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ieee ea ? Ladle Calne nile INTRODUCTION Logic gates are represented diagrammatically and their logic inputs are shown on a truth table. Logic gates may also have more than two inputs, which increases the decision making capability of a gate and also increases the number of ways of connecting one to another to form advanced digital logic circuits. LOGIC CIRCUITS NUMBER SYSTEMS ‘The decimal number system requires ten different numbers (0-8) and ten discrete voltage levels. It then repeats itself by going into 10s, 100s, and 1000s, etc. This system can be typically Used to represent the position or groundspeed of an aircraft ‘The binary number system uses numbers that are to the base of two, as shown below. 2 [2 |2t |2° | Binary Number of |.28 64 jaz [16 |s |4 (2 |1 | Decimal Equivalent In digital electronic applications, binary numbers are used as codes to represent decimal numbers, letters of the alphabet, voltages, and many other forms of information. For example, a simple switch can be assigned a binary value 0 to the OFF position and a binary 1 to the ON position. Alternatively, the polarity of a DC switching circuit can be altered so that a (+) indicates a binary 1 and a (-) indicates a binary 0. An altemative method is to vary the mean voltage in a circuit, causing it to increase by a pre-set increment for a binary 1 and to decrease by a similar increment to achieve a binary 0. The latter method is the most common. The voltages used for this purpose vary between manufacturers but are normally in the range from +5 V to +12 V. They ate also designed to use either positive or negative logic. Positive logic is where a Logic 1 voltage is more positive than a Logic 0 voltage, and negative logic is where a Logic 1 is more negative than Logic 0. Other possible numbering systems are the: > Octal system, in which the numbers are to the base 8 > Hexadecimal system, in which the numbers are to the base 16 Duodecimal system, which is based on the figure 12 (e.g. the clock, and is used on ‘a daily basis) Electrics 16 Chapter 16 Logic Circuits BINARY REPRESENTATION Digital computers are electronic units, and in electronics it is a relatively easy procedure to ‘operate circuits in such way as to encode them in a binary format. BASIC LOGIC GATES The following basic gates exist AND Gate ‘This type of gate is represented by two switches connected in series and requires two Logic 1s (A&B) to produce an output (Q), as shown below. ‘Switch Equivalent Logic Gate Symbot fe ee ome A Ne : 3 A ® |__/ L ape Te ole fe ‘Note olilo ‘Inuth Table hogic 1=+5Volts 1} o}o Loatc 0= oVolts ap apa OR Gate This type of gate is represented by two switches connected in parallel and requires only one Logic 1 (A oF B) to produce an output (Q), as shown below. ‘Sunteh Equivalent fee ‘Losic Symbol, A oy utput(ay a a e 8 et NOT Gate A single switch represents this type of gate where the inout signal (A) is inverted to provide en output (Q), as shown in the following diagram. 16-2 Electrics Logie Circuits Chapter 16 i | a NAND (Not or Negated AND) Gate This type of gate is represented by two switches connected in parallel and requires only one Logic 0 (A or B) to produce an output (Q), as shown below. ‘Switch Equivalent Losic Symbot ——-— reas a 48, U OxtpatiQ . alee al ole Bt oft ft | tumtabte + ae fe NOR (Not or Negated OR) Gate This type of gate is represented by two switches connected in series and requires two Logic Os (Aor B) to produce an output (Q), as shown below. ‘Switch Equivalent ‘Loic Symbol ee i) Oe Al Bia ey oy 4 of 4] 2) Tout Table ap eps ij4 Electrics 163