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Ghapter 77 Transformers INTRODUCTION Transformers are extremely versatile devices that can be used to either step up and step down ‘AC voltages or to step up and step down AC current. They can also allow AC to pass and block De. TRANSFORMERS CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION The most common type of transformer is the voltage transformer, which consists of two windings, the primary winding and the secondary winding. The windings are not electrically connected together, which is a safety feature in AC electrical circuits, but are wound on the same laminated soft iron core. PRIMARY ‘SECONDARY WaNDING WINDING If an AC voltage is applied to the primary winding, the resultant changing flux links with the secondary winding. The changing flux is concentrated by the iron core and causes an EMF to be induced in the secondary winding. The magnitude of the EMF is proportional to the ratio of the ‘number of turns between the primary and secondary windings. Where:- Ns = Secondary turns Chapter 11 Transformers Voltage transformers are categorised depending on the ratio of the turns and are represented by the following symbols. “al Bll: If there are more turns on the secondary than the primary, itis a step-up transformer. If there are more turns on the primary than the secondary, itis a step-down transformer. Trier aro leo adarrely omort (9. the amount of power in fs approximately equal to the amount of power out), and they are rated in volt-amperes (VA). The following relationship exists between the turns ratio, voltage, and current. Ye _Ne ois Vs Ns Ip Secondary Current Ip = Primary Current If the voltage is stepped up, the current is stepped down. For example, if @ transformer has a tums ratio of 1:2, and inputs of 240 V and § amps, the outputs will be, respectively ws \p Vs= 2 x 240 = 480 volts Is. Ne ip Ng Is= 4xs= 5 amps. Transformers also consist of inductive components, so It is important that they are operated at their correct frequency and voltage. Any under-frequency condition results in the primary current increasing and the transformer overheating. 12 Electrics Transformers Chapter 11 TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS In addition to voltage transformers, the following types of transformers also exist Three-phase transformers (isolation transformers).are widely used on aircraft and consist of three individual isolation transformers, where the primary windings are connected together across a three-phase AC supply, as shown below. PRIMARY ‘SECONDARY INPUT ‘STAR DELTA ‘The secondary windings are also connected together. They produce a three-phase output voltage of a value dependent on the supply and the turns ratio between the three corresponding winding pairs, which are normally the same. The primary and secondary windings can be alternatively ‘connected in a delta-star configuration, as shown in the following diagram, or connected in star- star or delta-delta, This is dependent on the transformer’s particular application. ourpur DELTA oon Auto transformers. are a special type, since they have no electrical isolation between the primary and secondary windings. A single continuous winding is wound on a laminated iron core, ‘where part of the winding is used as the primary, whilst the other part is used as the secondary, as shown below. INPUT output ourPuT INPUT ‘STEP DOWN ‘STEP UP These transformers can be used to either step-up or step-down the applied voltage, depending on the winding configuration. In @ step-down device, the whole of the winding serves as the primary winding, whilst the lower half of the winding serves as the secondary winding. In this case, there are fewer turns in the secondary than in the primary; so the voltage is stepped-down, but the current is stepped-up. This configuration is typically used to power aircraft instruments where the voltage is stepped-down from 115 V 400 Hz to 26 VAC. The disadvantage of this format is that the full voltage is placed across the loadiif the coil goes open circuit, since there is 1no voltage isolation between the twa windings.