
wefz;kd rSm avmifpmqD acRwmrI ojzifh a&G;cs,fp&mvrf;rsm;? ,mOfrsm;txd rnfonfh um; bD;udkvnf;aumif;? t&SdefEIef;
&,lEkdifonfESifh rumrdatmif rGrf;rHjyifqifp&m vrf;aMumif; ukrÜPDurQ iPod ESifh HD ra- qkdif&mwGif tif*sifudk vnf;
&Sdaejyefonf/ rnfodkYyif jzpf opf trsm;tjym; jrifawGYvm dio twGuf vsmxm;jyifqifrI aumif; xdef;csKyf,loGm;onf/
ap NrdKUjy{&d,mtwGif; armif; &ayonf/ vkH;0r&SdMuao;ay/ odkYtwGuf Volkswagen \
ESif oGm;vm&mwGif [dkufb&pf enf;ynm[kqdk&mü armf tjyma&mif awmuf a<u;aMumfoHudk ajymif;vJ a&;
um;rsm;u ydí k tusKd;&Sad Mumif; awmf,mOfenf;ynmwpfcw k nf; awmuf j zif h Volkswagen om;vkdufMuawmhonf/
udrk l toH;k jyKoltaygif;u em; om r[kw&f awmhum acwfEiS hf Touareg trnf&Sd NydKifyGJ0if rlvu
vnf vufcHvmMuNyD; jzpf tnD vlpD;xkdifcHkESifh twGif; um;trsKd;tpm;av;udk NyD;cJh ]armif;ESio
f l
onf/ &yfvu dk ?f oGm;vdu k f Budrf 'DZkdif; qef;opfap&ef tjcm; aom atmufwdkbmvu yGJ
zefrsm;pGm jyKvkyfMu&ouJhodkY aom 'pf*spfw,f enf;ynm xkwfcJhonf/ ¤if;wGif udk,f tvdk&Sdonf}[laom
vdt k yfvQif csufcsif; t&Sed f jr§ihf jznfhqnf;rIrsm;vnf; vkyfvm wkdif vrf;aMumif;jyK armif;ESif a<u;aMumforH S
wifarmif;ESi, f &l onfh obm0 Mu&onf/ ,aeYacwf vlBuD; Ekid af om stanley [lonfh pepf ]armif;ESiof l rvk}d
rsKd;&SdaomaMumifh[k qkd&rnf/ vl&G,f vli,fra&G; vlBudKuf udk xnfhoGif; toHk;jyKxm; [laom a<u;aMumf oHukd
wpfzef 'DZ,fum;rsm;onf rsm;aeonfh iPod uJhodkYaom onf/ tqkyd g pepfukd toH;k cs
avxknpfnrf;rI rjzpfa&;udpö aomwtm½HkcH ud&d,mav; um rdk*spfuEÅm&vrf;aMumif; ajymif;vJvu dk jf cif;
twGuf pOf;pm;vmonfhtcg rsm;udk armfawmfum; armif;ESif 211 uDvdkrDwmudk NydKifyGJ0ifcJh jzpfonf/
roifhavsmf jyefygay/ umvD pOf toifh wyfqif toHk;jyK onf/ umvDz;kd eD;,m;jynfe,f odYk&mwGif avmavmq,f
zd;k eD;,m;jynfe,fqydk gu urÇm Mu&ef um;xkwfvkyfolwkdif; &Sd rdk*spfuEÅm&vrf;aMumif;tqifhjzifh um;jycef;rsm;wGif
ay:wGif avxknpfnrf;rI r&Sd avmufeD;eD;u ¤if;twGuf onf NydKifyGJrsm;teuf tcufcJ
armif;ESiof rl ygtvdt k avsmuf
ap&ef twif;usyfqHk;a'o ae&mwpfck owfrSwfonfhtpD qHk; vrf;c&D;[k trsm;u od armif;ESio f mG ;vmEkid af om um;
jzpfonf/ tpOfrsm; jyKvkyfay;vmMu xm;Muonf/ umvDzdk;eD;,m; rsm;[lí aMumfjimxm;aom
Daimler Chrysler AG rS onf/ BMW ukrÜPDqdkygu jynfe,f&Sd emrnfBuD; ygvdk um;rsm;udk jrifawGYEidk Mf uOD;rnf
Mercedes Beng ML ud k armf',f pD;&D; 7 ckv;kH wGif high atmfwdkrS AERL -Volkswa- r[k w f a y/ xk d t qif h o nf
'DZ,ftif*sifyHkpHjzifh prf;oyf - definition radio rsm;ud k gen okawoetzGYJ tm; pwef; enf;ynmokawoeynm&Sif
xkwfvkyfvdkufonf/ NydKifyGJ0if toifh wyfqifay;vkdufonf/ zdkY wuúodkvfrS tif*sifeD,mrsm;\ tvdt k & ao;i,faom
toHk;csum; trsKd;tpm; jzpf um;xkwv f yk of l awmfawmfrsm; ausmif;om;rsm;u tm;jznfh atmifjrifrIwpfckomjzpfaomf
onf/ ¤if;ESifhtwl tif*sif rsm;onf navigation system ulnD&if; stanley ukd zefwD;cJh
vnf; rSwaf usmufwifavmuf
yg0g tvm;wl&Sdaom Lexius ac: vrf;aMumif;jypepfrsm;udk Muonf/ xdkzefwD;rIudk csD; onfh taetxm; &SdoGm;&yg
RX 400 h [kdufb&pf trsKd; toifh wyfqif wnfaqmuf awmhonf/ rnfodkYyifqkdap
ajr§ m uf a omtm;jzif h vnf ;
tpm;um;ESifh ,SOfum e,l; xm;&S&d mwGif traffic news rsm; aumif;? qufvufí tvdk 2007 ckESpfwGif xkwfvkyfrnfh
a,mufNrdKUrS qefz&efppöudk udkvnf; vufcH &,lEdkif&ef tavsmuf armif;ESifpepfrsm; Lexus LS 460 qD'ifum;av;
txd vGefcJhaom Mo*kwfvu pDpOfay;vdu k Mf uonf/ Mazda cdkifckdifrmrm ay:xGef;vma&;
onf Car parking twGuf
armif;ESifapcJh&m 'DZ,fum; Sassou ESifh Fiat Sp A wdkY\ twGuv f nf;aumif; DARPA
tvdktavsmufpepfjzifh vkyf
onf wpf*gvefvQif 26 rkdif armif;ESio f al &SU&Sd 'ufcsbf w k rf mS (Defense Advanced Re- udkifay;Ekdif&ef pDpOfxm;ay;NyD;
EIef;txd &&SdouJhodkY [kduf yif USB ports rsm; wyfqif search Projects Agency) rS jzpfaeygonf/

4 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


twGuf yg0gtwiftcswGif
acsmarGY ajyjypfaponfhtjyif
Ekdufx½dk*sifatmufqkduf"mwf
aiGYrsm; xkwv f iT rhf I taetxm;
avsmhyg;oGm;aponf/
tif*siftm;ESifh vQyfppf
armfwmtm;ESpfckaygif;jzifh a&SU
a[mif;yHkpH jyKxm;onf/ vQyf
ppf armfwmtm;rSmvnf; 30
Ford \ qef;opfrrI sm; kW drive jzpf\/ xdr kwS pfqifh
Reflex wGif awG jY rif *D,m 6 csufo;kH vkyif ef;pOfrsm;
Ekid o f nf/ NyKd iu
f m; udk toHk;cs,laponf/ Lexus
yHpk jH zpfum wHcg;rsm; RX 400h uJhodkY ZdrfcHobm0
onf aemufveS f ESifh NydKifum;obm0 ESpfrsKd;
awmifyyH pkH rH sm; aygif;pyfyg0ifaeonf/ odYkaomf
jyKvkyfxm;onf/ Reflex wGifrl atmufbD;rsm;
twGuf 15 KW drive jzifh
armif;ESifay;EkdifrI tajctae
tydkaqmif;vmonf/ Ford
ukrP Ü \D wGucf sufrw I iG f wpf
*gvefvQif 40 rdkifrS 65 rkdif
FORD REFLEX ('DZ,f[u
kd b
f &pftrsK;d tpm;) txd &&SEd idk o
f nf[k qdx k m;\/
NydKifum;obm0 pGrf;aqmif
ao;ao;i,fi,fwdkYonf BuD;BuD;us,fus,f jzpfap&rnf[laom aqmifyk'fESifhtwl ford &nfwGif &yfem;xm;&mrS wpf
ukrP
Ü o D nf 2006 ckEpS f Zefe0g&vD u txifu&jzpfaom Detroit Auto jyyGBJ u;D wGif em&DvQif 60 rkid Ef eI ;f txd t&Sed f
&vmap&ef 7 puúefYom Mum
oyf&yf ao;i,f csppf zG,f NyKd iu H rsK;d tpm; Reflex udk rdwq
f m;yHpk t f uf wifjyoGm;onf/
jrif h o nf / acgif r d k ; ay:wG i f
Ford uk r Ü P D t aejzif h tDvufx&pfpepfwdkYudk aygif; tif*sifudk vdkvm;oltm; yg0g vnf; Photo-voltaic solar
tqdyk g yHpk rH sKd;udk pGeYf peG Yf pm;pm; pyf xnfhoGif; wnfaqmuf tm; tydkaqmif;ay;ouJhodkY panels rsm; wyfqifay;xm;
xl;xl;jcm;jcm; xkwfvkyfvkduf xm;aom um;trsKd;tpm; jzpf &So
d mG ;&ayonf/ vnfywf&nf jcif ; aMumif h um;buf x &D
aom um;av;jzpfonf/ xdk onf / wpf e nf ; tm;jzif h EIef; 6000 rpm wGif 41 kilo- twGuf tm;oHk;pGJrI udprö sm;udk
ukrÜPDonf ajrmuftar&du Escape Hybrid sport-utility watts (55 hp) &&Sdapí 4000 jznf h q nf ; yH h y d k ; ay;ygao;
wkud f wpfvmT ;twGuf tvwf tjzpf yHkpHjyKxm;onf[kvnf; rpm wGif 175 newton-me- onf / &yf e m;xm;csd e f w G i f
pm;? tBuD;pm;ESifh {&mr um; qdkEkdifygonf/ ters (129 lb-ft) torque tm; tqdkyg aea&mifjcnfrS&&Sdaom
BuD;rsm;udkom xkwfvkyf&if; orm;½dk;us 'DZ,ftif*sif &&SdoGm;\/ vQyfppftm;jzifh um;twGif;rS
0ifaiGrsm;pGm &aeoljzpfonf/ wGif [dkufb&pftDvufx&pf Ford uk r Ü P D \ [d k u f tyl"mwfrsm;udk jyifyodkY xkwf
xdkYtjyif sport -utilities rsm; armif;ESifpepfaygif;pyfxnfh b&pf pepfqidk &f m refae*smjzpf ay;aeEkdifonf/
udv
k nf; tajrmuftjrm; xkwf ay;jcif;jzifh ydkrdk tusKd;&SdpGm ol Tom Watson \ tqkdt& tqkdyg um;udk BudKufESpf
vkyfavh&Sdonf/ toH;k csEkid v
f monf/ vnfywf ao;i,faom wmAdk'DZ,ftif oufrI &SMd uygu ajrmuftar&d
Ford ukrÜPD 'DZ,fwmAdk EIef;xm; tedrfhqHk; tcsdefrSmyif *siaf v;udk vQypf pfyg0gpepfEiS hf uwk d u f um;aps;uG u f w G i f
jzifh armif;ESifonfh European yg0gtm; rsm;pGm &&Sdvmap NydKifqufay;jcif;jzifh tiftm; [k d u f b &pf o bm0rsm; yd k r d k
Fiesta udk jyKjyifajymif;vJrI onf/ ½ky<f uif;j'yfxrk &S &Sad om aumif;aom yg0gum;wpfpD; xGef;um;vmEkdifygvdrhfrnf[k
tenf;i,fvyk u f m [du k b f &pf avmifpmjzifh armif;ESifaom jzpf&onf[k od&onf/ odkY Watson u ajymMum;cJhonf/

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 5


TOP 10 TECH CARS
2004 ckESpfu xkwf ydwfoGm;apum qvif'g av; &onfhtcgrsm;wGif rdrd\ a&SU high beams usa&mufonfh
vkyfaom armf',f vH;k jzifo
h m vnfywfapEkid af om rD;BuD;udk tvdktavsmuf ydwf tcg Light-sensitive cath-
ode rS high-beam rS low-
2006

pepf wyfqif yg&Sdonf/ oGm;aponf/ csufcsif;qdo k vdk


aemufydkif;wGif
wu,fwrf; topfpuf high-beams rS low-beam odYk beam odkY ajymif;oGm;apEkdif
Chrysler 3000 C
puf enf;ynmtjzpf ¤if;\ ajymif ; oG m ;\/ od k Y twG u f aom vk y f e nf ; vk y f [ ef j zpf
CHRYSLER 300 C

onf tjrefEIef;jrifh a&SUrD;pepfukd nTef;qdkEkdifonf/ rsufESmcsif;qkdif a&SUrD;aMumifh onf/ zdkwdkqJvfrsm;jzifh vQyf


armif;Ekdifaom Gentex Corp rS wDxGifxkwf armif;&cufonfhjyóemudk ppf"mwftm;udk xdef;csKyfay;
um;tjzpf vkyfcJhonfh Smart Beam udk tvdkvkdajz&Sif;NyD; jzpfoGm;ap \/ odkYaomf toHk;csEkdifonfh
rdwfquf xkwf toHk;csxm;jcif;jzpf\/ tar onf/ tar&duefEkdifiHtwGuf tqifhr&SdcJhay/ aqmif&GufEkdif
vkyv
f mjcif;jzpfonf/ &duef EkdifiHwGif a&SUrD;BuD;udk txda&mufq;kH toH;k csEidk af om onfh prf;oyfrIwpfckom jzpfcJh
¤if;onf yg0g xGe;f umarmif;ESi&f onfh tajc tajctaeay;ouJhodkY ,Of &ayonf/
tiftm;tvGeaf umif; taerSm 25 &mckdifEIef;om &Sd aus;rI tav;xm;qHk; rD;pepf Chrysler ukrÜPDrS tqdk
ouJhodkY pwkdifajzmifh onf/ tar&duefEidk if H o,f,l jzpfvm&onf/ yg um;udk Heritage Edition
aom wH c g;ayguf ydYk aqmifa&;Xmeu 1960 jynfh pdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;vS [k trnfay;xm;onf/ tESpf
onfrSm vGefcJhaom q,fpkESpf ig;q,fumvtwGif; pD;&D;
wpf0ufcefYu tqdyk gpepf jzpf trSwf 300 jzpfaponf/ þ
ae&mwGif 1957 ckESpfu xkwf
vkycf ahJ om Chrysler 300 C ESihf
a&maxG ; roG m ;oif h a y/
taMumif;rSm xdkpOfuay;xm;
aom 300 C [lonfh oauFw
rS pGrf;aqmif&nf yrmPudk
nT e f ; qd k c J h j cif ; jzpf o nf /
Heritage Edition tjzpf
xkwfvkyfaom 300 C
udk 2006 ckEpS f 'kw, d
ESp0f ufwiG f uefYowf
xkwfvkyfrI tqifh
jzifh pwif a&mif;cs
ay; yg vdrfh rnf/
wefzdk;rSm tar&duef
a':vm 36ç000 jzpf
onf/
Smart Beam pepfonf
ajrmufa&;twGuf BudK;yrf; wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh ZdrfcHum;
av;ck y g qD ' if u m; trsKd ; ES p f r sm;qD u avh v m od & S d aqmif&GufcJhMuygao;onf/ tqif h General Motor
tpm; jzpf\/ V8 Engine udk xm;cJhaom tcsuf[k qdk& 'dkiftkwfrsm;u BuD;vSojzifh twGuf Cadillac ESifh Chry-
wyfqifxm;um aemufarmif; rnf / Smart Beam onf uGJapEkdifjcif;? y½dk*&rfvkyf&ef sler xk w f *spf u m;rsm;wG i f
trsKd;tpm;udk oHk;xm;onf/ a&SUbufodkY rsufESmrlxm;aom tcuf t cJ r sm;&S d j cif ; tajc vnf; rdwfquf ay;cJhzl;yg
avmifpmqD wGufajcudkufEkdif CMOS image sensors rsm;udk taewdkY &SdpOfu jzpfonf/ onf/ xdkenf;wlpGm Oa&my
a&;twGuf 0efayghyg;onfh oHk;xm;onf/ a&SU rsufESmcsif; 1952 - 1958 ckESpftwGif;u xkwf BMW um;rsm;\ pD;&D;
tcg qvif'g &SpfvHk;&Sdonfh qkid rf S um;\ rD;BuD;udk jrifawGY General Motors \ Au- trSwf 5? 6? 7 wdkYwGifvnf;
teuf qvif'g av;vkH;rS &onft h cg odYkr[kwf aemufr;D tronic system [kqdk&rnf/ toHk;jyKcJhMuao;onf/
qDAm;rsm;udk tvdktavsmuf wpfcck u k kd teD;uyf jrifawGYvm um;a&SUykdif;'wfcsfbkwfay:odkY

6 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


Chevrolet Tahoe ESihf
GMC Yukon wdt
Yk m;
aemufqHk;xkwf tjrTm[k
ac:qdk&avmufaom
um;trsKd;tpm;
ESpfckjzpfonf/
Sport-utility ac:
NydKifum;obm0rsKd;jzifh
yHkpHjyKxm;onf/
acwftrDqHk;
armfawmf,mOf
'DZkdif;rsm;[kvnf;
owfrSwfEkdifygvdrfhrnf/
Oa&myxk w f um;rsm; ¤if;wkdYESifhtwl yg&Sdvmaom oG,frIpepfxuf ydkí ta&;yg vkdif; 6vdkif;jzifh tpOf
teuf xl;xl;jcm;jcm; xGuf txkyftydk;rsm;udkvnf; o,f aom um;ykdif&SifESifh owif;ydkY tNrJ qufoG,f,lEkdif
ay:vmcJ\ h / aemuf0if½;kd rsm;rSm aqmifomG ;Ekid o f nf/ tu,fí qufoG,fonfh pepf tjzpf onf/ On Star \

2007
t&Sifjzpfonf/ ¤if;wGif oHk; 3500 uDvkd*&rf av;aom tqifhjr§ifhum aqmif&Gufvm aqmif&GufrI vkyfief;
xm;onfh V8 tif*sifrmS vGecf hJ ,mOf wpfpD;pD;udk qGJoGm;ap onf/ um;ESifh ywfoufonfh pOfrsm;twGuf sen-

CHEVROLET TAHOE/ GMC YUKON


aom 10 ESpfu 'DZkdif;udk jyKjyif vQifyif vkyfaqmifEkdifaom jyKjyifxdef;odrf;&ef? jznfhqnf; sors rsm;u aqmif
oifhonfrsm; jyKjyifum ver- pGrf;tm;&Sdonf/ Tahoes ESihf ,l&ef owif;rsm;udk owday; &Gufay;onf/ ,mOf
sions topftjzpf toHk;cs Yukons ESpfrsKd;vHk;wGif acwf wifjyay;Ekdifonf/ Oyrmtm; \ armif ; &S d e f E I e f ; ?
xm;jcif; jzpfonf/ ¤if;wGif trDqHk; tqifhjrifhenf;ynm jzif h armif ; qD ? puf q D r sm; b&dwfpepf? steering
toH;k jyKxm;aom sport-utili- rsm;udk oHk;xm;onf/ Oyrm avQmh e nf ; aevQif tcsd e f r D pepf u, kd x
f nftwdr;f
ties rsm;rSm *syefEi dk if H odYkr[kwf wpfct k aejzifh qd&k vQif ¤if;wkYd owif ; yd k Y a y;onf / ypö n f ; tapmif; qDvkdif; zd
Oa&myEkid if rH sm;wGif toH;k jyKae wGiyf g&Sad om On Star trnf&dS wpfckck csKdU,Gif;aevQif wifjy tm;? armif;qDtae
Muonfh c&D;onfwifum;rsm; ESpfvrf;quf BudK;rJhqufoG,f ay;onf/ xdkYtjyif ta&;ay: txm; ponf j zif h
xufyif BuD;rm; av;vHaeyg a&;pepf wyfqifxm;rIukd nTe;f r[kwfonfh owday;csufrsm; um;wpfpD;vHk;\ vkyf
onf/ *syefEidk if tH wGuf pyg,f qdEk idk o
f nf/ GM qdyk gu xde;f udkvnf; ydkif&Siftm; owif;ydkY aqmifcsuftm;vHk;udk
&S,f xkwfvkyfcJhaom ]uJtd} csKyfrIESifh csdwfqufxm;onfh ay;\/ tD;ar;vf wpfckudk sersons rsm; tul
um;rsm;uJhodkY oD;jcm; 'DZkdif; tvdktavsmuf qufoG,fa&; vufczH wf½&I onft h vm; armf tnDjzifh tpOfrjywf
wpfcjk zifh wnfaqmufay;xm; pepf wyfqifrIudk 1995 ckESpf awmfum;ESifh ydkif&Sif tMum; od&Sd aeEkdifygonf/
onf/ ]uJtd} qkdonfh *syef uwnf;u pwif aqmif&u G cf hJ tvdktavsmuf wifjyay;ae aemufqHk; armfawmf
pmvHk;\ t"dyÜm,frSm EkdifiH onf/ xdkodkY jyKvkyfay;onfh rnfjzpf\/ um;udk toHk;rjyKrD
wpfEkdifiHwnf;twGuf oD;jcm; 0efaqmifrIvkyfief;rsm;teuf On Star pepfü 'pf*spf um;xJukd 0ifxikd v f u dk f
aqmif&u G x f m;onfo h abmudk Detroit monitoring center w,f q,fvlvmzkef; wpfvHk; onfESifh um;ESifh ywf
aqmifygonf/ onf vlodtrsm;qHk;jzpfonf/ udkvnf; um;\ audio sys- oufonfh ppfaq;rI
tqkdygum;rsm;wGif vl ,cktcg GM onf armf tem wGit f oifw h zJG uf wyfqif tm;vHk;udk owif;ydkY
&Spfa,mufcefY pD;Ekdifrnfhtjyif awmf,mOftoHk;jyK&ef quf xm;ay;onfhtjyif GPS pepf ay;ygvdrhfrnf/
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 7
TOP 10 TECH CARS

2006 SUBARU R2 TYPE S

*syefEkdifiHoHk;um;av;[k qdkEkdifonf/ ]uJtd} trsKd;tpm;um; jzpfonf/ tar&duefEkdifiHESifh Oa&myEkdifiHrsm;wGif


jrif&cJaom um;trsKd;tpm;jzpfonf/ uJtd[k trnfay;vkdufonfESifh rlv pxkwfvkyfuwnf;u
&nfpl;xm;onfh EkdifiHtwGuf pyg,f&S,f'DZkdif;[k rSwf,lEkdifMuygonf/
*syefEkdifiH\ tcGef tuf xuf rydk&/ 2 rDwmxuf rjrifh Mazda, Mitsubishi, Suba-
Oya'? tmrcH ay:vpDwdkYwGif ap&/ tif*sift&G,t f pm;onf ru ESihf Suzuki wkYd rS xkwv
f yk cf hJ
ydik &f iS t
f aejzifh avsmhenf;aom 0.66 vDwmxuf rBuD;ap&/ Muonf/ ¤if;wdYk rS tif*sifao;
EIe;f xm;jzifh tqifq h ifh ajz&Si;f xkwfvkyfaom pGrf;tm;onf aomfvnf; yg0gpGrf;tm;BuD;
NyD;om;jzpfaeap&ef wGufcsuf vnf; 47 uDvdk0yf odkYr[kwf rm;vSonfh Bugatti Veyron
'DZdkif;jyKvkyfxm;jcif;jzpf\/ jrif;aumifa& 63 xuf rydk& 16.4 uJhodkY um;rsm;udkvnf; R2 type S onf 2006 ckESpf
taumif;qHk; tcsufwpfckrSm [laom owfrSwfcsuf &Sdxm; oD;jcm; xkwfvkyfrI &Sdaeyg twGuf pyg,f&S,fxkwfvkyf
*syefEkdifiH\ vlpnfum;&m NrdKU ygonf/ tqdkyg owfrSwf onf/ xdkodkYtajctaersKd; &&Sd vmjcif;jzpf\/ um;\ bD;
BuD;rsm;wGif tcrJh &yfem;cGifh csufrsm;jzifh udu
k n
f aD om um; ap&ef advanced techno- av;bD;vHk;udk wkduf½dkufarmif;
&Ekdifap&ef yHkpHjyKxm;jcif;yif av;jzpfonf/ logy tjynfht0 jznfhqnf; ESifapEkdifNyD; tvdktavsmuf
jzpfonf/ tcrJh &yfem;cGihf pnf; tvm;wl uJtd um;rsKd; vkyfaqmif,lMuonf/ t&Sdefjr§ifhwif,lonfh CVT
rsOf;wGif ,mOfonf 3.4 rDwm rsm;udk Daihatsu, Honda, ¤if;wkdYtxJwGif Subaru (continuously variable

2007 MERCEDES - BENZ E 320 BLUETEC

tar&duefEkdifiHwGif Murf;Murf;wrf;wrf; toHk;jyK&aom um;rsm;twGuf 'DZ,ftif*sifrsm;udk toHk;jyKMuonf/ ta0;ajy;


vrf;rBuD;rsm;wGif 18 bD;wyf,mOfrsm;udk toHk;jyKaeMuqJjzpfonf/ odkYaomf 'DZ,ftif*sifrsm;udk toHk;jyKjcif;aMumifh
rD;cdk;rsm;pGm xGufapygonf/
1980 jynfhESpf 0ef;usif
xkwf um;yHkpHrsm;onf tqdk;
qH;k jzpf\/ Oa&myEkid if rH sm;wGif
qd k y gu c&D ; onf w if u m;
xuf0ufausmrf mS 'DZ,ftif*sif
rsm;udkom toHk;jyKxm;onf/
odYk &mwGif tar&duefEidk if H
wGif avxknpfnrf;rIudk xdef;
csKyfay;aomtaejzifh tvGef
oefY&Sif;aom 'DZ,fqDrsm;udk
toHk;jyKaponf/ Oa&myEkdifiH
rsm;wGifawmh tvm;wl'DZ,f
ta&mif;qkdifrsKd; rxm;Ekdifao;
ay/ txl;ojzifh xdkodkY pyg,f
&S,f xkwfvkyfxm;onfh oefY
&Sif; 'DZ,fqDrsm;udk jynfe,f
8 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
rl *D,m ckepfcsufyg vludk,f ay/ t"du &nfrSef;csufrSm ao;onf/ *syefEkdifiH Oya'
wkid f a&TUajymif;Ekid af om manu- *syefEkdifiH NrdKUwGif; vrf;rsm; rsm;ES i f h t nD ud k u f n D a p&ef
matic shifter wpfckudk tydk wGif toHk;jyKEkdif&efomjzpf\/ wnfaqmufxm;onfh um;
jznfhqnf;ay;xm;onf/ ¤if; 658 pDpD yrmPom&Sdaom rsm;teuf tjref E I e f ; tjrif h
udk toHk;jyKjcif;? rjyKjcif; jyK tif*sijf zpfojzifh vufzuf&nf qH;k ? yg0g taumif;qH;k jzpfvm
vk y f E k d i f & ef vuf u k d i f b D ; \ wpfZGef;pm avmifpmqDav; &onf / jrif ; aumif a & 63
aemufwiG f twiftcsarmif;wH jzifhyif tawmf c&D;aygufEkdif aumiftm; &Sdí tif*sifywfa&
cvkwfwpfck yg&Sdonf/ aom obm0&Sdonf/ tjcm; 6000 EIef;xm; &Sdaeonf/
qdkvkdonfrSm udk,fwkdif uJtu d m;av;rsm;ESihf rwlonfh &yfxm;onfrS wpfem&DvQif 62
*D,mxkd; armif;ESifEkdifNyD; tvdk tcsufwpfcsufrSm qvif'g rk d i f E I e f ; txd &&S d a p&ef 10
tavsmuf t&Sdefjr§ifhpepfoHk; av;vHk;jzpf\/ rsm;aomtm; puúeYf om Mumjrifo h nf/ tjref
vdku oHk;Ekdif&ef pDpOfxm;ay; jzif h uJ t d um;wk d i f ; vk d v k d qHk; wpfem&DvQif 99 rkdif txd
transmission) udk wyfxm; jcif;jzpfonf/ wpfenf;tm; qvif'g oHk;vHk;om oHk;xm; armif;ESifEkdifygonf/ qDpm;
onf/ omreftm;jzifh CVT jzifh xdkodkY pDpOfaqmif&Gufxm; avh&MdS uonf/ xdYktjyif qvif EIe;f t& wpf*gvefvQif 42 rkid f
pepfwdkY rnfonfhtif*sif\ rIaMumifh rvkdvm;tyfaom 'gwpfv;kH twGuf Am;av;vH;k pD EI e f ; txd &onf / Hybrid
tjrefEIef;xm;udk *D,mtcsKd; armif;qDuek u f sru
I kd avsmeh nf; wyfqif yg&Sd\/ xdkYtjyif ¤if; electric drive vnf; wGJzuf
tpm;jzifh tvdktavsmuf jr§ifh oGm;apEkdifygonf/ rnfodkYyif omvQif plygcsufcsmpepfudk xm;&Sdojzifh avxknpfnrf;rI
wif , l a ompepf jzpf o nf / jzpfap tvGef pD;yGm;a&; wGuf oHk;xm;onf/ tif*siftwGuf uefYowfcsuf pnf;rsOf;ESifh
odkYaomf ,ck Subaru R2 wGif ajcudu k af om 'DZikd ;f awmhr[kwf vnf; tifwmulvm oHk;xm; vnf; udkufnDaeygonf/

45 ckü toifh&SdaeNyDjzpfonf/ toefY&Sif;qHk; 'DZ,ftif*sif odkY ,l&D;,m;t&nf xdk;oGif; jzpfí jrif;aumifa& 208 tm;
t"d u tm;jzif h Mercedes- trsKd;tpm;jzpfonf/ ay;jcif;jzpf\/ trdk;eD;,m; yrmP&Sdonf/ ¤if;udk umbdk
Benz,Volkswagen ESifh *spf yxr converer onf "mwfaiGYrsm;tm; a&ESifh Ekduf csufcsmwyfqifxm;ojzifh V2
um;rsm;twG u f jzpf o nf / rD;cdk;rsm; twGif;&Sd [dkuf'½dk x½d*k siftjzpf toGiaf jymif;ay; tif*sif\ pGrf;tm;ESifh nDwl
jynfe,f 5 ckrSm ,aeYwkdif r& umAGefESifh umAGefrdkaemhqkduf vkdufonfhoabm jzpfonf/ nDrQjzpfaeaponf/ qDpm;EIef;
ao;ay/ rsm;tm; atmufqD*sif"mwf xdu k m;wGi, f &l ;D ,m; 20 vDwm rSm wpf*gvefvQif 35 rkid t f xd
umvDzdk;eD;,m;jynfe,f jyKrIukd aqmif&Gufay;onf/ qHh wkdifuDwpfvHk; wyfqifyg &Ekdifonf/ avxknpfnrf;rI
ESifh e,l;a,mufNrdKUBuD;wdkYwGif 'kwd, converter onf De &Sdvmonf/ tqkdyg wkdifuD jzpfaprnfh rD;cdk;rsm;tm; pDrH
avxknpfnrf;rI wm;jrpfcsuf Nox storage converter jzpf wpfvHk;pm ,l&D;,m; t&nf "mwfjyKrIjzifh pGr;f tiftjzpf jyef
tjrifhrm;qHk;? twif;usyfqHk; ojzifh Ekud x
f ½d*k siaf tmufqukd f onf rkdifaygif; 12ç000 cefY oH;k Ekid af pjcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/
jzpfonf/ odkYtwGuf cHhcHhxnf "mwfudk pkyf,lay;onf/ pkyf,l txd toHk;cHaprnf jzpf\/ tif*sif\ bm;rsm;tm;vHk;udk
xnf pD;Ekdifrnfhtjyif tqdkyg &&Sdxm;aom Nox rSwpfqifh odkYtwGuf jyKjyifxdef;odrf;rI tDvufx&Gepf epfjzifh xde;f csKyf
pHcsdefpHnTef;jzifh ukdufnDaprnfh avmifuRr;f rItm;udk xyfrjH znfh vkyfief;pOftwGuf vHkavmuf ay;xm;onf/ tqkdyg Blue-
E-320 Bluetec udk Mercede qnf;ay;jyefonf/ wwd, aom tcsdefZ,m;rsm;udk &,l tec oHk;rnhf 'DZ,fqD trsKd;
uk r Ü P D r S xk w f v k y f c J h o nf / catalytic converter rSmrl oefY Ekid af ponf/ wpfenf;qd&k aomf tpm;udk ,ckESpf rukefrD qkdif
Bluetec 'D Z ,f t if * sif o nf &Sif;aom tcdk;taiGYtjzpf jyK xG u f v monf h rD ; ck d ; \ 80 rsm;ta&muf pDpOfxm;&SEd idk v f rd hf
'DZ,frD;cdk;rsm;udk z,fxkwf vkyf aqmif&Guf&if; xkwfay; &mckdifEIef;onf vHk;0 oefY&Sif; rnf[o k &d onf/ oefY&iS ;f aom
ypfEidk rf nfh catalytic convert- vkdufonf/ pifMu,faomtqifhjzpfonf/ 'DZ,fqq D &dk müuefY"mwf twwf
ers oHk;rsKd; wyfqifay;xm; Bluetec \ ½Iy f axG ; E -320 Bluetec tif*sif EkdifqHk; avQmhcsxm;onfh qDudk
onf / urÇ m ay:wG i f rD ; cd k ; aom vkyfief;pOfrSm rD;ckd;aiGYxJ onf V6 tif*siftrsKd;tpm; nTef;qdkjcif; jzpfonf/
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 9
TOP 10 TECH CARS

Lexus [lonft
h rnfukd Toyota armfawmfum;ukrP Ü rD S 1989 ckEpS u
f wnf;u rSnahf c:co
hJ nf/ Luxury [lonfh
t*FvdyfpmvHk;rS ZdrfcHum;oufouf[k nTef;qdk azmf,ljcif;jzpf\/

2007
Zdrcf u H m;qko d nfwh idk f pGr;f aqmifEkdifonf/ rdrd &yfem; nd§rItwGuf yg0if aqmif vDwm&Sd V8 tif*siu f kd oH;k xm;
aqmif & nf a umif ; aumif ; ? vdkaomae&mudk navigat- &Gu, f &l ygonf/ vufuikd f onf/ jrif;aumifa& yrmP

LEXUS LS 460
xdef;csKyfrItiftm;BuD;BuD;ESifh ion system wGif jyqdv k u
dk f bD;utp b&dwfESifh vDAm tm;jzifh 380 cefY&o dS nf/ ,cifh
,HMk unfpw d cf s&rIrsm;rsm; &&SEd idk f onfESifh tvdktavsmuf txd vlu, kd w
f idk f xde;f csKyf ,cif um;rsm;xuf yg0g 36
ygonf/ vGefcJhaom ig;ESpf vk y f u d k i f a y;ygvd r f h r nf / vkyu f ikd &f onfh taetxm; &mcdik Ef eI ;f wd;k jrifv
h monfh tae
txd ZdrfcHum; avmuwGif a&SUaemufuifr&mrsm;jzifh rsKd; &SdcJhonf/ ,ck Lexus txm;jzpfonf/ &yfem;xm;&m
Toyota onf Mercedes ESifh vnf ; aumif ; ? vQyf p pf uJo h Ykd cvkwaf v;ESyd ½f rkH Qjzifh rS wpfem&DvQif rkdif 60 EIef;
BMW udk r,SOfEkdifcJhay/ ,ck yg0gpwD,m&ifjzifhvnf; r&ay/ ,ckESpf rwfvu &v'fonftxd 5.4 puúeYf om
tcg Toyota \ Lexus onf aumif; "drive -by-wire" *sDeDAmwGif usif;y NyD;pD;cJh Mumjrifhonf/ c&D;a0; armif;
urÇmESit hf 0ef;ae&m&aeNyD; jzpf [k trnf a y;xm;onf h aom 76 Budrfajrmuf armf ESifygu wpf*gvefvQif 27
onf/ txl;ojzifh tm&SESifh tDvufx&Gefepf qDydwfzGifh awmf , mOf jyyG J B uD ; wG i f rkdifEIef;txd &&Sdaponf/ armf
Oa&myEkid if rH sm;wGif a&mif;tm; ay;,l r I pepf j zif h v nf ; Lexus LS 460 ESifh ywf awmf,mOfpepf tm;vHk;wGif
aumif;vmonf/ aumif; aumif;rGefacsmarm oufonfh enf; y nm tDvufx&Gefpepfjzifh aqmif
,ckESpfxkwf lexus qkdyg pGm aqmif&Guf,lygonf/ tao;pdwfudk rdwfquf &Gufay;onfhtjyif ¤if;wkdYudk
u ,SOfNydKifbuf *smreDESifh wpfenf;tm;jzifh Intelligent wifjyay;cJhao;onf/ wpf xd e f ; csKyf r I t wG u f VDIM
tar&duefEkdifiHxkwfum;rsm; Parking Assist System udk enf;qdk&aomf LS 460 onf (Vehicle Dynamics Inte-
wGif rjrif&aom toGiftjyif toHk;csonf[kvnf; qdkEkdif urÇmay:wGif yxrqHk;aom grated Management) pepf
rsm; yg&Sdvmojzifh ydkrdkpdwf0if onf/ *D,m &Spfcsufyg Auto trans- udk oHk;xm;onf/
pm;vmMuonf/ um;&yfem; tvm;wlpepfjzifh Toyo- mission pepfoHk; um;yif jzpf
xm;odkrItwGuf cvkwfwpfck ta \ Priuses wGif *syefEkdifiH onf/ 2003ckESpfu record- pD;eif;vkdufygonfh c&D; onf
udk ESdyfvkduf½HkrQjzifh tqifajy &Sd a':vm 2000 jzifhvnf; setting-transmission pepf oHk;OD;twGuf DVD player
pGm NyD;pD;oGm;rnfh toGiftjyif aumif;? NAdwdefEkdifiHwGif pwm jzifh armf<um;EkdifcJhaom Mer- wpfckpD pDpOfay;xm; onf/
rsKd; yg&Sdvmonf/ txl;ojzifh vifaygif700 jzifv h nf;aumif; cedes taejzif h quf v uf um;wpf p D ; vH k ; twG u f 5.1
um;rsm;,SO&f yfem;onft h cgrsK;d ? ESpfESpfMumumvtwGif; wyf armf<um;cGifh ydwfoGm;onfh surround sound stereo
system ukd pyDumaygif; 19
um;*dka'giftwGif; aemufjyef qif toHk;jyKcJhMuao;onf/ oabm &Sdonf/
oGif;onfhtcgrsKd;wGif vkyf odkYaomf armif;ESifolonf csdef tqdkyg um;onf 4.6 ckjzifh pDpOfay;xm;onf/ tqkd
yg pyD u mrsm;onf Mark
Levinson rS wDxGif xkwfvkyf
cJ h j cif ; jzpf \ / Navigation
uGeyf sLwmyg&Su d m vuf&dS vrf;
aMumif; tajcjypepfyg wyf
qifxm;onf/ xdkYtwl &moD
Owk tajctaersm;udkvnf;
wifjyay;Ekid o f nf/ tcef;wGi;f
tylcsed u f v
kd nf; pD;eif; vku
d yf g
ol\ udk,ftylcsdefESifh tqif
ajyrnfh taetxm;txd tvdk
tavsmuf csdefnd§ aqmif&Guf
ay;Ekdifygonf/

10 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


2006 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT
ESpf odyfrMumao;rDu tvwfpm; qD'ifarmf',frsKd;rsm;onf 0ifh0ifh<um;<um; ae&m,lcJhMuonf/
¤if;wkdYwGif tif*sifao; vnf; wyfqif yg&So d nf/ jrif; tors wyfqifay;xm;onf/ anmif;rI &Sad p&ef uk, d x f nfukd
ao;wpfvHk;udk bare-bones aumifa& 200 tm;&Sdum wpf aemufbuf ab;ESpfzufwGif xdef;csKyf aqmif&Gufay;onf/
*D,mabmufpfESifh wGJzuf wyf rdepfvQif vnfywfEIef; 5100 vnf ; thorax protectors rnfokdYyifjzpfap pyg,f&S,f
qifxm;\/ twGif;cef;wGif txd&onf/ *D,mabmufpf wyfqifvydk gu oD;jcm;rSmMum; oD;jcm;toGit f jyif zGYJ pnf;rIukd
vnf; tvGef wefzdk;BuD;onfh wGif *D,m&Spfcsuf&Sdí manual Ekdifygao;onf/ xdkifcHkcg;ywf Oa&myEkid if tH wGuf xkwv f yk rf I
AEdkif;pjzifh wpfrsKd;? {nfhcHoHk; control jzpfonf/ tu,fí rsm;uvnf; aemufqHk;ay: ESifh tar&duefEkdifiHtwGuf
xkdifcHkpGyfrsm;jzifhwpfzHk qif,if ¤if;um;udyk if VR6 tif*sijf zifh enf;pepfrsm;jzifh wyfqif yg&Sd xkwfvkyfrIwdkY tenf;i,f uGJ
xm;um AM a&'D,akd v; wpf rSmMum;vQifvnf; xkwfvkyf vmonf/ b&dwfpepf\ vIyf jym; jcm;em;pGm &Sdaeygonf/
vHk;vnf; yg&Sdvmwwfonf/ ay;onf[k od&onf/ VR 6 &Sm;rItay:cg;ywf\pnf;aESmif ¤if ; wG i f wyf q if x m;
,ckawmh tqdkyg yHkpHrsm; tif*sifjzpfygu jrif;aumifa& rItajctae tvdktavsmuf aom bixenon headlamps
onf acwfa[mif;oGm;NyDjzpf 280 &Sdvmum wpfrdepfvQif ajymif;oGm;apygonf/ rsm;rSm auGY&mwGif jrifomap
onf/ q|rajrmuf rsKd;quf vnfywfEeI ;f 6200 txd &Ekid f yg0g pwD,m&if pepf &ef ab; 15 'D*&Dtxd tvif;
opftjzpf Volkswagen rS onf/ odYkaomf VR 6 twGurf l onf auGYaomaMumifh 'D*&D wef; ay;xm;&ef vSnfh,lí &
Passat udk tar&duef aps; six-speed automatic trans- twGufomru tif*siftjref onf/ a&SUrD;oD;BuD;\ vm;&m
uGuftwGuf NydKifum;yHkpHjyK mission ESihfom wGJzuf wyf EIef;ESifh tjcm; tajccHtcsuf udk ajymif;,lEidk rf nfh oabmjzpf
qD'iftrsKd;tpm;um;udk xkwf qifay;rnf jzpf\/ xdkYtwl rsm;ay:wGifvnf; rlwnfí onf/ xkdYtjyif a&SUrS aES;auG;
vkyfcJhonf/ Oa&mytwGuf Volkswagen \ bD;av;vHk; ajymif;vJay;Ekdifaponf/ um; pGm armif;ESifaom um;tajc
rygay/ Oa&mytwGuf 'DZ,f pvHk; armif;ESifpepfudkvnf; t&Sed uf kd ravsmhenf;oGm;ap&ef taeudk od&Sd&efESifh aemufrS
tif*siaf rmif;oH;k rsK;d ESihf "mwfqD rSmMum;,lEkdifygonf/ txl; pDpOf aqmif&Gufxm; uyf vku d v f maomum; tajc
armif; 5 rsKd;? aygif; 8 rsKd;om um;twGi;f cef;wGif pHcsdef onf/ xdkYtjyif vl;cgrIr&Sdap taeudo k &d &dS ef radar sensing
&Sdaeonf/ rD avtdwf&SpfvHk;wyfqifay; &ef tv D ufx&Gepf epfjzifh armif; pepf u d k oH k ; xm;ay;onf /
tar&duefEkdifiHtwGuf xm;onf/ a&SUwGif ESpfck&Sdí &Sdefay: rlwnfNyD; aqmif&Guf odkYtwGuf ta&;ay: b&dwf
Passat onf 2.0 vDwm yrm aemufcHkwef;twGuf av;vHk; ay;onfh stabilization pro- pepfwGif ydkrdk xda&mufvsifjref
P&Sd uif&Syf ESpfckwyf? qvif &Sdaeygvdrhfrnf/ aemufydkif; gram rsm; wyfqifxm;&So d nf/ pGm ulnD yHhydk;rIudk &,lEkdifrnf
'g av;vH;k yg Inline tif*siu f dk wGif vkdufumrsm; toifh wyf um;udk rnfonfhEIef;xm;jzifh jzpf\/
wyf q if x m;onf / wmbd k qif a y;xm;um a&S U bD ; ES p f armif;ESiaf eonfjzpfaptwGi;f
csufcsmESifh tifwmulvmwdkY zuftwGuf thorax protec- cef; pD;eif; vkdufygolrsm; Nidrfh

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 11


TOP 10 TECH CARS

MITSUBISHI CONCEPT - CT MIEV


umvDz;kd eD;,m;jynfe,f qdu
k yf &yf&dS Mitsubishi Motros Design Center rS "hot wheels" [k trnf
ay;avmufaom Concept - CT MIEV armf',fukd zefw;D vku d o
f nf/
wHcg;udk aemufvSefzGifh ac:qdk owfrSwfcJhonf/ tif qD tif*sifom armif;ESifay; jzifh aqmif&Gufay;xm;onf/
aomyHkpHjzifh 3.8 rDwm t&Snf *sifudk aemufxkdifcHk\ aemuf xm;\/ ¤if;wGif toH;k jyKaom odkYtwGuf differential gear
&Sdum vQyfppfarmfwmrsm;jzifh wGif wyfqifxm;onf/ tif buf x &D r S m lithium -ion wGif vnfywftm;aysmufqHk;rI
bD;rsm;udk armif;ESi, f al ponf/ *sifonf 1.0 vDwm yrmP&Sd trsKd;tpm;jzpfonf/ tif*sif r&S d a pawmh a y/ vl p D ; onf h
bD;wpfb;D wGif vQypf pfarmfwm qvif'g oHk;vHk;xdk;yHkpH jzpf rS aemuf0if½dk;wGif qufoG,f twGif;cef;Murf;cif;udk jyifnD
wpfvHk;pD&Sdaeonf/ orm;½dk; onf/ um;udk,fxnftxdkif xm;aom 40 uDvkd0yf (jrif; jyKvkyfay;xm;onf/ jyóem
us um;rsm;uJhodkY A[dkarmfwm rsm;onf Nyd K if u m;yH k p H w G i f aumifa& 54) &Sd *sifea&wm wpfckrSm aemufxdkifcHk\aemuf
ESpfvHk;rS armif;ESif0if½dk;rsm;odkY toHk;jyKouJhodkY wyfqifwnf tm; vSnfhay;aponf/ ¤if;rS bufwGif tif*sif&Sdaeojzifh
ykdYay;onfhpepfyHkpHESifh rwlay/ aqmufxm;&Sdonf/ yif bufx&Dudk tm;jyefoGif; xkid af eolxH tylra&mufap&ef
Mitsubishi rS xkwfvkyfaom ¤if;\ yg0gx&def;t& ay;\/ bD;rsm;wGif&Sdaeaom pD p Of a y;&jcif ; jzpf o nf /
In-wheel Motor Electric jrif;aumifa& 134 aumiftm; armf w mrsm;ud k r l wpf c k c sif ; odYk twGuf 'DZikd ;f jyKvkyo
f o l nf
Vehicle jzpfaomaMumifh twdk &Sdonf/ tqdkyg jrif;aumifa& vGwv f yfpmG vnfywfaeap&ef acgifr;dk rSwpfqifh wku d cf u
dk vf m
aumufoauFwjzifh MIEV [k yrmP\ xuf0ufuykd if "mwf tDvufx&Gefepf xdef;csKyfpepf aom avudk zrf;,lum pillar

VOLVO S 60

tar&duefEidk if &H dS NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) tzGt UJ pnf;\ tqkt
d & ,mOfaMum
ajymif;vJrIaMumifh 4 &mckdifEIef;rS 10 &mckdifEIef;txd xdckduf ysufpD;rI &SdcJh&onf[k od&Sd&onf/
c&D;a0; vrf;rBuD;rsm; Munfrh eS u
f kd Munfí
h aqmif&u
G f tajctaeudk rodEidk af y/ xdu
k hJ vGefcJhaom oHk;ESpfcefYu rsuf
wG i f ,mOf a Mum ajymif ; vJ ,l&onf/ odkY&mwGif &Hzef&Hcg odYk tajctaersm;udk ausmfvmT ; uG,fae&mrS a&muf&SdvmEkdif
armif;ESifvkdonfhtcg aemuf rsufuG,fae&mwGif &Sdaeaom Ekdifap&ef Volvo ukrÜPDonf aom ,mOftm; owday;Ekdif
rnfhpepfwpfckudk wDxGif zef
wD;cJhMuonf/ ¤if;udk BLIS
(Blind-Spot Information
System) [k trnfay;xm;cJh
onf/ rMumao;rDu xkwf
vkycf ahJ om S 60 ESihf S 80 qD'if
trsKd;tpm;rsm;twGuf wyf
qif a':vm 770 jzifh option
tjzpf owfrw S f aqmif&u G af y;
cJhonf/ xdkYtwl Oa&my aps;
uGuf&Sd V 70 0ufuGef trsKd;
tpm;ESifh XC 90 NydKifum;
trsKd;tpm;rsm;twGufvnf;
12 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
rsm;rS tif*sifqDodkY ydkYay;&if;
tat;cH,lygonf/
CT wGif toHk;jyKaom
vQypf pfarmfwmav;vH;k udk hol-
low- doughnut wnfaqmuf
rI pepfjzifh jyKvkyfxm;
onf/ odkYtwGuf
tav;csdefESifh ae&m
udk ododomom
avQmhcs,lxm;onf/
tu,fíom
orm;½dk;us wnf
aqmufrIjzifh armfwmrsm;
udk toHk;jyKygu tav;csdef
ESpq
f yif wufomG ;Ekid af ponf/ xkwfvkyfEkdifrnf[k ajymMum;
Mitsubishi taejzifh tqkdyg cJhonf/ ,ck zefwD;NyD;pD;onfh
MIEV enf;ynmESihf vDo, D rf um;onf ,cif xkwfvkyfNyD;
bufx&D wyfqifxm;aom aom Lancer Evo rS yg0g qdkapumrl Mitsubishi \ urÇmay:wGif tjrefq;kH ESihf pGr;f
um;rsm;udk 2010 ckESpf a&muf H kd jyKjyif qef;opf,l Concept CT-MIEV armf',f aqmif&nftaumif;qHk;tjzpf
u&de;f yHpk u
rSom wGifwGif us,fus,f xm;jcif; jzpfonf/ rnfodkYyif udk prf;oyfarmif;ESifMunfh&m todtrSwjf yKjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/

option tjzpf aqmif&Gufay; wpfcw k nf;u vkyu f ikd af y;um xm;onfh wHcg;rSefwGif azmfjy aqmufrnfh &nf&G,fcsufrsm;
onf/ wu,fwrf;tm;jzifhrl aqmzfh0JtultnDjzifh uifr&m ay;ygonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;rSm &Sdaeonf/ t"du jyóemrSm
Volvo taejzifh um;wkdif;wGif \ flask memory wGif odkrSD; yif um;'wf c sf b k w f a y:rS armif;ESifonfhbuf rsufESm
tqkdyg pepfudk wyfqif&ef xm;ay;\/ Control proces- screen wGif jrifompGm jyo csif;qkid rf aS exd;k aeygu armif;
arQmfrSef;cJhjcif;jzpf\/ sor wpfckrS 1/0 udpr ö sm;? data ay;jyefonf/ ESif&mwGif tcuftcJqHk; jzpf
ab;wHcg; rSefwpfcsyfpD transfer udpörsm;ESifh tpdwf Volvo ukrÜPD\ xkwf onf/ xdktajctaersm; ausmf
wGif uifr&mESpfvHk; wyfqif tydkif;rsm;tMum; qufoG,f vkyrf I pDru
H ed ;f Xmerª;jzpfol Lex vTm;,lEidk rf nfph epfrsKd;udk yxr
aom armfvDusL;yHkpHjzpfonf/ a&; udprö sm;udk pnf;Muyf vkyf Kerssemakers \ &nfrSef; OD;pGm OD;pm;ay; aqmif&Guf&ef
tqdkyg uifr&monf tjzL udkifay;ygonf/ csufwGif um;twGif;odkY 0if tpDtpOf&Sdonf/
trnf; resolution edrfhedr fh ,mOfwpfpD;onf rdrdum; a&mufvmaprnfh tvif;a&mif ,ckvuf&Sd toHk;jyKEkdif
zrf;,lEkdifonfh CMOS video \ rsufuG,f wpfae&modkY twGuf trsKd;rsKd; aqmif&Guf rnfh BLIS pepfudk toHk;rjyK
sensor rsm; wyfqifyg&Sd\/ a&muf&Sdvmonf qdkMuygpdkY/ ay;vdkonf/ vsifjrefpGmarmif; vkduvnf; ydwfxm;Ekdifaom
aemufbuf rSefcsyfBuD;wGif vIyf&Sm;rI vkdufvHppfaq;ay; ESifaecsdef? &moDOwkndKrdIif;ae taetxm;&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif
a&aiGYrsm;ESifh jrLrsm; pGJuyfae onfh algorithms yg stan- pOf? aea&mifjcnf\ vm;&mudk &yfem;xm;NyD; pwif toHk;jyK
jcif; r&Sdap&ef tylay;ud&d,m dard vision rS csOf;eif;0if rvkdvm;pOf? vrf;ab;0J,m vku d o
f nfEiS hf BLIS pepfwuf
vnf ; wyf q if x m;onf / a&mufvmonf, h mOftm; owd Munfh½Ií oGm;vdkaomtcg? vmNyD; aqmif&Gufay;ygvdrfh
tqdkyg vkyfief;pOfwGif wpf jyK rSwfom;ay;vkdufonf/ vrf;Murf;? vrf;acsm obm0 rnf/ xdktcsdefwGifvnf; rvdk
puúefYtwGif; yHk&dyf 25 cktxd Bus vdkif;wpfckjzifh uifr&mrS rsKd;jzifh armif;ESifae&csdefrsm; vm;ygu jyefydwfxm;&efom
xkwv f yk af y;Ekid o
f nf/ vkyif ef; tcsufjyEdI;aqmfrIukd jyay;\/ wGif pD;eif;vkdufygol pdwf &Sdonf/
pOftwGuf processing chip odkYtwGuf LED jzifh wyfqif BudKufjzpfap&ef zGJYpnf; wnf

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 13


TOP 10 TECH CARS

SUBARU B5 TPH (TURBO PARALLEL HYBRID)


yxrqH;k [du
k b
f &pfpepfukd wDxiG Mf upOfu avmifpmqDukd acRwm&eftwGuf t"du &nfp;l cJMh uonf/ rMumao; aomumvupírl
avmifpmqD enf;enf; toH;k jyK&if; pGr;f aqmif&nfukd ydrk akd umif;rGev
f map&ef[k &nfreS ;f í 'DZikd ;f jyKchJ Mujyefonf/

Subaru rS ,cifyHkpHrsm; awmf,mOf jyyGJwGif jyo rdwf enf ; jzif h toH k ; 0if o G m ;ap tm; 111 ay aygiftxd &&Sd
ESifhrwl xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tqdkyg qufcJhonf/ onf/ Miller - cycles tif*sif oGm;aponf/
&nf&G,fcsufESpfckvHk;aygif;pyf 2.0 vDwm yrmP&Sdaom udk 'DZdkif;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh ukwf Subaru onf [du k b
f &pf
&ef BudK;pm;vkdufonf/ wmbdk qvif'grsm;udk rsufESmcsif; tm;avsmhenf;oGm;Ekdifonf/ enf;ynmudk tif*siftwGuf
csucf smwyfqifxm;aom "mwf qdkif twuftqif;vkyfum xdkodkYaom tm;enf;csuf vnf;aumif;? *D,mtwGuf
qD tif*sifwiG f [ku d b f &pfvQyf vnfywfaqmif&u G of nfh hori- udk ausmfvTm;Ekdifap&ef tvdkY vnf;aumif;? armfawmf,mOf
ppfarmif;pepfudk aygif;xnfh zontally opposed "boxer" iSm Subaru wGif vQyfppfarmf configurations BuD;twGuf
vduk íf odo k o
kd yd o
f yd f uspu
f spf tif*sifudk oHk;xm;onf/ jrif; wm *sife,fa&wmudk xnfh vnf;aumif; ydik Ef idk pf mG toH;k cs
vspfvspf&Sdaom yg0gx&def;udk aumifa&tm; 256 aumif &Sd ay;vkdufonf/ ¤if;udk tif*sif ,lonf/ vuf&Sd *D,mabmuf
vkyaf qmifaponf/ odYk twGuf onf/ ¤if;tif*sio f nf Miller ESifh *D,mabmuftMum; 58 pepfBuD;xJwiG f vQypf pfarmfwm
standard wmbdktif*sifrsm; Combustion cycle yH k p H u d k rDvDrDwm txkcefYjzifh0ifqHh wyfqifum automatic tran-
xuf qD a vmif u Rrf ; rI 30 toHk;csxm;onf/ t0ifAm; atmif wyfqif,l\/ vQyfppf smission tjzpf ajymif;ay;
&mcdkifEIef; avsmhenf;oGm;awmh wpfpdwfwpfa'o yGifhaepOfrSm armfwmrS tjrifhqHk; ukwftm; vk d u f u m subaru ud k bD ;
onf/ tqkdyg B 5 -TPH yif zdEydS rf v
I yk if ef;pwifaponfh udk pwifvQif pwifcsif; xkwf tm;vH;k armif;ESiaf ompepfopf
(Turbo parallel hy brid) obm0udkt&,lum 'DZdkif;jyK ay;Ekdifonf/ vQyfppfarmfwm tjzpfodkY a&mufoGm;aponf/
um;udk NyD;cJo
h nfh ESpaf ESmif;ydik ;f vkyfxm;\/ odkYtwGuf pGrf; *sifea&wmonf 10 uDvdk xdkodkY aqmif&Guf,ljcif;rSm
u usif;ycJhaom wdkusKdarmf tifukd tavtvGihf r&Sad paom 0yfom xkwfay;½HkrQjzifh ukwf avmifpmqD acRwmay;onfh
14 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
aemufqHk;rSwfpk
jrif;aumifa& 1000 tm; &Sad om um;qdyk gu rnfoYkd &Sad csrnfenf;

Zdrcf uH m;qdyk gu Rolls aweD , rf o wå K ud k oH k ; xm; \ EIef;xm;t& NrdKUwGif;oGm;


- Royce? pGrf;aqmif onf/ tif*sif\ tylcsdefudk vmrIudk wpf*gvef 9 rkdifrS 18
&nfaumif;aumif; qkd avQmhcsEkdif&ef a&'Da&wm 10 rkdifEIef;txdom owfrSwfxm;
ygu Formula One vHk; wyfqifyg&Sd\/ um;udk cJh\/ odkYaomf t&SdefrkdifEIef;udk
um;? c&D;&Snfarmif;ESifrIqdkyg ajrjyifay:wGif tawmifyHwyf rl 0,f,lolwkdif;u xnfhwGuf
u Honda ponfjzifh armf í ysHoef;aponfhtvm; t&Sdef avh r&SdwwfMuay/ ¤if;um;
awmf um;avmuwGif xif[yf &,lrIukd zefqif;xm;onf/ onf wpfem&DvQif uDvdkrDwm
aecJhonf/ xdkYtwl tjrefqHk; tDvufx&Gefepf enf;pepfrsm; 400 txd armif;ESif&mrS vHk;0
um;tjzpf armf a wmf u m; jzifh avxkuspfvspfrIudk z,f &yf w ef Y oG m ;onf t xd 10
avmuwGif Bugatti Veyron &Sm;ay;xm;jcif;aMumifh orm; puúefYomvdkonf/
16.4 u ausmaf pmcJo h nf/ yg0g ½dk;us um;rsm;xuf 0.6 q jyifopfEidk if H rkid ;f &Si;f ,rf;
taumif;qHk;ESifh aps;tBuD;qHk; txd ajrqJGtm;udk qefYusifrI \ Bugatti Automobiles
um;tjzpfvnf; tm;vH;k u od jyKay;Ekdifonf/ SAS taejzifh Veyron 16.4
oabmoufouf r[kwaf wmh &Sdxm;Muonf/ ¤if;wGif 8 tu,fí wpfem&DvQif um;rsm;udk wpfESpfvQif pD;a&
um pGr;f aqmif&nfuydk g wpfyg vDwm yrmP&Sd qvif'g 16 uD v d k r D w m 3750 txuf 50 om xkwv f yk &f ef vsmxm;
wnf; jr§ifhwif,lvkdufjcif;jzpf vHk; yg&Sdaom tif*sifudk wyf armif ; ES i f a wmh r nf q d k y gu onf/ Bugatti taejzifh 1909
onf/ qifxm;\/ tif*sifrSmvnf; ,mOfarmif;olonf um;udk &yf ck E S p f r S 1956 ck E S p f t wG i f ;
B 5.TPH wGif yg0ifvm wmbdkcsufcsm av;vHk;txd em;um pyg,f&S,fuD;wpfckudk um;tpD;a&aygif; 7000 om
aom tjcm;[ku d b f &pfwpfcrk mS yg&Sdonf/ ¤if;tif*sif\ tif xnfah y;&onf/ wpfcsdew f nf; xkwfvkyfa&mif;cscJhonf/
¤if;wGio f ;kH xm;onfh bufx&D tm;rSm rufx&pf jrif;aumif rSmyif xkdifcHkcg;ywfrStp tif odkYtwGuf jrif;aumifa&
jzpfonf/ Fuji: Heavy In- a& 1001 txd&Sdí NAdwdoQ *sif tajctaetm;vHk;txd 1000 tm; um;rsKd; &Sdaeyg
dustries ESifh NEC Corp wdkY ,lepft& jrif;aumifa& 987 ppfaq;&&SdrIudkvnf; vufcH onf/ aps;EIe;f tvGeBf uD;jrifv h S
pyfwljyKvkyfcJhMuonf/ Man- &Sdaeygonf/ &yfem;xm;&mrS &,lEkdifonf/ tjrifhqHk; t&Sdef ouJo h Ykd yg0gtm;taumif;qH;k
ganese Lithium-ion buf wpfem&DvQif 300 uDvdkrDwm jr§ifh armif;ESifcJhygu ¤if;wGif ESifh tjrefqHk;um;wpfpD;tjzpf
x&D jzpfojzifh niekel-metal EIe;f xm;txd a&muf&&dS ef 16.7 wyfqifyg&Sad om qDwidk u f w D pf em;vnfxm;Ekdifygvdrfhrnf/
-hydride bufx&Drsm;xuf puúefYomMum\/ t&Sdef tjrifh vHk;udk 12 rdepftwGif; tukef OD;aomif;0if;(yef;cs,&f )D
50 &mckdifEIef; yg0g ydk&onfh qHk; EIef;xm;taejzifh wpfem&D toHk;jyKoGm;Ekdifaponf/ [Ref: Spectrum,
tjyif ydkí vsifjrefpGm tm;jyef vQif 408 uD v d k r D w mtxd tar&duefEidk if wH iG f EPA April , 2006]
jznfhEkdifonf/ armif;ESiEf idk yf gonf/ odYk&mwGif
B5 TPH onf NydKifum; Veyron wpf p D ; \wef z d k ; rS m
yHpk tH wkid ;f xdik cf EkH pS v
f ;kH om yg&Sd Oa&my aiG a Mu; wpf o ef ;
\/ wHcg;udkvnf; aemufvSef odkYr[kwf tar&dueffa':vm
zGifhaomyHkpH vkyfxm;onf/ 1.2 oef;txd &Sdaeygonf/
tif*sio f nf um;\ ajrqGt J m; udk,fxnfwnfaqmufrI
ydKG ihf atmufwiG &f adS eojzifh xde;f wGif umAGefzkdifbmESifh tvsL
odrf;& vG,fulonf/ TPH rDeD,Hrsm;udk oHk;xm;onf/
yg0gx&def;udk 2007 ckESpfwGif b&dwfrsm;wGif umAGefESifh a&m
xkwfvkyfrnfh Subaru-Le- aESmxm;onfh a<uxnf ajr
gacy qD'ifum;wGif yxrqHk; xnfrsKd;udk toHk;jyKxm;cJhí
jrifawGYMu&awmhrnfjzpf\/ tdyfaZmhpepfwGifvnf; wkduf
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 15
½l;a'ghzf'DZ,f trnf&Sdolu rD;aoG;rIefY avmifpmokH; tif*sifpufwpfvHk; wnfaqmuf NyD; prf;oyf armif;ESif
Munfhawmh tqifracsm tvkyfrjzpfwmeJY tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u xkwfvkyf xGuf&SdaeNyDjzpfwJh a&eHqDudk
rD;aoG;rIefY tpm;xkd; okH;Munhf vdkufwJhtcg aumif;aumif; vnfywf armif;ESifEkdif cJhygw,f/ oltokH;jyKcJhwJh
a&eHqDrsKd;ukdvnf; rpöwm'DZ,fudk *kPfjyKwJhtaeeJY 'DZ,fqDvkdY trnfwGif ac:a0:cJyh gw,f/

'DZ,fqq
D w
dk m
tajccHtm;jzifh 'DZ,fqD vGef;wJh AifeDZJGvm;eJY tcsKdU awGYae&ygw,f/ ukefMurf;u
[mvJ "mwfqD? a&eHqDwkdYvkd aom t&yf a&eH p d r f ; rsKd ; yg awmh a&eHpdrf;eJY a&eHpdrf;udk
a&eHcsupf uf½u kH ae a&eHprd ;f ukd rusef 'DZ,fqD xkwfaeMuyg csuNf yD; atmufusejf zpfwhJ a&eH
csufvkyfNyD; cJGxkwf a&mpyf,l NyD/ b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf 'DaeY acs;yJ jzpfygw,f/ tcsKdU oD;ESH
&wm jzpfygw,f/ 'DZ,fqD urÇmwpf0ef; 'DZ,fqD tokH; awGu xkwf,l&&SdwJh qDudkvJ
rsm;rsm;pm;pm;xGufwJh a&eH rsm;vmawmh 'DZ,fqD txGuf ukeMf urf;jyKvkyf 'DZ,fqD xkwf
pdrf;rsKd;&Sdovkd 'DZ,fqDenf; wkd;atmif csufvkyfrI enf;pOf aewJh wufcaemfavmf*sDawG
enf;yJygwJh a&eHpdrf; trsKd; opf a wG e J Y t&nf taoG ; ay:aeygNyD/
tpm;awGvJ &Sdygw,f/ csuf aumif;rGefoxuf aumif;rGef 'DZ,fqu D kd tok;H jyK vnf
vkyf&mrSm cufcJ u&duxrsm; atmif aqmif&Gufaewm jrif ywfckwfarmif;aewJh pufrsKd;pkH

16 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


&S&d mrSm jrufjzwfpufavmufu Munh f v d k u f w J h t cg aumif ; tif*sufwmyefYudkokH;NyD; wGef;
pNyD; xa&mfvm*sD? ,mOfi,f? aumif; vnfywf armif;ESifEkdif ydYk vu kd w f hJ avmifpmqD 'DZ,fqD
,mOfBuD;awG? vTpufawG? xGef cJyh gw,f/ oltok;H jyKcJw h hJ a&eH eJY avylwkdY tcsKd;usus nD
pufawG? 'DZ,f&xm;awG? ajr qDrsK;d ukvd J rpöwm'DZ,fukd *kPf nGwfatmif a&maESm&ef ta&;
wl;ajraumfpufawG? a&eHowåK jyKwJt h aeeJY 'DZ,fqv D Ydk trnf BuD ; ygw,f / 'D Z ,f q D u d k v J
wl;azmfpufawG? "mwfrD;puf wGif ac:a0:cJhygw,f/ qvif'gxJa&mufatmif oGif;
BuD;awGtjyif orÁef? armfawmf 'DZ,f tif*sif[m twGi;f ay;wJhtcgrSm enf;pOf ESpfrsKd;
bkwu f ae yifv,fu;l oabFm avmiftm; (Inernal Com- okH;xm;wm awGU&ygw,f/
BuD;awGtxd armif;ESiw f hJ 'DZ,f bustion) enf;eJY vnfywfwJh wpfrsKd;u avmifpm 'DZ,fqD
pufawG &SdaeygNyD/ 'DZ,fpuf puftrsKd;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ ukd wkduf½kduf qvif'gxJudk
awG & J U puf p G r f ; tm;eJ Y pG r f ; 'gayr,fh "mwfqD tokH;jyK xnfo h iG ;f ay;wJh Direct Injec-
aqmif&nfjrifhrm;wmeJY tnD tif*sifvkd pywfyvyf rD;yGifh tion enf;jzpfNyD;awmh aemuf
'DZ,fpufawG? 'DZ,fum;awG uav;u avmifpm "mwfqD wpfenf;u Indirect Inject- 'DZ,fuakd wmif 0,f,l ok;H pGaJ e
tokH;rsm;vmNyDjzpfwJh jrefrm udk rD;ul;avmifwmrsKd;r[kwf ion vkdY ac:NyD; qvif'geJY &NyD jzpfygw,f/
EkdifiHom;rsm;tzkdYvJ 'DZ,fqD bJ BudKwif zdESdyftm;aMumifh qufoG,fxm;wJh >yefvdktcef; 'D Z k d i f ; opf a wG e J Y wnf
taMumif; odxm;oifyh gw,f/ tvGefylaewJh avyleJY tif*suf uwpf q if h qvif ' gxJ u k d aqmufvmwJh tif*sifawGtzkdY
vGefcJhwJh c&pfESpf 1882 wm aemfZ,fuwpfqifh oGi;f ykYd avmifpm'DZ,fqDrIefawG ydkYay; tokH;jyK&r,fh 'DZ,fqD[mvJ
ckESpfrSm ½l;a'ghzf'DZ,f trnf&Sd vdkufwJh 'DZ,fqDrIefYwkdY qvif apwmjzpfygw,f/ tokH;jyK&mrSm aumif;oxuf
olu rD;aoG;rIefY avmifpmokH; 'gxJ r S m tcsKd ; us a&maES m 'DZ,f tif*sifpufykHpHeJY aumif ; &rS m jzpf w J h t wG u f
tif*sipf ufwpfv;kH wnfaqmuf xdawGUNyD; rD;avmifapwm jzpf pGr;f aqmif&nfawG uJjG ym;ovdk 'DZ,fqD[m EkdifiHwum tod
NyD; prf;oyf armif;ESifMunfh ygw,f/ aveJY avmifpmqD 'DZ,fqDtrsKd;tpm;awGvJ jcm; trSwfjyK csrSwfxm;wJh pHcsdefpH
awmh tqifracsm tvkyfrjzpf tcsKdU[m tzsif;qHk; (16;1) em;Mur,f q k d w m od E k d i f y g nTef;awGeJY udkufnDzkdY vkdtyfyg
wmeJY tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u xkwf quae txufrSm &Sdw,fvdkY w,f/ 'gayr,hf tokH;jyKrsm; w,f/ pHcsdefpHnTef;twGif; 0if
vkyfxGuf&SdaeNyDjzpfwJh a&eHqD od&ygw,f/ "mwfqt D if*sirf mS wJh 'DZ,fqDtrsKd;tpm;uawmh r0if qkw d mvJ (Quality Con-
udk rD;aoG;rIefY tpm;xkd; okH; vkd umb½kdufwm rokH;&wJh ESpfrsKd; okH;rsKd;avmufyJ &Sdyg trol) QC vdYk twkad umuf ac:
w,f/ 0efaygh0efav;pufvnf aeMuwJh "mwfcGJ prf;oyf ppf
ywfrItaES;tjref tajymif; aq;csufawGrSm qD ta&mif
tvJeJY &moD at;at;ylyl puf taoG;? odyo f nf;q? qDtyspf
EId;EkdifNyD; rD;ckd;xGufenf;wm? tusJ? a&eHtenftESpf uif;
0efaqmifcsdef MumMum? pGrf; pifrI? uefY"mwfyg0ifrI? qD
tm; BuD;BuD;eJY ,EÅ&m;BuD;awG tcsOfaygufjcif;? rD;pGJtylcsdef?
twGuf tokH;wnfhr,fh qD yGufyGufql taiGYjyef tylcsdef
trsKd;rsm;yJ jzpfygw,f/ jrefrm rsm;? qDcJyspfEkdifonfhtylcsdef?
Ekid if rH mS awmh jynfwiG ;f a&eHcsuf pDwdef;nTef;udef;? umAGefacs;
puf½HkawGu 'DZ,fqD ESpfrsKd; jzpfay:rI? avmifpm tylprG ;f tif
xkwv f yk wf ,fvYkd od&ygw,f/ pwJh t&nftaoG;ppfaq;csuf
vnfywfEIef;jrefwJh 'DZ,fqD rsm; yg0ifygw,f/
awGtwGuf High Speed Die- tJ'D t&nftaoG; pHjyK
sel (HSD) ac:wJh 'DZ,f puf csufawG[m rdrdwkdYEkdifiH wpf
armif;qDeJY Light Diesel Oil Ekid if cH sif;tvdu k f owfrw S cf suf
(LDO) vkdYac:wJh 'DZ,fqDjzpf awG wpfrsKd;wpfrnf &SdaeMu
NyD; vnfywfEIef;aES;wJh puf ayr,fh Ekid if w H um todtrSwf
rsm;twGuf jzpfygw,f/ 'DZ,f jyK ASTM (American
um;awG wk;d vmNyD; Ekid if jH cm;u Society for Testing and

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 17


twGif; &Sd&r,fvdkY pHjyKxm;yg aZmykdufuvJ rD;ckd;xGufEkdif
w,f/ qDodyfonf;jcif;ukd od ygw,f/
&SdrSom 'DZ,fqD [kwf r[kwf 'D Z ,f u m;puf 'D Z k d i f ;
tMurf;zsif; cefYrSef;EkdifNyD; EkdifiH tvdkuf tokH;jyK&r,fh 'DZ,f
wpfEkdifiHu wpfEkdifiHudk wifykdY qD trsKd;tpm;awG[m (Igni-
a&mif;cs0,f,lwJhtcg qDwef tion Quality) ac:wJ h qD
csdef rSefuefrI b,fa&GU b,frQ avmiftm;pGr;f &nfukd nTejf ywJh
&Sdwmukd wGufcsuf ppfaq; (Cetane Index) ac: pDwdef;
EkdifrSmjzpfygw,f/ wcsKdUaom nTef;udef;ukdawmh rsm;aom
a&mif;0,f azmufum;olawG tm;jzifh 42 atmuf rjzpfzdkY
u qDaps;EIef;ukd pnf (yDyg) pH j yKcsuf xk w f M uygw,f /
wpfvHk;aps;eJY owfrSwfMuyg pDwdef;nTef;udef; (42) ausmf
w,f / jref r mEk d i f i H o m;awG vmwmeJY pufE;dI &mrSm vG,u f l
todrsm;wJh yDyg tac:ta0: EkdifygNyD/ pDwdef;nTef; udef;udk
rSmvdk wpfyyD gvQif (46) tify;D Munf h N yD ; 'D Z ,f t if * sif & J U
&D;&,f *gvef 0ifqHhwJh yDygrsKd; (Ignition Quality) vnfywf
r[k w f y gbl ; / (American rIqkdif&m pGrf;aqmif&nfudk
Barrel) tar&d u ef p nf v d k Y cefYrSef;EkdifwmjzpfvdkY EkdiHwum
ac:wJh yDygrsKd;jzpfNyD; wpfpnf tok H ; jyKrsm;wJ h 'D Z ,f q D & J U
vQif 35 tifyD;&D;&,f *gvefeJY
nDrQjcif;vkyfNyD; tvG,fwul
wGufcsufMuygw,f/
'D Z ,f q D u d k Munf h & if
Materials), API (American r0if rormenf;eJY &&Sdxm;NyD; t&nfjzpfayr,hf t&nf rnfrQ
Petroleum Institue), IP pHcsed f pHneT ;f tm;jzifh tjynft h 0 usJw,f? b,favmuf ap;yspf
(Institute of Petroleum), udkufnDjcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; w,fqkdwm wkdif;xGmMunhfEkdif
ISO (International Stand- tokH;jyKvdkYjzpfao;wJh arSmifckd ygw,f / (Viscosity) Apf
ard Organization) eJY DIN qD? &Hzef&cH g taMumif;aMumif; paumfpwD ac:wJh qDtusJ
(Deutch Industries Norm) aMumifh pGeYf ypf&wJq h v D Ykd ac:wJh tyspfudk 'DZ,fqD&JU pifwD
pHcsed pf n
H eT ;f tzGYJ tpnf;BuD;awG (Distressed Oil) wkdYudk aps; *&dwf tylcsdef 40 'D*&DrmS wkid ;f
u xkwjf yefxm;wJh a&eHqidk &f m aygaygeJY a&mif;0,f azmuf xGm awGU&Sdcsuf[m 1.5 eJY 5.6
t&nftaoG;pHawGeJY eD;pyf nD um;wmawG &Sdaew,fqkdwm pifwDpwkyf (Centi -stokes)
nGwfMuygw,f/ azmfjycJhwJh vJ azmfjyvkdygw,f/ twGi;f &S&d r,fvYkd pHjyKxm;wm
'DZ,fqD aumif; raumif; tuJ tok H ; rsm;wJ h 'D Z ,f q D jzpfygw,f/ qD&JU tyspftusJ
jzwfcsufawG[m 'DZ,fpuf aumif; qDoefYuawmh 0gndK rSefuefrS tif*sufwmaemfZ,f
vnfywf&mrSm od&SdEkdifovdk a&mifjzpfNyD; ASTM ta&mif u xnfhoGif;vdkufwJh 'DZ,fqD
a&eHaps;uGufawGrSmvJ vufcH wkdif;ud&d,meJY Munfh&if 2.0 rIefuav;awG t&G,ftpm;
usifhokH; aps;jzwfMuwJh tcsuf xuf rydk&bJ trIeftrTm;uif; wpforwfwnf; &SdaeNyD; pGrf;
rsm; jzpfygw,f/ pifae&rSm jzpfygw,f/ a&? tif j ynf h avmif p mtjzpf
Gas Oil vkYdvJ ac:wGiw f hJ tenftESpf? acs; pwmawGvJ ajymif;vJ&&Sd&rSm jzpfygw,f/
'DZ,fqDeJY tjcm; a&eHxGuf ryg&ygbl;/ qDeJY odyfonf; qDtusJtyspf ApfpaumfpwD
ypönf;trsKd;rsKd;udk wpfEkdifiHrS qudk pifwD*&dwf 15 'D*&D rrSefygu aveJYqD a&maESmrI
wpfEidk if H aumif;a&mif; aumif; tylcsdef&SdwJh 'DZ,fqDukd wkdif; rrSeaf wmhbJ tif*si&f UJ pGr;f tm;
0,f jyKvkyaf eMuayr,fh w&m; xGmMunfh&if 0.83 eJY 0.87 udk ,kwaf vsmah pNyD; tif*sit f yd f
18 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
pHjyKcsux
f J rSm pDwed ;f nTe;f ude;f jrefrmvdk ac:Edkifygvdrhfr,f/ udk csufvkyf&if xGuf&SdvmwJh rygoavmuf enf;yg;wmudk
udk 45 rS 58 twGif; &Sd&ef pHcsdefpHnTef;tjzpf tedrfhqHk; rD; a&eHxGufypönf;rsm;rSm uefY awGY&&dS ygw,f/ uefY"mwfyg0if
vdktyfw,fvdkY owfrSwfMuyg pGJavmifEkdifwJh tylcsdefudk EkdifiH "mwf tenf;eJYtrsm; yg0if rIrsm;wJh 'DZ,fqD[m teHYqdk;
w,f/ tay:pD; owfrSwfcsuf trsm;pkrmS pifw*D &dwf 65 'D*&D vmwwfygw,f/ uefY"mwf r,f? tif*siftwGif; tenf
jzpfwJh pDwdef;nTef;udef; (58) owfrSwfygw,f/ t"dyÜm,fu yg&Sad ewJh 'DZ,fqu D kd uefY"mwf tESpfjzpfr,f? tufppftcsOf
xuf ausmfjyefawmhvJ wcsKdU 65 'D*&D atmufbufa&muf b,favmufyJ yg&r,fqkdwJh "mwfjzpfNyD; tif*sifoHowåKudk
tif*sifawGrSm tdyfaZmu rD;cdk; av rD;pGaJ vmifzYdk vG,af v jzpf uefYowfcsuaf wG vkyv f mvkud f wku d pf m;ypfr,f? tif*sipf ufu
awG xGufwwfw,fvdkY od&Sd& ygw,f/ tcsKdU cyfusJusJ 'DZ,f Muwm wkd;wufwJh EkdifiHBuD; xGufvmwJh rD;ckd;uwpfqifh
ygw,f/ qDrsKd;qkd&if 55 'D*&D(pD)udk awGrmS qk&d if uefY"mwfyg0ifEeI ;f ywf0ef;usiaf vxkukd raumif;
tjcm;aom a&eH x G u f tedrfhqHk; rD;pJGavmifrSwftjzpf udk tav;csdeftm;jzifh trsm; wJh teHYeJY trIeftrTm;awG jzpf
ypönf;awGvdkyJ 'DZ,fqDqkdwm owfrSwfwm awGY&ygw,f/ 'D qHk; 0.05 &mcdkifEIef;xuf rydk& ay: npf n rf ; aprS m jzpf y g
qDtylcsdef jrifhwufvmwmeJY pH j yKcsuf [ m ab;tEÅ & m,f vdkY pHjyKxm;NyD; jzpfwm awGU& w,f/ 'DZ,fqD ta&mif;t0,f
trQ taiGYjyefNyD; tylBuD;vGef; uif;&Sif;a&;twGuf vdktyfvS ygw,f/ jrefrmEdkifiHvdk zGYHNzKd;p vkyf&mrSmvJ uefY"mwf yg0if
ygu rD;pGJavmifwwfygw,f/ ygw,f/ EkdifiHawGrSmawmh uefY"mwf EIef;t& aps;pum;ajymwJhtcg
tJ'Dvkd rD;pGJEkdifwJh tylcsdefxd 'DZ,fqD&JU tvGef ta&; yg0ifEIef;ukd 0.5 &mcdkifEIef; uefY"mwf yg0ifrIrsm;av aps;
a&mufatmifvdkY 'DZ,fqDudk ygwJh wm;jrpfcsufawGxJrSm txd vufcH cGifhjyKqJyJ &Sdyg avsmhav jzpfygw,f/
tylay;NyD; rD;pGJwJhtylcsdefukd uefY"mwf yg0ifEIef;udk pHcsdef ao;w,f/ 'gayr,fh jrefrmh 'DZ,f qDoefY qDaumif;
t*Fvdyfvdk Flash Point vdkY pHnTef; jyKvkyfxm;jcif; jzpfyg a&eHpdrf;u csufxkwfwJh 'DZ,f qkdwm ajcmufaoGYae&r,fvdkY
ac:ygw,f/ rD;avmifrSwfvkdY w,f/ uefY"mwfygwJh a&eHpdrf; pufarmif;qDrmS awmh uefY"mwf ajymMuygw,f/ ajcmufaoGY
ae&r,fqkdwm[m 'DZ,fqDxJ
rSm a&ryg&vdYk qkv d w dk m jzpfyg
w,f / 'D Z ,f q D r S m a&awG ?
acs;awG? tenftESpfawG&Sd&if
qDppfqefcg ydwq f YdkNyD; tif*suf
wmudk 'ku©ay;ygvdrhfr,f/ 'gh
tjyif yrmPrsm;rsm; ta&mif;
t0,fvkyfwJhtcg a&eJY tenf
tESpfyg0ifEIef;udk EkdifiHwum
pHjyKcsuft& xkxnftm;jzifh
0.05 &mEIef;xuf ydkryg&Sd&ef
owfrSwfxm;Muygw,f/
&moDOwkat;jrwJh ae&m
awGrSm tcsKdUaom 'DZ,fqD
awG[m yspfcJwwfNyD; tif*sif
puf EId;r&wJhtjzpfukd awGU
BuHKzl;ygvdrhfr,f/ 'DZ,fqDxJ
rSm za,mif;vufusef &Sdae&if
vJ ywf0ef;usifeJY qDtylcsdef
tvGef avsmhusvmwJh tcsdef
rS m cJ y spf o G m ;wwf y gw,f /
'gaMumifh tJ'Dvkd qDcJyspfoGm;
EkdifwJh tylcsdef (tat;)ukd
Pour Point qDyspfcJrSwfvdk
ac:NyD; pHjyK owfrSwfcsufawG
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 19
jyKvkyfxm;Muygw,f/ jrefrm
Ek d i f i H ajrmuf y d k i f ; xuf r u
tat;vGefuJwJh urÇmha'o
t&yfrsm;rSm qDcJoGm;wwfwJh
'ku© rjzpf&atmif ASTM tzGYJ
BuD;u tat;csdef okn'D*&D
(pD) atmuf tEkwv f u©Pm (-
26 °C ) udk Pour Point pHtjzpf
owfrSwfcsufjyKxm;wJh 'DZ,f
qD trsKd;tpm;awG&SdaMumif;
od&ygw,f/ ylaEG;wJh EkdifiHawG
rSmawmh Pour Point owfrw S f
jy|mef;csufukd tylcsdef trsm;
qHk; 9 'D*&D (pD) avmuftxd
vufcH pHjyKxm;wm awGUEkdifyg
w,f/
NcH K vk d u f r ,f q k d & if (1)
'DZ,fq&D UJ oefYpifrq I idk &f m? (2)
puf v nf y wf r I p G r f ; tm; yd k
aumif ; apEk d i f w J h Ignition
Quality qkdif&m? (3) qD&JU
tyspftusJeJY cJyspfEkdifjcif;qkdif
&m? (4) qD&JUtaiGYjyefrIqkdif&m
pwJh 'DZ,fqD t&nftaoG; awG jzpfapygvdrhfr,f/ tJ'Dvkd rvdkufatmif? rD;ckd; txGuf 'DZ,fqD xkwfvkyfaeMuwmvJ
qkdif&mawGudk azmfjycJhwJh pHjyK tdyaf Zmu xGuv f mwJh rD;cd;k udk rrsm;atmif? pDwdef;nTef;udef; tHhrcef;ygyJ/ a&eHpdrf;udk csuf
csufrsm;u qD tNrJaumif;ae jrif&ayr,fh rsufpdeJY rjrifEkdif jrifhaeatmif? qD tjr§Kyfrx NyD; usefaewJh atmufxidk f a&eH
apzkdY xdef;ausmif;ay;xm;wm bJ ygvmwJh trIefawGudkawmh atmif? qDtenftESpf rus acs;udk ukefMurf;vkyf? [kduf'½kd
jzpfygw,f/ (particulates) ygwDuv l wd v f Ykd atmif? at;wJh&moDrSm vG,f *sif "mwfaiGYeYJ "mwfjyKNyD; 'DZ,f
'D Z ,f tif * sif p uf y d k i f ; ac:Muygw,f/ qDxJrSm uefY vG,ef YJqcD rJ oGm;atmif? t&nf qD xkwfvkyfwJh enf;pOfawGeJY
bufu ruúifeDu,f tpdwf "mwfygav rD;cd;k rIef rsm;avyg taoG;rysuf qDukd cyfMumMum 'D Z ,f q D txG u f w k d ; atmif
tydkif; awG csdefukdufrI? wdusrI yJ/ EkdifiHawmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm odkavSmifEkdifatmifvdkY qkd;usKd; vnf;vkyaf eMuygw,f/ txl;
vdktyfovdk 'DZ,fqD&JU t&nf tif*sipf ufawGu xGuw f hJ rD;ck;d jzpfapwJhtcsufawGudk z,f&Sm; ojzifh EkdifiHtrsm;rSm ywf0ef;
taoG; raumif;&if tdyfaZm rIefawGeJY ywfoufNyD; wm;jrpf umuG,f avQmhcsEkdifwJh "mwk usif npfnrf;rI rjzpfapa&;udk
ykdufu xGufvmwJh taiGUawG jy|mef;csuaf wG jyKvyk af eMu&NyD aygif ; aq; (Chemical tav;xm;NyD; 'DZ,fqD t&nf
[m qD<uif;qDusefeJY a&mNyD; jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'DZ,fqD Additives) trsKd;rsKd; 'DZ,fqD taoG; xdef;csKyfrIwkdYudk *½kjyK
an§ m f e Y H y g xG u f v mwwf y g udk aumif;oxuf ydkaumif; xJudk a&mpyf xnfhay;Muyg aqmif&GufaeMu&ygaMumif;
w,f/ tqkd;qHk;uawmh tif atmif jyKvkyf aqmif&Gufcsuf w,f/ a&;om;wifjyygw,f/
*sifwGif;u ypfpwif*Gif;u awGvJ trsm;BuD;ygyJ/ tif*sif urÇmt&yf&yfrmS 'DZ,fqD rDSjirf; / 1995ckESpf? xkdif;EkdifiH
Mum;acsmifaer,f? puf 0ef twGif; pufykdif;qkdif&m tpdwf okH;pGJrI wkd;wuf rsm;jym;vm TPI uk r Ü P D E S i f h tar&d u ef
aqmiftm;u rsm;vGef;aer,f? tykdif;wkdY oHacs;rwufatmif? wmudk xkwfvkyfrItykdif;u Cheveron uk r Ü P D w k d Y a&eH
qDt0ifeYJ avyltcsK;d uvJrnD rkdufu½kd ykd;rTm;aumif (Micro vkud rf rDEidk af tmif jzpfvmawmh xGufypönf;rsm; t&nftaoG;
nGwfwJhtcg tdyfaZmtjynfh Biocide) rsm; uyfwG,fNyD; qD xGuforQ a&eHpdrf;rsKd;pkHuae qkdif&m aqG;aEG;csufrsm;/
xGufvmEkdifwJh rD;ckd;rnf;BuD; vrf;aMumif; rydwfqkdYatmif? 'DZ,fqD&&Sdatmif wkd;wufwJh at;ausmf
awGu ywf0ef;usifudk qkd;usKd; 'DZ,fqDeJY a&a&mNyD; vHk;vnf wufcaemfavmf*sDawG okH;NyD; Quality Services Limited

20 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


2006 Pixar rdwq
f uf
John Lasseter [m ,mOfarmif;xdkifcHkay: jyefa&mufvmygNyD/ ckepfESpfwmrQ Pixar rSaeí 0uf0ufuGJatmifjrifcJhwJh 3D animation
um;awG zefwD;ay;cJholyg/ tjcm;'g½dkufwmrsm;tm; pdwful;tMuHtpnfrS ouf0ifvIyf&Sm;rI animation ½kyf&Sifum;rsm;odkY b,fvkd
ul;ajymif;&r,fqkdwm ulnDvrf;jyay;cJhw,f/ Toy Story eJY A Bug's Life ½kyf&Sif um;rsm;aemufuG,frS vl[m ZGefvrSm Cars
½kyf&SifeJY jyefvmygNyD/ Lightning McQueen vdkYac:wJh NydKifum;uav;&JU b0qdkwm tqHk;owfyef;wdkifu t"dur[kwf? jzwf
oef;oGm;vmpOf c&D;vrf;urQ ta&;BuD;aMumif; oif,l em;vnfrIwpfckjzpfygw,f/ vlyk*d¾KvfawG&JU jyif;xefwJh pdwftpGJu Pixar
&JU atmifjrifrIudk armif;ESifwmyg/ 'gaMumifh Lasseter u 'Darmfawmf,mOfudk a&G;vdkufwm tHhMop&mr[kwfyg/ olu um;awGudk
cspfjrwfEdk; 0goemygoljzpfygw,f/ i,f&G,fpOftcgu Chevrolet um;ta&mif;qdkifawGrSm tcsdefukefapcJhNyD; ajrmuftar&du
tjynfjynfqdkif&mum;jyyGJrsm;odkYvnf; ESpfpOf wufa&mufw,f/ olpkaqmif;xm;wJh armfawmf,mOf 10 pD;rSm 1952
Jaguar eJY Hendrick Motorsports Monte Carlo um;awGvnf;ygw,f/ a[m'DrSm
Lasseter &JU pdwfaZmeJY ydwfum;jyifay:a&muf&Sdatmif MuHaqmif
cJhaom tif*sifeD,mtwwfynmrsm;yg/

uGeyf sLwmjzifh xde;f csKyf xkwv


f yk jf cif;
jrifaeus umwGef;½kyf&Sif yHkpHrsKd;eJY
rwlatmif Lasseter eJt Y zG[
UJ m ½kyf
ypönf;t& ppfrSefr,fh,mOfrsKd;awG
zefwD;cJhygw,f/ umwGef;xJuvkd
um;awGudk usKHUqefY? ydefazmif;
tppftrSef obm0usonfh 'DZdkif; rjzpfapcsifyg/ wu,fh um;udk
½kyf&Sif&JUtoGiftjrifeJY cHpm;&rIudk tm½Hk0ifpm;Edkif&ef Lasseter eJY tzGJU[m cdkifcHhrIeJY tav;csdefrsKd; &SdapvdkcJh
ajcmuf&ufMum uGi;f qif; avhvmcJMh uw,f/ Cadillacs av;pD;eJY oGm;vm&if; w,f/ Pixar &JU apps topfet YJ wl
tzGJUtaeeJY "mwfyHkawG ½dkuf,l? a'ocHawGeJY awGUqHkar;jref;NyD;wJhaemuf um;&JaU bmifxnf? a&Smb h m;? bD;vH;k ?
Zmwfaumif Mater jzpfvmr,fh um;qGu J &de;f um;udak wmif awGv U m&w,f/ tefwefemawG tay: j'yfqGJtm;eJY
Animations awGu uk, d yf ikd pf ak qmif;xm;wJh um;½kyyf akH wG avhvmcJNh y;D Detroit t&SdefEIef; oufa&mufrIawG oGifwl
Auto Show rS um;'DZi kd ef mawGev YJ J awGq
U ckH w
hJ ,f/ Nascar NyKd iyf rJG sm;pGmodv
Yk J jyKcJhyg w,f/ um;wm,mawGu
wufa&mufcJhw,f/ zdtm;udk wHkYjyefrI&Sdw,f/
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 25
21
  

½kyf0w¬K\ pwkw¬tajctae
  

yvyfprmqdw
k m wDAt
DG wGuo
f m r[kwyf g
tpdkiftcJ? t&nf? taiGU ]rD;}vdkY oif rSef;&if oif tdkif;,Gef;aqmif"mwfaiGU
[m tenf ; qH k ; awmh vrf ; udk 1800 jynfhESpfrSm t*Fvdyf
Ny;D awmh bmjzpfrvJ? vlrsK;d qm0Dv, D cH &Gwu f yxr
aMumif;rSefay: a&mufaeNyD/
jrefjrefajz/ tajzu yvyfprm plasma qHk; azmfjycJhw,f/ 'gayr,hf
½kyf0w¬K&JU jzpfygw,f/ yvyfprmqdkwm 1928 a&muf r S tar&d u ef
pwkwt ¬ ajcu bmvJ? tdkif;,Gef;jzpfaewJh tufwrf "mwkynm&Sif tmAifvefrl&m;
rsm;ygaom "mwfaiGU jzpfyg u yvyfprmvdkY trnfay;cJh
trSeaf wmh w,f/ tDvufx&GefawG jyKwf w,f/ odyÜHynm&SifawGu ¤if;
*Re?f ayg? a*sm?h &if*kd xGufaewJh tufwrfawGjzpfyg wdkY&JU jyKrlyHk enf;vrf;awG xdk
(bDwaJ v;a,muf)vdk w,f/ tJ'D twGufaMumifh twd k i f ; jzpf & jcif ; tajccH
rSnahf c: &wm yvyfprmawGrSm oHvdkufeJY taMumif;w&m;rsm; em;vnf
vQyfppfpufuGif;awGygNyD; ¤if; Edkifatmif BudK;pm;aeMuw,f/
vG,o f ifw h ,f/ pMu0Vm &JU wdkY[m rarQmfrSef;EdkifwJh vrf; 'D v d k rod E d k i f a o;wJ h
90 &mcdik Ef eI ;f udk tJ'geYJ aMumif;eJY vIyf&Sm;aeMuw,f/ twGuaf Mumifyh J yvyfprmawG
zGpUJ nf;xm;ygw,f/ 0ef;usiftajctaeajymif;&if [m olwdkY &oifhwJh fourth
yvyfprmu vdkufajymif;NyD; state of matter qdkwJh *kPfyk'f
urÇmudk tJ'geYJ
oufa&muftm;eJY wefjyefouf tjynft h 0r&ao;wmjzpfr,f/
vTr;f jcKH xm;w,f/ a&muf t m;Mum;u tquf 'gayr,fh 'gu ajymif;oGm;p&m
atmf½&kd mvdaYk c:whJ rjywf uckefrIvdk jzpfaeyg &Sdygw,f/ yvyfprmwDAGDawG
0if½;kd pGe;f a'o tvif; w,f/ tNrJtm;jzifh ¤if;wdkY[m aMumifhawmh r[kwfyg/ (yvyf
yljyif;ayr,fh at;wJhtcgawG prmwDAGDawGrSm at;aom tdkif; tv,ftlwdkif[m cJxuf odyf
awmufru I tJ'g&UJ vnf; &Sdygw,f/ tJ'Dt&mawG ,Gef;jyK yvyfprmawGu 0ef onf;NyD; tvGefyljyif;vSwJh
vSyaom erlemwpfck udk UCLA wuúodkvf ajr us,fBuD;rm;apwJh cathode yvyfprmjzpfygw,f/ tylcsdef
jzpfygw,f/ vQyfpD; atmuf"mwfcGJcef;rSm prf;oyf ray tube enf;ynmudk z,f pifw*D &dwf 15 oef;&Syd gw,f/
vufwmvnf; tJ'gyJ/ okawoejyKaeolu ]yvyf &Sm;ay;w,f) tJ'DrSm tufwrf&JU EsLuvD;
prmawGrSm olwdkYudk,fydkifb0 yvyfprmawGu pGrf;tif ,yfpaf wG aygif;pyfuek Nf yD; BuD;
aeudk jyKvyk x f m;wmvnf; jzpfwnfrI} &SdaMumif; ajymyg &if ; jrpf o pf t wG u f t"d u rm;vSwhJ pGr;f tifawG xGuv f m
tJ'Dt&meJYyJ jzpfygw,f/ w,f/ aomhcsuf jzpfygw,f/ ae&JU w,f/ q,fpkESpfrsm;pGm odyÜH
22 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
Who Knew?
awGrSm ao;rQifwJh t&Sdefjr§ifh t&nftnpftaMu; ydkpkyfEdkif
yvyfprmawG oHk;Edkifygw,f/ atmif vkyfay;w,f/ yvyf
at;wJh yvyfprmawGu ukef pwpf tmvl;aMumftdwfawGrSm
xkwfvkyfrIawGrSm r&Sdrjzpf vdk rifpGJatmifvnf; vkyfay;Edkif
tyfw,f/ Oyrmtm;jzifh ¤if; ygw,f/
udk oHk;NyD; uGefysLwm cspfyf Old Dominion Uni-
ay:u owif;tcsuftvuf versity rS ½lyaA' ynm&Sif
o,fwJhajrmif;awG azmfay; Mounir Laroussi u ol[m
w,f/ wuúov kd wf pfcrk S ynm txufwef;ausmif;om;b0u
&Siuf cold plasma pD;aMumif; yvyfprmudk vHk;0 rMum;zl;cJh
i,f ypfvw T w
f hJ cJww
H pfrsKd; jyK wJh taMumif; ajymjyygw,f/
vkyfcJhw,f/ ¤if;[m omref 'gayr,fh ol wuúodkvfa&muf
tm;jzifhqkdvQif tylaMumifh awmh tJ't D aMumif;awG odvm
avmifuRrf;oGm;Edkifr,fh cGJpdwf &w,f/ pMu0VmxJrSm ¤if;wdkY
ud&d,mawG ydk;owfEdkifr,f/ awG tvGefrsm;jym;NyD; toHk;cs
tom;rSm [NyJwJh 'Pf&mawG p&m tvm;tvmvJ trsm;
ydk;rul;atmif vkyfEdkifr,f/ BuD; &Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh wpfaeY
tjcm;qJvfawG rxdcdkufapbJ tJ'g[m tpdkiftcJ? t&nf?
AufwD;&D;,m; qJvfeH&HawG taiGU NyD;&if ½kyf0w¬KeJY pwkw¬
aygufNyJum owfypfEdkifap tajctjzpf vlwdkif;odvmr,f
w,f/ wpfcgoHk; uav; cg; vdkY olu a[mudef;xkwfxm;
awmif;usKduft0wfpawGrSm ygw,f/

ynm&SifawGu ae&JU EsLuvD; olwdkYxnfhay;vdkufwJh pGrf;tif


,m;aygif;pyfjcif;enf;vrf;udk xuf ydkNyD; xGufvmatmif
ykw
H u
l ;l zdYk vyk af eMuwm vlwikd ;f rwwfEdkifMuao;bl;/ olwkdY
odygw,f/ olwdkY[m tylcsdef [m ydkBuD;wJh "mwfaygif;zdkawG
tvGefjrifhatmif vkyfxm;wJh vdkygw,f/
yvyfprmawGoHk;aom "mwf yvyfprmudk toH;k jyKrIu
aygif;zdak wG wnfaqmufaeMu aMumufcref;vdvd wdk;yGm;vm
w,f/ 'gayr,fh tckxdawmh aeygw,f/ tem*wf'Hk;puf
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 23
tdyfa&;00
tdyMf u&atmif
tdy&f mu apmapmx? ½H;k ud?k aps;ud?k ausmif;udk ponf jzifh
taMumif;trsK;d rsK;d eJY tajy;tvTm;oGm;? wpfaeukew f pfaecef;
ynmtwGu?f aiGtwGu?f pm;zdaYk omufzt Ykd wGu?f zwfoD zwfoeD YJ
vky&f udik &f / naeapmif;awmh tvkyrf jywfou l qufvyk ?f
tyef;ajyqkNd y;D wpf cGuf wpfzvm;u &Sad o;? Zmwfvrf;wGaJ v;u
vnf;aumif;? 'DaeYnOD;rSm abmvH;k yG?J vnf; &Sad ejyef? 'Dvekd YJ
nrSm apmapm rtdyjf zpf? tdyjf yef&ifvnf; tdu k w f m&,f?
jcifuukd w f m&,feYJ awmfawmfeYJ tdyrf aysm?f reufus
apmapmx wpfaeYwm oHo&m vnf&jyefw,f/ 'Davmuf
Am[D& tvkyf rsm;vSwhJ avmuBu;D rSm tdyaf &; odyrf 0Muwm
tusiu hf ygaeNy/D rtdyrf ae touf&n S f qkw d mrsK;d upNy;D
taumif;bufu vSnahf wG;? vSnahf jym wwfMuw,f/
tdyaf &;00 tdyzf vYdk w kd t
hJ aMumif; tdycf sed ef nf;wm
aumif;w,f xifwhJ olawGukd ajymcsiyf gw,f/

1
ydeyf ed yf g;yg;av; jzpfwmaygh wpfn 8 em&D tdyfwJhvlawG
rSm;ygw,f/ Am*sD;eD;,m; xuf 15 &mcdik Ef eI ;f ydrk sm;w,f/
rSm okawoejyKMunfhawmh tJ'D*&Dvif;udk wefjyefNyD; pm;
odyfrtdyfwJholawGu ydk0yg csifpdwfenf;apwJh vufywif
w,fw/hJ b&pfpwke;f rSm okaw Leptin qdwk hJ a[mfrek ;f "mwfu
oejyKNyD; &Sif;jyMuwmuawmh awmh 15&mcdik Ef eI ;f enf;ygowJ/h
wpfnrSm 5 em&DavmufyJ tdyf (rtdyfbJ pm;wJholawG jzpfrSm
wJoh al wGrmS *&Dvif; Ghrelin aygh/ rtdyfvnf;rtdyf? pm;
qdkwJh pm;aomufcsifpdwf vIHY vnf;rpm;&&ifawmh ydeaf jcmuf
aqmf w J h a[mf r k e f ; "mwf u ajcmufBuD; jzpfvmEdkifygw,f)
24 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
xm;wJholu 12 em&DvHk;vHk; Edk; yHk aygufaevdrfhr,f/ avhvm aumifayguft&G,af wGrmS pdwf
aecJhwJholxufomwm awGU& awGU&Scd sufawGt& wpfnudk 6 us a&m*gjzpfwm? odrif ,fpw d f
ygw,f/ aemuf avhvmrIwpfck em&D? 7 em&D tdyfwJhvlawGu awG 0ifwmawG[m tdyfa&;r0
u nrSm tvkyfvkyfolawG&JU 4-5 em&DyJ tdyfwJhvlawGxuf wmeJY tawmfqufpyfaew,f
awG;ac:EdkifrItpGrf;u tJ'D toufydk&SnfygowJh/ vdkY qkdygw,f/ vlysKdayguf?
tcsdefrSma&m aemufwpfaeY tysKdaygufawG t&ufpGJ? rl;
txda&m aES;auG;av;vHaeyg ,pfaq;pGJEdkifajc[m tdyfa&;
owJh/ 5 r0wJholawGu ESpfq ydkrsm;yg
ajympum;em;axmifNy;D vdrm® a&; owJh/
jcm; &So
d wJh uJ tdyfa&;00 tdyfMu&
3 [kwfyghrvm;/ uav; atmif/
ckcHEdkifrIpGrf;tm;awG aumif; av;qkd&ifawmh odyf&if tdyf 0if;aqG
vmapw,f vdkuf? Edk;vdkuf? EdkYpdkYvdkuf? jyef Reader's Digest April,
rSm;ygw,f/ pdwu f sa&m*g tdyfvdkufeJY [kwfwmaygh/ NrD; 2006.
jzpfaewJh oufBuD;&G,ftdkawG
udk avhvmMunfhwJhtcg n
wdkif;rSm aumif;aumif;tdyf
raysmfwwfMuwmaMumifh aoG;
xJrSm a&m*gydk;rTm;udk ckcHwJh
qJvaf wG enf;aewmudk awGU&
w,f/ r,fvfwdkeif melato-
nim qkw d hJ uifqmudk ckcEH ikd w
f hJ
antioxidant "mwf ypönf;u
ntdyfaysmfaecsdefrS cE¨mudk,f
wGi;f rSm xkwv f yk w
f m/ tdycf sed ?f
Edk;csdef rrSefwJh nqdkif; tvkyf
orawGrSm &ifom;uifqmjzpf
zdkY 70 &mcdkifEIef; ydkygowJh/

2
ÓPfyakd umif;vmapr,f 4
rSm;ygw,f/ tdypf ufw,f apmapmrtdb
k ;l
qdkwmu OD;aESmufxJrSm rSwf rSm;ygw,f/ tdyaf &;quf
ÓPfacsmif;topf new me- wduk yf sufae&if cE¨mud, k rf mS &Sd
mories stick vkyfay;aewm wJh umAdk [dkuf'&dwf "mwf
yg/ [m;AwfrS prf;oyfrIwpfck ajymif;jzpfpOfeJY a[mfrkef;xkwf
u pE´&m;wD;ovdkrsKd; vuf vk y f i ef ; pOf u d k xd c k d u f a pyg
acsmif;awGudk rSwfÓPfeJY wpf w,f/ 'gqdk&if apmapmtdkNyD;
NydKifeuf tvkyfvkyfcdkif;wJhtcg tbkd;BuD;? tbGm;BuD;awGvdk
vGefcJhwJh 12 em&DvHk;vHk; tdyf jzpf½rkH ubJ emwm&Snf vlrrm
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 25

    

'gawG . . . oifoyd gp
 
«1» vdyfjymrsm;[m olwdkY ajc wJh tif*sifeD,mu tJonf
axmufu t&omcHw,f/ txJrSm xm;r,fh pmtkyfawG&JU
«2» bJawGatmfoHrSm vdkPf tav;csdefudk xnfhrwGufrd
acgif;oH rygbl;/ bmaMumifhvJ vdkYwJh/
b,folrQ rodbl;/ «11» yufusw d pfaumif[m oH;k
«3» [m&Dudef; avrkefwdkif;&JU ESpfavmuf tdyfEdkifw,f/
10 rdepftwGif; xkwfvkyfwJh «12» uREfkyfwdkY rsufpdawG[m
pGrf;tm;[m urÇmay:rSm &Sd&Sd arG;uwnf;u 'Dtwdkif;txGm
orQ EsLuvD;,m; "mwfaygif; twdkif; &Sdayr,fh ESmacgif;eJY em;
zdkawGu xkwfay;Edkifwmxuf &Gufrsm;uawmh BuD;wm b,f
awmif ydkao;w,f/ awmhrQr&yfawmhb;l wJ?h aMumuf tqifjhrifhenf;ynmrsm;ukd
«4» vlomrefawG[m yifhul p&mBuD;/
udk aMumufwm aorif;udk «13» ao'Pfay;wJh vQyfppf rcspMfuao;yg
aMumufwmxuf ydkrsm;w,f/ ukvm;xdik u f kd wDxiG cf w
hJ m oGm;
«5» wd&pämefavmuom;awG q&m0ef wpfa,mufwJh/ xnfhoGif;xm;onfh abmvHk;
xJrSm ckefvdkYr&wm qifyJ&Sd «14» ydkvm0uf0HawG tm;vHk; udk *smref ukrÜPDrsm;jzpfonfh
w,f/ [m b,foefawGqdkyJ/ 'Cairos Technologies ESifh
«6» vl 2 bDvD,HrSmrS wpf 2006 ckESpf urÇmhzvm; 'Fraunhofer Institute for
«15» a&S;acwf tD*spfjynfrSm
a,mufyJ touf 116 ESpf abmvHk; yGJpOfwpfckwGif jzpf Integrated Circuit' wdkYu
bmoma&; bkef;BuD;rsm;[m
odkYr[kwf ydkae&wwfw,f/ onfh ZGefv 10 &ufü upm; wDxGifcJhMuygonf/ odkYaomf
udk,fcE¨may:u tarG;rSeforQ oGm;cJhonfh tm*sifwD;em;ESifh ,ck jyKvkyaf eaom urÇmzh vm;
«7» EGm;wpfaumifudk tdrf Ekwfypfw,f/ rsufcHk;arG;eJY rsuf tdkifA&DudkYpftoif;wdkY\ yGJpOf yGJwGif xnfhoGif; toHk;jyK&ef
tay:xyfudk ac:oGm;vdkY&Edkif awmif arG;yg tygt0if/ \ 14 rdepftMumwGif tdkifA&D vufrcHEdkifMuao;yg/
r,f/ tdrfay:u atmufqif; «16» iSufukvm;tkwf&JU O[m udYk p\
f *d;k pnf;twGi;f odYk abm tb,faMumifhenf;/
cdik ;f vdYk awmh &rSm r[kwb f ;l / olY&JU OD;aESmufxufawmif BuD; vH;k a&mufomG ;cJo h nfukd xdpk Of ]]vlom;awG&JU rsufpdu
«8» rdef;rwpfa,muf&JU rsuf w,f/ u tjiif;yGm;zG,fjzpfcJhaomf uGefysLwmpufawGvdk rjrefyg
awmif cwf wJh t Budrf [m «17» vufESdyfpuf ½dkuf &if vnf; *dk;r&cJhyg/ wDADGrS jyefjy bl;/ 'gayr,fh vlom;rsm;&JU
a,musfm; wpfa,mufxuf Typewriter qdkwJh pmvHk;
onfhtcg xdkabmvHk;onf pd w f u uG e f y sLwmpuf r sm;
ESpfq rsm;w,f/ *dk;pnf;twGif; ausmfaecJhonf xuf ydkNyD; odrfarGUygw,f/
wpfvHk;wnf;yJ wpfwef;xJrSm
udk jrifMu&jyefygonf/ odYkaomf abmvH k ; yG J a wG r S m ol w d k Y &J U
«9» ud, k cf E¨mzGpUJ nf;yHt
k & oif &SdwJh pmvHk;awGeJY ½dkufw,f/
yGJu NyD;qHk;oGm;cJhygNyD/ 'Dvdk rsufESmawGu rSefuefwJh qHk;
[m oifh&JU wHawmifqpfudk «18» 'Dpmudk zwfrdwJh abmf'g tNiif;yGm;zG,f udpö&yfrsm;udk jzwfcsufawG jyay;aeygw,f}}
vQmeJY vsufvdkY r&bl;/ tm;vHk;vdkvdk ukd,fhwHawmif ajz&Sif;EdkifzdkY&m odyÜHenf;ynm [k abmvH;k 0ufbq f u
kd w
f pfcrk S
«10» tdEd´, wuúodkvf&JU t"d qpfudk vQmeJY vsufMunhfMu &yfrsm;udk wDxGifcJhMuNyD; prf; t,f'w D mwpfO;D u qdyk gonf/
u pmMunfhwdkuf[m ESpfpOf vdrfhr,f/ oyfrIrsm;vnf; jyKvkyfcJhMuyg wpfenf;qdk&vQif enf;ynm
wpfESpfudk wpfvufr edrfhqif; onf/ ¤if;twGuf 'smartball' rsm;onf abmvH k ; yG J M unf h
aew,f/ bmjzpfvdkYvJqkdawmh &Tifvef;Muygap ac: RFID (Radio Freq- y&dowf\ cHpm;rI&oudk em;
tJ'D taqmuftOD;udk aqmuf udqk ef; (R/O) uency Identification) cspfyf vnfray;Edkifí jzpfonf/
26 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
THIS WEEK   

BRONTOK qdw
k hJ yd;k uav;   

,ck &ufyikd ;f twGi;f uGef ae&muae tjcm; tD;ar;vf


ysLwmrsm;rSm Adik ;f &yfpf 0ifw,f vdyfpmrsm;odkYvnf; ul;pufap
qdv k m; toHMum;vdYk Munfrh yd g ygw,f/ aemuf pD'D? flash
w,f/ emrnfu 'Brontok' qdk pen ponfwdkYrSvnf; tjcm;
NyD; jrifvu kd &f ygw,f/ 'kua© y; uGefysLwmrsm;odkY ul;ukefyg
yHku qdk;qdk;0g;0g;awmh r[kwf w,f/ ul;pufEIef; tvGef jref
ao;ygbl;/ zdkvf'gawG yGm;vm ygw,f/
aeygw,f/ txl;ojzifh zdkifudk ¤if; Worm udk 2005 ckEpS f
uvpfESpfcsuf EdSyfvdkufwmeJY 'DZifbm v 30 &ufu pwif ¤if;udk jrifvnf; jrifEdkifyg 1.5 Beta' jzpfygw,f/ 1MB
yGm;ukefawmhwmygyJ/ pufudk awGU&dScJhw,fvdkY qdkygw,f/ w,f/ 'gwifru atmufyg awmif r&dSyg/ tifwmeufu
pzGifhvdkufwmeJY teufa&mif rl v zd k i f u ae Brontok-L, zdv
k 'f grsK;d wpfcck u
k v
kd nf; wnf ae tcrJh download &,lEdkif
0if;'dk;pfjrifuGif;awG ay:ae&if Brontok-C ponfjzifh ver- aqmufwwfygw,f/ ygw,f/
'Brontok' &daS eNyDomrSwaf wmh/ sion topfawG yGm;ae&m ,ck
1/ %Windir%\j[RANDOM].exe
emrnfBuD; 'AVG anti-virus 'W32.Rontok-bro.Z@ mm'
odkY a&mufaeNyD jzpfygw,f/ 2/ %Windir%\o[RANDOM].exe
'vnf; rEdkifawmhyg/ 'AVG,
a&SUqufNyD;awmhvnf; vsijf ref 3/ %Windir%\_default[RANDOM].pif
virus, anti-virus, Brontok
ponf Adkif;&yfpfeJY ywfoufwJh aomEIe;f eJYymG ;aeqJjzpfygw,f/ 4/ %Windir%\c_[RANDOM]k.com

pmvHk; wpfckckudk ½dkufvdkufwm ¤if;onf zdik f t&G,t f pm; bmyJjzpfjzpf uGefysLwm aemuf aqmhzf0Jwpfcku
eJY? 'grSr[kwf uvpf EdSyfvdkuf 45,120 bytes &dSí tD;ar;vf xJudk Adkif;&yfpf 0ifaeNyDqdku 'Ultimate Washer 1.0' jzpf
wmeJY ¤if;zdik u
f kd zGirhf &awmhyg/ taeeJY 0ifcJh&if 'Photo.zip' wnf;u pdwf rcsrf;omp&m ygw,f/ vdyfpmu 'http://
wu,fawmh ¤if;Adik ;f &yfpf qdkwJh csKHUzdkifwpfcktjzpf 0if tjzpfyg/ pdwftaESmifht,Suf jeruk.padinet.com' jzpfvdkY
\ rl&if;trnfu 'W32.Ron a&mufygw,f/ tif'dkeD;&Sm; vnf; jzpf&wmayghAsm/ vuf&Sd tif'dkeD;&Sm;bmompum;vdkYyJ
-tokbro' jzpfNyD; e-mail worm odkYr[kwf rav;&Sm;bmom tm;jzifh 'Symantec Anti- xifygw,f/ aemuf aqmhzf0J
trsKd;tpm; jzpfonf/ tifwm pum;eJY qdk&if 'Fotoku yg Virus and Norton Anti- wpfcku Sophos Anti-Virus
euf tD;ar;vftaeeJY 0ifa&muf Paling Cantik' jzpfNyD; t*Fvy df Virus' eJY owfMunhfygvm;/ for Windows jzpfygw,f/
vmNyD; tJ'D uGefysLwmxJu vdk 'I want to share my photo aemufqHk; tqifhjr§ifhwmxm; Adkif;&yfpf wpfrsKd;rsKd; ay:NyDqdk
Registry rSm 0ifNyD;wG,fuyf with you' jzpfygw,f/ wJh version eJYqdk ydk aumif;yg awmhvnf; olYudk owfzdkY&m
'ku©ay;yHktaeeJY ]vHk r,f/ Edition 10.0, 2006 qdk aqmhz0f aJ wGvnf; xGuv f mMu
NcHKrI tqifhudk avsm wJh version rsKd;yg/ ¤if; Nor- wmygyJ/ 'gvnf; pD;yGm;a&;
h y g;apNyD ; pepf u d k ton udk active vkyfxm;&if aps;uGuf wpfck jzpfaewmud;k /
rwnfrNidrf jzpfap tjyifu ygvmr,fh 'Brontok' ¤if;wdkYudk 14 &uf odkYr[kwf
wmygvdkY qdkygw,f/ udk t&if owfay;ygw,f/ &uf 30 prf;oyfumvtaeeJY
aemuf 0if;'dk;pfpepf uGefysLwmxJudk t0if rcHbl; ay;NyD; 0,f&ygvdrfhr,f/ uGef
tm;vHk;udk 0ifa&muf qdkygawmh/ Adkif;&yfpftm;vHk;udk ysLwm e,fy,frSmawmh 'Dvdk
Edkifygw,f/ ol ul; tjynfht0 owfzdkYawmh enf; tjzpfrsKd;u oHo&m vnfae
pufNyDqdkwmeJY 'Baca vrf;awG vduk ef mzdYk vdyk gw,f/ OD;rSmyg/ 'D Brontok udk pepf
Bro !!!.txt' zdkif wpf ¤if;udk tjynfhtpHk a&;ygOD; wus owfNyD;&if tao;pdwf
zdkifudk :C\ rSm wnf r,f/ aemuf aqmhzf0Jwpfcku a&;ygr,f/
aqmufvu kd yf gw,f/ 'Brontok Washer version

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 27


tvif;eJY ta&mif
tvif;qdwk mvnf; pGr;f tifwpfrsK;d ygy/J 'DurÇmBu;D rSm jzpfay:aewJh tvif;pGr;f tifawG
[m aeuwpfqifh &&Swd mrsm;w,f/ rD;oD;? rD;xGe;f xm;wJh za,mif;wkid ef YJ wcsKUd wd&pämef
ouf&SdawGu tvif;pGrf;tif xkwfay;wmawGvnf; &Sdao;w,f/

wajzmifw
h ef;wef; oGm;jcif;ESihf t&dyjf zpfay: jcif;
tvif;wef;awG[m wajzmifhwef;wef; a&GUvsm;jzwfoef;Muw,f/ olYudk
jzwfoef;&mvrf;aMumif;rSm tvif;ydw0f w¬Kwpfck Ä
umqD;xm;&if tJ'0D w¬Kukd auGrU oGm;Ekid w f Jt
h wGuf tvif;wef;awG[m ajzmifh
tvif;wef; ydwof mG ;wJah e&mawGrmS t&dyo f P²mef ajzmifwh ef;wef;yJ vif;jzm
jzpfay:vm&w,f/ wwfwJhoabm &Sdw,f/
tvif;wef;oGm;&mvrf;rSm
tvif;wef;[m aMu;rHkudk tvif;jyef t&m0w¬Kwpfck ydwq f v
Ykd m&if
rsuEf mS jyifwpfcu k kd xd½ukd rf w
d thJ cg auGUroGm;EkdifwJhtwGuf tvif;
axmifch sK;d tvif;jyefEidk w f ,f/ ydwq f NYkd y;D t&dyo
f P²mefawG
jzpfay:vm&w,f/

Ä
tvif;axmifch sK;d auGw U mudk
oifukd,fwkdif vkyfMunfhvkdY
&w,f/ rSecf syaf y: tvif; xk;d
ay;&if tvif;wef;udk vd&k m
axmifch sK;d auGaU y;vd&Yk w,f/

tvif;\tvsif
rD;cvkwzf iG v hf u
kd w
f meJY tcef;wpfcv k ;kH udk tvif;a&mif
wpfr[k wk cf si;f xGe;f jzmoGm;vdrrhf ,f/ tvif;wef;awG[m
tvGev f sijf refwJh tvsief JY a&Gv
U sm;Ekid Mf uw,f/ wpfpuúeq Yf w
kd Jh
tcsed yf rmPtwGi;f uDvrkd w D m 300ç000 'grrS [kwf
rdik t
f m;jzifh 186ç000 rkid f c&D;ayguaf &mufEidk w
f ,f/

yd;k pke;f MuL; (Glow worms) wpfaumifu


jzpfay:whJ vif;tm;yrmP[m pwD&, D kd
uufqufawGrmS tm;tenf;? trsm;jywJh aeuaevmwJh tvif;wef;awG[m urÇmajrudk
LED rD;oD;wpfv;kH pmavmuf xGe;f vif;w,f/
a&mufzYkd tcsed f 8 rdepfyJ Mumw,f/

28 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


tvif;aMumifh jzpfay:aom tjrifcHpm;rI
vl&rUJ suv
f ;kH [m tvif;wef;udk pkqakH pNy;D tjriftm½Hck EH idk af tmif wnfaqmufxm;
wmaMumifh tvif;a&mif tm;ud;k Ny;D t&m0w¬KawGukd ½IjrifEidk w f ,f/ t&m0w¬Kwpfcu
k kd
jrif&w,fqw kd m tJ'0D w¬Ktay: tvif;wef;awG xdcu kd rf &d mu jyefuef xGuv f mwJh
tvif;wef;awGukd rsupf ed YJ tm½Hck pH m;Ny;D o½kycf MJG unfjh cif; jzpfw,f/

Prism qdw
k hJ oH;k ajrm§ ifzh efw;kH [m
olt Y ay: usa&mufvmwJh
tjzLtvif;wef;rSmygwJh
ta&mif aygi;f pyfta&mifwpfcck si;f udk
tjzLa&mifawmufawmuf tvif;wef;wpfc[ k m oD;oefY cGJjzmay;Ekid w
f ,f/
ta&mifrwl tvif;wef;awGtm;vH;k aygi;f pyf yg0if&mu
jzpfay:vm&jcif;jzpfw,f/

rsupf t d a&mifawG cGjJ cm; jrifawG&U jcif; tcsKaUd om t&m0w¬KawG[m tjzLtvif;wef;


tvif;wef;xJ ygwhJ ta&mifawG tm;vH;k xJu ta&mif y&pfqifoYkd xd½u kd f
wpfcw k nf;udyk J tvif;jyefapvdyYk J jzpfw,f/ usew f thJ a&mifawGukd wd;k 0if jzwfoef;pOf
pky,f l xm;vku d v f yYkd g/ Oyrm tpdr;f a&mif&w
dS hJ opf&uG w f pf&u
G f
pdr;f ae&jcif;[m olt Y ay: us a&mufwhJ tvif;wef;tm;vH;k eD;yg;udk
pky, f Nl y;D tpdr;f a&mif wpfrsK;d wnf;udyk J rpky, f bl J
jyefxkwfvTwfay;vdkYjzpfw,f/
y&pfqifrS jyeftxGuf
tvif;wef;rsm; cGjJ zmoGm;pOf

'gawGukd odygp
À vl&UJ rsuv f ;kH [m ta&mifrsK;d uGJ 10 oef;avmuf
ukd cGjJ cm;Ny;D tm½Hck pH m;Ekid w
f ,f/
À wcsKdUvlawGusjyefawmh colorblind ac:wJh
ta&mifuef;olawG jzpfay:wwfw,f/ ta&mif
wcsKdUudkyJ tm½HkcHpm;Ekdifw,f/ teDeJY tpdrf;udk
aocsm rcGjJ cm;Ekid Mf ubl;/
À wd&pämeftrsm;pk[m ta&mifudk rodMubl;/
tjzL? trnf;udyk J tm½Hck pH m;Ekid Mf uw,f/
À 'DpMu0VmBuD;xJrSm &Sd&SdorQt&m0w¬Ktm;vHk;
[m b,favmufyJ jrefjrefa&Gv U sm;onf jzpfap
tvif;a&mif&UJ tjrefEeI ;f xufawmh ydjk refatmif
vkyzf Ykd rjzpfEidk b
f ;l /

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 29


toH
toH[mvnf;yJ pGr;f tifwpfcjk zpfw,f/ t&m0w¬KawG a&Sw U ;kd aemufqw
k f wkecf g&mu toH
jzpfay:vmNy;D avxJ? tpdik t
f cJxJeJY t&nfxJukd toHviId ;f awG jzwfoef;oGm;Ekid Mf uw,f/ 'gayr,fh
avr&Sw d Jh Avme,fxJrmS awmh toH rjzwfoef;Ekid b
f ;l /

toHwkefcgrI
AHyk Jw;D wD;? pum;yJajymajym? vufcyk yf Jw;D wD; avxJu
armfvu D sL;uav;awG vIyf cgomG ;&w,f/ toHjzpfay:&m
t&m0w¬KawGuae avxJeYJ tjcm;Mum;cH t&m0w¬KawGxJ
toHviId ;f awG jzwfoef;Ny;D em;xJ0ifa&muf&mu toHukd
Mum;&jcif;jzpfw,f/

'H;k usnw f pfck ypfpifu


vGwu f if;&mrSm xGuaf y:wJh
toHtiftm;yrmP[m 180
'ufpb D ,favmuf &Sw d mrdYk
em;udk 'kua© y;Ekid wf ,f/

cavmufa>r (rattlesnake) awG[m ol&Y UJ tNr;D rsm;udk vIycf g


toHjyK&if; &efou l kd ajcmufveS EYf iS x
f w
k zf Ykd BuKd ;pm;avh &Sw
d ,f/
toHus,fjcif;? wkd;jcif; tNr;D zsm;rSm&Sw
d hJ t½d;k EkuiG ;f uav;awG vIycf g rIuae av
toHus,fus,fMum;&zdkY[m armfvu D sL;awGukd vufqifu h rf; vIycf gap&mu toH
b,ftwkdif;twmyrmPxd toH jzpfay:vmapw,f/
wkecf grI jyKovJqw
kd hJ tcsuaf y:
rlwnfaew,f/ toH&JU yrmPtiftm;udk
'ufpD b,f ,lepf (decibels unit) eJY
wdkif;wmavh&Sdw,f/ Z,m;rSm rd;k Ncrd ;f oH
rwlujJG ym;wJh toHtrsK;d rsK;d &JU wD;wdk;ajymoH
20 dB zkepf yk pf ufoH 115 dB
qwdk;tus,f yrmPudk 72 dB
wkdif;wm azmfjyxm;w,f/
opf&GufvIyfoH azsm&f nfpuf? *suaf v,mOfuiG ;f
10 dB pum;qdkjrnfoH armfwmvnfoH rS ysw
H ufoH
50 dB 130 dB
88 dB
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

30 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


toHtedr?hf tjrifh
wkecf gEeI ;f jrifwh hJ toHawGukd tjrifo h H (high sounds) vdYk ac:Ny;D wkecf gEeI ;f edrw
hf hJ toHawGukd tedro
hf H
(low sounds) vdYk ac:w,f/ toHerd jhf rifjh zpfru I kd pitch vdYk ac: w,f/ wcsKUd owå0gawG[m vlawG
rMum;Ekid w f Jh tedro hf ?H tjrifo
h aH wGukd Mum;od cHpm;Ekid pf Gr;f &SMd uw,f/

0DpD (whistle) rIww f thJ cg jzpfay:whJ qifawG[m vlrMum;Ekid wf hJ wkecf gEeI ;f edrw
h f hJ a0vig;awG[m avmurSm&Sw d hJ rnfonhf
toHwcsK[ Ud m vlawG&UJ em;eJY toHvdIif;awG xkwfNyD; qufoG,f owå0gxufrqdk tedrq hf ;kH eJY tjrifqh ;kH
rMum;Ekid ?f rcHpm;Ekid w
f hJ toHawG EkdifMuw,f/ toHawG jyKvyk Ef idk w
f ,fvYkd odyyHÜ nm&Sif
jzpfaewwfw,f/ vlawGu rMum;& awGu avhvm awGU&Sdxm;w,f/
ayr,fh acG;awGuawmh cHpm;
Mum;odEkdifw,f/

*DwoHpOfrsm;jyKvkyfjcif; toHwek cf gru


I kd cHpm;apEkid zf Ykd
avxJu jzwfoef;vmwJh toH&JU wkecf gjzwfoef;rIukd omreftm;jzifh odyo f wd
*Dwwl&, d mypön;f awGrmS wkecf gvyI &f mS ;rIjyKNy;D toHxw k f xm;rdrmS r[kwb f ;l / tck owdxm;rdatmif cHpm;MunfMh ur,f/ vdt
k yfwmawG
ray;Ekid w
f hJ tpdwtf ydik ;f awG yg0ifaew,f/ wl&, d mypön;f uawmh a&'D,w kd pfv;kH ? avjynfh azmif;um;aewJh
wD;cwfo[ l m *DwoauFw (notes) trsK;d rsK;d abmvH;k wpfv;kH ? a&'D,ckd vkwzf iG Nhf y;D pyDumeJY
ajymif;vJw;D cwfjcif;jzifh toHwek cf grt I rsK;d rsK;d jzpfay: rvSr;f rurf;rSm abmvH;k udk vufeJY udik x f m;/
ajymif;vJ&mu *DwoHpOfawG jzpfay:vm&w,f/ toHwkefcgrIawGu avxJuwpfqifh abmvHk;qD
ul;puf jzwfoef;vmNy;D oif&h JU vufEpS zf ufrmS
wa,mxd;k wJt h cg twdk qH;k BuKd ; (shorter strings) wefcgrI jzpfay:vmwmudk cHpm; od&&dS vdrrhf ,f/
[m wkecf grI tjrifqh ;kH jzpfay:Ny;D jrifo h aH wGukd (higher-
pitched notes) awGukd xkwv f w T af y;w,f/
wa,mBuKd ;udk vufacsmif;xdyu f av;awGeJY zdNy;D
pdwBf uKd ut
f wdt k &Snf csed qf ajymif;vJ
ay;jcif;jzifh toHwek cf grI trsK;d rsK;d udk
zefwD;,lNyD; *DwoHawG
jzpfay:apw,f/

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 31


yxrajrmuf or®wBu;D &JU
rsufESmudk
yHak zmfjcif;
umvMumjrifph mG tHt
h m; oifzh ,
G af umif;vSwhJ vQK0Ud u
S f
qef;Mu,fZmwfvrf;wpfyk'fudk tajzxkwfay;&if; a*smh&Sf0g&Sif
wef&JU vkvifysKdb0toGif ½kyfwkudk aorIaocif;qdkif&m
rEkóaA'ynm&SifwpfOD;u topfwpfzef jyefvnfwnf
aqmufxm;ygw,f/

ausmif;oifcef;pmawGxJ NyD;awmh olu olYzcif olY&UJ ausmMf um;xif&mS ;wJh 1799 ckESpfrSm uG,fvGefcJhol
u a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef&JU twG u f aumif ; usKd ; aqmif yHw
k al wGeYJ ½kyw
f &k UJ t&G,rf wkid f a*sm&h 0fS g&Siw
f ef&UJ b0wpfouf
r,fvdkY wkdifwnfcJhao;w,f/ rD tcsdefu yxrqHk; tar&d wmudk ta&;tBuD;qHk;½Iaxmifh
taMumif; t&meJY olt&G,f&vmawmh opfom; uef or®w a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef&JU tjrif 3 &yfeJY yHkazmfEkdifygh
ywfoufNyD; uRefawmf tHuwfwyfqifxm;wJt h aMumif; ysKd&G,fpOfumv½kyfoGifudk jyef rvm;&,f v k d Y uRef a wmh f u d k
vnf; ygao;w,f/ rMumcif vnfzefwD;ay;a&;qdkwJh arQmf awmif;qdkvmwJh tcsdefrSmawmh
pGJrSwfaerdwJh umvwke;f u a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef vifhrxm;wJh zdwfac:rIwpf&yf uRefawmf[m tar&dueforkid ;f
taMumif;t&m tenf;pk taMumif;udk rqdpk avmuf ydrk kd udk uRefawmfhxH ay;ydkYcJhMu udk ½kww f &uf wkdufyGJqifETJrI
xJrSmawmh vkvifysKd avhvm jzpfcJhw,f/ tJ'Dvkd w,f/ a':vm aiGpuúLay:u awG pwif c J h & w,f / 2006
avhvmrdawmhrS ,cifo&d x dS m; EIwfcrf;yg;yg; t&G,f&ifh&ifheJY ckESpfukefrSm pwifzGifhvSpfr,fh
a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwefu yHkawG vSnfhajymif;ukefw,f/ EkdifiHawmf acgif;aqmifwpfOD; ]armifhAmEGef} &Sd ynma&;A[dk
cs,f&DyifBuD;udk ol[m b,fwkef;urQ cs,f&D ½kyfoGifeJY tawmfhudk jcm;em;wJh jycef;opftwGuf a*smh&Sf0g&Sif
yifudk ckwfvSJorI rjyKcJhbl;vdkY ½kyfoGifudk csOf;uyfavhvmEkdif wef&JU ouf&SdcE¨mudk,f t&G,f
ckwfvSJaeyHkvnf; ygw,f/
qdkvmw,f/ opfom;tHuyf r,f r[kwfbl;/ a*smh&Sf0g&Sif tpm;twkdif; ½kyfwk 3 ckudk
vnf; wyfqifrxm;bl;wJh/ wef & J U pH t d r f a wmf j zpf w J h ]&D;pf} u tvkd&Sdaew,f/
'gayr,fh tJ'DtcsufawG[m ]armifhAmEGef} jywkduf&JU trI pGefYpm;a&;orm;eJY ajr
tHhtm;oifhzG,fjzpfp&m tenf; aqmif'g½dkufwm ]*sdrf;pfpD;&D;pf} wkdif;olwpfOD;tjzpf usifvnf
qHk; udpaö wGyJ/ u 1732 ckESpfrSm zGm;jrifcJhNyD; cJ h p Of umvtwG i f ; 1751

32 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvidk f 2006


5 Zlvidk f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 33
ckESpfrSm 19 ESpfom;t&G,f xJu yGJOD;xGuf od&Sdvm&wJh ypönf;awG[m wefzdk;xdkufwJh yHkazmfEkdifa&;twGuf wdk;wufrI
a*smh&Sf 0g&Sifwef&JU yHkwludk tcsuu f awmh olY tavmif;udk tjcm;oufaocHawGyJ/ &Sdvmayvdrhfr,f/
zefwD;&rSm jzpfw,f/ ]zDvm'J jr§KyfESHxm;wJhae&m&Sd olYt½dk;pk uRefawmhf vdktyfcsufu ½kyfwkjyKvkyfa&;twGuf
zD;&m;} NrdKUawmfudk odrf;ydkuf awGukd avhvmcGirhf jyKb;l qdw k m awmh tJ'DoJvGefpawGudk uRrf; uRefawmf od&edS m;vnfvmwm
xm;wJ h NAd w d o Qwyf a wG u d k yJ/ t½d;k pkukd avhvmcGihf r&Sb d ;l usif ydkifEkdifpGm aygif;pnf;ay; eJY wpfNydKifeuf okH;zufjrif 'pf
wkdufckdufzdkY tcGifhaumif;apmifh wJ h / aorI aocif ; qk d i f & m zdkY jzpfw,f/ ]a[muf'ef}&JU *spf w ,f enf ; pepf t wk d i f ;
aewJh ]azmh&Sf} awmifMum;&Sd rEkóaA'ynm&Siw f pfO;D tae ouf&Sd rsufESmyHkwlyGm;wpfckrSm taumiftxnfazmfzdkY vkdtyf
aMumufrufzG,f aqmif;&moD jzifh vlom;&JU ½kyfoGifjyefvnf udk,fwpfykdif;½kyfwkeJY udk,fvHk; vdrhfr,f/ ]t&DZdk;em;} jynfe,f
twG i f ; 1777 ck E S p f u azmfxkwfa&;rSm t½dk;pkawG r&Sd jynfh ½kyfwkawGudk uRefawmfu wuúodkvfu yHkpHxkwfvkyfa&;
olYwyfzGJYawGeJY twl&SdaewJh ygbJeJY b,fvdk pdwful;rsKd;udk okH;zufjrif yHkazmfEkdifr,fqkd&if qkdif&m okawoe0dkif;awmf
touf 45 ESpft&G,f a*smh&Sf pwnf&yghrvJ/ 'gayr,fh uRef trSew f u,f ½kyo f iG ef YJ tao; om; (PRISM) taMumif;udk
0g&Sifwef&JU ½kyfwkudkvnf; awmhf tvkyftay: pdefac:aerI pdwfwlwJh ½kyfoGif &vmatmif uRefawmf awG;awmrdcJhw,f/
xm;&SdrSm jzpfw,f/ tJ'D ½kyfwk u xl;jcm; qef;Mu,fvGef; tJ'D ½kyyf akH wGukd EdiI ;f ,SOcf sed xf ;kd tJ'w D uúov kd u f o kd mG ;NyD; pum;
2 cku wwd,½kyfwkudk jznfh ordkY jiif;qdkypfzdkY rjzpfEkdifbl;/ Ekdifayvdrfhr,f/ ,ckwkdif&Sdae pjrnf ajymqdkzdkYa&mufawmh
pGufaxmufydkYay;aevdrfhr,f/ ao;wJh tHuyfawGukd uReaf wmf olwkdY&JU "mwfcGJcef;udk tvnf
wwd,½kyfwkuawmh bk&if oJveG pf rsm; u okH;zufjrif yHkazmfEkdifr,fqdk tywf oGm;cJw h ,f/ yef;ykq&m
tjzpf cH,rl ,fh tpDtpOftpm; uReaf wmfh vkyif ef;twGuf &if tJ'DtHuyfudk 'pf*spfw,f awG? cE¨maA'qkdif&m rEkó
ola&G;cs,fwJh yxrqHk;or®w ydkifqkdifxm;wJh t&mawGxJrSm enf;eJY olYyg;pyfxJ xd;k oGi;f NyD; aA'ynm&SifawG? tif*sifeD,m
tjzpf cH,lr,fh 1789 ckESpf pusifausmufjzLom;eJY xkvkyf olYar;½dk; aumufaMumif;udk awGeJY uGefysLwmodyÜHynm&Sif
{NyDv 30 &ufaeYu touf xm;wJh olY&JU wpfukd,fvHk;yHk yHkazmfEkdifvdrhfr,f/ NyD;awmh awG&JU pkaygif; &SmazGxm;wJh
57 ESpf t&G,&f dS a*sm&h 0fS g&Siw
f ef ½kyw f u
k kd ud,
k wf pfyidk ;f yH½k yk wf ek YJ
a*smh & S f 0 g&S i f w ef & J U 53 ES p f tajzawG u d k awG Y c J h & w,f /
&JU or®wtjzpf usrf;opöm ouf&Sdxif&Sm;b0wkef;u olY t&G,rf mS olYar;½d;k pkxu J t½d;k tjcm; "mwfcGJcef;awGuvnf;
usdefqdkaeyHkjzpfw,f/ &JU rsufEmS yHw k yl mG ;wpfcw k Ykd jzpf
b,fEcS k qH;k ½H;I oGm;NyD;vJ qdw k m oHk;zufjrif 'pf*spfw,f yHk&dyf
cE¨maA'qdkif&m rEkó Muw,f/ jyifopfeef;oH;k yef;yk udk wGufcsufEkdifzdkY uRefawmf awG yHkazmfa&;rSm uRrf;usifMu
aA'ynm&SifwpfOD;tjzpf uRef q&m ]*sif;tefaxmfeD a[muf BudK;yrf;&rSm jzpfw,f/ olY ayr,fh PRISM uawmh taxG
awmf[m a&S;acwft½dk;pkawG 'ef}&JU vuf&mawGygyJ/ ol[m touf 57 ESpf t&G,frSm olY axGoyd eHÜ nf;us bmompum;
udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJh&w,f/ a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef 53 ESpf t&G,f ar;½dk;awGudpöeJY qkdifvmzG,f wpf&yf ydik q f idk af &;twGuf uRef
uRef a wmf w d k Y &J U a&S ; tpOf &SdNyDjzpfwJh 1785 ckESpfwkef;u &m&Sw d ,f/ 'grSom olY&UJ ysKd&, G f awmf w d k Y awG rQa0,l & r,f h
tquf or®wawGukd jyefvnf ]armifhAmEGef} udk tvnftywf pOfumv½kyo f iG uf kd yDjyifatmif oabmud k cE¨ m aA'qk d i f & m
yHkazmf wnfaqmufcJhw,f/ a&muf&SdpOfrSm pwifyHkwlyGm;
]yifq,faA;eD;,m;}&Sd ]tvuf xm;wJh vuf&mawG jzpfw,f/ Ä pma&;oljzpfwhJ cE¨maA'rEkóaA'ynm&Siu f kd a*sm&h fS 0g&Siw
f ef
a[;eD;} aus;vuf&JU aorI ol Y &J U vl v wf y d k i f ; t&G , f e J Y &JU yHw
k zl efw;D ay;zdYk awmif;qdv k mcJw
h ,f/ ]armifAh mEGe}f jywku d &f dS
aocif;qkid &f m rEkóaA'ynm vlBuD;ydkif;t&G,f ykHwl tenf; ynma&;A[dkjycef;opfrSm xm;&Sda&;twGuf jzpfw,f/ or®w
&SifwpfOD;taejzifh uRefawmf i,fukd ajc&mcHEidk zf Ykd xyfaqmif; BuD;&JU touf 19 ESpft&G,f? 45 ESpft&G,feJY 57 t&G,f
aqmif&u G &f r,fh vufawGY vkyf xm;w,f/ tJ'½D yk w f uk kd xkvyk f yHkwlawGudk udk,fvHk;jynfh yHkazmfay;&rSm jzpfw,f/
ief;pOfudk aorIaocif;½kH;u cJholawGuawmh ]*Jvfbmhxf Ä or®wBuD;&JU t½dk;pkudk oJvGefp cHcGifhrjyKbl;/ 0g&Sifwef&JU
wdk;wufzGHYNzdK;atmif ulnDcJh pwl;tm;xf}? ]csm;vfpf0Dvfqif b0 ae0ifcgeD;tcsdefrSm toHk;jyKcJhwJh? ay:aygufcJhwJh ½kyfwk?
w,f/ 'gayr,fh a*smh&Sf 0g&Sif yJtm;av;}eJY olYom;jzpfol yHkwl yef;csD? ouf&SdrsufESmyHkwlyGm;? tHuyfawGeJY t0wftpm;
wefeJY cRwfpGyfwlwJh ½kyfoGifudk ]&rfb&ef;xf yJtm;av;}? ]*Ref awGudk oufaocH ypönf;tjzpf pkpnf;&,lcJhMuw,f/
yHkazmfa&;twGuf uRufuRuf x½l;bwfv}f wdYk jzpfw,f/ olY Ä txl;pDrHxm;wJh okH;zufjrif yHkazmfa&; uGefysLwmtpDtpOfudk
nHaewJh pdefac:oHawGeJY ywf tHuyfawGuvnf; trsm;BuD; pma&;oleYJ olYvyk af zmfuikd zf ufrsm;tm; vkyaf qmifciG jhf yKcJw h ,f/
ouf N yD ; uRef a wmf h r S m bm yJ/ NyD;awmh jyefYusJaeMuwJh olY olwYkd awGu ouf&b dS 0wke;f u yGm;,lcw
hJ hJ yHw
k l 3 ckukd ajc&mcH
jyifqifrrI Q r&Scd b
hJ ;l / uRefawmf t0wftpm;awG/ tJ'o D ufBuD; NyD; uRrf;usifpGm aygif;pnf;zefwD;Ekdifa&;twGuf vHk;yef;cJhMu
avhvmoif,x l m;wJh t&mawG ydik ;f t&G,u f olYtoH;k taqmif w,f/
34 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvidk f 2006
jyefvnfyHkazmfjcif;yxrtajccH tqifhrsm;
6/
7/
9/

]a[muf'ef} &JU 53 ESpf t&G,f ]a[muf'ef} &JU 53 ESpf t&G,f rsufESmyHkwlyGm;udk udk,fwpfykdif;½kyfwkudk EdiI ;f ,SOf yHak zmf xyfwjl yK
0g&SifwefrsufESmyHkwl yGm; 0g&Sifwefukd,fwpfykdif; ½kyfwk yHkazmfxm;jcif; yHkazmfxm;jcif; xm;jcif;
0g&Sifwef touf 53 ESpf t&G,f 1785 ckESpftwGif;u yef;yk awG[m 'pf*spfw,fenf;udk toHk;jyKNyD; rsufESmyHkwlyGm;eJY udk,f
ynm&Sif ]*sif;tefaxmfeD a[muf'ef} zefwD;xm;wJh rsufESmyHkwl wpfykdif;½kyfwkawGudk 3 zufjrifyHkazmf,lcJhMuw,f/ uGJvGJrI 0.3
yGm;eJY ud,
k w
f pfyidk ;f ½kyw
f ak wGukd erlem,l jyefvnf wnfaqmufa&; rDvrD w
D myJ &Sw
d ,f/ rsuv
f ;kH ? yg;pyfeYJ ESmacgif;ae&mawGukd vdu
I v
f JS
twGuf tpysKd;w,f/ 'Dudk,fwpfydkif;½kyfwk[m 0g&Sifwef&JU yHkwl pGm todtrSwfjyKa&;twGuf rSwfwrf;awGr&SdvdkY tcufBuHK&
jzpfr,fvkdY ydkif;jzwfcsufcsxm;MuwJh pma&;oleJY vkyfazmfukdifzuf w,f/

]pD 'wfb,fv,
f l yDtm; av;} &JU yHkwlyef;csDudk yHkazmfxm;jcif; udk,fwpfykdif;½kyfwktay:udk ukd,fwpfykdif;½kyfwkeJY yHkwl
touf 40 t&G,f 0g&iS w
f ef yHw
k yl ef;csD yHw
k yl ef;cseD JY xyfwjl yK yHak zmf xm;jcif;

vkvifysKd0g&Sifwef&JU yHkwl azmfaqmifa&;twGuf tultnDawG 40 t&G,frSmawmh a&SUoGm;wcsKdU usef&SdEkdifajc rsm;w,f/ tJ'D


&SmazGMuw,f/ or®wBuD; touf 40 t&G,f 1772 ckEpS t f wGi;f oGm;ta&twGuf jcm;em;pGm wnf&SdaerIawGaMumifh or®wBuD;&JU
rSm ]csm;vfpf 0Dvfqif yJtm;av;} a&;qGJcJhwJh tapmqHk;yHkwludk rsufESmyHkoP²mefudk jcm;em;oGm;apw,f/ tJ'D jcm;em;csufudk
olwYkdu yHak zmf,Ml uw,f/ 'Dyw
kH yl ef;csu
D m;udk uk,
d wf pfyidk ;f ½kyw
f ek YJ pl;prf;avhvmrIaMumifh pma&;oltwGuf vrf;nTefcsuftcsKdU &&Sd
EdIif;,SOfMunfhawmh udk,fwpfykdif;½kyfwk&JU ESmacgif;eJY ar;aphtuGm vmcJNh yD; ud,
k w
f pfyidk ;f ½kyw
f ek YJ rsuEf mS yHw
k yl mG ;wdYk ukd tajccH aemuf
ta0;[m yef;csDum;rSmxuf ydkrdkuGma0;&Snfvsm;aewmudk awGY& aMumif;jyefum tapmydkif;umvt&G,f vkvifysKd 0g&Sifwef&JU
w,f/ touf 53 ESpf t&G,rf mS oGm;trsm;pk uRwfxu G af eNyDjzpf yHkwludk zefwD;cJhMuw,f/
wJh 0g&Siw f ef&UJ taetxm;udk pma&;olu aphiw k ,f/ oltouf

rEkóaA'ynm&SifawGtaeeJY BuD;udk wifjycJhygw,f/ ]a[muf'ef}&JU vuf&mudk yGJOD; awmh ]a[muf'ef}&JU pwl'D,dk


rSww
f rf;wif&r,fh vrf;aMumif; ]a[muf'ef} &,lxm;wJh xGuf aqmif&GufcJhjcif; jzpf eJY olY&JU rSwfwrf;tm;vHk;[m
wpfck jynTef;ay;cJhw,f/ yHkwl a*sm&h 0fS g&Siw
f ef&UJ 53 ESptf &G,f w,f/ oleJY acwfNydKifawG&JU jyifopfawmfvSefa&; umv
azmfa&;twGuf uRefawmfhudk yHw
k ul kd pwifaqmif&u G zf Ykd uRef rSwfwrf;t& ol[m vHk;ywf twGif;rSm zsufqD;jcif; cHcJh&
tlvdIufonf;vdIuf oabmwl awmf qHk;jzwfcsufcscJhw,f/ 'D awG&JU tcsif;wkdif;ud&d,mawG w,f/ 'gayr,fh uRrf;usifol
vufcHcJhol PRISM &JU 'g½dkuf ½kywf uk olY&UJ aphpyfaocsmvGe;f udk toHk;jyKNyD; or®wBuD;udk ynm&SifawGuawmh tJ'D ukd,f
wm ]tif½l; ref;&ufpf'ef} tm; wJ h enf ; ynmawG a Mumif h ajcqHk;acgif;qHk; wkdif;wmorI wpfykdif;½kyfwkeJY udk,fvHk;jynfh
uRefawmf&JU vkyfief; pDrHudef; '@m&D q ef v G e f ; ord k Y tJ ' D jyKcJhw,fqdkyJ/ uHraumif;csif ½kywf ak wG[m trSeyf uwd cE¨m

5 Zlvidk f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 35


uk, d t f wkid ;f jzpfw,fvYkd rsufpd yef;csDudk EdIif;,SOfyHkazmfxyfwl jyKxm;jcif;
rSdwf auseyftm;&aeMuw,f/
a*smh&0fS g&Siw f efuvnf; ta&;
ygwJh yk*d¾KvfBuD;awG&JU ½kyfwk 0g&Sifwef&JU oGm;a&m*g pawG ay;tyfNyD; axmufyHhcJh eJY yHkoP²mefudk tBuD;tus,f
awGukd ouf&x dS if&mS ;cE¨mud, k f ordkif;rSwfwrf;awGu olY&JU w,f/ oGm;wpfacsmif; qHk;½HI; ajymif;vJEkdifaMumif; awGY&Sd&
twkdif;tqxufydkNyD; csJUxGif touf 45 ESpf t&G,feJY 19 wkdif; ar;½dk;ukdyg xdckdufqHk;½HI; w,f/ 53 ESpft&G,f 0g&Sifwef
rjyKvkyaf &;ukd awmif;qdck o hJ rkYd ESpft&G,f OD;acgif;ydkif;yHkwl apw,f/ ar;½dk;&JU tjrifhwnf &JU ar;½dk;yHkoP²mefudk jyefvnf
ouf&SdcE¨mukd,fyrmPtwkdif; zefw;D a&;udk ta&;ygwJo
h vJ eG f aerIudk yHkazmfNyD; t&G,fyrmP wnf a qmuf M unf h a vwk d i f ;
xkvkyfjcif;qkdwm ½dk;&m"avh
xHk;pHjzpfaew,f/ 0g&Sifwef&JU ar;½dk;eJY tMurf;zsif;tm;jzifh yrmPcsif;wlnDwJh usef;rma&;aumif;rGef
yuwd ½k y f o G i f y rmP 0g&iS w
f ef&JU ar;½d;k eJY cRwpf Gyw
f w
l Jh vwfqwfaom ar;½dk;wpfpHkudk yHkazmf,lNyD; 'pf*spfw,fenf;eJY okH;zufjrif yHkazmfum
ar;½dk;udk yHkazmfxm; jcif; udk,fwpfykdif;½kyfwk&JU rsufESmjyifxJ xdk;xnfhMunfhMuw,f/ tJ'Dar;½kd;udk jyKjyif rGrf;rH
twkdif;twmtxdom yHkwlyGm;
Muw,f/ b,fbuf atmufar;½dk;&Sd? tHqHk;teD;&Sd oGm;wpfacsmif;rSty t½dk;awGeJY
cGifh qHk;jzwfxm;wmaMumifh oGm;awGudk 'pf*spfw,fenf;eJYzsifNyD; yHkazmfMuw,f/ b,fbuftHqHk;teD;&Sd oGm;
]&ufpf'ef}eJY olYvkyfazmfukdif wpfacsmif;[m touf 57 ESpf t&G,&f dS 0g&iS w f efrmS use&f pfaeao;wJo h mG ;ygy/J 0g&iS wf ef&UJ
zufawGu 'pf*spfw,fenf; tHuyfukdatmufar;½d;k ay:oYkd'pf*spw f ,fenf;eJYxd;k oGi;f Muw,f/ Ny;D awmh t½d;k eJYtHq;kH udk
t& wkdif;wmNyD; udk,fwpfykdif; tH0ifciG u
f s jzpfapw,f/ tJ'aD r;½k;d ukdxyfryH akH zmfjznfw
h if;Ny;D 45 ESpft&G,ef YJ
19 ESpt
f &G,f0g&iS wf ef&UJyHw
k u
l kdazmf,Ml u w,f/
½kyw f ek YJ ouf&rdS sufEmS yHyk mG ;awG uk, d w f pfyidk ;f ½kywf rk S
[m xyfwleD;yg;rQ ykHay:ae 'pf*spw f ,fenf;t& rsuEf mS yHpk H udk
w,fvdkY todtrSwfjyKvkdY& oufBu;D ydik ;f t&G,fa&mufvmwJh 'pf*spw f ,f enf;jzifh
ar;½d;k ukdyHak zmfxm;jcif; yHo k eG ;f
w,fvdkY qdkygw,f/ 0.3 rDvD
xm;jcif;
rDwm vGJacsmfaewJhae&m 2 ckyJ
awGY&w,f/ 'Dudk,fwpfykdif;
½kyw f ek YJ ud,k v f ;kH jynf½h yk w
f ak wG
&J U rsuf E S m oG i f j yif a wG [ m
a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef&JU rsufESmeJY
trSefwu,f wlnDygw,fvdkY
aocsmayguf oufaocHaeMu
w,f/ 'gayr,fh uReaf wmfhudk
pdwf'ku©ay;aewJh udpö &Sdae ]aAmifAh m&Ge}f jywku d Bf u;D &Sd or®wBu;D &JU tHuyf
w,f/ tJ'guawmh ukd,fwpf 0g&iS wf ef&UJ
(cJjym;? jrif;eJY EGm;awG&UJ tay:omG ; awG? vlom;&JU 0g&iS w f ef&UJ
tHuyfyw kH u
l dk
ydik ;f ½kywf yk ekH YJ ouf&rdS suEf mS yHw k l atmufomG ; awG yg0ifaygi;f pnf;xm;wJhtHuyf) ar;½d;k eJcY Rwpf yG f wlwhJ
tajccHNy;D
yGm;wdkY&JU tHhtm;oifhzG,f xyf ar;½d;k ukdjyKjyifcsed qf
yHw
k yl mG ;xm;wJh
xm;wJhatmufar;½k;d
wlusrIyJ/ ]armifhAmEGef} jywkduf tay:ar;½d;k
&Sd pm&Gufpmwrf; taxmuf
txm;awGt& ]a[muf'ef}
[m ud k , f w pf y k d i f ; ½k y f w k u d k
ouf&SdrsufESm yHkyGm;r,lrD &uf
tawmfMumuwnf;u oGe;f xk 'pf*spfw,fenf;t& oufBuD;
ydkif;t&G,f ar;½dk;awGay:udk 'pf*spfw,fenf;t& ouf BuD;ykdif;t&G,fu ar;½dk;
cJhw,fvdkY nTef;qdkaeMuw,f/
]aAmifAh m&Ge}f u or®w&JU (tpdr;f a&mif) ay:u t½d;k wnfaeyHu k kd jyKjyifrGr;f rHum
tJ'D udk,fwpfydkif; ½kyfwkudk tHuyfudk xdk;oGif;yHkazmfxm; jcif; aysmhaysmif;wJh wpf½SL;awGtwGif; euf½dIif;pGm
vuf r S e f ; NyD ; oG e f ; xk c J h w m
tjrpfwG,af &;twGuf csed q f jyKjyifay;Muw,f/ ar;½d;k eJY
aMumifh ukd,fvHk;jynfh ½kyfwk ta&jym;Mum;&Sdae&m udk wpf½SL;aysmhawG &SdaeMuw,f/
xuf ydkrdk vGJacsmfaezG,f&m&Sd c&rf;a&mifrsOf;awG[m ta&jym;&JU txludk
w,f / rsuf v H k ; ? ES m acgif ; ? nTefjyaeygw,f/
36 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvidk f 2006
ar;½dk;apmif;? em;awGum;yHkeJY a&;qGJxm;wJh or®w&JU yHkwl taMumif;awG xif;aew,f/
ta&;twGefYawG[m or®w&JU [m 18 &mpktwGif;rSm a& qGJ tk d r if ; NyD ; EG r f ; vsaeyH k & wJ h
yHu
k kd azmfxm;Ekid yf gw,f/ Mum; cJhwJh 0g&Sifwef&JU udk,fvHk;jynfh rsufESmyJ/ 'gaMumifh touf
i,f&G,fpOfb0wkef;u vkvif odae&wJh ya[VdawGudk v yHkwlyef;csDum; tenf;pkxJu 60 t&G,f a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef&JU
ysKd 0g&Sifwef&JU yHkazmfEkdifa&; twefMumoHk;oyfNyD; aemuf wpfcjk zpfw,f/ tJ'D yef;csDum; emrnfausmf yHkwl yef;csDum; 4
twGuf oGm;eJY t½dk;awGudk qHk;rSmawmh ]a[muf'ef}[m &JU rsufESm[m a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef ck [ m wpf u m;eJ Y wpf u m;
xyfrHjznfhwif;ay;Mu&w,f/ ud, k wf pfyikd ;f ½kyw
f u k kd vufreS ;f &JU rsufESmudk yHkazmfEkdifavmuf odomxif&mS ;wJh uGjJ ym;jcm;em;
eJY oGef;xkcJhwm r[kwfbl;vkdY atmif aumif;vSygay&JU/ tck rIawG &Sdaewmudk uRefawmfwdkY
uRef a wmf aumuf c suf c scJ h a':vmaiGpuúLay:rSm &SdaewJh awGYcJh&w,f/
w,f/ rsufESmudk yHkwlyGm;wJh 0g&Sifwef&JU yHkwl[m ]abmf olYyHkwlawGrSm tjiif;yGm;
tcg rsufvHk;awGudk umuG,f pwGef tm[Jet f mtrf} jywku d rf S ½Iyaf xG;zG,f &Sad eMuw,fq&kd if
xm;wmaMumifh tJ'DrsufESm csw d q f x JG m;wJh aMu;rHk jyifxu J olYtHuyfawGu ydkqdk;awmhwm
yHkwlyGm;ay:rSm rsufvHk;awG or®w&JU yHkwlyef;csDum;udk aygh/ y#dyu©yGm;apwJh '@m&D
xyfzefw;D NyD; rsuEf mS yHw k yl mG ;udk yHw
k yl mG ;cJw h m jzpfEidk af jc &Sw d ,f/ wpfckudk uRefawmfcsufcsif;
oG e f ; xk c J h j cif ; jzpf w ,f / vufawGudkawmh ]pwl;tmhxf} avhvmrdvkdufw,f/ a*smh&Sf
OD;acgif;yHkudkawmh ]a[muf'ef} &JU pdwu f ;l eJY yHak zmfcw hJ myJ/ cE¨m 0g&Sifwef[m opfom;tHuyf
[m tcsif;wkdif; ud&d,mawG ud k , f taetxm;twG u f udk wyfcJhr,fr[kwfbl;qdkwm
toHk;jyKNyD; zefwD;cJhw,fvkdY ]0g&Sifwef} eJYwlwJh ]armf',f} 3 yJ/ 1700 jynfhESpfawG twGif;
,HkMunf &ygw,f/ a,mufavmufqDrS &,lcJhyHkyJ/ rSm vleYJ wd&pämefawG&UJ oGm;wk
uRefawmfwkdYu 'pf*spf 1792 ckESpfrSm ]x&rf; awGtjzpf qifpG,fudk wGifwGif
w,f yHak zmfenf;twkid ;f tcsuf bwfv}f a&;qGcJ w hJ hJ yHw
k u l olY us,f u s,f toH k ; jyKaeNyD
tvufawGudk aumufoif; yHkwleJY pm&if 0g&Sifwef&JU cE¨m r[k w f v m;/ a&jrif ; awG & J U
aumuf pkpnf;um ajz&Sif;ae udk,feJY ydkNyD;wlygvdrfhr,f/ tpG,fawGudkvnf; oHk;avh&Sd
csdefrSmyJ ]prpfqdkeD,rf trsKd; ol Y yH k u Zuf i d k u f a ew,f ? w,f/ qifpG,foGm;av;awG
om; yef;csD? yef;ykjywkdufrS [kwfvm;/ touf 60 t&G,f udk wpfckeJYwpfck qHjcnfrQif
jywdkufrª;]tJvif *sD? rkdif;vfpf} &Sd a*sm&h 0fS g&Siw f efu, kd w f idk f xdik f avmufjcm;NyD; tHuyfvkyfcJhMu
eJY uRefawmf qHak wGYjzpfcw hJ ,f/ NyD; yHkwlqGJcHcJhwJh 1795 ckESpf w,f / tJ ' D o G m ;wk a wG [ m
trSefwu,f taumiftxnf twGi;f u ]yJtm;av;} wkYd om; tpm;tpmawG pm;aomufMu?
azmfEkdifa&;twGuf ynmawG tz ESpfOD;pvHk; wpfNydKifeuf aq;vd y f a wG a omuf M uwJ h
pwif&&Scd w hJ ,f/ ]0g&Siw f ef} &JU wnf; a&;qGJcJhwJh yHkwlawGeJY ESpaf ygif;Mumvmawmh a<uoGm;
½kyfwkawGeJYywfoufNyD; tokHk; ]rkid ;f vf}u EdiI ;f ,SOjf ywJt h cgrSm awGxuf ydkNyD; rnf;arSmifvm
0ifwJht&mawG &&SdcJhMuw,f/ awmh tEk y nmajrmuf w J h avh&w dS ,f/ tJ'D tnpftaMu;
tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; olru uRef wdrf;nGwfrIawG ydkwdk;vmjyef tuG u f a wG u d k opf o m;&J U
awmfhudk owday;pum; ajym w,f/ zcifjzpfol ]yJtm;av;} taMumtuGuaf wGeYJ vGrJ mS ;Ekid f
Mum;cJhw,f/ a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef uawmh a*smh&Sf0g&SifwefeJY ESpf w,f/ '@m&DZmwfvrf;wpfy'k f
udk,fwkdif yHkwlqGJ cHxm;wm yg aygif ; rsm;pG m vuf w G J c J h w J h [m tJ'DawGY&Sdcsuf vGJrSm;rIu
w,fqdkwJh tEkynm&SifawG&JU rd w f a qG v nf ; jzpf ? &J a bmf pwifaygufzGm;vmcJhwmyJ/
vuf&mawGtay:rSm wpfpHk &Jbufvnf; jzpfwmaMumifh olY {uefrkcsjzpf&yfrSefwpfck
wpf&m oHo,yGm;rdjcif;yJ/ yHw
k x l uJ 0g&Siw f ef[m 0zdik zhf idk hf &Sdw,f/ tJ'guawmh ]armifhAm
NyD;awmh tJ'DyHkwlyef;csDawGeJY jzpfaeNyD; yg;ESpfzufu ESif;qD EGef} udk ]a[muf'ef} a&muf&Sd
½kyw f ak wGuvnf; rlvvuf&m a&mifaoG;awmif jzmaeao; vmwht J csed rf mS 0g&Siwf ef&UJ oGm;
rS [kwfygavp/ Oyrmqdkyg w,f/ om;jzpfol ]yJ tm;av;} trsm;pk r&Sdawmhbl;qkdwmyJ/
awmh 1790 jynfhESpfawG&JU &JU yHkwlrSmawmh or®wBuD;&JU olY touf 20 jynfph rSmyJ oGm;
aESmif;ydik ;f umvrSm ]pwl;tmhx}f rsufESmjyifay:u Z&m ta&; wpfacsmif; uRwfoGm;cJhNyD/ ol
5 Zlvidk f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 37
tu,f'rDaq;ausmif;rSm&Sw d ,f/ tHuyfudkawGY&awmh uRefawmf
a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef&JU aemufqHk; tHhtm;oifhcJh&w,f/ atmuf
vufusefoGm;wpfacsmif;uRwf bufcH tHuyfxJu oGm;awG
oGm;NyD;wJhaemuf 1795 ckESpf [m vlom;&JU tay:oGm;awG
twG i f ; rS m ]*&if ; 0k ' f } u jzpfaeMuwmyJ/ 'DxufydkNyD;
atmuftHuyfwpfpHk jyKvkyfay; tH h t m;oif h z G , f a umif ; wm
ygw,f/ tJ'D tHuyf[m ]prpf uawmh tJ ' D t H u yf a wG [ m
qdkeD,rf} jywkdufrSm&SdcJhayr,fh xdxda&mufa&muf toHk;r0if
tck a wmh oG m ;buf q k d i f & m wJ h t&mawG jzpf a ewmud k
trsKd;om;jywku d Bf uD;rSm a&muf &SmazGawGY&SdcJhjcif; jzpfw,f/
&Sdaew,f/ tay:tHuyfwpfpHk cJjym;awG&UJ rsuEf mS jyifawG[m
uawmh prpfqdkeD,rfjywkduf&Sd oGm;awGusK;d NyD; oGm;r&Sad wmhwhJ
pwdkcef;wpfckxJrSm xdef;odrf; oG m ;zH k ; ud k wG , f u k y f x m;zd k Y
xm;&if; aysmufqHk;aew,f/ tacgif;aygufawG r&SdMubl;/
]armifhAmEGef} &Sd tjynfhtpHk cJjym;awGu ajymifacsmBuD;yJ/
]a[muf'ef} &JU 1785 ckEpS uf vuf&mjzpfwhJ ½kyw f yk kH u tHuyfuykd J a&SUwef;wif avhvm 'gh t jyif yvd y f j ym;awG u d k
t&yfy&kd n
S v
f mw,f/ (b,fbuf) tJ'yD x kH Ju 0g&iS wf ef[m ae&w,f/ py&ifBudK;peJY csnfwkyfxm;NyD;
tenf;qH;k t&yf 6 ay 2 vufr &Sw d ,f/ yef;csu
D m; yHw
k al wGu tJ'Dypönf;awGudk ]rmom oGm;zHk;awG&JU aemufbufeJY
tJ'D½kyfwkavmuf <um;<um;&Gm;&Gm; r&SdMubl;/ nmbufu 0g&Sifwef} uG,fvGefNyD; q,fpk auG;pdkufNyD; xdef;uefxm;wm
yef;csyD w
kH [
l m ]pwl; tm;xf} &JU emrnfausmf vuf&maumif;wpfcyk gy/J ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmMumrS olr&JU yg/ ab;bufawGeJY csnfwkyf
AD½dki,fav;awGxJu wpfck xm;wm r[kwfbl;/ 'gaMumifh
aom AD½dkxJrSm awGYcJh&wmjzpf a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwefu olYyg;pyfudk
touf 53 ESpft&G,fa&muf jyKjyifxm;yHkudk uRefawmfawG; w,f/ olrrSm oGm;wkawG r&Sd [vkdufwJhtcsdefrSm py&if&JU
awmh olYrSm atmufoGm; 2 awm pOf;pm;Edkifjcif; rjyKrD bl;/ 'gaMumifh olr&JUcifyGef; wif ; tm;aMumif h tH u yf u d k
acsmif;yJ usefawmhw,f/ olY touf 53 ESpf t&G,f 0g&Sif a*sm&h 0fS g&Siwf ef&UJ ypön;f awGvYkd a&SUwGef;xkwfaerSmjzpfw,f/
oGm;a&m*g taMumif;udkawmh wef&UJ ar;½d;k awGeYJ cHwiG ;f tae rSw, f El idk w
f myJ/ tJ'oD mG ;wkawG 0g&S i f w ef & J U cH w G i f ; a[mif ;
uRefawmfwYkd rod&&dS bl;/ olu txm;udk yHkazmfEkdifa&;twGuf udk b,ftcsdefu b,folawG avmif;aygufBuD;udk jznfhwif;
opfMum;oD;BudKufol/ tJ'D BudK;yrf;Ekdifatmif txufyg jyKvk y f a y;cJ h w ,f q d k w mud k a&;twGuf tHuyfwyfxm;wJh
toD;av;awGukd olYomG ;awGeYJ tcsut f vufawGu axmufyYkd b,forl Q rodb;l / 1789 ckEpS f oabmyJ/ ol yHkwltqGJcHwJh
udkufcGJavh&Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh ay;cJhw,f/ eJY 1795 ckESpf Mum;umv tcsd e f r S m wyf q if x m;wm
olYoGm;a&m*gu ydkNyD; qkd;&Gm; uReaf wmf[m 0g&Siw f ef&UJ twGif;rSm jyKvkyfcJhwJh ypönf; vnf; jzpfEkdifajc&Sdw,f/ bmyJ
vmw,f / oG m ;wpf a csmif ; oGm;a&m*g qdk;&Gm;pOfumv awGvdkYyJ uRefawmfyHkazmfEkdifcJh jzpfjzpf tJ't D u
H yfawGu a*sm&h fS
qHk;½HI;oGm;wkdif; tJ'D oGm;&JU 0ef;usifu wyfqifcJhw,fqdk w,f/ ynm&Siaf wGu 'DomG ;wk 0g&Sifwef&JU ar;½dk; yrmPeJY
tjrpfawG wG,fukyfxm;wJh wJh tHuyfawGudk ajc&mcHzdkY yvdyfjym;awGudk cJeJY jyKvkyf yHkoP²mefudkawmh uRefawmfhudk
t½dk;udk pkyf,ljcif; cH&w,f/ yxrqH;k jyifqifygawmhw,f/ wnfaqmufxm;w,fvdkY rSwf ajymjyay;cJhw,f/
'gaMumifh tJ'DoGm;uRwfoGm; tJ'DawmhrS olaemufqHk; wyf csuf a y;xm;w,f / tay: oGm;wkawG&JU jrifuGif;
wJh ar;½d;k u jrifw
h ufvmw,f/ xm;wJh tHuyf[m oleJYtwl tHuyfxJrSmawmh jrif;? jrnf; bufawGaMumifh 0g&Sifwef&JU
oGm;awGtm;vHk; uRwfxGuf oN*ØK[cf v H u
dk &f wmqdw k t hJ csuf awG&JU tay:a&SUoGm;awG? EGm; tmcHwiG ;f xJuyHpk u H kd uReaf wmf
oGm;&ifawmh ar;½d;k awG (txl; ay:xGufvmw,f/ 1789 ck &JU atmufbufa&SUoGm;awG&Sd pk p nf ; rI pwif E k d i f c J h w ,f /
ojzifh atmufar;½d;k )u qk;d qk;d ESpfu oGm;q&m0ef ]*sKd;Zuf aeMuNyD; atmufbuftu H yfxJ aemufydkif;rSmawmh ]a[muf'ef}
&Gm;&Gm; yHk ysuf vm w,f/ *&if;0k'f} jyKvkyaf y;cJw
h hJ atmuf rSmawmh vloGm;awGtjyif tcGH zefwD;xm;wJh ouf&SdrsufESm
'gaMumifh touf 19 ESpef YJ 45 oGm;wpfacsmif;udk uRefawmf rmoD;&JU toD;cGHeJY jyKvkyfxm; yHkyGm;eJY udk,fwpfydkif;½kyfwkawG
ESpf t&G,rf mS a*sm&h 0fS g&Siw
f ef&UJ avhvm qef;ppfEkdifcJhw,f/ wJh taxmuftuljyKypönf; eJYtwl ,ck&&Sdxm;wJh owif;
ar;½dk;awGeJY oGm;awG jyefvnf tJ ' D o G m ;u ]e,l ; a,muf } wpfckvnf; yg0ifw,f/ tJ'D tcsuftvufawG t&nfaysmf
38 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvidk f 2006
aysmuf u G , f o G m ;avrvm; pufeJY atmufar;½dk; xdk;oGif; aysmf &Sdaewmudk xifxif&Sm; jyKjyifrrG ;f rHMuw,f/ olY&UJ t½d;k
&,fvdkY uRefawmf ylyifcJh& yHkazmfMunfh&if; uRefawmfwdkY&JU &Sm; awGYvkduf&w,f/ yHkwleJY aumufaMumif; wnfaqmufrI
w,f/ tawG;tjrifawGudk tEkpdwf rlvtHuyf ESpfckpvHk;udk twl udk udk,fwpfydkif;½kyfwk rsufESm
xyfrHwdk;csJUvmjcif;yJ/ ppfom; wGJNyD; "mwfyHk½kduf,lxm;vkduf jyifeYJ tH0ifciG uf sjzpfapcJw
h ,f/
OD;acgi;f wyfqifjcif; &JU atmufar;½dk;rS&wJh ar;aphyHk awmh uHtm;avsmfpGmyJ uRef 45 ESpft&G,f 0g&Sifwef
PRISM rSm ]rufolwyf oP²mef[m 0g&Siw f ef&UJ ar;½d;k awmfwYkdu yHw
k u l kd yHak zmfEidk cf MhJ u &JU rsufESmjyiftwGif;&Sdtae
csm&D} eJYtwl aqmif&Guf&if; eJY xyfwlxyfrQ wlr,fvdkY rqdk w,f/ uRefawmfwdkYu tHuyf txm; tcsuftvufawGudk
OD;acgif;cGaH tmufajceJY qufpyf Ekdifbl;/ um;NyD; apmif;0kduf &JU t&G,fyrmPudk od&Sdxm; aygif;pnf;NyD; tvGefvuf0if
ay; & r,fh atmufar;½dk;&JU oGm;wJh 0g&Siw f ef&UJ ar;½d;k yHak y: wmaMumifh rlvtHuyf&UJ t&G,f r,fh 19 ESpft&G,f or®wBuD;
yrmPud k &&S d a &;twG u f apa&;twGuf 'pf*spw f ,fenf; yrmPudk wGufcsufEkdifcJhMu &JU rsufESm yHkzrf;Ekdifa&;twGuf
uReaf wmfu uk, d w f pfyikd ;f ½kywf k eJY jyefvnfyHkazmf,lMuw,f/ w,f/ 'gaMumifh tay: tHuyf ]csm;vfpf0Dvfqif yJtm;av;}
udk wkdif;xGm,lcJhw,f/ tJ'D tJ'D pDrHudef;twGuf a&;om; udk okH;zufjrifyHkazmfEkdifMu a&;qGJcJhwJh touf 40 t&G,f
tcsdefrSmyJ ]t&DZdk;em;} jynf jyKpkcJhwJh PRISM u ]a*s&JrD w,f/ ppfom;&JU tay:ar;½dk; eJY 47 ESpft&G,f 0g&Sifwef&JU
e,f u rEk ó aA'ynm&S i f [efqif} &JU pDrHudef;udk toHk; udkvnf; tH0ifcGifusatmif yHkwlawGudk uRefawmf vSnfh
]b&Je'f g bmum} xHrmS jyifopf jyK&if; ar;½dk;aumufaMumif;eJY
eJY tdE´d,ppfyGJawGrSm uG,fvGef topfwpfzef jyefvnfwnf OD;acgi;f ydik ;f yHw
k el JY uk,
d vf ;kH
cJw
h hJ NAdwod Qppfom;awG&UJ t½d;k aqmufzGJYwnfaewJh t½dk;yHkpH yHw
k al wGukd 'pf*spw f ,fenf;t&
pk tenf;i,f &Sdaew,f/ tJ'D awG[m oGm;uRwfxGufoGm; qufpyfaygi;f pnf;ay;wJt h cgrmS awmh
txJu ppfom;wpfa,muf&JU NyD; q,fpkESpf 3 pk eD;yg;MumrQ ½kywf ak wG&aUJ umufaMumif;awG?
atmufar;½dk;u 0g&Sifwef&JU jyefvnfjzpfwnfvmMuwm Bw*d yH t
kH i,fpm;av;awG Mum;cH
atmufar;½d;k avmufBuD;w,f/ aMumifh ouf&SdrsufESmyHkyGm;ay: qufpyfay;Mu w,f/ acsmarG w Y hJ
tJ'Dt½dk;ukd yHkazmfNyD; 'pf*spf wif&pfapr,fyh akH y:a&;twGuf aumufaMumif; rsO;f awGukd toH;k jyK
w,f enf ; twk d i f ; ud k , f atmufar;½dk;aemufcHudk 'D*&D jcif; r&Sd bl;/ A[k*H twH;k tcJav;
wpfydkif; ½kyfwk&JU rsufESmjyifxJ vSnfhajymif; apmif;ay;cJhMu awG udk qufpyfajz&Si;f &wJh ya[Vd
xd;k xnfMh unfw h ,f/ yHrk eS u f uG f w,f/ upm;enf; twkid ;f ygy/J
wdtaetxm;wkdif; wjznf; 1795 ckESpfu ]*&if;0k'f}
jznf; yDjyifvmw,f/ NyD;awmh jyKvkyfay;wJh tHuyf&JUwpf0uf
uReaf wmfwYdku t½d;k pkeYJ atmuf jzpfwhJ tay: tHuyf[m tcd;k cH
b,fbuftHqHk;em;u tHoGm; &NyD; aysmufqHk;aewmaMumifh
rSty tjcm;oGm;awGtm;vH;k udk 0g&Sifwef &JU tay: ar;½dk;
'pf*spw f ,fenf;t& zsix f w k cf JG yHkoP²mef azmfxkwfa&;[m
jcrf;NyD; atmufar;½dk;&JU ouf ajzmifjh zL;vG,u f jl cif; r&Scd b
hJ ;l / 45 ESpf
wrf;udk wGufcsufMuw,f/ 'gayr,f h oG m ;buf q k d i f & m
'D o G m ;awG [ m 0g&S i f w ef & J U trsKd ; om;jywk d u f B uD ; xJ r S m
cHwiG ;f xJrmS &Scd rhJ mS jzpfwt hJ wGuf tjynfhtpHk tHuyfyHkpH&JU yHkwl&Sd
]armifhAmEGef} &Sd tHuyfudkvnf; w,f/ 'gaMumifh tJ'D tay:
'pf*spfw,fenf;t& atmuf tHuyfyHkpHukdvnf; rlvatmuf
ar;½dk;ay: wif Munfh w,f/ ar;½kd; yHkazmfwJhenf;twkdif; yHk
t½dk;&JU tauGYt0kdufwnfaeyHk azmfcJhMuw,f/ 'gayr,fh rlv
eJY tHoGm;em;u oGm;&JUtjrifh atmufar;½dk;yHkpHeJY yHkwludk EdIif;
awGudk jyifqif wyfqifay;cJh ,SOfMunfhvkdufwJhtcgrSmawmh
Muw,f/ 1789 ckESpfwkef;u yH k q d k ; yef ; qd k ; jzpf a ewJ h rl v 57 ESpf
]*&if;0k'}f a&;qGx J m;wJh wu,fh ar;½d;k yHpk x H uf yHw k x l uJ ar;½d;k
ykHwl vuf&mxJudk uGefysLwm u tawmfBuD; Munfhaysmf? ½I
5 Zlvidk f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 39
ajymif; avhvm&jyefw,f/ tJ'D NyD;awmh touf 40 t&G,f awG[m 45 ESpft&G,f wif; ud,
k cf E¨mudk jyefvnf
yHkwlawGudk uRefawmf[m em&D 0g&Sifwef&JU rsufESmjyifxJudk wif;&if;&if;&Sdwkef;yJ/ 19 ESpf
aygif;rsm;pGmMumatmif pdkuf jyKjyifrGrf;rHxm;wJh ppfom;&JU om; t&G,frSmawmh twkdif; tar&duefEidk if u H dk wnfaxmifay;
MunfNh yD;wJh aemufrmS awmh tJ'D ar;½dk;awGudk xdk;oGif;Mujyef xuftvGef ydkNyD; wif;&if;ae cJw
h hJ zcifBu;D 0g&iS w f ef[m
yHwk al wGxu J ESmacgif;eJYar;aph w,f/ ta&jym; txl? tyg; rSmyJ/ uRefawmfwkdY zefwD;xm;
tuGmta0;[m 0g&Sifwef&JU wnf&SdrIudkyg xnfhoGif; wGuf wJh O;D acgif;yHpk aH wGvnf; toifh 19 ESpo f m;t&G,w f ek ;f uawmh
oufBuD;ydik ;f t&G,f tjcm;ud, k f csufNyD; rsufESmjyifrSm tH0if yJ/ tckqdk&if cE¨mudk,fawGudk t&yfjrifjh rifeh YJ awmifw h if;
wpfyidk ;f ½kyw f ek YJ ? yHw
k yl ef;csDum; cGifusjzpfapw,f/ 53 ESpf vnf; jyefvnf wnfaqmuf MuchH idk o
f yl J/ tJ'yD tkH wkid ;f
awGeYJ rwl jcm;em;aMumif; uRef t&G,fuxuf 45 ESpf t&G,f NyD;pD;cJhMuNyD/ NyD;awmh tJ'D trdt&azmf,Nl y;D 2006
awmfhudk od&Sdvmatmif EdI;qG 0g&Sifwef&JU atmufar; ½dk;awG tpdwftydkif;ESpfrsKd;udk 'pf*spf
ay;vmw,f/ 'pf*spfw,fenf; ydk&Snfvsm;rSmjzpfwmaMumifh w,fenf;t& qufpyfaygif; ckEpS tf ukeyf idk ;f rSm ]armifAh mEGe}f
t& ESpfzufjrif yHkazmf&,lxm; ar;½dk;tapmif;udk vSnfhajymif; pnf;ay;Ekdifayvdrfhr,f/ jywkdufBuD;twGuf yxrqHk;
wJh tJ'D yef;csDum;yHkawGukd okH; &if; ydkNyD; yHkwlaqmif&GufEkdifcJh zefw;D r,fh uk, d v f ;kH jynfh &yfvsuf
zufjrif yHkazmfxm;wJh ukd,f Muw,f/ aemufqHk;rSmawmh cE¨mud, k wf nfaqmufjcif; &Sad er,fh ½kyw f k jzpfw,f/
wpfyidk ;f yHwk &l UJ rsufEmS yHek YJ EdiI ;f uRefawmfwdkY[m 45 ESpft&G,f olY½kyfwkeJY yef;csDum;awG
,SOfMunfhw,f/ tJ'Dvkd ykHazmf 0g&Siw f ef&UJ rsuEf mS jyif atmuf &JU ½kyfyHkoP²mef zGJYpnf;rI[m tJ'½D yk w f rk mS 0wfqifay;r,fh
&,lxm;wJh yHak wGutppftrSef ykid ;f udk yHak zmfEidk cf MhJ uw,f/ tJ'D 20eJY21 &mpktwGi;f &Sd a,musmf ; t0wftpm;awGuawmh
uGJjym;jcm; em;csufwpf&yfudk enf;udkyJ toHk;jyKNyD; touf awG&JU cE¨mudk,f zGJYpnf;yHkeJY ajrwkid ;f vkvifwpfO;D jzpfol
azmfxkwfjyocJhw,f/ tm½Hk 19 ESpft&G,f 0g&Sifwef&JU yHkwl wpfpHkwpf&mjcm;em;rI &Sdw,f/ 0g&iS w f ef 0wfqifcw hJ hJ
todxJrSmvnf; ay:vmap twG u f yH k a zmf c J h M uw,f / 18 &mpk t wG i f ; t*F v d y f
w,f/ cHwGif;xJu oGm;awG vli,ftoGif ay:vGiaf patmif rdom;pkawG&JU ½dk;&m"avh xdef; t0wftpm;awG ygy/J ol&Y UJ
rMumcP uRwfxGufNyD;wJh ar;½dk; tapmif;udk jyKjyifay; odrf;yHkwpfckudk uRefawmf&SmazG teDa&mifoef;aewJh qHyifawGu
aemufydkif;rSmawmh touf 40 w,f/ rsufESmjyif &Sif;oefY awGY&SdcJhw,f/ touf 5 ESpf ausmay:0u J sae Ny;D
rS 47 ESpft&G,f 0g&Sifwef&JU Munfvifapa&;twGuf olY om;t&G,ftxd 0g&Sifwefu tJ'aD cwf[eftwkid ;f xH;k
rsufESmjyifatmufydkif; trdkY rsufESmjyifu ta&;taMumif; uk,d uf syt f usuÐ kd 0wfqifxm;
tarmufawG[m usef&SdaewJh awGeJY twGefYtacgufawGudk rSmyJ/ 'gayr,fh tJ'v D kd 0wfqif aESmifzx YJG m;ygvrd rhf ,f/
a&SUoGm;awGeJYtwl ar;½dk;awG avQmch sypfoifw h mypf odYkr[kwf xm;w,f q d k w J h taxmuf
zGYJ pnf;wnfaeyHt k wkid ;f yuwd azsmufzsufypfoifhwmawGudk txm; wpf p G e f ; wpf p ud k r Q
yHkay:vmcJhw,f/ azsmufypfw,f/ yg;jyifEpS zf uf uRefawmf &SmazGrawGY&SdcJhbl;/
yHkwlawGuay;wJh vrf; udk tqDjznfhNyD; rdkYazmif;aeap aumifrav;awGeJY rdef;rBuD;
nTefrI wpf&yfeJYtwl 53 ESpf w,f/ (oufBuD;ydkif;t&G,fu awG 0wfqifMuwJh cg;txd ]x&rf;bwfv}f &JU 1792 ckEpS u f
t&G,f 0g&Siw f ef&UJ 'pf*spw f ,f aysmuf u G , f o G m ;NyD j zpf w J h qefYusaewJh udk,fusyftusÐ a&;qGcJ w hJ hJ yHw
k yl ef;csu D 0g&iS w
f ef&UJ
rsuf E S m jyif u d k 19 ES p f o m; yg;jyifawGay:rSm yHk&dyfawG jyef rsKd; r[kwfbl;/ bJav;uacs ajcaxmuf taetxm;udk
t&G,f rsufESmjyiftjzpf qefY azmfwmygyJ/) ESmacgif;eJY em; onf trsKd;om;awG 0wfqif xyfrjH znfw h if; oufaocH
xkwfypfr,fh tpDtpOfudk ][ef &GufawG&JU t½dk;EkawG&JU oef avh&SdwJh ukd,fusyftusÐrsKd;eJY ay;aew,f/ nOfv h ,f,t H csed rf mS
qif}u toHk;jyK azmfaqmifcJh pGrf;rIudk jyoyHkazmfwJhtaeeJY qifwlw,f/ ycHk;om;ESpfzuf r[l&mjrif;eufBuD;udk pD;vmwJh
w,f/ touf 40 rS 47 ESpf ESmacgif;udk wdkNyD; ay:vGifap udk aemufveS qf w
JG ifxm;w,f/ 0g&iS wf ef&UJ yHu k kd tJ'D yef;csu
D m;rSm
t&G,f 0g&Sifwef&JU ar;aphawG w,f/ em;&Guaf wGukd wif;wif; &iftyk af wGu um;xGurf Ykdarmuf awGjY rifEidk yf g w,f/
[m ydkNyD; t&G,f&ifhvmcsdefrSm &if;&if; wnfhrwfay;w,f/ aew,f/ ycHk;om;rsufESmjyif
olYajcaxmufawGu
a&;qGJ,lcJhwJh yHkwlawGxJu rsufESmjyif 3 ckudk zefwD; awGu jym;csyfoGm;w,f/ 'grS
ar;aphawGxuf ydkNyD; tcsKd; jcif;[m vkyfief;udk tNyD;owf r[kwf ycHk;om;awG atmuf &Snv f sm;vSordYk jrif;udk cGp;D Ny;D
nDnGwfrQwrI &SdaewmaMumifh apr,fh trSwfvu©Pm jywm buf avQmusaew,f/ vnf jrif;&JU 0rf;Akud u f kd
tJ'DyHkpHtwkdif; uRefawmfwdkYu r[kwfbl;/ ar;aphay:uta& yif;&JU ab;wpfzufwpfcsuf&Sd ajcaxmufcsi;f xdatmif
olYar;aphyHkudk azmf,Ml uw,f/ jym;eJY Zufydk;ay:u ta&jym; rsufESmjyifawGudk &Snfvsm;ajy 0dkufauG;xm;Ekdifw,f/

40 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvidk f 2006


yHak zmfjcif; avQmaeapw,f/ ausmatmuf omru ajcaxmufcsif; xd
buf rsufESmjyifukd obm0 atmifcGNyD;pD;vmum olY&Jabmf
0g&iS w f ef[m 5 ESpo f m;t&G,t f xd usus twGif;buf auG;0dkuf awGudk acgif;aqmifppfaq;ae
udk,fusyftusÐ0wfxm;cJhvdrhfr,f/ aeapNyD; qGJaqmifrI ydk&Sdvmap wJh olYyHkudk azmfjycJhMuw,f/
tJ't D usrÐ sK;d udk ycH;k om;udk qGJveS f w,f/ NyD;awmh 0rf;Akduf<uuf uRefawmfawGY&Sdxm;wJh tcsuf
xm;w,f/&iftkyfudk a&SUxGuf om;awGudk wGef;xkwfay;xm; wpfck&Sdw,f/ 0g&Sifwef[m
rkaYd rmufaeapw,f/ vnfyif; w,f/ (0g&Sifwef[m tHhMo olYajcaxmufawG &Snfvsm;
ab;ESpzf ufuaeNy;D ycH;k pGe;f zG , f aumif ; avmuf a tmif vGef;vdkY 'Dvkd yHkzrf;xm;jcif;rQ
awGay:ukd ajyavQmwJh <uufom; xufjrufwJh tu0goemtdk; omr[kwb f ;l / 18 &mpktwGi;f
apmif;tpkid af wG wnf&adS e w,f/ jzpf c J h w ,f q d k w mud k v nf ; u jrif;rsKd;awG[m 19 &mpk
uRefawmf avhvmawGY&Sdao; jrif;rsKd;awGxuf zGHYNzdK;BuD;xGm;
w,f/ ol[m tuenf; trsKd; rI t m; enf ; vG e f ; wmvnf ;
rsK;d udk aphpyfaocsmpGm rSwo f m; yg0ifaeygw,f/ aemufxyf
xm;&pfcw hJ ,f/) uav;t&G,f taMumif;&if;wpfc&k adS o;w,f/
u cE¨ m ud k , f [ m BuD ; xG m ; 0g&SifweftaMumif;udk tqifh
ajymif;vJvmw,f/ olYb0 qifh csJUum;NyD; rSm;,Gif;pGm
wpfavQmufrSm olYcE¨mudk,f azmfjyrIvnf; jzpfEkdifw,f/
yHkoP²meftopfawG jzpfxGef; ol [ m jrif ; uk e f ; ES D ; ay:rS m
vmw,f / vG w f v yf a &; tustexdkifpD;Ekdifoljzpfwm
aMunmpmwrf;udk oDqdkol aMumifh jrif;wifyg;qHkay:u
tqdkawmfawGtygt0if 18 cGpD;vdkY&w,fqdkwmrsKd;aygh/
&mpk twGif;u t*FvdyfvlBuD; ]0g&Siwf ef}&JU ½kycf E¨muk,d f
vlaumif;awG&JU yHkwlawG[m yHkoP²mefeJY ywfoufNyD; ydkrdk
aemuf y k d i f ; &mpk E S p f a wG u ckid rf mwJh owif;tcsut f vuf
ta&;ygwJh yk*d¾KvfawG&JU yHkwl awG &SmazGa&;twGuf ol0wf
0g&iS w
f ef[m wpfrx l ;l jcm;pGm awGeJY odomxif&Sm;pGm uGJjym; qifavh&SdwJh t0wftpm;yHkpH
yg;vsojl zpfaeayr,fh jcm;em;rI&adS ewmaMumifh olYcE¨m awG? tJ'Dacwf&JU t0wftpm;
]armifAh mEGe}f jywku
d rf mS pk udk,f yHkpHudkvnf; avhvmrdcJh yHkoP²mefzuf&SifawG? txl;
aqmif;xm;wJh olYt0wf jcif;jzpfw,f/ ojzifh aygifcGMum;? wifyg;qHk
tpm; awGuawmh tJ ' D a cwf taetxm; eJY ajcaxmufawGudk azmfjywJh
½kyw
f u k kd 0wfay;r,fq&k d if t& 0g&Sifwef&JU t&yfu xl; t0wftpm;yHpk aH wGukd ]armifAh m
rqdpk avmufyaG &mif; xl;uJuJ jrifhw,fvdkY qdk&ay EGef} &JU jywkdufrª;awGxH pHkprf;
aeayvdrrhf ,f/ r,f/ 6 ay? 2 vufr&Sdw,f/ ar;jref ; &w,f / 'gayr,f h
(tcsKdUu 6 ay? 3 vufr&Sd uRefawmfawmif;qdkqE´jyKxm;
w,fvdkY rSwfwrf;wifxm;Mu wJh ypönf;pm&if;awG tvsif
w,f/ tJ'gu olYtacgif;&JU tjref&&Sda&;twGuf BudK;yrf;
tvsm;jzpfEidk w f ,f/) 'gaMumifh pl;prf;&w,f/ olYOD;xkyfawG?
ol [ m uacsonf a umif ; ½SL;zdeyfawG? bGwfzdeyfawGeJY
wpfa,mufrQomru jrif;pD; vuftdwfawGu r&SdMuawmh
aumif ; ol w pf a ,muf v nf ; bl ; / tJ ' D y pö n f ; awG u ol Y
jzpfzYkd taMumif;cdik v f akH ew,f/ OD;acgif;?ajcaxmufawGeYJ vuf
&Snfvsm;wJh olYabmif;bD awG&JUyHkoP²mefudk tao;pdwf
usyf0wf ajcaxmufESpfacsmif; ajymjyay;r,f r[kwfvm;/
udk jrif;&JU0rf;Akdufay: wif½Hk armifAh mEGeef YJ tjcm;jywku d af wG
5 Zlvidk f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 41
u pkaqmif;&&Sw d hJ t0wftpm; ,SOfavhvmrIawG[m ta&;yg eD;yg; wlnDaeygw,f/ yHkysuf ydkNyD;zGHYxGm;vm&wmvJ/ jzpfEkdif
awGuawmh 1770 jynfhESpf aMumif; oufaojycJhygw,f/ yef;ysufjzpfavmufatmif yG ajct&SdqHk;udpöudk uRefawmf
awG r S 1790 jynh f E S p f a wG uRefawmfavhvmcJhwJh ½kyfwku a&mif;aejcif; r&Sdbl;/ 'gay awG ; awmrd w ,f / ol [ m
twGif; ay:xGef;cJhwJh zuf&Sif awmh &pfcsfrGefrSm&SdwJh jynfe,f r,fh wpfae&m&m odkYr[kwf touf 47 ESpf t&G,fwkef;u
yHkpH t0wftpm;awGyJ/ (0g&Sif uufyDwef taqmufttHkBuD; ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;rSm pifwD ppfyGJawGudk OD;aqmif qifETJae
wef&JUoufvwfydkif;eJY ouf xJu rwfwwf&yfyHkpH xkvkyf rDwm tenf;i,favmufawmh &ordkY yifyef;qif;&JcJhayvdrhf
BuD;ydkif;umvawGyJ/) a*smh&Sf xm;wJh ½kyw f yk gyJ/ tJ'½D yk wf uk dk yGa&mif;aeavh&Sdw,f/ ,cif r,f/ ]azmh&Sf} awmifMum;u
0g&Sifwef 0wfqifcJhwJh t0wf yxrqH;k tBudrf csnf;uyf avh enf;twkid ;f ½kyw f yk o
kH P²mefukd aqmif;&moD ppfqifa&; tyg
tpm;rsK;d awGyv J Ykd twnfjyKcsuf vmrdwJhtcsdefrSm 0g&Sifwef&JU uRefawmfwkdYu 'pf*spfw,f t0ifayghav/ tJ'DumvawG
ay;Ekid yf gw,f/ olu, G v
f eG Nf yD; cE¨mudk,f[m yHkwlyef;csDawG? enf;t& yHkazmfNyD; jyKjyifMunfh twGif;rSmyJ olYoGm;a&m*gu
aemufykdif;rSmawmh olYaqGpOf ½k y f w k a wG x uf trsm;BuD ; Muw,f/ tJ'Dvkd vkyfudkifNyD; vnf ; ES d y f p uf v mavawmh
rsKd;qufawGu olYyHkpHrsKd; 0wf yg;vsaewmudk csufcsif;odjrif aemufrSmawmh touft&G,f tpm;tpmtrmawGuakd &SmifNyD;
qif j cif ; rjyKMuawmh b l ; / cJh&w,f/ txl;ojzifh wifyg; t& cE¨mudk,f zGHYNzdK;ajymif;vJ El;nHah ysmah ysmif;wJh tpm;tpm
]udkvdkeD &,f0DvQHpbmhxf} csnf qHku ydkNyD; ao;i,faew,f/ jcif;eJY olY&JU xl;jcm;wJh tcsuf awGudkyJ rDS0J&w,f/ tJ'Dawmh
rQifeJY txnftvdyfjywkdufrS PRISM &JU ]*sif;efaumhyg;} eJY tvufawGeJY ywfoufNyD; &&Sd tqD"mwfyg0ifrI ydkrsm;vm
jywkdufrª;&JU vufaxmufjzpf ]paumhAefEkwf} wdkYeJYtwl olY xm;wJh taxGaxG A[kokw w,f/ (1776 ckESpfu touf
ol ynm&SifwpfOD;&JU ulnDyHhydk; t0wftpm; twkdif;txGmawG awGukd vrf;nTet f jzpf cH,&l if; 44 ESpft&G,f&Sd 0g&Sifwef[m
ay;rIaMumifh a*smh&Sf0g&Sifwef&JU eJY ½kyw
f &k UJ vufawG? ajcaxmuf 0g&Sifwef&JU 19 ESpft&G,f? 45 ]x&J w ef } ppf y G J w k d u f a epOf
t0wftpm;yHkpH twkdif;twm awG&JU tvsm;eJY ycHk;tus,f ESpft&G,feJY 57 ESpft&G,f yHkwl twGif;rSmyJ olYorm;awmfu
awG? csn½f ;kd vrf;aMumif;awGukd awGukd EdiI ;f ,SOaf vhvmcJw h ,f/ awGudk uRefawmfu jyefvnf ol Y oG m ;awG u d k Ek w f y pf a &;
&&Scd w
hJ ,f/ 'gaMumifh ]a[muf'ef} olYt0wftpm;awGu ½kyw f rk mS wnfaqmufEkdifcJhw,f/ twGuf yef;yJrSm yvm,mwpfpkH
&JU ½kyfwkeJY EdIif;,SOfavhvm &SdaewJh t0wftpm;twkdif; orkdif;rSwfwrf;awGt& xkvkyfapcJhw,f/) 'gaMumifh
EkdifcJhw,f/ txGmawGxuf ydkrdkBuD;rm;ae tbdk;tdk 0g&Sifwef[m touf touf 45 ESpft&G,f 0g&Sif
uRefawmfu tJ'D½kyfwkudk aMumif; nTef;qdkaeayr,fh yHkpH t&G,f&vmavav uvefu wef&UJ yHw k ul dk uRefawmfuydNk yD;
avhvmqnf;yl;wJhtcgrSm EIdif; usw,fvdkY todtrSwfjyK&vk vm;BuD; jzpfvmavavyJvdkY cyfzGHYzGHYxGm;xGm;av; zefwD;NyD;
qdkprSwf&SdcJhw,f/ oHo,yGm; BuD;xGm;aeapw,f/ 19 ESpf
p&m r&Sdygbl;/ ol[m tzsm; t&G,f olYyHkwltwGufawmh
]*suzf a&; aq;csf &Suf a0gx h Zf }f [m tar&duefeYJ ume,f*so D bm0 a&m*g 'Pfudk qkd;qkd;&Gm;&Gm; ol[m BuD;aumif0ifNyD; tjynfh
orkid ;f jywku
d f Bu;D 2 ck&UJ pkaygi;f okawoeXmewpfcjk zpfwhJ ]ypfxf cHpm;&NyD; pm;r0if? aomufr& t0 zGYHxmG ;vmovdk t&yfxu G f
pbmh*s}f wuúov kd Bf u;D rS rEkóaA'? orkid ;f eJY 'óeduaA'XmawG&UJ jzpfvmcJhw,f r[kwfvm;/ vmcJh&ifawmifrS ol[m a[mf
ygarmu©wpfOD;jzpfw,f/ ol[m ]tvuf[JeDaus;vufa'o} 'gaMumifh 57 ESpft&G,f olY rke;f "mwf tukeyf iG Nhf yD; zGYNH zdK;vm
yifq,faA;eD;,m;rS aorIaocif;½H;k &JU rEkóaA' ynm&Siv f nf; yHkwludk Munfhaysmf ½Iaysmfjzpf rSm r[kwfao;bl;/ ol[m
jzpfw,f/ ol&Y JU okawoevkyif ef;uawmh vlom;eJY tjcm; atmif jyifqifjznfhpGuf zefwD; ajrwkid ;f ud&, d mawGukd o,fy;dk
owå0gawG&UJ wa&GaU &GU ajymif;vJw;dk wufraI wGukd csx UJ iG f avhvma&; cJhr,fvkdY uRefawmfawG;rdyg &if; wpfawmifwufqif; c&D;
yJ/ wa&GaU &GU ajymif;vJw;dk wufrI oDt&dk ?D zGNYH zKd ;rIZ0D aA'? owåeYJ ½ku© w,f/ 45 ESpf olYcE¨mukd,fukd vSnfhvnfaewJh vli,fb0rSm
aygi;f pnf;avhvma&;qkid f &m t½d;k pkrsm; EIid ;f ,SOf pl;prf;a&; bmom&yf yHkazmfa&;twGufudkawmh rwl ydkNyD; uspfvspf zGHYxGm;vmEkdifyg
awGukd vufawGY qnf;yl;aeoljzpfw,f/ 0dZmÆ eJY odyyHÜ nm&yfqidk &f m uGJjym;wJh csOf;uyfyHkrsKd; jyKcJh w,f/ 'gayr,fh olYcE¨mudk,f
urÇmh tu,f'rD tzGBJY u;D &JU tzGJ0U ifwpfO;D vnf; jzpfw,f/ ol[m &w,f/ tazjzpfol ]yJtm; u ydefyg;yg;yJ jzpfygvdrfhr,f/
pmtkyaf ygi;f 100 eJY aqmif;yg; aygi;f 150 ausmf av;} &JU 0g&Siw f ef yHw k rl mS awmh tJ'Dvdk yHkpHtwkdif; olYukd uRef
a&;om;jyKpk Ny;D cJo
h l jzpfw,f/ aemufydkif; ½kyfwkawG? yHkwlawG awmfu yHw k yl mG ;cJwh mjzpfw,f/
Ian Tattersall eJY yl;wGJ a&;om;Ny;D rMumrDu xkwaf 0 jzefcY scd w hJ Jh 'The eJY t0wftpm;awGxuf wif aemufqHk;tqifhtaeeJY
Human Fossil Record' tjyif 'The Red Age' eJY Orangufans yg;qHkeJY 0rf;Akduftaetxm; uRefawmfwdkYawGu cE¨mudk,f
and Human Origins wdkY[m olY&JU xif&Sm;ausmfMum;wJh pmtkyf rSm ydkrdkBuD;rm;zGHNzdK;aeMuw,f/ yH k w l a wG e J Y OD ; acgif ; awG u d k
awGygy/J tJ't D &G,rf mS ol[mbmaMumifh qufpyfay;Ekid yf gvdrrhf ,f/ tJ'D
42 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvidk f 2006
vdk vkyfaqmifEkdifa&; twGuf xl;jcm;rI udk,fpD&Sdaew,f/ 'D 0g&Sifwef&JUyHkwlu qHyifawG uawmh rwljcm;em;wJh okaw
OD;acgif;yHkwleJY cE¨mudk,fyHkwl pwl'D,dkBuD;&JU tBuHay;t&m&Sd [m tjzLa&mifbufvkaewJh oe jyKvkyfxm;&SdcsufawGrS
awG u d k quf p yf a y;xm;wJ h wpfO;D jzpfol yef;csq D &m ]½la';} rD;cdk;a&mif jzpfaeayvdrhfr,f/ aygufzGm;vmMuwJh 0w¬Kaygif;
aumufaMumif;yHak wGukd 'pf*spf u za,mif;yHkwlawGudk tvGef ed*Hk;csKyftaeeJY uRefawmf csKyfawGeJY wifjycsufawGudk
w,fenf;eJY yHkazmfMuw,f/ trif; touf0ifatmif a&;qGJ ,HMk unfarQmv f ifx
h m;wmuawmh arTaESmuf&if; xGufay:vmMu
tJ'DyHkawGu OD;acgif;eJY cE¨m xm;cJwh ,f/ jzLazsmah zsmt h om; tar&duefEkdifiH&JU zcifjzpfol wmjzpf w ,f / uRef a wmf e J Y
udk,f qufpyfxm;wJh csKyf½dk; ta&udk rSed x f m;NyD; ESi;f qDaoG; 0g&Sifwef yHkwlyGm; 3 ck&JU yHkwl uReaf wmfwYdk&UJ vkyaf zmfuikd zf uf
aMumif;rSm Bwd*HyHkpHawGcHNyD; yg;jyifESpfzufeJY rsuf0ef;jym toD ; oD ; [m tar&d u ef awGu odyÜHynm? tEkynmeJY
qufaeMuw,f/ A[k*yH pkH iH ,f awGudk xGif;xm;w,f/ jynfoltrsm;pktwGuf uGJjym; orkid ;f bmom&yfawGukd Mum;cH
av;awGudk qufpyfNyD; upm; ]*Jvfbmhxfpwl;tm;xf} jcm;em;yHk ray:bJ orkdif;a&; jyKNyD; vGecf w
hJ hJ ESpaf ygif;tenf;
&wJh ya[Vdupm;enf;eJY toGif a&;qGcJ whJ hJ 0g&Siw f ef&UJ yHt
k wkid ;f t& ta&;ygwJh yk*dK¾ vfBuD;jzpf i,fwkef;u pdwful;vdkYyifr&
wlvw S ,f/ uReaf wmfwYkdawGu jzpfw,f/ olY&UJ teDa&mifqyH if aewJt h jyif vlom;wpfa,muf Ekdifatmif cJ,Of;vSwJhenf;
'pf*spfw,f tcsuftvufawG awGukd ydrk ykd sKdrspfatmifjc,freI ;f taeeJY vlom;qefNyD; tifwu kd f vrf ; awG t wk d i f ; taumif
udk ajrmufumvDzdk;eD;,m;e,f xm;NyD; ausmay:0Jusaeap tm;wkduf wuf<urIudk,fpD &Sd txnfazmf aqmif&u G cf MhJ uwm
xJu ]ca&;pvm}eJY tzGYJ tpnf; um ,ckacwf[eftwkdif; xHk; aeMuw,f qdw k myJ/ uReaf wmf jzpfw,f/
awGxH ay;ydYk cMhJ uNyD; odyo
f nf; xm;w,f/ touf 57 ESpf wdkY pDrHudef;&JU oufwrf;&vm cifarmifaZmf
wJh yvwfpwpftjr§KyfawGeJY t&G,f usr;f opöm used q f akd ewJh wJh aemufykdif;tajz&v'fawG Ref: Scientific American
yHkazmfxm;wJh 0g&Sifwef&JU rwl
jcm;em;wJh OD;acgif;yHkpH 3 ckeJY tlaMumifaMumif odypHÜ w
d u
f ;l rsm;
EdIif;,SOfppfaq;Munfhapw,f/
tJ'Dvkyfief;pOf tqifh
qifhawGu e,l;a,mufNrdKU&Sd xl;jcm;ajymifajrmufrIeJY rkdufrJ½l;oGyfrIMum;u
ELS pwl'D,dkxJudk a&muf&Sd rsOf;vkdif;[m yg;yg;av;yJ &Sdw,f/ odyÜHeJY enf;ynm
jzwfoef;oGm;w,f/ tJ'Dae&m avmu tlaMumifusm; tpDtrHawGxJrSm jyifopfrS
u &THUap;eJY yHkavmif;xm;wJh Jean- Marc Philippe &JU tpDtpOfpdwful;vnf;
OD;acgif;awG zefwD;&mXmeyJ/ yg0ifw,f/ ]Space time capsule} tmumotcsdef
uRefawmfwdkY&JU 'pf*spfw,f bl;av;ozG,f KEO û*d[fwkukd vTwfwifzkdY
tcsut f vufawGtay:tajccH &ufowfrSwfNyD;oGm;ygNyD/ ¤if;ukd Ariane 'kH;ysH
NyD; tJ'Dpwl'D,kdxJrSmyJ cE¨m 'grSr[kwf qkd,kZf'kH;ysHeJY vTwfwifum ywfvrf;xJrSm
ukd,fawG oGef;avmif;qufpyf ESpfaygif; 50ç000 Mum vnfywfaeapygr,f/
Muvd r f h r ,f / od y f o nf ; wJ h yg0ifoGm;wJh ukefpnfawGu yifv,fa&? av? vl&JU
tjr§KyfawGeJY yvmpwm uk, d f aoG;eJY ajrqDMoZm <u,f0wJh ajrom;awGukd
xnfawG wnfaqmufMuvdrfh pdefwkH;xJu MuKwfxJrSm xnfhay;xm;ygw,f/
r,f/ NyD;awmh wu,fh cE¨m 'ghtjyif tJ'Dtay:rSm olY&JU0ufbfqkdufpkaqmif;xm;wJh owif;vTmawGukd zefxnf DVD rSm
uk, d f tppfeYJ wlnaD tmif El;nHh ½kdufESdyfxm;wmyg &Sdr,f/ aemifvmr,fh ESpfaygif; 50ç007 rS uRefawmfwkdY&JU
aysmah ysmif;apMuvdrrfh ,f/ uRef aemifvmaemufom;awG DVD zGifhpuf b,fvkdwnfaqmuf&r,fqkdwm rodrSmpkd;vkdY
awmfeJYtwl vufwGJaqmif ykHjynTefMum;csuf xnfhay;xm;ygao;w,f/ AGdKifa,*smû*d[fwkrSm ygoGm;wmeJY
&GufcJholuawmh yef;ykynm&Sif tvm;oP²mefwlygw,f/ 'Davmuf acwfumvawG uGmjcm;oGm;wJhtcg 'Dvkd DVD
]pwl;tm;0DvQHqef} jzpfw,f/ Mum;cHrD'D,mu owif;tcsuftvufawG jyefazmf,lzkdYqkdwm tavmif;tpm;awmh qefw,f/
ol[m ELS &JU tBuHay;t&m&Sd ESpfaygif; 50ç000 txd owif;tcsuftvufawG wnfNrJatmif odrf;qnf;zkdYqkdwm
yJ/ &THUap;yHkavmif;NyD; za,mif; blrdenf;vrf;u taumif;qkH; jzpfvdrfhr,f/ ausmufom;awGay:rSmaygh/
yHw
k zl efw;D a&;udk aqmif&u G Ef idk f trsKd;om;armfuGef;rSwfwrf; xdef;odrf;a&;XmerS uRrf;usifol Vivek Navale u ajymygw,f/
jcif; rjyKEkdifcifu ½kyfwkyHkyGm; ysHwufNyD; cPwmtwGif; aygufuJGoGm;vkdY emrnfMuD;wJh Ariane 'kH;ysHukd okH;zkdY a&G;r,fqkd&if
awG&JU rsufESmwkdif;[m wpfrl ESpfqwkd;NyD;awmhawmif rSefygvdrfhr,f/

5 Zlvidk f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 43


urÇmausmf
wDxiG zf efw;D &SiBf u;D rsm;

rmwifvo
l m uif;*sLeD,m
tdyrf ufudk xkwaf zmfol

Edik if o
H m;tcGit hf a&;acgi;f aqmifjzpfoo l nf vlrnf;rsm;.
0,f,El ikd pf rG ;f udk tav;teufjyK ajymqdck jhJ y;D ¤if;\
&nf&, G cf sut f ay: pD;yGm;a&;t& taxmuftyHjh yKonfh
tcsurf sm;udv k nf; rsujf cnfrjywfcyhJ g?

tcsdefrSm 1956 ckESpf Zefe0g7Dv vltkyfudk 7ifqdkifvdkufjyD; a'goudk


jzpfonf? a'goxGufaeonfh vlrnf; xdef;csKyf7ef wdkufwGef; ajym-um;cJhonf?
¤if;\ vTr;f rd;k Edik pf Gr;f &So
d nfh
trsdK;om;rsm;/ trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh uav;rsm; “cifAsm;wdk\7J\ 7efoltay:rSm arWmxm;-u
ajzmifhrwfrSefuefrIESifh
yg0ifonfh tkyfpkonf tar7duef yg? trkef;w7m;udk arWmeJ\ wHk\jyef-uyg”
tm0ZÆef;&TifrIwdkYonf
jynfaxmifpk/ t,fvfbm;rm;jynfe,f/ [k ajymqdkcJhjyD; xdknwGif t-urf;zuf
vltrsm;\
armif*dkrm7DjrdK\7Sd rmwifvlom uif;*sLeD,m aqmif7GufrnfhudPudk pGef\vFwf7ef azsmif;zs
trsuaf 'goudk
. rD;cdk;tlaeqJjzpfaom tdrftjyifbuf ajymqdkcJhonf? tjcm; rnfonhf
tjyKoabm
wGif pk&Hk;a7muf7SdaecJh-uonf? ›if;wdk\ acgif;aqmifESifhr~ rwlonfh uif;onf
vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;tjzpf
teuf trsm;pkonf aqmf'gykvif;cGHuGJrsm;/ tar7duefjynfaxmifpk. todw7m;udk
ajymif;vJay;EdkifcJh
yGdKifh 38 aoewfrsm;ESifh "m;ajr|mifrsm;udk zGifh[ ajymqdkEdkifapcJhonf? olonf ydkrdk
a0S\,rf;ajr|mufjyvsuf uif;. ZeD;ESifh 10 aumif;rGefonfh EdkifiHwpfckudk zefwD;7ef
ywfom;t7G,f uav;i,fwdk\udk xdcdkuf awmif;qdkcJhjyD; xdkEdkifiHonf aoG;xGuf
aoausap7ef jywif;aygufwpfckrS vufvkyfAHk; oH,dkr=r7SdbJ vlrsdK;a7;cGJjcm;r=udk &dkufcsdK;acszsufypf7ef
ypfoGif;oGm;onfh tpGef;a7muf vljzLrsm;udk vufpm;acs7ef OD;wnf vkyfaqmifae7rnf jzpfonf? trSefawmh t-urf;
[pfatmfawmif;qdkaecJh-uonf? tjrJwap ae7may; rcH7bJ rzufbJ qNjyjcif; enf;vrf;udk pwif azmfxkwf toHk;jyKcJh
cGJjcm; zdESdyf qufqHcH7jcif;a-umifh *k+fodQmusqif;r=ESifh olrSm rmwifvlomuif; r[kwfyg? olonf *ND.enf;pepf
EdkifiHtwGif; ydkrdkqdk;0g;vmaeonfh 7efvkdrkef;wD;r=wdk\a-umifh rsm;udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJhjyD; c7pfawmf. qHk;roGefoifcsuf
vlrnf;rsm;onf t-urf;zuf wHk\jyef7ef toifhjzpfae-ujyD rsm;udk cH,lusifhoHk;cJholjzpfonf? odk\aomfvnf; qlyl
jzpfonf? uif;onf wkefv=yfaeaomfvnf; wnfjidrfr= tHk-uGr=rsm; ay:aygufcJhonfh 1950 jynfhvGefESpfrsm;ESifh
tjynfhjzifh a'gorD; [kef;[kef;awmufavmifaeonfh 1960 jynfhvGefESpfrsm;twGif;Y uif;. xl;jcm;ajymifajrmuf
44 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
onfh aqmif7GufcsufrSm vlr=rjidrfoufr=rS oifcef;pmrsm;udk w7m;a[mq7mjzpfol uif;onf t-urf;rzufonfh
tar7duefjynfaxmifpk. tajccHwefzdk;rsm;jzpfonfh w7m; qNjyr=rsm;wGif pD;yGm;a7;t7 oydwfarSmufr=rsm;udkyg
Oya'pdk;rdk;r=ESifh w7m;r~wr=wdk\wGif aygif;pnf; xnfhoGif; yl;wGJxnhfoGif;cJhonf? vlrnf;rsm; tay: 7efvdkonfh
EdkifcJhjcif;jzpfonf? ›if;. vFrf;rdk;EdkifpGrf;7Sdonfh ajzmifhrwf vljzLrsm;. bwfpfum;rsm;udk rpD;eif; 7ef/ ›if;wdk\.
rSefuefr=ESifh tm0%ef;7Fifr=wdk\onf vltrsm;. trsufa'go ukefyPnf;rsm;udk r0,f,l7ef jiif;qefjcif; jzifh
udk tjyKoabm vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;tjzpf ajymif;vJay;EdkifcJh vlrnf;rsm;. 0,fEdkifpGrf;tm;udk pD;yGm;a7;vkyfief;rsm; u
onf? “rmwifvlomuif;7J\ tHh-op7m tcsufu t-urf; todtrSwfjyKvmapcJhonf? xdktcsdefrwdkifrDtxd ›if;wkd\
rzuf wJh enf;vrf;eJ\ vlr=a7;ajymif;vJr=udk azmfaqmif7mrSm onf vlrnf;pm;oHk;olrsm;udk vspfvsL&=xm;apumrl
udk,fusifhw7m;7J\ ta7;ygr=udk em;vnf oabmaygufcJh&Hk ta7mif;t0,f aumif;aeEdkifonf[k ,lqxm;cJh-uonf?
ru tJ'Dtcsufudk taumiftxnfay:atmif vkyfaqmif uif;onf vlrnf;rsm;. 0,f,lEdkifr= pGrf;yum;udk tav;
EdkifcJhwmyJ jzpfw,f” [k tufwvefwm. jrdK\awmf0ef teufjyK ajymqdkcJhonf? ›if;OD;aqmifonfh oydwfarSmufr=
a[mif;ESifh oHwrefwpfOD;vnf;jzpfjyD; rmwifvlomuif;. rsm;u cGJjcm;qufqHr=onf tjrwfaiG77Sdr=udk usqif;ap
,Hk-unfudk;pm;jcif;vnf;cH7ol tef'&l; a*s/ ,ef; *sLeD,m a-umif; pD;yGm;a7;vkyfief;rsm;tm; oifcef;pmay;cJhonf?
u ajymonf? uif;onf rsdK;cspfpdwf7SdolwpfOD;vnf; “u`efawmfwdk\[m tkwfcJawG/ ykvif;uGJawG rvdkygbl;?
jzpfonf? vGwfvyfa7; a-unmpmwrf;ESifh zGJ\pnf;yHk olwdk\7J\ aps;qdkifawGqDudk oGm;jyD; bk7m;ocifu ol\
Oya'udk 7nfnFef;udk;um;vsuf ajymqdkcJhonfh vlrnf;rsm;. om;orD;awGtay:rSm cifAsm;wdk\ aumif;aumif;rGefrGef
vGwfvyfa7;-udK;yrf;r=udP7yfonf ydkrdkaumif;rGefonfh rqufqH-ubl;qdkwm ajymckdif;zdk\ usKyfwdk\udk vFwfvdkuf
'Drdkua7pDoRwEdkifiH ay:xGef;vma7;twGuf enf;vrf; wmvdk\ ajymqdk&HkygyJ”[k 1968 ckESpfwGif ›if; vkyf-uH
aumif;wpfck jzpfcJhonf? ›if;azmfxkwfcJhonfh tqdkyg rcH7rDnY a[majymcJhonf? xdktcsdefwGif a0gvfpx7donf
wefzdk;rsm;onf tar7duef jynfaxmifpk. vljzLavmuudk vlrnf;rsm;udk yxrqHk; b+fOU}rsm;tjzpf cef\tyfcJhjyD
v=yfcwfoGm;apcJhonf? ›if;. wifjycsufrsm;udk jzpfjyD; oRw vef'ef bD/ *`efqifonfvnf; EdkifiHom;
jiif;qefEdkif7ef ydkrdkcufcJvmcJhonf? uif;. tšK_Wd rsm;. tcGifhta7;Oya'udk vufrSwfa7;xdk;cJhonf?
a7;om;ol awvmb7ef\csf. tqdkt7 ›if;onf rmwifvlomuif; OD;aqmif taumiftxnf azmfay;cJhonfh
“rsufarSmufacwf. AdokumwpfOD;”yif jzpfonf? tajymif;tvJrsm;onf tar7duef jynfaxmifpkwpfcGifwGif
wwd,rsdK;quf ESpfjcif;c7pf,mef bkef;-uD;jzpfol rmwif ,ae\wdkif &dkufcwfaeqJjzpfjyD; wdk;wufr=rsm; qufvuf
vlomuif;onf tufwvefwm7Sd jynfhpHk-uG,f0onfh jzpfay:aeqJjzpfonfh vkyfief; wpf7yfvnf; jzpfygonf?
rdom;pkrS 1929 ckESpfY arG;zGm;cJhonf? i,fpOfuyif 1234
atmif j rif x G e f ;
1234
1234
xufjrufxl;cRefol jzpfcJhjyD; txufwef; ynmtqifh 1234
1234
1234
ratmifjrifrD rdk;a[mufpfaumvdyfodk\ 0ifcGifh 77SdcJhonf? 1234

1955 ckESpfwGif c7pf,mefbmom avhvma7;jzifh


1234
1234
1234
oifh yg;pyfro
S nf q&m0efqo
D Ykd
yDtdwfcsf'DbGJ\ r77SdrDwGif armif*dkrm7D7Sd ordkif;0if Dexter eHeuf rd;k aomuf tvif;a&mufwmeJY tdy&f mx? oGm;wdu k ?f
Avenue Baptist Church bk7m;ausmif;wGif 20 OD;ajrmuf rsuEf mS opfqw kd mudk vlom;wdYk rjzpfrae vkyaf eMuqJ yg/ 'gukd
c7pf,mefbkef;awmf-uD; jzpfvmcJhonf? xkdtcsdefwGif tajccHvYkd puúLvdk yg;vTmwJh ud&, d muav;udk wDxiG af eMuyg
vlrsdK;a7;cGJjcm;r= jy©emtay: xm;7Sdaom tar7duef w,f/ ¤if;u oifyh g;pyftwGi;f tmacgi?f oGm; ponfwu Ykd kd
jynfaxmifpk. oabmxm;udk uif;. pum;rsm;u pwif yGww f u
kd v f u
kd w f meJY ud,
k w f Gi;f u a&m*grsK;d pHuk kd ppfaq;ay;yg
vFrf;rdk;cJhonf? uif;onf ›if;. 7nf7G,fcsuftay: vdrrhf ,f/ tzsm;temutp uifqmvdk a&m*g rsK;d txdyg/ ¤if;wGif
pD;yGm;a7;t7 taxmuftyHhjyKonfh tcsufrsm;udkvnf; a&m*gwpfcck u k kd ajc&mcHrNd yq
D wkd meJY tqdyk g ud&, d muav;u
rnfonhftcgur~ rsufjcnfrjywfcJhyg? tdNd,EdkifiHwGif oifq h Jvzf ek ;f uwpfqifh q&m0efxH tvsit f jref taMumif;Mum;
qm;xkwfvkyfr=udk vuf0g;-uD; tkyfxm;onfh ay;ygvrd rhf ,f/ 'Dvkd ud&, d mrsK;d aqmifxm;zdu Yk tcsed t f wefMum
jAdwdo~tpdk;7. vkyf7yfudk uef\uGuf qNjy7ef jyvkyfcJhonfh apmif&h OD;r,fqykd gw,f/ tJ'D owif;udk umvDz;kd eD;,m;
*ND. yifv,fqDodk\ “qm;csDwufyGJ” onf 1963 ckESpfwGif wuúov kd f Sandia National Lab u "mwktif*sief , D m
0g7Sifwefodk\ csDwuf qNjycJhonfh uif;. vkyf7yftwGuf Anup Singh u ay;ygw,f/
t"du vH=\aqmfr= wpf7yf jzpfcJhonf? c7pf,mef
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 45
ordkif;xJu aeU&ufrsm;

1st JULY
tjzpftysurf sm; qufoG,fcJhjcif; jzpfonf/
1881 ckEpS f urÇmh yxrqH;k aom 1963 ckEpS f tar&duefEdkifiH pmydkY
tjynfjynfqikd &f m w,fvzD ek ;f vkyfief;rsm;wGif'ZIP Codes'
qufoG,frIudk jyKvkyfcJhonf/ ac: wdkif;jynf? jynfe,f? NrdKU
¤if;onftar&duefEikd if M H aine ponfwYkdukd ude;f rsm;jzifh yHak o
jynfe,f Calais NrdKUESihf uae'g rSwfom;í vdyfpmtjzpf oHk;
EdkifiH New Brunswick jynf onfhpepfudk pwif aqmif&Guf
e,f St. Stephen NrdKUwdYktMum; cJhonf/ ¤if;udk Robert Au-
rand Moon qdkolu 1950 pufrsm;onf pD'Drsm; rwGif arG;zGm;jcif;
jynfhESpfuwnf;u wDxGifcJh us,f r D u vl o H k ; trsm;qH k ; 1742 ckEpS f *smrefvlrsKd; ½ly
aomfvnf; 1963 ckESpfrS oHk; ypönf;rsm; jzpfcJhygonf/ aA'ESifh odyÜH ynm&Sif Georg
Edik cf yhJ gonf/ olYuv kd nf; 'Mr. 2004 ckEpS f vlvdkufygoGm;jcif; Christoph Lichtenberg udk
ZIP Code' [k ac:wGic fo hJ nf/ r&dSonfh NASA/ESA/ASI arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/ olonf pmoif
1979 ckEpS f qdek u
D rk P
Ü rD S 'Walk wd k Y \ Cassino-Huygens Mum;&mwGif vufawGUypönf;
-man' ac: c&D;aqmif uuf tmumo pl;prf;,mOfonf ud&d,mrsm;eJY jyooifMum;
qufacGo;kH aw;zGiphf ufi,fukd paeN*dK[f\ N*dK[fywfvrf; jcif;udk pwifcJholvnf;jzpfí
rdwfqufxkwfvkyfcJhygonf/ aMumif;twGif;odkY 0ifa&mufcJh pmtkyfrsm;pGmudkvnf; jyKpk a&;
tqdkyg 'Walkman' aw;zGifh onf/ om;cJhol jzpfonf/ olonf

uGe;f pwefYpaf &uefBuD;wGif jzpf


2nd JULY í avxJwGif 18 rdepfMum ysH
oef;cJhygonf/
1937 ckEpS f tar&duefvrl sK;d av
tjzpftysurf sm; tumtuG,t f jzpf zH;k tkyf ay; ,mOfyikd ;f avmh Amelia Earhart
1850 jynfhEpS f 'Gas mask' udk NyD; avudk oefY&Sif;atmif ppf ESifh vrf;nTef Fred Noonan
rlydkifcGifhtjzpf uif;b&pfcsf xkwfay;xm;onfh touf½ª wdkY armif;ESifcJhonfh av,mOf
wuú o d k v f r S Benjamin J. ud&, d mjzpfí ppfbufEiS hf "mwf onf tquf t oG , f jywf
Lane u rSwfyHkwifcJhygonf/ owåK &SmazGa&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif awmufcJhygonf/ olwdkYonf jynfaxmifpk e,l;ruúqDudk
¤if;onf rsufESm wpfckvHk;udk toHk;0ifaom ud&d,m jzpfvm ypdzw d of rk'&´ mudk ausmfjzwfí jynfe,f ½dkU0JNrdKUteD;wGif ysuf
cJhygonf/ armif;ESipf Of jzpfysufcjhJ cif; jzpf uscJhygonf/ ¤if;tjzpftysuf
1900 jynfhEpS f 'Zeppelin' ac: í tDauGwmrsOf;wpfavQmufrS udk tar&duefjynfaxmifpk av
avoabFmudk ysHoef;jycJhyg urÇmudk wpfywfywfí ysHoef; wyfrS ]]¤if;onf &moDOwk cefY
onf/ ¤if;udk NrdKUpm;jzpfol &ef BudK;pm;cJph Ofu jzpfygonf/ rSe;f &ef vTww
f ifxm;onfh av
Ferdinand von Zeppelin u tqdkyg aysmufqHk;rItwGuf abmvHk; ysufuscJhjcif; jzpf
OD;aqmif wnfaqmufcJhNyD; tpd;k &rS a':vm 4 oef; tukef onf}} [k aMunmcJhygonf/
t&Snf 128 rDwm &dSí jrif; tuscHí &SmazGcJhaomfvnf; xdpk Ofu owif;pmrsm;rS azmfjy
aumifa& 14.2 tif*sif ESpfvHk; rawGUcJhyg/ csufrsm;t& jynfolwdkY tvGef
wyfqifxm;ygonf/ tqdkyg 1947 ckEpS f 'UFO' ac: yef;uef pdwf0ifpm;cJhonhf owif; jzpf
ysHoef;jyjcif;udk *smreDEdkifiH&dS jym;ysH wpfpif;onf tar&duef cJhygonf/
46 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
1799 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefcJhyg aA' ynm&Sif Gerald Edel-
onf/ man udk arG;zGm;cJhonf/ ol
1872 ckEpS f jyifopfvrl sKd; av onf ]cE¨mudk,fwGif; aoG;wGif
aMumif;ynma&SUaqmifLouis jzpfay:onfh a&m*gumuG,f
Bleriot udk arG;zGm;cJy
h gonf/ ay;onfh y#dypön;f armfvu D sL;}
olonf tif*sifeD,mwpfOD; wdkY\ wnfaqmufyHkudk &SmazG
vnf;jzpfí ornithopter ac: awGU&dcS ohJ jl zpfí Edb
k ,fvqf &k iS f
iSuftawmifyHuJhodkY ysHoef; wpfOD;vnf; jzpfygonf/
Edkifonfh pufudk wDxGifcJhol 1941 ckEpS f tar&duefvrl sK;d odyHÜ
jzpfonf/ olonf 1936 ckESpf ynm&Sif Alfred G. Gilman udk
wGif uG,fvGefcJhygonf/ arG ; zG m ;cJ h y gonf / ol o nf
1929 ckEpS f tar&duefvlrsK;d ZD0 y½dkwif;\ rdom;pk0ifjzpfaom
G-proteins udk &SmazGawGU&dc SohJ l
jzpfí Edkb,fvfqk&Sif wpfOD;
vnf; jzpfonf/ ,cktcg ol rence Bragg uG,v
f eG cf o
hJ nf/ ynm&S i f Nikolay Basov
onf 'g;vufpf&dS wufqufpf olonf X-ray a&mifpOf\ uG,fvGefcJhygonf/ olonf
aq;wuúodkvfwGif wuúodkvf ta&mifjzmrI qdkif&m Oya'udk uGrfwrftDvufx&Gefepf e,f
r[mXmerSL;tjzpf wm0ef xrf; azmfxw k cf o
hJ jl zpfonf/ olonf y,fwiG f tajccHtm;jzifh tvkyf
aqmifaeygonf/ Edkb,fvf qk&Sif wpfOD;vnf; vkyfyHkrsm;udk avhvmazmfxkwf
aoqHk;jcif; jzpfí 1890 jynfhESpfwGif arG; cJholjzpfí Edkb,fvf qk&Sif
1971 ckEpS f t*Fvdyf vlrsKd; ½ly zGm;cJhygonf/ wpfOD;vnf;jzpfonf/ olYudk
Georg C. Lichtenberg aA' ynm&Sif William Law- 2001 ckEpS f ½k&Sm;vlrsKd; ½lyaA' 1922 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf/

1982 ckEpS f tar&duefEdkifiHom; 1884 ckEpS f *smrefvrl sKd; tm½Hk 1906 ckEpS f *smrefEikd if zH mG ; EsLu
Larry Walters onf [DvD,H aMumqdkif&m aq; ynm&Sif vD,m;qdik &f m ½lyaA' ynm&Sif
"mwfaiGUoGif;xm;onfh abm Alfons Maria Jakob udk arG; Hans Bethe udkarG;zGm;cJhyg
vHk; 45 vHk;udk toHk;jyKcJhí ay zGm;cJo
h nf/ olonf 'neuropa onf/ olonf 'stellar nucle-
16ç000 aytxd wufa&muf -thology' ac: tm½HkaMumqdkif osynthesis' oDtdk&Dudk azmf
ysHoef;jycJhygonf/ olonf &m a&m*grsm;taMumif;udk ok xkwfcJholjzpfí Edkb,fvfqk&Sif
xdkifcHkwpfckom toHk;jyKNyD; rdk; awoejyK azmfxkwfcJhol jzpf wpfO;D vnf;jzpfonf/ olonf
aumif;uifwGif ESpfem&DMumrQ onf/ olonf 1931 ckEpS w f iG f 2005 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefcJhyg
abmvH;k o,faqmif&modYk vGihf uG,fvGefcJhygonf/ onf/
ygcJhygonf/ 1946 ckEpS f tar&duefvrl sK;d odyHÜ Hans Bethe
arG;zGm;jcif; ynm&Sif Richard Axel udk arG; aA'ESifh eu©wåaA' ynm&Sif
1862 ckEpS f t*FvdyfvlrsKd; ½ly zGm;cJo
h nf/ olonf OD;aESmuf Thomas Harriot uG,v f eG cf yhJ g
aA' ynm&Sif William Henry \ tm½HkcHpm;EdkifrIrsm;? DNA onf/ olonf a&aMumif;qdkif
Bragg udk arG;zGm;cJhygonf/ okawoejyKcsufrsm;? *sif; &m eu©waå A'ynmudk jyKpk a&;
olonf X-ray Spectrometer, (genes) rsK;d pdwrf sm; taMumif; om;oifMum;cJhí ae\ tpuf
X-ray diffraction wdYkukd toH;k ponfwYkduakd vhvm azmfxw k cf hJ tajymufrsm;udk avhvmcJhí
jyKyHkESifh c&pfpw,frsm; wnf oljzpfí Edb k ,fvf qk&iS w f pfO;D tvif;\ a&mifjyef½dkufcwfrI
aqmufyHkwdkYudk azmfxkwfcJhol vnf; jzpfonf/ ponfwYkdukd azmfxw k cf o
hJ l jzpf
jzpfonf/ olonf 1942 ckESpf aoqHk;jcif; onf/ olYudk 1560 jynfhESpf
wGif uG,fvGefcJhygonf/ 1621 ckEpS f t*Fvyd f vlrsK;d ocsmF wGif arG;zGm;cJhygonf/
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 47
vGecf yhJ gonf/ olonf oabFm
3rd JULY rsm;wGiv f u
kd yf g&if; ocsmF ynm 4th JULY
udk oifMum;ay;aecJhNyD;aemuf
vef'efNrdKUESifh e,l;a,mufNrdKU vef'efNrKd UwGif tajccsum ocsmF
wdYk tMum; twåvEÅw d o f rk'&´ m q&mtjzpf vkyu f ikd cf o
hJ nf/ ol
udk ausmfjzwfum xkwfvTifhcJh onf *&d pmvHk;rsm;udk ocsFm
jcif; jzpfNyD; o½kyjf ycJoh nfh tpD oauFwrsm;tjzpf tBuHjyK wD
tpOf wpfckvnf; jzpfonf/ xGicf NhJ yD; a&aMumif;ESiyhf wfouf
1938 ckEpS f a&aEG;aiGUjzifh armif; onfh 'A New Compendium
ESif&onfh tif*sifudk toHk;jyK of the Whole Art of Navi-
í urÇmh tjrefEIef; pHcsdefwif gation' pmtkyfudk jyKpka&;om;
jcif;udk t*FvefEikd if wH iG f jyKvkyf cJholvnf;jzpfygonf/ olYudk
cJhygonf/ ¤if;wGif 'Number 1675 ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nf/
tjzpftysurf sm;
4468 Mallard' [k trnfay; 1790 jynfEh pS f jyifopfvrl sK;d "mwk
1886 ckEpS f 'New York Tri-
xm;onf h &xm;puf a cgif ; aA' ynm&Sif Jean Baptiste
bune' owif;pmonf vifEdk
onf wpfem&DvQif 126 rdkif L. Rome de I'Isle uG,v f eG cf hJ
wdu k f pufukd toH;k jyKí ½du k Ef ySd f
EIef;jzifh armif;ESifEdkifcJhygonf/ onf/ olonf wGi;f xGu"f mwf
xkwfa0cJhonfh yxrqHk;aom
2004 ckESpf owåK ynm&Siw
xd k i f ; Ed k i f i H f pfO;D vnf; jzpf tjzpftysurf sm;
owif;pm jzpfcJhygonf/ ¤if;
befaumufNrdKUwGif ajratmuf í 'Essal de Cristallogra- 1054 ckESpf Supernova [k
onf yHEk ySd pf ufwiG f vufEySd pf uf
&xm;vrf;rsm;udk zGifhvSpfcJh phic' pmtkyfudk a&;om;jyKpkcJh
udkyg wGJzufwnfaqmufxm; trnfay;xm;onfh Mu,fBuD;
onf/ ,cifu befaumufNrdKU olvnf;jzpfonf/ olYukd 1736 udk w½kwfvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh tar&d
NyD; rlv owåKtydwfvdkif;rsm;
wGif aeYpOf ,mOfaMumydwq ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhygonf/
f Ykd rI u wdkufae tif'D;,ef; Xmae
twGif;odkY pm½dkufrnfh pmvHk;
rsm; &dSaecJhygonf/ 1935 ckEpS f jyifopf vlrsK;d armf vlrsKd;wdkYu awGU&dSavhvmcJhMu
rsm;udk yHpk aH vmif;vdu k of uJo h Ykd
awmf,mOfvkyfief; a&SUaqmif ygonf/ ¤if;onf vaygif;rsm;
aumfvH odkYr[kwf pmrsufESm
Andre Citroen uG,fvGefcJh
tvdu k f jyKvku kd jf cif; jzpfonf/ pGm tvif;a&mifawmufyvsuf
ygonf/ olonf jyifopfEdkifiH &dS&m aeYbuftcsdefrsm;wGifyif
xdkpOfu tvGef thHzG,f enf;
armfawmf,mOfvyk if ef;wGif xif jrifEdkifygonf/ ¤if;onf 'T-
ynmwpfck jzpfcJhygonf/
&Sm;ol wpfOD;jzpfí 'S.A. An- Tauri' Mu,f\ teD;wGif wnf
1928 ckEpS f yxrqHk; tBudrf
dre Citroen' armfawmfum;
tjzpf a&mifpHk ½kyfjrifoHMum; &dSNyD; ykpGefvHk;yHk Mu,fpk (Crab
ukrP Ü u
D kd wnfaxmifco hJ v l nf; Nebula) onf ¤if;\ tpte
xkwv f iT jhf cif;udk vef'efNrdKUwGif
arG;zGm;jcif; jzpfonf/ olYudk 1878 ckESpf rsm;vnf; jzpfonf/
pwifjyKvkyfcJhonf/ ¤if;udk
'Baird Television Develop- 1567 ckEpS f jyifopfvrl sK;d pl;prf; wGif arG;zGm;cJhygonf/ 1837 ckEpS f t*FvefEikd if H bmrif
ment/Cinema Television' &SmazGol c&D;onf Samuel de *efNrdKUESifh vDAmyl;vfNrdKUwdkY
ukrÜPDrS vTifhxkwfcJhjcif;jzpfí Champlain ud k a rG ; zG m ;cJ h y g tMum; rD;&xm;vrf; azmuf
onf/ olonf jyifopfEdkifiHrS vkyfqufoG,fcJhonf/ tqdkyg
ajrmuftar&duwdkuf a'o
rsm;odYk ukeu f ;l oef; a&mif;0,f
jcif;udk tpjyKcJholjzpfí 'Que-
bec City' udk wnfaxmifcJh
olvnf;jzpfygonf/ olonf
1635 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v
f eG cf o
hJ nf/
aoqHk;jcif;
1749 ckEpS f t*Fvyd f vlrsK;d ocsmF
ynm&Sif William Jones uG,f Andre Citroen

48 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006


1934 ckEpS f [efa*&D,efE, G zf mG ; 1867 ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/
tar&duefvlrsKd; Leo Szilard 1977 ckEpS f ½k&Sm;vlrsKd; ½lyaA'
onf tEkjrLAHk; jyKvkyf&mwGif ynm&Sif Gersh Budker uG,f
tajccH vdktyfcsuf wpfckjzpf vGecf o
hJ nf/ olonf EsL;uvd
onfh 'chain-reaction design' ,m;qd k i f & m ynm&S i f v nf ;
udk rlydkifcGifhtjzpf rSwfyHkwifcJh jzpfí ½k&Sm;EdkifiH\ 'Institute
onf/ ¤if;onf 'Manhattan of Nuclear Physics' udk wnf
Project' twGuf jzpfygonf/ axmifcJholvnf; jzpfonf/ olY
1997 ckESpf emqmrS vTwfwif udk 1918 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhyg
vkdufcJhonfh Pathfinder tm onf/
umo pl;prf;,mOfi,fonf Richard Garriott 1986 ckEpS f ½k&Sm;vlrsKd; ocsFm
t*FgN*dK[f\ rsufESmjyifay:odkY ynm&Sif Oscar Zariski uG,f
qif;oufcJhonf/ Garriott udkarG;zGm;cJhygonf/ vGecf o
hJ nf/ olonf algebric
arG;zGm;jcif; olonf Apple II uGefysLwm geometry ynm&yfESifh ywf
Grand Junction Railway 1854 ckEpS f ½dkar;eD;,m;vlrsKd; twGuf 'Akalabeth (World of oufí xif&Sm;cJholjzpfNyD; olY
onf urÇmay:wGif yxrqHk; tEkZD0 ydk;rTm;aA' ynm&Sif Doom)' udk pwifa&;qGJcJhNyD; udk 1899 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhyg
t&SnfqHk; rD;&xm;vrf; jzpfcJh Victor Babes udkarG;zGm;cJhyg 0if ; 'd k ; pf p epf t wG u f v nf ; onf/
ygonf/ onf/ olonf acwfrD odyÜH 'City of Heroes, City of Vil- 1997 ckEpS f t*Fvyd f vlrsK;d owå
1840 jynfEh pS f 'Cunard Line' ydik f
enf;us ydk;rTm;aA'ynm&yfudk lains' uJo h Ykd *dr;f y½d*k &rf trsm; aA' ynm&Sif John Zachary
opfom;jzifh jyKvkyfxm; aom azmfxw tjym;udk a&;qGaJ y;aeygonf/
k cf NhJ yD; rabies, leprosy, Young uG,v f eG cf yhJ gonf/ ol
a&,uf (paddle) rsm; wyf diphtheria, tuberculosis p aoqHk;jcif; onf tm½HkaMumzGJUpnf;rI pepf
qifxm;NyD; a&aEG;aiGU tif*sif onf ul;pufwwfaom a&m*g 1934 ckEpS f ydkvefEdkifiHzGm; odyÜH udk odyeHÜ nf;us okawoejyKcJh
jzifh armif;ESif&aom wef 700 ESifh "mwkaA' ynm&Sif Maria
ESihf yd;k rTm;rsm;taMumif;udk avh oljzpfí 'The Life of Verte-
&dS rD;oabFm RMS Britannia vmcJholjzpfygonf/ olonf Sklodwska Curie uG,v f eG cf hJ brates ', 'The Life of Mam-
onf t*FvefEdkifiH vDAmyl;vf 1926 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v ygonf/ olronf radiology mals' ponf pmtkyfrsm;udk
f eG cf o
hJ nf/
NrdKUrS xGufcGmcJhonf/ ¤if;onf enf;ynmudk a&SUaqmif azmf vnf; jyKpka&;om;cJhol jzpfyg
1961 ckEpS f t*Fvyd fvrl sK;d AD', D kd
uae'gEdkifiH EdkAmpaumh&Sm; *drf; 'DZdkif;ESifh y½dk*&rfrsm; xkwfcJholjzpfí Edkb,fvfqk&Sif onf/ olYudk 1907 ckESpfwGif
jynfe,f [,fvDzufpfNrdKUodkY a&;qGJol Richard Allen wpfOD;vnf;jzpfonf/ olrudk arG;zGm;cJhonf/
twåvEÅdwf ork'´&mudk jzwf
oef;armif;ESicf o hJ nfh yxrqH;k
c&D;onfwif rD;oabFm jzpfcJh enf;ynm r[kwyf g
ygonf/
1892ckEpS f awmifypdzw d o f rk'&´ m
wpfacwfwpfcgu um;aMumfjimyHyk g
twGif;&dS uRef;pkrsm;EdkifiHjzpf
1931 ckESpfu 'studebaker' um;aMumfjimwpfck
onfh Western Samoa onf
jzpfygw,f/ opfom;eJY wnfaqmufxm;NyD;
International Date Line udk
aygif 11ç000 av;ygw,f/ yHkrSef 'studebaker'
ajymif;vJcJhonf/ xdkYtwGuf
um;xuf 2 qausmf BuD;rm;NyD; vl 50 cefY
tqdkyg wkdif;jynfonf ¤if;ESpf
wufNyD; xdkifEdkifygw,f/ oHpHkwD;0dkif;wifNyD;
wGif 367 &uf &dScJhNyD; Zlvdkifv
{nfhcHcJhzl;ygw,f/ um;aMumfjimtwGufomru EdkifiHjcm;om; c&D;onfrsm;udkyg
4 &uf wevFmaeYudk ESpf&uf
qGJaqmifEdkifcJhygw,f/ 1938 ckESpfrSm rD;avmifysufpD;oGm;cJhygw,f/
jzwfausmfcJh&ygonf/
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 49
5th JULY
tjzpftysurf sm; 1996 ckESpf Dolly [k trnf
1610 ckESpf t*F v d y f v l r sKd ;
ay;xm;onfh odk;uav;onf
ukefonfjzpfol John Guy onf EdkYwdkufowå0grsm;wGif
onf Bristol rS pwif &Guv yxrqHk; cloned jzpfcJhonf/
f iT hf
cJhonf/ olonf e,l;azmif ¤if;udk paumhwvefjynfe,f
vef t&yfa'oudk t*Fvdyf 'Roslin Institute' wGif zef
udkvdkeDa'otjzpf a&muf&dS wD;cJí
h code-named rSm 6LL3
ap&ef BudK;pm;cJholvnf;jzpf jzpfonf/ tqdkyg odk;uav;
onf/ onf 2003 ckESpfwGif aoqHk;
1951 ckESpf NAdwdoQvlrsKd; ½ly cJhonf/
aA' ynm&Sif William Shock 1998 ckEpS f t*FgN*dK[fodkY oGm; tjzpf tar&duefjynfaxmifp?k ryg0ifaom 'Graham bread'
-ley onf x&efppöwmudk wD a&mufrnfh tmumo,mOfudk ½k&mS ;Edik if w
H Ykd EiS hf qufo,
G Ef ikd cf hJ aygifrek Yfukd wDxiG cf NhJ yD; 'Ameri
xGifcJhonf/ olonf John *syefEdkifiHrS vTwfwifcJhonf/ ygonf/ -can Vegetarian Society'
Bardeen, Walter Houser ¤if;udk 'nozomi' [k trnf ay; arG;zGm;jcif; wnfaxmif&mwGif yg0ifun l cD hJ
Bratain wdkYESifhtwl wDxGifcJh xm;NyD; t"dyÜm,frSm ]arQmfvifh 1794 ckEpS f tar&duef vlrsKd; ol jzpfonf/ olYudk ''father
jcif;jzpfí pDvDuGefawmifMum; jcif;} [lí jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí tm[m&aA' ynm&Sif Sylve- of Graham crackers' tjzpf
udk wnfaxmifcJholvnf; jzpf *syefEikd if oH nf tmumo pl;prf; ster Graham udkarG;zGm;cJhyg vlodrsm;cJholvnf; jzpfonf/
onf/ avhvmonfh EdkifiH wpfEdkifiH onf/ olonf "mwkaq;rsm; ollonf 1851 ckESpfwGif uG,f

7th JULY wDxGifcJhonf/ ¤if; yefYcsfuwf


onf aemifwiG f uGeyf sLwmpuf
rsm;twG u f toH k ; 0if o nf h
N*dK[fonf Regulus [k trnf arG;zGm;jcif; enf;ynm jzpfcJhygonf/ ol
ay;xm;onfh Mu,fudk zH;k uG,f 1746 ckESpf tD w vD v l r sKd ; onf 1834 ckESpfwGif uG,f
cJhonf/ ¤if;onf tvGef awGU eu©waå A'ynm&Sif Giuseppe vGefcJhonf/
BuHKcJonfh jzpf&yfjzpfí AD;eyfpf Piazzi udk arG;zGm;cJhygonf/ 1843 ckEpS f tDwvDvlrsKd; aq;
N*dK[f\ tcsif;udk wdkif;wmEdkif olonf Palermo eu©wMf unfh ynm&Sif Camillo Golgi udk
ygonf/ xdkYtjyif ¤if;N*dK[f\ arQmfpifudk wnfaqmufcJhNyD; arG;zGm;cJyh gonf/ olonf eyfAf
"mwfaiGUxkudkvnf; avhvm a&GUvsm;aeonfh Mu,frsm; yg pepfrsm;\ wnfaqmufyHkudk
tjzpftysurf sm; EdkifcJhygonf/ 0ifaom tpkta0;udk &SmazG avhvm azmfxkwfcJholjzpfí
1915 ckEpS f International Rail- 2004 ckEpS f LZW (Lempel- awGU&dScJholvnf; jzpfonf/ ol Edkb,fvfqk&Sif wpfOD;vnf;
way Trolley rS xa&mfvD wpf Ziv-Welch) [k trnfay;xm; onf 1826 ckESpfwGif uG,f jzpfonf/ olonf 1926 ckESpf
pif;onf owfrSwfcsufxuf onfh tcsuftvufrsm;udk rl vGefcJhygonf/ wGif uG,fvGefcJhygonf/
ausmv f eG u
f m c&D;onf 157 OD; &if;rysuf csKHUEdkifonfh y½dk*&rf 1752 ckEpS f jyifopfvlrsKd; wD 1906 ckEpS f c½dak t;&Svrl sK;d ocsmF
udk wifcJh&mrS xdcdkufrI jzpfyGm; oHk;pGJcGifhonf uae'gEdkifiHwGif xGifol Joseph Marie jac- ynm&Sif William Feller udk
cJh&m c&D;onf 15 OD; aoqHk;cJh rlyikd cf iG hf ysujf y,fcNhJ yD; jzpfonf/ quard udk arG;zGm;cJhygonf/ ol arG ; zG m ;cJ h y gonf / ol o nf
ygonf/ ¤if;onf Ontario ¤if;udk 1984 ckESpfu Abra- onf &uf u ef ; pif r sm;wG i f ,cktcg vlord sm;aom 'Math
jynfe,f Queenston teD; ham Lempel, Jacob Ziv ESifh taygufazmufxm;aom ]yefYcsf -ematical Reviews' *sme,f
wGif jzpfonf/ Terry Welch wdkYu a&;qGJ uwf} rsm;udk toH;k jyKí txnf xkwfa0jcif;udk pwifcJholjzpf
1959 ckEpS f AD;eyf ac: aomMum wnfaqmufcJhjcif; jzpfonf/ rsm;udk vsifjrefpGm &ufvkyfEdkif NyD; ol a&;om; azmfxw k cf ohJ nfh
50 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
vGefcJhygonf/
1891 ckEpS f tar&duefvrl sK;d ZD0
NyD; Edb
k ,fvq f &k iS w
f pfO;D vnf;
jzpfonf/ olYudk 1853 ckESpf
6th JULY
"mwkaA' ynm&Sif John Ho- wGif arG;zGm;cJhygonf/ son Hooker udk arG;zGm;cJhyg
ward Northrop udk arG;zGm; 1957 ckEpS f tar&duefEdkifiHzGm; onf/ olonftdkufpvefuRef;
cJhygonf/ olonf tifZdkif;rsm; wDxGifol ynm&Sif Charles a'orsm;odYk c&D;xGuu f m tyif
udk oefYpifjcif;ESifh yHkaqmifcJ Sherwood Noble uG,v f eG cf hJ rsm;udk okawoejyK avhvmcJh
toGif azmfjcif;rsm;udk jyKvkyf ygonf/ olonf v,form;rsm; NyD; Oa&mywdkuf wdkif;jynfrsm;
cJo
h jl zpfí ola&;om;jyKpkcohJ nfh twGuf aps;oufomí toHk; odkYvnf; a&mufcJhygonf/ ol
Crystalline Enzymes pmtkyf 0ifaom v,fxeG pf uf? aumuf onftvGeu f s,0f ef;aom ½ku©
onf txl; ta&;ygcJyh gonf/ &dwpf ufrsm;udk wDxiG cf o hJ l jzpf aA' O,smOfudkvnf; wnf
Louis Pasteur
olonf Edkb,fvfqk&SifwpfOD; onf/ aqmufcJholjzpfNyD; 1865 ckESpf
vnf;jzpfí 1987 ckESpfwGif 1966 ckEpS f [efa*&D,efvrl sKd; tjzpftysurf sm; wGif uG,fvGefcJhonf/
uG,fvGefcJhygonf/ "mwkaA' ynm&Sif George 1885 ckEpS f jyifopfvlrsKd; "mwk 1817 ckEpS f qGpZf mvefEikd if o H m;
de Hevesy uG,fvGefcJhy g aA'ESihf tEkZ0D yd;k rTm;aA' ynm cE¨maA'ESihf aq;ynm&Sijf zpfol
aoqHk;jcif; onf/ olonf a&'D,HESifh cJ &Sif Louis Pasteur onf ol Albert von Kolliker udk arG;
1927 ckEpS f *smrefvrl sKd; aq; tdkifqdk wkwfrsm;\toHk;0ifyHk \xd;k aq;udk atmifjrifpmG prf; zGm;cJhygonf/ olonf oaE¨
ynm&Sif Albrecht Kossel udk &SmazGazmfxkwfcJholjzpfí oyfEikd cf yhJ gonf/ ¤if;onf acG; om;avmif;qdik &f m ynm&yfrsm;
uG,fvGefcJhygonf/ ol o nf Edkb,fvf qk&SifwpfOD;vnf; ½l;a&m*gpGu J yfaeonfh Joseph udk avhvmazmfxkwfcJholjzpfí
y½dkwif;? EsL;uvD;,yf tuf jzpfonf/ olYudk 1885 ckESpf Meister trnf & d S a om vl 1905ckEpS w f iG f u, G vf eG cf ohJ nf/
qpf qJvfrsm;ESifh ywfoufí wGif arG;zGm;cJhygonf/ uav;wpfOD; jzpfonf/ 1903 ckEpS f qDG'ifvlrsKd; odyÜH
okawoejyK avhvmcJhol jzpf 1908 ckEpS f tar&duefvlrsKd; pl; ynm&Sif Hugo Theorell udk
prf;&SmazGol c&D;onf Robert arG;zGm;cJyh gonf/ olonf 'No-
Peary onf tmwdwfa'oodkY bel Institute' \ okawoe
'Feller process, Lindberg- pma&;q&mwpfO;D vnf; jzpfNyD; pwif oGm;a&muf&ef e,l; qdik &f m Ouú|wpfO;D vnf;jzpfí
theorem, Feller explosion 0w¬K&Snf 32yk'f? 0w¬Kwdk 59 a,mufpDwD;rS pwifxGufcGmcJh 'oxidation enzyme' \
test, Feller-Brown move- yk ' f ? vuf a &G ; pif 16 yk ' f ? onf/ olESifh tzGJUonf 1909 tusKd;oufa&mufrIrsm;udk &Sm
ment, Feller property ponf ½kyf&Sif 2 um;ESifh wDAGD? a&'D,dk ckESpf {NyDv 6 &ufwGif ajrmuf azGazmfxkwfcJhol jzpfonf/ ol
wdkYonfvnf; xif&Sm;cJhonf/ xkwfvTifhjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfcJhyg 0if½dk;pGef;a'oodkY a&mufcJhyg onf 1982 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG f
olonf 1970 jynfhESpfwGif onf/ olonf 1988 ckESpf onf/ cJhygonf/
uG,fvGefcJhonf/ wGuf uG,fvGefcJhonf/ 1919 ckESpf NAdwdoQwdkY\ av aoqHk;jcif;
1907 ckEpS f tar&duefvrl sK;d odyHÜ aoqHk;jcif; oabF m R-34 onf e,l ; 1476 ckEpS f *smrefvrl sK;d ocsmF ESihf
pd w f u l ; ,Of 0w¬ K a&;q&m 1573 ckEpS f tDwvD vlrsK;d Adok a,mufNrdKUwGif qif;oufcJh eu©waå A'ynm&SifRegioman-
Robert A. Heinlein udk arG; um ynm&Sif Giacomo Baro- onf/ ¤if;onf twåvEÅdwf tus uG,v f eG cf yhJ gonf/ olYudk
zGm;cJhonf/ olonf odyÜHESifh zzi Vignola uG,v f eG cf o
hJ nf/ ork'´&mudkjzwfí ysHoef;rI 1436 ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nf/
tif*sifeD,mqdkif&m ynm&yf olwnfaqmufco hJ nfh vuf&m c&D;pOf tNyD;wGif jzpfonf/ 1854 ckEpS f *smrefvrl sK;d ½lyaA'
rsm;wGif A[kokw <u,f0ol rsm;onf a&mrNrdKUwGif txl; 1988 ckEpS f ajrmufyifv,fjyif ynm&Sif Georg Simon Ohm
jzpfum emrnfausmfMum;onfh xif&Sm;cJhNyD; ol a&;om;jyKpkcJh wGif a&eHwGif; wl;azmfaeaom uG,v f eG cf yh J gonf/ olonf vQyf
onfh 'Rules of the five 'Piper Alpha' a&eHwi G ;f wl;pif pD;aMumif;qdik &f m oDt&kd u D kd azmf
orders of architecture', aygufuGJ rD;avmifcJhygonf/ xkwcf o hJ jl zpfí vQypf pfe,fy,f
'Two rules of practical per- ¤if;rS tvkyform; 167 OD; wGif Ohm's Law udk ,aeYwikd f
spective' ponfh pmtkyfrsm; aoqHk;cJh&ygonf/ oHk;aeMuqJjzpfonf/ olYudk
onfvnf; Adou k mynm&yfrsm; arG;zGm;jcif; 1789 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhyg
wGif ta&;ygcJhygonf/ olYudk 1785 ckEpS f t*Fvdyfvrl sK;d ½ku© onf/
1507 ckEpS w
f iG f arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/ aA' ynm&Sif William Jack-
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 51
r[wår*ED´eJY wlowJhvm;
trSeaf wmhvnf; 'DtaMumif;t&mukd a&;BuD;cGiu hf s,fvyk Nf yD; NyD;awmh tJ'DpmvTmxJrSm ygwDacgif;aqmif trsKd;orD;&JU
]ajymp&mrvkdwJhudp}ö vdkY oabmykdufNyD; 'Dtwkdif;aevkduf&ifawmh arG;aeYjzpfwJh ZGef 19 &ufaeYudk jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm;aeYqdkNyD;
vnf; &om;yJAsm/ 'gayr,fh axmufjya0zefrI r&Sdav? ydktwifh tcrf;tem; owfrSwfusif;ywm ,ckESpfqdkvQif 7 Budrfajrmuf
&JNyD; trSm;awG ajymaeavjzpfNyD; ]igwkYd ajymrS t[kw}f vdYk xifae &SdygNyDwJh/ a&;xm;wm/
olrsm;udk enf;enf;av; todw&m;&oGm;atmif? qifjcifw&m; [kwfygNyD/ wpfzufudk jyefMunfh&if jrefrmEkdifiHawmftpdk;&
av; 0ifoGm;atmif ]ajymp&mvdkwJhudp}ö vdkY ,lqNyD; tckvdk ajym [m jrefrmtrsKd;orD;awG&JU tcGifhta&;awG bufpHk? u@pHkrSm
vkduf&ygw,f cifAsm/ wdk;wufjzpfxGef;zdkY ]jrefrmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m trsKd;orD;a&;&m
armif''hJ ;kd wdYk jrefrmjynfBuD;udk tkycf sKyfNyD; vlxak umif;pm;a&; aumfrwD} udk 1996 ? Zlvdkif 3 &ufaeYrSm pNyD; (NGO tjzpf)
xlaxmifay;csifwJh &nf&G,fcsuf&Sdw,fqdkwJh EkdifiHa&;ygwDwpfck zGJYpnf;ay;cJhw,f/ tckqdk&if 10 ESpfawmif jynfhcJhygNyD/
&JU A[dktrsKd;orD;vkyfief;tzGJYu cgawmfrDxkwfvkdufwJh pmvTmudk tJ'Dvdk pwifzGJYpnf;ay;cJhwJh aeYjzpfwJh Zlvdkif 3 &ufaeYudk
zwfrd&if; tawmftHhMop&maumif;wJh tcsufawGudk awGYcJh&yg ]jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm;aeY} tjzpf owfrw S jf y|mef;cJw
h m 1998 ckEpS f
w,f/ uyg/ tckqdk 8 ESpf &SdygNyD/
]]jrefrmEkdifiHtrsKd;orD;rsm;aeYonf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJY tJ'v D kd owfrw S jf y|mef;wJt
h cgrSm b,fy*k Kd¾ vf&UJ arG;aeY? b,f
csKyf\ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; a':pkMunf\ arG;aeYyifjzpfav trSwfw&aeYawGudkrS a&G;cs,fNyD; rowfrSwfcJhyg/ jrefrmtrsKd;
onf}} vdkY tJ'Dpmyg wpfzufowf owfrSwfa&;om;csuf[m orD;xktm;vHk;udk ukd,fpm;jyKr,fh ]jrefrmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m trsKd;
tawmf yk*d¾Kvfa&; tpGef;a&mufaewJh a&;om;csuftjzpf zwfrd& orD;a&;&m aumfrwD} udk pwifzGJYpnf;cJhwJhaeYudkom ]jrefrmtrsKd;
wJhtcg tawmfyif tHhtm;oifhcJh&ygw,f/ orD;rsm;aeY} vdkY owfrSwfvdkufjcif;[m toifhawmfqHk;eJY tjzpf
olwkdYqdkvdkcsuft& ]jrefrmEkdifiH trsKd;orD;rsm;aeY}udk olwdkY oifhqHk;om jzpfygw,f/
owfrw S wf ahJ eYtwkid ;f om jyKvyk &f r,fq&kd ifjzifh jrefrmtrsK;d orD;xk aemufNyD; tJ'DpmvTmxJrSm ]tdEd´,EkdifiH\ trsKd;om;acgif;
tukev f ;kH udk tJ'D NLD &JU ud, k pf m;jyK&r,fh rde;f rom;awGvYkd rsm; aqmifBuD; r[wår*E´DuJhodkY tMurf;zufjcif;udk pufqkyf&GH&Sm
,lqxm;aeMuovm;yJ/ wnfw h nfah jym&&if tJ'pD mom;udk zwf rkef;wD;aom t[ðo0g'D arwåm&SifuJhodkY NLD \ trsKd;orD;
rdwmeJY trsKd;om;'Dru kd a&pDtzGYJ csKyfu ygwD0ifawG[m ]wpfygwD acgif;aqmifBuD;onfvnf; r[wår*E´DESifh teD;uyfqHk;wlaeyg
pepf} ]wpfOD;aumif; acgif;aqmif0g'} udk oG,f0dkufpGm xlaxmif onf[k uG,v f eG o
f l ygarmu©csKyfwpfO;D u wHYkjyefajymqdck ahJ Mumif;}
csifaewJh oabmw&m;tjzpf awGY&Sdvmjcif;yJ jzpfygw,f/ qdkwmudkvnf; zwf&jyefygw,f/
'Dvdk tpGef;xGufaewJh tawG;rsKd; &SdaeolawG tJ'DEkdifiHa&; ]][kwfyghrvm;? NLD A[dkvkyfief; trsKd;orD;tzGJY&JU}}vdkYom
ygwDtwGi;f rSm&Sad ejcif;[m jrefrmjynfoal wGtwGuv f nf; odum© nnf;vkdufcsifygawmhw,f/
us&m a&mufygw,f/ uG,fvGefol ygarmu©csKyfqdkwJhae&mrSm tJ'DpmvTmrSm
b,fvkdodu©musvdkYvJvdkY ar;csif&if ar;Ekdifygw,f/ ajzzdkY vlyk*d¾Kvfemrnf a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ 'gudk jyefrazmfjyvdkY
vnf; toifh&Sdygw,f/ orkdif;jzpf&yfawG azsmufzsufw,fqdkNyD;vnf; rpGyfpGJvkdufygeJY
ud, k vf ckd sif&mudo k m jrifNyD;? ud, k af jymcsif&momodNyD;? ud, k f OD;/ tJ'Dyk*d¾KvfBuD;&JU *kPfodu©mudk iJhvkdufjcif;yg/ *kPfodu©m
jzpfcsif&mudkom a&SUaemufÓPfeJYcsdefNyD; rpOf;pm;bJ vkyfaqmif qdkwm iJh&aumif;rSef;qdkwma&m NLD A[dktrsKd;orD;vkyfief;
wwfwJh tpGef;a&mufwJholawGeJY zGJYpnf;xm;wJh EkdifiHa&;ygwDyg tzGJYtaeeJY odyg&JUvm;cifAsm/
vm;vdYk jynfwiG ;f a&;udk 0ifajc½IyNf yD; tjrwfxw k cf sifaewJh jynfy ajym&&if tawmfhudk &Snfvsm; axGjym;oGm;rSmrdkY vdk&if;udk
u ieJawGu ydyk Nkd yD; &dyrf o d &d v
dS mav? (tJ't D pGe;f a&mufoal wGu)kd ajymyg&ap/
ydkydkNyD; bHkajr§mufay;avav jzpfvmrSmyJ/ 'ghtjyif jrefrmjynfol *E´DBuD;eJY NLD ygwDacgif;aqmif trsKd;orD;eJY b,fvdk
awGudk tkyfcsKyfcsifol tJ'DygwD0ifawG&JU ÓPf&nfenf;rIudk arwåm&SifyHkpHeJY b,fae&mrSm wlaeygvdrfhcifAsm/
jynfyu tjrwfxkwfcsifwJh yk*d¾KvfawG odvmwmeJYtrQ jrefrm ]xdk*ED´BuD;u olYwkdif;jynf&JU rsKd;EG,fuGJ? tawG;tac:uGJwJh
jynfolawG[m udk,fhxrif; udk,fpm;&if; jynfyolpdrf;&JU tESdrfcH acgif;aqmifawGudk b,fwpfzuf? nmwpfzuf vufqGJNyD;
&r,fhudef;udk tvdkvkd qkdufoGm;Ekdifygw,fcifAsm/ nDnGwfatmif pnf;½Hk;Ekdifol? wpfqHjcnfrQ tvGJtacsmf rcHEkdif
'g[m wkid ;f jynftwGuf odum© usp&m t"dutcsuf jzpfvm wJh vlrsKd;a&;? bmoma&;udpörsm;Mum;rSm &ifMum;aphEkdifol?
ygw,f/ t*Fvdyfvufatmuf olYuRefb0u vGwfatmif ½kef;Ekdifol/
52 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
t*Fvdyf&JU tNidKtjiifudkomcH&NyD; t*Fvdyf&JU qkvmbf oyfyum wJh trsKd;orD;rsm;&JU u@udk arS;rSed yf sufjy,f aysmufu, G wf m;qD;
rsm;udk r&&SdcJhol/ udk,f0wfr,fh 'dkwDtxnfudk udk,fh[mudk,f ydwfyifrIawG jyKvkyfaeolrsm; &Sdaeygw,fwJh/
Akdif;iif0wfqifol? b,fae&mrSm wlygovJAsm/ wu,fawmh ]orkdif;wifNyD;om; jzpf&yfrsm;udk b,fvdk
'Du yk*Kd¾ vftrsK;d orD;uawmh (teD;qH;k Oyrmay;&&ifawmif) taMumif;rsKd;eJYrS azsmufzsufypfvdkY r&paumif;}qdkwm NLD
ukd,fhjynfwGif;u ]jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm;aeY}ukdawmif wuGJwjym; trsKd;orD;vkyfief;tzGJYrS tJ'DpmvTma&;om;olrsm; ydkodrSmom
jzpfatmif? uk, d jhf ynfxaJ &;rSm rnDrnGwjf zpfaeygw,fqw kd hJ yH&k yd f jzpfygw,f/ udk,fhudk,fudk ]vlyk*d¾Kvfqkdif;bkwfwifa&;0g'D} rsm;
xifatmif pdwt f vdv k u
dk Nf yD; zefw;D aeolom jzpfygw,f/ ]*EDB´ uD;} tjzpf &yfwnfaeorQuawmh bmudkrQ taumif;jriform;?
eJY b,fvdkrQ xyfwlEdIif;p&mr&Sdwmudk twif;qGJpyf [yfjyMuwm taumif;jrifygwD jzpfvmrSm r[kwfwm aocsmygw,f/
tjriftMum; rwifhw,fvSygbl;/ NyD;awmh tJ'pD mvTmxJrmS rk'w d mw&m;? rk'w d mpum; wpfceG ;f
NyD;awmhvnf; tJ'DpmvTmrSm ygupöwef? zdvpfydkif? b*Fvm; rQ rygbJ usdepf mwku d wf mvdv k ?dk wpfO;D wpfa,mufxifay:a&;udk
a'h&Sf? tdEd´,? tif'dkeD;&Sm;pwJh EkdifiHawGrSmvnf; trsKd;orD; yJ t"duxm; a&;om;ovdkvkdeJY bmrQ t&nfr& tzwfr& pmpk
acgif;aqmifawG&SdcJhaMumif;? jrefrmjynfrSmvnf; a&S; waumif; om jzpfaewmudkvnf; owdjyKrdyg&JU/
aejynfawmfrS b'´gEk0wD? oD&dacwå&m aejynfawmfrS rmvmpED́? NyD;awmhvnf; pmvTmtqHk;owfrSm ]xm0&yef;} qkdNyD; uAsm
AdóEdk;yefxGmrif;orD;? [Hom0wD&SifapmykwdkYu tpcsDNyD; MoZm zGJYxm;ao;oAsm/ uAsm&JU t"dyÜm,fu tm;vHk;&JU &ifxJrSm ol&Sd
BuD; "m;xufw,fvdkY qdkxm;wJh yk*Hacwfrdzk&m;zGm;apm? tif;0 aeygowJh/ olomq&m/ olomtrdwJh/ olomaerif;/ olom
u ½lZD,ybmrif;orD;? ukef;abmifacwfu eef;rawmfr,fEk? vrif;wJh/ olYaMumifh tvif;&owJh/ olomESif;qD? olompHy,f
qifjzL&Sifrdzk&m;? pMuma'0Drdzk&m;wdkYtjyif pkzk&m;vwfawmif uHk; arT;rqHk;wJh/ olomodrf;iSuf? vif;,kef? pGef&JwJh/ olom
ygao;/ ywåjrm;? pdecf ?J ausmufrsu&f w JG /hJ olom tem*wf? xm0&? t"du
tJ'DurSwpfqifh yif;cifcif? rHk&Gmcifav;BuD;? yk*HAdkvfcsKd&JU wJh/ oleJYwuG EkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;tm;vHk; usef;rmcsrf;omMu
ZeD; (tJ'DZeD;emrnfav; &SmazGxnfhay;&ifjzifh orkdif;udk azsmuf ygapwJh/
zsufw,fvdkY rxif&awmhbl;ayghAsm)/ zwfvdkYaumif;ygw,f/
a[m aemufNyD; csif;wkid ;f &if;oljzpfwhJ vrf;BudKifr?f udKG if0rf 'gayr,fh olwpfa,mufwnf;eJYawmh jrefrmjynf xlaxmif
wGJerf? 0kefeifrf? tGef[Je,efBudKif;rf? 'ifrfjirfpwJh orkdif;0if vdYk &yghrvm;qdw k mvnf; ajzMunfah y;ygOD;/ jynfytm;rud;k aMu;
tmZmenftrsKd;orD;awG usefygao;w,f/ ayghAsm/ jynfytm;ud;k csif&ifvnf; jynfytm;ud;k &vdYk 'ku?© oku©
aemufxyfawGY&wmawGvnf; trsm;BuD;yAsm/ xifay: awGY&wJh urÇmhEkdifiHawGudk OyrmjyKNyD; uAsmpyfayghAsm/
ausmfMum; jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm;udk &SmazGazmfxkwfxm;wmawGudk NcHKMunfhvkduf&if NLD a&TayvTmxJrSm jrefrmtrsKd;orD;awG
tJ'Da&TayvTmrSm awGY&ygw,f/ 'gawG[m trsm;odNyD;om;awG wu,fvdktyfaewJh tajccHtcsufawGudk (vHk;0) razmfjyxm;wJh
csnf;yg/ b,folurQ zHk;uG,f azsmufzsufrxm;Muyg/ tjyif udk,fvdk&mqGJ pum;vHk;awGeJYom tqHk;owfxm;jcif;ygyJ/
'geJY? aeygOD;/ ]tJ'pD mxJrmS azmfjyxm;wJh tm&Swu dk uf trsK;d jrefrmEkdifiHtrsKd;orD;a&;&mtzGJYcsKyfu 2005? {NyD 7 &ufaeY
orD; acgif;aqmifawGeJY xifay:wJh a&S;jrefrmtrsKd;orD;awG[m uefYuGufwifjy today;xm;wJh -
olwdkY&JU arG;aeYawGudk trsKd;orD;awGtwGuf udk,fpm;jyKzdkYqdkNyD; ]EkdifiHawmftm; EkdifiHa&; zdtm;ay;vdkjcif;udk taMumif;jyKí
aeYxl;aeYjrwftjzpf owfrSwfcJhzdkY twåudk a&SUwef;wifcJhMuyg rw&m;pGyfpGJqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;ESifh pmemrIuif;pGm ydwfyifwm;qD;
ovm;/ ya'o&mZfacwfrSm MoZmtmPmxufwJh jrefrmtrsKd; jcif;rsm;udk jrefrmEkdifiH vlOD;a&xuf0ufausmf&Sd jrefrmtrsKd;orD;
orD;BuD;awGawmif tJ'Dvdk twårsKd; &SdcJhwm rawGY&ygbl;/ tJ'D xktm; ud, k pf m;jyKvsuf&o dS nfh jrefrmtrsKd;orD;a&;&mtzGYJ csKyfu
trsKd;orD;BuD;awGudk 0ef;&HcHpm;MuolawGuvnf; olwdkY&JU t&Sif tjyif;txef uefYuu G vf u dk o
f nf} qdw k hJ jrefrmtrsKd;orD;xkbuf
ocif trsK;d orD;BuD;awG xifay:apzkYd rsuEf mS csKad oG;NyD; ajr§mufyifh u &yfwnfxm;wJh &J0HhwJh uefYuGufcsufrsKd;udkyif rxkwfjyef&JwJh
ray;cJhMuygbl;/ NLD A[dt k rsKd;orD;tzGYJ &UJ tjrifusOf;vSwhJ a&TayvTm[m jrefrm
tvª'ge &ufa&mvGe;f wJh ya'o&mZf&iS b f &k ifrBuD; &Siaf pmyk trsKd;orD;xktwGuf b,fae&murS &yfwnfray;xm;wmudk
awmifrS olYukd aESmif;vlrsm; trSw&f aeatmifqNkd yD; rpDpOfcyhJ gbl;/ orkdif;wifNyD;om; jzpfcJhygNyD/
umvESpaf ygif;&mcsjD zwfoef;cJNh yD;rS? 'Dbufacwfa&mufrS ]&Siaf pmyk 'gaMumifh orkid ;f udk azsmufzsuo f rl sm;[m orkid ;f &JU tqd;k 0g;
vrf;} &,fvkdY owfrSwf *kPfjyKcH&&Smwmyg/ qHk;aom 'PfcwfrIudk rvGJraoG cH&vdrfhr,fvdkY cifAsm;wdkY ajym
xyfNyD; tpGe;f a&mufwhJ a&;om;csuw f pfcuk vkd nf; awGY&jyef pum;twkdif;/ udk,fhpum;eJYudk,faemf/ NLD A[dktrsKd;orD;tzGJY
w,f/ a& bGmrcwfaMu;/
wkdif;jynfeJY vlrsKd;twGuf udk,fusKd;pGefY tepfemcH pGefYpm;0Hh armif''hJ ;kd
5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 53
123456789012345678901234
123456789012345678901234
123456789012345678901234
123456789012345678901234
123456789012345678901234

uGefysLwmacwf a&mufonftxd jzwfoef;cJh&aom


wDxiG rf I orkid ;f aMumif;rsm; (12)

1997 ckEpS f onf/ ¤if;onf Pentium II Processor \ pGrf;aqmif&nfESifh


Intel rS Pentium processor rsm;twGuf multimedia twlwlyifjzpfonf/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap Pentium II chip ygaom
upgrade jyKay;rnfh MMX chip udk yGx J w
k v
f u
dk o
f nf/ ¤if;onf system wpfckudk a':vm 2500 jzifh a&mif;aecsdefwGif ¤if;tm;
Pentium jzifh vnfywfaeaom uGefysLwmwpfvHk;twGuf 10 a':vm 2000 atmufjzifh a&mif;Ekid o f jzifh pdw0f ifpm;rI &Scd &hJ onf/
&mcdkifEIef;rS 20 &mcdkifEIef;txd performance wdk;wufvmapí Digital video discs (DVDs) rsm; pwif a&mif;csaeNyD
y½dk*&rfrsm;a&;&mwGif 60 &mcdkifEIef; wdk;wufvmaprnf[k arQmf jzpfonf/ ¤if;\ yHkpHrSm ½dk;½dk;pD'Drsm;? CD-
rSef;xm;onf/ ROMs rsm;ESifh twlwl jzpfonf/ odkYaomf
Compaq, Packard Bell, NEC ESifh Apple uJhodkYaom ¤if;onf data yrmP ydkí 0ifqHh
uGefysLwmxkwfvkyfol trsm;tjym;onf rdrdvkyfief;rsm;wGifyif onf/ "The Wizard of Oz" ½kyf&Sif
toH;k jyKvmEkid af p&eftwGuf uGefysLwmaps;EIef;rsm;udk a':vm um; wpfum;vkH;udk csyfjym;wpfcsyfwnf;
1000 wefxuf avsmhenf;aom EIef;xm;jzifh a&mif;csEkdif&ef jzifh oGif;,lEkdifonf/
pkdif;jyif;vmMuonf/ Microsoft rS Macintosh platform twGuf
67 Kbps modem trsKd ; tpm;ud k Windows NT operating system udk qufvuf xkwfvkyf&ef
a':vm 600 cefYjzifh Transend rS xkwv f yk f rBudK;pm;awmh[k aMunmvdkufonf/ tqdk OS onf Power
vkdufonf/ tjcm; modem rsm;xuf ESpfq PC chip ay:wGif tajccH wnfaqmufxm;cJhonf/ Microsoft
ausmf aps;BuD;aeonf/ tqdkyg modem onf taejzifh Digital Equipment Corp: ESihf Intel Chip rsm;twGuf
w,fvDzkef;vdkif;ESpfvdkif;udk tqufrjywf toHk;jyK Window NT udk qufvuf jyKvkyfay;rnfjzpf\/
Ekdifonf/ toHk;jyK&mwGifvnf; ay;ydkYjcif;twGufjzpfap? vufcH Microsoft Corp. onf Web TV Networks ukrÜPDudk
jcif;twGufjzpfap speed twl &&SdEkdifaponf/ a':vm 425 oef;jzifh 0,f,lcJhonf/
America Online (AOL) onf w&m;pGJqdkrItcsKdUESifh &if Comp USA onf Dell ESifh Gateway wdkYjzifh yl;aygif;um
qkdifMu&onf/ vpOfaMu; ay;oGif;olrsm; service udk log on PCs rsm; xkwfvkyfa&mif;cs&ef nd§EdIif;aqmif&GufcJhonf/
vky, f &l mwGif tcuftcJ rsm;pGm&Sad eojzifh pdwyf supf mG ta&;qdck &H Microsoft rS CEO jzpfol Bill Gates onf urÇmh pD;yGm;a&;
onf/ AOL rS overload yrmPavQmhcsap&ef tvdkYiSm aMumfjim vkyfief;&Sifrsm;teuf tcsrf;omqHk;yk*dK¾ vf jzpfvmonf[k For-
rsm;udk avQmhcsvkduf&onf/ bes r*¾Zif;BuD;rSa&;om;cJo h nf/ r*¾Zif;\tqdt k & a':vm 36.4
Apple Computer ukrÜPD tjrefqHk; bDvD,Htxdydkifqkdifxm;&SdNyD;jzpfonf[k cefYrSef;a&;om;cJhonf/
vkyfukdifay;Ekdifonfh laptop uGefysLwm Intel rS Digital Equipment Corp odYk Pentium, Pentium
tjzpf PowerBook 3400 udk rdwq f uf Pro ESifh Pentium II processor chips rsm;\ product udk
xkwfvkyfvkdufonf/ ¤if;wGif 240 ul;,lrIjzifh w&m;pGJcJhonf/ Digital Equipment rSvnf; tjyef
MHz &Sdaom processor udk oHk;xm; tvSef w&m;qGJqdkrI jyKcJhonf/
onf/ Power Book 3400 twGuf owfrw S f NASA Pathfinder Website onf real
a&mif;aps;rSm a':vm 6500 jzpfonf/ time images rsm;udk t*FgN*dK[frS &,lí
IBM \ Deep Blue uGefysLwmrS ppfwk&ifcsefyD,H u,f&D wifxm;cJhonf/ yxr av;&uftwGif;
uufpfygudk tEkdif,l upm;oGm;EkdifcJhonf/ upm;csdef 62 rdepf yHkaygif; 100 oef;txd &Sdonf/
wnf;jzifh tEkdif,lvkdufEkdifjcif;jzpfonf/ Internet addresses rsm;\ tqHk;owf
Cyrix Corp rS 6 x 86MX processor udk xkwfvkyfvkduf wGif jznfhoGif;csuf topfwpfckudk twnfjyK
54 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvikd f 2006
jzpfcJhonf/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;\ ukefypönf;rsm;ESifh ywf &Sdvmojzifh ausmif;om; 7 OD;wGif uGefysLwm wpfvkH;us
oufí .STORE owif; pkaqmif;yHyh ;kd rItwGu?f .INFO pD;yGm;a&; &Sdaernfhoabm jzpfonf/
vkyfief;&SifESifh tzGJYtpnf;rsm;twGuf? .FIRM azsmfajzrI qkdif&m Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser
twGuf? .REC ukd,fa&;udpö yk*¾vdu wpfOD;csif;rsm;twGuf rS Webmaster ukd toH;k jyKjcif;tm;jzifh vHNk cHK
.NOM ,Ofaus;rIqkdif&mrsm;twGuf .ARTS ESifh www twGif; a&; csKdU,Gif;csufrsm;&SdaMumif; awGY&Sd
avhvm pl;prf;rIrsm;twGuf .WEB [k toD;oD; owfrSwfcJhjcif; vm&onf/
jzpfonf/ Nielsen okawoetzGJYrS vl
Microsoft onf Yukon [laom emrnfjzifh ukd,fykdif av;a,mufwiG f wpfa,mufEeI ;f us tifwm
search engine wpfckjzifh jyKvkyfcJhMuonf/ aemufqHk; tacsm euf toHk;jyKaeMuaMumif; xkwfjyef aMunm
oyf version udk 1998 ckESpfwGif pwif xkwfvkyfEkdifrnf[k vdkufonf/ ¤if;wdkYtwGJwGif 42 &mckdifEIef;rSm trsKd;orD;rsm;
arQmfrSef;xm;aMumif; aMunmcJhonf/ jzpfaMumif; awGY&Sd&onf/ ,cifwpfBudrf okawoevkyfpOfu
Microsoft onf Toshiba tultnDjzifh c½dkiftqifh&Sd tifwmeuf toHk;jyKol 10 &mcdkifEIef;om&Sdí ,cktcg 23
ausmif;aygif; 50 udk zdwfac:í "Make Vision A Reality" y½dk &mcdkifEIef;txd wkd;vmaMumif; azmfjycJhonf/
*&rfwGif yg0ifapcJhonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;taejzifh rSwfpkrsm;? tar&duefEkdifiH\ online service wGif 'kwd,tqifhwGif
oifcef;pmrsm;ESihf tdrpf mrsm;udk tqdyk g y½d*k &rfjzifh vkyu f ikd Ef idk af p &SdaecJhaom CompuServe rS Ouú|vnf;jzpf? CEO vnf;
onf/ jzpfolu EkwfxGufoGm;onf/
tar&duefEkdifiH bD;eufrS tpdk;& uGefysL United Airlines onf tjynfjynfqkdif&m c&D;a0; av
wmrsm;wGif uGefysLwm*drf;rsm;udk jzKwfxkwf aMumif;vkdif;rsm;wGif vkdufyg pD;eif;olrsm; vufqGJ uGefysLwm
a&;twG u f twnf j yKvd k u f M uonf / toHk;jyKEkdif&eftvdkYiSm power ports rsm; pwif wyfqifay;vku d f
xdkYtjyif *drf;rsm;udk BudKwif install onf/
vkyxf m;onfh uGeyf sLwmopfrsm; r0,f,Ml u Microsoft rS Apple Computer ukrÜPDwGif a':vm oef;
&efom wm;jrpfcJhonf/ 150 zdk; &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHvdkufonf/ xdktpDtpOfrSm CEO ae&mwGif
Microsoft onf Microsoft Office 97 udk Gil Amelio wufvmonfhaemufydkif;wGif jzpfonf/ odkYtwGuf
xkwfvkyfcJhí Windows 98 trnf&Sd operating system topf Macintosh format twGuf aqmhzf0Jrsm;udk Microsoft rS
udk 1998 ckESpf aEGOD;aygufwGif xkwfvkyfrnf[k aMunmcJhonf/ qufvuf vkyu f ikd af y;&ef oabmwlnrD I &&Scd o
hJ nf/ txl;ojzifh
3Com rS U.S. Robotics pawmhrsm;udk a':vm 6.6 Macintosh uGefysLwmrsm;wGif Microsoft Internet Explorer
bDv, D jH zifh 0,f,v
l udk í
f uGeyf sLwmukrP Ü rD sm;\ orkid ;f aMumif; udk toHk;jyKEkdifap&ef jzpfonf/
wGif tBuD;qHk;aom consolidation tjzpf jyKvkyfvsuf&Sdonf/ Bandai ukrÜPDrS xkwfvkyfaom "Ta-
Apple Computer ukrÜPDrS Macintosh OS topftjzpf magotch" uGefysLwm*drf;av; xGufay:
Mac OS 8 udk rdwfqufay;vkdufonf/ vmNyD; csufcsif;qdkovdk ay:jyLvm
tar&duefEkdifiH pmwkdufXmerS pmESifh jzpfoGm;&onf/ Tamagotch *drf;av;
ygq,frsm;twGuf electronic stamps jzifh udk aomhcsdwfav;rsm;ESifh xkwfvkyfojzifh vlwkdif;
zefwD;Ekdif&ef pDrHcsufudk a&S;½I vkyfudkifvm twGuf tdyfaqmif upm;p&mav; jzpfvm&onf/
onf/ qufvufazmfjyygO;D rnf/
tar&duefEidk if &H dS rlvwef;ausmif;om;rS oef;xufatmif
tqifh 12 &Sd twef;txd uGefysLwm toHk;jyKol 6.3oef; [Ref: Smart Computing]

aus;&GmpmMunfw
h u
dk rf sm; wnfaxmiftm;ESihf tvSL&Sirf sm;\ apwemtm;
jrefrmEdkifiHwpf0Srf;vHk;wGif 19-1-2006 &ufxd aus;&Gm udk,fhtm;udk,fudk; pmMunfhwdkufrsm; pkpkaygif; (48667)
wdkuf zGifhvSpfcJhNyD; jzpfygonf/ þuJhodkY aus;&Gm udk,fhtm;udk,fudk; pmMunhfwkdufrsm; zGifhvSpfEdkif&eftwGuf
jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;½Hk;wGif (8) Budrfajrmuf vSL'gef;yGJusif;ycJh&m apwem&Sif tvSL&Sifjynfol (600) OD;wdkYu
aiGom;usyf (53052000d^-) ESifh pmtkyfaygif; (1748634) wdkYudk vSL'gef;cJhMuygonf/

5 Zlvikd f 2006 > odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f 55


odaumif;p&m tar;tajz

vGefqGJMuwJhtcg udk,fhbufu Ekdifatmif


ud, hf al wGukd BuKd ;ESrd q
k v hf zJG Ykd
owday;avh&w
dS ,f/
tJ'g b,fvdk oabmygvJ/

wpfzufeYJwpfzuf tm;NyKd if rSmvJ ypJG Ofwpfct


k aeeJY ygvm enf ; y&d , m,f oH k ; wJ h o l u 'D*&DudkvdkufNyD; qGJtm;yrmP
NyD; vGefqGJwJhyGJawG jyKvkyfavh wwfpNrJyg/ tEkdif&oGm;wmrsm;w,f/ BudK; tajymif;tvJ &SdEkdifygw,f/
&SdMuw,f/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh wpf z uf p D r S m vl t a& u a&jyifnDrSm&Sdae&if BudK; 'gaMumifhrdkY aemufqHk;u
awmh NydKifyGJvkyfNyD; qkcsD;jr§ifh twG u f nD w l n D r Q &S d M u& ay: ouf a &muf w J h t m;u ae BudK;udik w
f o
hJ ul twwfEidk f
avh & S d M uw,f / jref r mh t ,l w,f/ tm;oefwJhbufu Ekdif wpfzufpDrS&SdwJh qGJtm;ouf qHk; 0yfqif;NyD; awmifhxm;ckdif;
tqt& rdk;&Gmatmif vGefqGJyGJ w,fvdkY tMurf;zsif;ajymavh oufyJ &Sdaeygvdrfhr,f/ avh&SdMuw,f/ ajrjyifay:rSm
awG vk y f M uwmvJ & S d w ,f / &Sdw,f/ 'gayr,fh wu,f ½l y aA' oabmw&m; ajcaxmufeJY awmifh,lxm;wJh
ajy;ckefypf tm;upm;NydKifyGJawG wrf; tiftm;csif; wlvm&if t& urÇ m ajr&J U qG J t m;ud k yGwftm;? vufuqGJxm;wJh qGJ
xnfhoHk;Ekdif&if tm;ydk&vmrSm tm;eJY urÇmajrBuD;&JU qGJtm;
jzpfw,f/ a&jyifnDxuf edrfh wpfpdwfwpfa'owdkYudk enf;
uswJh vm;&mrsKd;eJY tm;jzpfvm pepfusus aygif;oHk;vdkuf&if
&if edrfhusvmwJh tapmif;'D*&D tiftm;csif; rwdrf;r,drf;jzpf
tvdkuf urÇmajr&JU qGJtm; aewJh tzGJYudk tomav; tEkdif
yg0ifvmapygw,f/ Oyrm &Ekdifygvdrfhr,f/
a&jyifnaD tmuf apmif;oGm;wJh Ref: Last Word
axmifh 'D*&D[m θ &Sdw,fqdk
ygpdkY/ tydkaqmif;vmr,fh tm;
[m g Sinθ jzpfaeygvdrrhf ,f/
'gaMumifhrdkY θ qdkwJh axmifh
56 odyEHÜ iS ehf nf;ynm*sme,f > 5 Zlvidk f 2006