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Chapter. 10 Resonant AC Circuits; INTRODUCTION When a DC voltage is applied to a parallel circuit containing both inductance and capacitance, the capacitor acts like an open circuit and the inductor like @ short circuit. This means that Xc is infinite while X, is zero. If @ very lovr frequency AC is applied instead of DC and the frequency gradually increased, X, increases and Xc decreases. A point is eventuelly reached where the value of X. is the same as Xc. It follows that for any combination of L and C, there is a frequency at which X_ equals Xc. This is true whether the two components are connected in series or parallel. The condition where X_ equals Xc is known as resonance, and the frequency at which ‘this occurs is known as the resonant frequency (fe) ‘The resonant frequency can be calculated using the following formula: XeKe anft= 51 ante acai artic frequency in hertz, L = inductance in Henrys and C = capacitance in Farads RESONANT CIRCUIT ‘SERIES RESONANT CIRCUIT When current flows in a series circuit containing a resistor, a capacitor, and an inductor, 2 voltage develops across each component. Where: VR ve J 'c roe oO oO ean Ve= WR?+ Wo-VL? Electries 10-1 Chapter 10 Resonant AC Circuits ‘At resonance, the voltage drop across the capacitor is equal and opposite of the voltage drop across the inductor, and they cancel each other out. 2er0 y Its nk | W=Ve aH Supply ‘At resonance, the voltage across the resistance (Va) equals the supply voltage (Vs). The ‘capacitor and inductor therefore do not affect the supply, since they provide no opposition to current flow at resonance. The voltage across the individual reactive components can also be many times higher than the supply voltage. Similarly in terms of impedance (Z): Z= YR24 (Xo -X)? Both the capacitive and inductive reactances are dependent on the frequency and both alter with changes in frequency, as shown below. ‘ohms ° fo 2) With increasing frequency, Xc reduces whilst X. increases and vice versa, The value of Z similarly alters, and at resonance, Xc = X., thus Z = R. Minimum impedance thus allows ‘maximum current to flow in the circuit when the resonant frequency is achieved. ‘A series resonant circuit is also known as an acceptor circuit, and is particularly useful in communication equipment, because it increases the sensitivity of the receiver (Rx). This is done by enabling signals of a given frequency to be magnified and separated from other signals. The range of frequencies over which itis selective is called the bandwidth of the resonant circuit, as shown in the following diagram. 10.2 Electrics Resonant AC Cirewits Chapter 10 a Bandwidth ° fo rie By convention, the bandwidth of a series circuit is the separation between two frequencies either side of the resonant frequency, at which the output power falls to half its maximum value. Q FACTOR IN A SERIES RESONANT CIRCUIT ‘The Q or magnification factor is very important in a series resonant circuit and is defined as the ratio of the reactance to resistance. Xu 4, Xe a= or ‘This is the reason the voltage across the reactive components can be very much larger than the supply voltage, because it magnifies the voltage by the factor of Q. PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT (TANK CIRCUIT) {In an ideal parallel resonant circuit containing only pure capacitance and pure inductance, X, will be equal to Xe. Under these conditions, an equal amount of eneray would first be stored in the capacitor in an electrostatic field and then passed to the inductor to be stored as an electro-magnetic field. This is known as the flywheel effect, and because there is no resistance in the circuit, the oscillation of energy between the capacitor and inductor would continue indefinitely. It follows that since no ‘energy needs to be replaced in the circuit, none is drawn from the AC supply other than the initial amount of energy required to start the oscillation. The circuit appears to the supply to be an open circuit. Practical parallel inductive-capacitive circuits, however, have resistance. Unlike the hypothetical circuit shown, which only stores energy. resistance dissipates it in the form of heat. In a practical tank circuit, the oscillation quickly dies away unless the lost energy is replaced by ‘the supply. Ifthe resistance in the circuit is high, the oscillations quickly damp out, because the energy is rapidly dissipated. Electrics 10-3,