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CONTENTS IPRI Factfile 2 Preface v 1. Pakistan: Power Crisis Feared by 2007 1 2. Major Energy Crisis Feared 3 3. Pakistan’s Quest for Energy Security 4 4. Waste to Energy is Needed in Pakistan 7 5. Type of Energy 10 6. Thermal Energy 10 7. Hydel Energy 12 8. Wind Energy 13 9. Rising Oil Prices 15 10. Pakistan Coal Reserves be Explored 17 11. Pakistan Iran Agree on Gas Pipeline Project 17 12. ECNEC Approves Energy Projects 18 13. Energy Crisis in Pakistan-I 18 14. Energy Crisis in Pakistan-II 21 15. Pakistan's Energy Crisis to Worsen in Next Two Year 22 16. Wind Power: Solution to Energy Crisis 23 17. Energy Crisis may go from Bad to Worse 26 18. Asian Development Bank Considering Loan for Small Hydro Projects 27 19. US Advise Pakistan to Purchase Electricity from Central Asia 27 20. Energy Strategy 28 21. Pakistan Urged to Import 4,000MW from CARs 30 22. Fuel Shortage may Worsen Power Situation 32 23. Energy Crisis: Serious and Worsening 33 24. Energy Crisis in Pakistan is Growing Rapidly 35 25. Efficient Household Appliances to Mitigate Energy Crisis 38 26. Coping with the Energy Crisis 40 27. Iranian, Pakistani Presidents Resolve Pipeline Issues 43 28. Ties with Iran 44 29. Power Crisis & Alternate Energy Technology 45 30. Government Calls IPPs Meeting to Tackle Power Crisis 47 31. Competing Firms Complete Feasibility Reports 48 32. Government to Invite Businessmen to Discuss Power Crisis 50
33. Entangled in Energy Web 51 34. Meeting Held to Discuss Pakistan's Energy Crisis 54 35. Government Taking Steps to Overcome Energy Crisis 55 36. Energy Conservation Plan to Combat Shortage 56 37. Demand-Supply Gap Increases Dramatically 57 38. Pakistan Facing Acute Power Shortage 58 Energy Crisis in Pakistan 3 39. Renewable Resources Must to Counter Energy Crisis 59 40. Load Shedding: Part of Conspiracy 60 41. Coal Power Plants to Help Overcome Energy Crisis 62 42 Government to Ensure Indiscriminate Load Shedding: PM 63 43. Pakistan Puts Clocks Forward, Hopes to Save Electricity 64 44. The Option for Solar Power 65 45. Advancing of Clocks Creates Confusion 68 46. Iran can Help Pakistan in Energy Sector 70 47. SAARC Members Asked to Sign Energy Treaty 70 48. Subsidy on Use of Up to 200 Power Units Stays 72 49. Load Shedding becomes a Nightmare for Karachiites 72 50. Severe Fuel Crisis Hits Frontier 74 51. Shortage of Fuel at Petrol Pumps Causing Concern 75 52. Shortage of Petrol Products Tormenting Consumers 75 53. No End to Electricity Meter Shortage 76 54. Peshawar Transporters Threaten to Besiege Oil Depots 77 55. Diesel Shortage Affecting Operation of Tube-wells, Tractors 78 56. Load Shedding Increases as KANUPP Trips Again 79 57. Fuel Stations Run Short of Diesel 80 58. Frequent Power Shutdowns Bringing Grades Down 81 59. New Energy Order 83 60. Power Plants Top Gas Supply Priority List 85 61. Resolving Power Crisis a Priority 86 62. Authority Set Up for Thar Coal Mining 86
. it can produce about 11. commerce and daily life of people. July 10. 2008. Despite strong economic growth during the past decade and consequent rising demand for energy. This shortage is badly affecting industry. such as. wind. and the demand is likely to rise to approximately 20. as well as other alternate and renewable energy sources. coal. waste. Needless to say that if the country wishes to continue its economic development and improve the quality of life of its people. All possible measures need to be adopted. hydel. and use all available sources to enhance production of energy. the demand exceeds supply and hence “load-shedding” is a common phenomenon through frequent power shutdowns. Presently.PREFACE IPRI Factfile 4 Pakistan is presently facing a serious energy crisis.e. besides nuclear power plants for production of energy. it has to make serious efforts towards framing a coherent energy policy. Pakistan needs about 14000-15000MW electricity per day. It seems that the government is considering importing energy from Iran and Central Asian Republics and using indigenous sources. and solar power. The Factfile includes selected articles and news items on the subject appearing in the media from 2nd July 2004 till 10th July 2008. Now. Noor ul Haq Energy Crisis in Pakistan 1 . 500 MW per day and thus there is a shortfall of about 3000-4000MW per day.000 MW per day by 2010. i. no worthwhile steps have been taken to install new capacity for generation of the required energy sources. to conserve energy at all levels.
which will erode surplus production in absence of commissioning of any new power generation project during this financial year. Keeping in view the past trend and the future development.457 MW) during the financial year 2006-07.3 per cent.2 per cent of total electricity consumption followed by industries 31. which may convert into scheduled load shedding over a period of two year. a top level WAPDA official maintained that electricity demand surged up to 13 per cent during last quarter. electricity consumption has increased by 8. sources maintained.5 per cent and street light 0.” informed sources told The Nation. According to an official report. As per Pakistan Economic Survey 2003-04. commercial 5. it is reliably learnt Thursday. The country needs a quantum jump in electricity generation in medium-term scenario to revert the possibilities of load shedding in future due to shrinking gap between demand and supply of electricity at peak hours. .1 per cent.4 per cent. the gap between firm supply and peak hours demand has already been shrunk to three digit (440 MW) during this fiscal and will slip into negative columns next year (-441 MW) and further intensify to (-1. agriculture 14. “The country may face energy crisis by the year 2007 following healthy growth of 13 per cent in electricity demand during the last quarter. WAPDA has also revised its load forecast to eight per cent per annum as against previous estimates of five per cent on average. However.7 per cent.6 per cent during first three-quarter of last fiscal year. Even the revised load forecast has also failed all assessments due to which Authority has left no other option but to start load management this year. other government sector 7.PAKISTAN: POWER CRISIS FEARED BY 2007 The country may plunge into energy crisis by the year 2007 due to rising electricity demand which enters into double digit figure following increasing sale of electrical and electronic appliances on lease finance. The survey said household sector has been the largest consumer of electricity accounting for 44.
055 MW against peak demand of 20. otherwise the gap between firm supply and peak demand will remain on the rise. Chairman WAPDA Tariq Hamid at a Press conference early this year warned about the possible energy crisis and stressed the need for ‘quantum jump’ in power generation.584 MW. IPRI Factfile 2 .529 MW by the year 2009-10 when firm electricity supply will stand at 15. The experts say it could only be possible through a mega project of hydropower generation.The report maintained that the difference between firm supply and peak demand is estimated at 5.
Khan Khwar (72MW).082 MW firm supply and 14. Allai Khwar (121MW).000 MW surplus electricity. However. Mangla Dam raising project would also add 150 MW capacity to the national grid by June 2007. he admitted that the shortage may occur in the year 2007 and onward and said the Authority will utilise all options including running of IPPs plant at full capacity to avert any possible crisis. they added. a WAPDA official said there is no power shortage in the country at present as the Authority still has over 1.642 MW peak demand.478 MW to meet 15.5 billion on augmentation of distribution lines this fiscal while . New Bong Escape (79MW) and Rajdhani (132MW) are expected by 2009 while Taunsa (120MW) is likely to be completed by 2010. They say no power generation project will commission during this fiscal year and the total installed capacity of electricity generation will remain 19. Moreover. the official said the Authority would spend Rs 3. Duber Khwar (130MW) and Kayal Khwar (130MW) are expected to be completed in 2008 along with Golan Gol (106MW) and Jinnah (96MW). efforts are also under way with China National Nuclear Corporation for the construction of a third nuclear power plant with a gross capacity of 325 MW at Chashma. Matiltan (84MW). Pehur (18MW) and combined cycle power plant at Faisalabad (450MW) are planned to be commissioned during the year 2007. which are due to commission in coming years are of low capacity and will not be able to exceed the surging demand of the electricity. When contacted. sources said. About the system augmentation to bring down line losses. the sources said Malakand-lll (81MW). Besides this. In addition of these. power plant 1 & 2 of 300 MW each at Thar Coal with the assistance of China are also planned for commissioning in 2009.They said the power generation projects. which is expected to be completed by 2010. Moreover. Sources say WAPDA has also planned to install a high efficiency combined cycle power plant at Baloki (450MW). Giving details of projects.
” he disclosed. The official further said that five new transmission lines of 220-KV would be installed by the end of 2004. He expressed full trust on present transmission and distribution system and said it could easily sustain the load of total installed power generation in the country.another Rs 5 billion will be consumed on transmission lines. July 2. that would ensure smooth supply to the consumers.net/883.energybulletin. “We have been negotiating Rs 9 billion loan with a consortium of local banks to upgrade and augment the power transmission system.htm Energy Crisis in Pakistan 3 . 2004 http://www.
said a former petroleum minister on condition of anonymity for the simple reason that he had also served the present government. the country would need to enhance its dependence on imported oil.5 billion in 2004-05.5 billion compared with about $3. which have started to rise in the recent days.5 billion on last year’s average prices. he said. four .250MW by 2010. having about 50 per cent share in the country’s energy consumption. Gwadar port as energy hub and LNG import. They included three gas import pipelines. According to official energy demand forecast.a burden expected to be even higher in future as a result of growing Middle East crisis. he said. thus increasing pressure on foreign exchange situation. the demand for natural gas.MAJOR ENERGY CRISIS FEARED Pakistan is most likely to face a major energy crisis in natural gas. According to the former minister. Last year’s oil import bill amounted to about $6.8 million tons. mainly because of higher international oil prices . Partly contributed by gas shortfalls. adding that the oil demand would also increase by over 23 per cent to about 21 million tons in 2010 from the current demand of 16. Since the gas shortfalls were expected to be much higher. he said. official estimates and energy experts suggest. but major initiatives of meeting this gap are far from turning into reality. However. the power shortage is expected to be little over 5. he added. This would leave a total deficit of about nine million tons of diesel and furnace oil imports. he added. the government had planned five major initiatives to meet these energy requirements. Current year’s oil import bill has again been projected by the government at about $6. Pakistan’s total energy requirement would increase by about 48 per cent to 80 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2010 from about 54 MTOE currently. Major shortfall is expected in the natural gas supplies. would increase by 44 per cent to 39 MTOE from 27 MTOE currently. power and oil in the next three to four years that could choke the economic growth for many years to come.
Planning Commission sources said the government had planned to add an overall power generation capacity of about 7. Of this.860MW is to be based on natural gas. IPRI Factfile 4 .of these measures. show no signs of progress for various reasons while concentration on energy facilities in Gwadar would chiefly depend on security situation.880MW by 2010. including the three import pipeline projects. accounting for 61 per cent of capacity expansion. about 4. besides oil and gas import pipelines.
the gas imports will represent almost 67 per cent of natural gas supply in 2025. Petroleum ministry officials are not ready to speak on record about gas import options and resultant overall energy shortfalls because of recent political developments on IranPakistan-India pipeline project and security situation in Afghanistan and non-certification of gas reserves in Turkmenistan. Demand growth has been up to 8. The fifth initiative of LNG import was on schedule and would start delivering about 0.5 per cent in recent years and is expected to be seven per cent with power industries and domestic consumption accounting for 82 per cent. Gas demand already displays seasonal pattern with national demand growing in winter beyond transmission .5 per cent and CNG 2. The bank said the indigenous gas supply would fall from 32. the gas-based power expansion of about 4. According to World Bank estimates. 2015 and 2020. general industries 24 per cent.8 per cent.8 per cent and domestic-commercial 22. said the sources. a demand gap (supply shortage) of about four per cent of the total demand. is expected in 2010.860MW would remain in doubt since these estimates were based on gas import options for completion in 2010.3 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFD) by 2009 and another 0.5 BCFD by 2015. said the sources. Even though this gap would be met by LNG imports. As per the World Bank estimates. cement 1. quadrupling in 2025. One can. with reserve-production ratio in the order of 27 years.However. fertiliser 7.7 MTOE in 2025 while the ‘gas supply-demand gap’ would rapidly increase as demand is expected to grow continuously.8 TCF at present. gauge the quantum of shortage in case import pipelines are not materialised.6 MTOE in 2010 to 20. Pakistan’s gas reserves are 32. therefore.8 per cent. it would again increase to 20 per cent of the total demand. considering that domestic production does not grow substantially. Power sector demand represents 41 per cent of total gas consumption.
capacity. Therefore. On one hand it is used for the industrial and agricultural purposes and on the other hand it is required for domestic use of the citizens. July 28.com/2006/07/29/top16. commercial and small industries. Annual production at present is about 1.16 TCF. Khaleeq Kiani. Globally Energy Crisis in Pakistan 5 .htm PAKISTAN’S QUEST FOR ENERGY SECURITY Energy has become an important prerequisite for the economic development of a country.dawn. 2006 http://www. Dawn. supplies to large users mainly industries and power plants are curtailed during winter months to ensure supplies to domestic. Natural gas is the fastest growing primary energy source.
Consumption of natural gas worldwide increases in the forecast by an average of 2. with demand and imports growing rapidly. According to the Oil and Gas Journal (OGJ). The electric power sector accounts for almost one-half of the total incremental growth in worldwide natural gas demand over the forecast period. Currently. Pakistan ambitiously seeks to increase oil production through new alliances with foreign companies.9 percent for oil consumption and 2. In addition.3 percent annually from 2002 to 2025. behind Brazil and Argentina. . Pakistan ranks third in the world for use of natural gas as a motor fuel. with the most vigorous growth in demand expected among the emerging economies. Pakistan’s largest energy source is natural gas. Pakistan’s net oil imports are projected to rise substantially in coming years as demand growth outpaces increases in production. natural gas supplies 49 percent of Pakistan’s energy needs. Currently. Agency for energy consumption has projected that by the year 2010 South Asian countries shall be consuming more than double the current levels of primary commercial energy. Pakistan hopes to make gas the fuel of choice for future electric power generation projects.consumption of natural gas is projected to increase by nearly 70 percent between 2002 and 2025.83 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves. Economic and population growth in South Asia have resulted in rapid increases in energy consumption in recent years. compared with projected annual growth rates of 1. Pakistan had 26. as of January 1. Pakistan and Bangladesh are the next largest South Asian countries in these categories. After India.3 billion people and is experiencing rapid energy demand growth. 2005. Pakistan is looking to increase its gas production to support increasing consumption through Pipelines from Iran and Turkmenistan. The major energy issues facing South Asian nations today are keeping up with rapidly rising energy demand.0 percent for coal consumption. South Asia is important to world energy markets because it contains 1.
and coal account for about 70 percent of this capacity. The things are. Pakistan has 18 gigawatts (GW) of electric generating capacity. largely due to foreign investment. Thermal plants using oil. Transmission losses are about 30 percent. Pakistan often faces load shedding in peak seasons. due to poor quality infrastructure and a significant amount of power theft. Pakistan's total power generating capacity has increased rapidly in recent years. ultimately leading to a partial alleviation of the power shortages. Periodic droughts affect the availability of hydropower. natural gas.5 percent.Pakistan will see power shortages by 2007 unless actions are taken to increase generation and reduce transmission losses. with hydroelectricity (hydro) making up 28 percent and nuclear 2. IPRI Factfile 6 . The Government is understandably engaged in a vigorous effort to expand the nation’s power generation capacity through building of dams and inviting foreign investors for establishing thermal units in the country.
The Pakistani Ministry of Industries and Production has granted a Chinese company to build two coal-fired power-generation plants to supply 600 MW of electricity. has recently shown interest in the $7. Pakistan is also working to expand the use of wind turbines. now two pipelines from Iran are under "active consideration" — one for Pakistan and the other for India. However. For instance. the Pakistan Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) recently approved New Park Energy Phase I. in the face of the US pressure against IPI. if Pakistan builds . While Iran and Pakistan have made agreements to move forward. project structure.4 billion pipeline project and has indicated its desire to invest in it. a 400-MW wind project near Port Qasim. Aside from power plants generated by coal. Pakistan’s government is working on plans to build an IranPakistan-India (IPI) pipeline that spans from Iran’s massive reserves to Indian markets across Pakistani territory. In fact. Energy cooperation is the key to regional development. Both countries have discussed the gas pricing formula. Russia’s biggest gas producer. sixth largest in the world. seemingly getting out of its hand due to the yawning gap between supply and demand of electricity. Iran has offered to cover 60 percent of the construction costs of the pipeline and Pakistani officials have stressed their ability to safeguard the pipeline. Pakistan remains determined for the pipeline. Pakistan contains an estimated 3. its feasibility. But. gas off-take volumes and the gas sales and purchase agreement. If India participates in IPI project. In spite of US pressure for not building IPI pipeline.362 million tons. Iran will lay the pipeline from Pars to Pakistani border. Coal currently plays a minor role in Pakistan’s energy mix. through Pakistan.however. Islamabad will build the pipeline from the Iranian border to its Central Pakistani city of Bhong in District Rahaim Yar Khan. Pakistan will be entitled to transit fee. Gazprom. President Musharraf has stated that coal should make up more than the current 1 percent of electric power generation in Pakistan. India still remains reluctant due to its recent nuclear deal with USA.
Islamabad’s negotiation for a second transnational gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Pakistan via Afghanistan (TAP) also entered a final stage because experts are of the view that Pakistan's fast growing energy demand requires laying two gas pipelines. depending on the size of supplies that Turkmenistan can arrange. then it will also be entitled to transportation charges.Gulf-South Asia Pipeline (GUSA)-— seem to have slowed down because of Energy Crisis in Pakistan 7 .the pipeline from the Iranian to the Indian border. This is the great vision of President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz according to which Pakistan is going to become an energy corridor for China. The plans to build a third transnational gas pipeline from Qatar to Pakistan and India—. It also holds good prospects for other South Asian users. Washington supports the TAP project and has assured the pipeline’s security through Afghanistan.
spokesman for Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources. waste-to-energy technologies have been developed to produce clean energy through the combustion of municipal solid waste in specially designed power plants equipped with the most modern . Pakistan can provide the trade and energy corridor for the whole region especially to China. shelved. The recent Pak-China energy forum in Islamabad was a major step in formulating future strategy to ensure energy security of both countries. With the development of Gawadar Port. Muhammad Munir.” China and Pakistan agreed to widen KKH for larger vehicles with heavier freight. 20 May 2006 WASTE TO ENERGY IS NEEDED IN PAKISTAN Growing urbanisation and changes in the pattern of life. and we can create the ninth and tenth wonders by establishing energy pipelines and railway linkages between the two fast growing economies. For this reason. natural gas terminals. In this perspective president has rightly remarked so. However. Pakistan is building oil refineries. the world called it the eighth wonder. China has agreed to help Pakistan with its plans for the development of its oil and gas industry. oil and gas equipment. Pakistan Observer. With this planned elaborate energy infrastructure.the gas availability issues. in recent years. which is its development hub. and transit facilities in Balochistan. give rise to generation of increasing quantities of wastes and it’s now becoming another threat to our already degraded environment. of which Iran is at the top. however. "The plan to import gas from Qatar is not. KKH has assumed an added significance as an alternative land link between China and its energy sources. This alternative energy supply route will reduce Beijing’s dependence on the Malacca Straits. The rebuilding of KKH will enable China to ship its energy supplies from the Middle East from Gwader Port in Balochistan through the land route of KKH to western China. Pakistan also wants to set up a “crude transit route” through Gwader Port for Beijing’s energy shipments from Iran and Africa." maintained by Jahangir Khan. “When Karakoram Highway was built.
In developing countries like Pakistan. operate in the enormous information. institutions charged with the responsibility to make decisions on solid waste management. The perfect ‘case study’ of information gap in selection of appropriate methodology to dispose municipal waste exhibited by the apex civic authority of Pakistan is when the capital development authority has finally decided to solve the ever-increasing volume of municipal waste by landfill in groundwater IPRI Factfile 8 . solid waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations. Yet.pollution control equipment to clean emissions. policy and strategy vacuum and lack therefore the ability to address this looming environmental disaster.
Many other countries in the world. This is the very reason why in the United States sanitary landfill techniques have steadily decreased from 8. While in developed countries. These examples are enough to establish that CDA’s ignorance of modern technologies is surely not simply a lack of ‘access to information’. as its location is up a slope and within the flood plain of Gumrah River.000 in 1988 to 1. known as the nucleus of Islamabad. landfills are now bracketed as ‘obsolete’ and ‘mines of the future’ after observing several problems like pollution and contamination of groundwater by leachate and residual soil contamination after landfill closure and simple nuisance problems. contamination of groundwater if Kuri was selected as a landfill project. 2500 MW are solely generated by the waste-to-energy plants. Although these ‘made in India’ power plants are generating electricity by direct incineration. but questions the professional capabilities of the planners within its corridors. Japan included. Sweden. JICA in 1988 also compiled a detail investigation report.6 MW. Extensively focusing on turning waste to energy. in July 2003.recharge area. Recent floods substantiated the finding of all the . have applied this technology since the last 20 years.767 in 2002. The site selected for the landfill project is at Kuri. the recharge-basin of the twin cities aquifer. municipal authorities in USA have realised the contribution of waste to an increasing electricity shortage. Though. which established that the area is the recharge zone of the aquifer catering for more than 50 per cent of the twin cities’ drinking demand. besides air pollution. Based on these serious environmental constraints. the same site was considered for a landfill project but UNDP out rightly rejected and warned that environmental cost would be considerable. an ancient city of Potwar and its aerial distance is hardly five kilometres from sector G-5. In the sub continent. causing pollution and must be upgraded by sophisticated monitoring systems to check pollution. the site was rejected. Today in America. India installed three projects to produce electricity from waste with a total capacity of 17.
reports. why not preserve this historical area? Aware of the unprofessional management at CDA’s varied directorates one anticipates leachates from the landfills. Whoever selected and approved the site for the ‘disaster of the future’. Is this ignorance simply unawareness of the planners or is it complete apathy towards anything old. As CDA is constantly focusing on developing tourist attractions. which rejects that Kuri is recorded as an ancient city of the Potowar Region. especially as water shortages is now a permanent problem of the twin cities. polluting the amazingly still clean groundwater table. as the site is definitely within the flood plains of the Gumrah River and would need to be protected on a priority basis. showed ignorance of the above reports and absolute ignorance of the adverse environmental impacts this project would create. while the wind will carry Energy Crisis in Pakistan 9 .
duly adopted by Pakistan’s EPA.waves of leaking gases towards the G-5 Sector. Had mutual interactions been part of the government systems. the twin cities were ignored. and the . the ministry of interior responsible for CDA affairs and the CDA itself. established by the federal government in 2003. there should be no significant seismic risk within identified landfill sites. adding some extra megawatts through waste-to-energy could have solved many ills in the rapidly growing energy needs. An earthquake having a magnitude of 4. 1989 and its epicentre was at a distance of 10 kilometres from Kuri. A vacuum of information has not allowed the CDA to communicate either with the alternate energy development board. This board was given the mandate to solve the energy crisis that is facing this country through renewable technologies. the funds available to the CDA for the ill-fated sanitary landfill. Islamabad today would have been a model for the rest of Pakistan. According to EPA US regulations. The CDA ignored the most recent seismic zoning report of the region too. known to recharge the groundwater along its winding course through Chak Shehzad and Kanna shows the warped priorities of the planning commission that approves projects. according to new seismic zoning maps prepared after the earthquake 2005. would have sufficed for setting up an ‘energy-to-waste’ plant in the city. ‘Access to clean water’ has been given the ‘top priority’ flag by the president. farther adding to the prevalent health hazards of the capital. With loadshedding a permanent crisis in Pakistan. Although advertisements in the printed media asked for feasibility studies of ‘waste-to-energy’ units for ten cities of the country. Had the spread of this infectious disease the ‘vacuum of information’ been contained in time.2 was recorded on July 7. Had CDA only followed the minutest details provided in the Federal Capital Commission Reports of 1960 by the earlier planners of the capital city. Kuri is within a highly sensitive earthquake zone. Selecting a site along the Gumrah River. CDA would surely have been able to diagnose that the estimated cost of two billion rupees for the landfill site.
Islamabad could have prided itself of being the first ever waste-to-energy unit in the country today. to dump waste for adding more pollution and contamination of groundwater or to allow production of environment friendly energy. Now decision-makers have to choose whether to allow the CDA to go ahead with the landfill project.technical know-how of alternate energy development board (AEDB).info/waste-to-energypakistan IPRI Factfile 10 . The decision to construct a landfill project at extremely sensitive areas need not only to be reviewed but also need to empower the AEDB to generate electricity from waste to cope with the energy demand in the lines of international environmental commitments avoiding violation of the Kyoto Protocol and Stockholm Convention. 2006 http://www. Arshad H Abbasi. November 9.alternative-energy-news.
steam 6. Once the steam engines were invented then the coal or liquid fuel was burnt in the boilers and the heat produces steam which is used to drive electrical generators. In 2nd world war fossil fuels entered in the form of coal to get the energy.com. gasoline. coal. Mechanical for example moving piston in a cylinder 4. ball above ground 2. hot water. solar. Spring . Light . x-rays . Thermal Energy.pk/energytypes. Chemical . ultra violet rays Potential energy 1. Rudolph diesels invention of diesel engine revolutionaries the energy concept and today we see sine the majority of machines moving on diesel engines. Gravitational energy. Kinetic energy 2. heavy water uranium 5. Heat. Electricity. microwaves.TYPES OF ENERGY Energy can be differentiated as 1. wood 2007 http://www. . Hydro power. or any other mechanical device. until liquid fuels were discovered and because of their convenience of transportation they took over as major contributors of the energy source. Electrical energy. gun powder. fission. oil natural gas. lightning 5. Sound 2. Potential energy Kinetic Energy 1.energy. With all known history available. Wind 3. fusion. batteries. Magnetic planetary poles 4. Wood was always used for heating and cooking. Nuclear .htm THERMAL ENERGY Thermal Energy is the oldest type of energy. stretched rubber band 3.
Turbines are also used to run by steam or hot gases which are produced by igniting fuel.Diesel engines can be 2 stroke or 4 stroke type. Energy Crisis in Pakistan 11 . They can be in line or arranged in V or even W shape. They can be single acting or double acting. Another method of converting thermal energy to mechanical energy is by the gas turbines.
Expected demand of the power. Type of fuel required 3. The gas gensets are available from less than 1 MW sizes to 6 MW configuration. Avilability of local service back up and stock of parts 6. Rolls Royce Internal combustion engine can obtain 30-50% thermal efficiency. Price is paramount importance and hidden expenses should be looked carefully The major manufacturers and suppliers of Gensets based on internal combustion engines are given below 1. In addition some models are available on duel fuel technology which can be operated simultaneously on gas and furnace oil. cooling systems and radiation. Caterpillar 4. The choice of gensets strictly depends on the requirement of the client. Waukesha 6. Space available for the power plant 4. Jen Bacher 5. However low RPM engines will be more . Therefore for larger plants heat recovery systems are utilized. MAN 2. Detroit Diesel 8. Normally they are V type and 12. Avilability of genset 5. before ordering a power plant following points to be considered 1. It means that around 50% energy is wasted in the form of exhaust gases . The price of a 3 MW gas genset can be expected around 1 Million $.For converting thermal energy to electrical energy alternators are used to drive on constant RPM.16 18 and 20 cylinder configuration. 2. Wartsila 3. In Pakistan due to attractive gas prices this is a general trend that gas operated power plants are preferred if gas connections are available. Mitsubishi 7.
20 Lubricating Oil Rs.0.07 Financing 0.20 IPRI Factfile 12 .02 General stores Rs.01 Labor Rs.costly Unit cost of fuel on gas genset can be evaluated as follows Fuel Cost Rs 2.0. 0.7 (depends upon the genset ) Maintenance Rs 0.10 Overhead +Insurance Rs. 0.0.10 Chemical R Rs.
Mostly river flows by melting glaciers on high mountains. 3.com. In run of river projects the water is diverted through the tunnels and once it gains the head allowed to fall and pass through the turbines and back to river.Total Rs. the head of reservoir level is maintained to provide uniform power. Once the water start flowing in the valleys it changes its head very rapidly. 1. Dams 2. In case of Dams the water flow is restricted by making a huge storage device and the head of water is increased. This energy can be converted into electrical energy. Once a site is located further detailed feasibility study is required before proceeding any serious effort to start the work. the water in these projects is continuously flowing and not being stored. Once they are used to drive the turbine and produce electricity the power generated as Hydel Energy.pk/THERMAL_%20ENERGY. Run of River projects. Power produced by the turbines depends on quantity of water flowing/minute and the head of water available.) 2007 http://www.htm HYDEL ENERGY Water flowing in the rivers has kinetic energy. The feasibility study should include following field work. (225 grams / KWHR is an average net fuel consumption expected. Detailed Mapping of the area . the water then is allowed to flow by means of gates and pass through the turbines.energy.40 The engines which are running the fuel cost is only variable and can be calculated by multiplying fuel cost by a factor of 225. and the water stored in peak season additionally is used for irrigation purposes in dry seasons. Two method are normally used:1. Geographical situation is paramount importance in choosing a suitable site for the hydro project and it evolves a very serious time and money consuming study.
Environmental study 8. Temperatures. pressures. rain humidity 6.2. Topographic study of the area 3. Social impact Energy Crisis in Pakistan 13 . Weather data containing. Seismic refraction study 4. Water sampling and testing 7. River flow data 5.
To overcome this shortage Government take a initiative to investigate Alternate energy resources in Pakistan developed Alternate Energy Board AEDB.energy. submission of proposal by sponsor 2. Most of its energy demand is being met with either Hydro power or thermal units. Identification of stake holders of the area 11. Review of proposal by AEDB 3.9. Tectonic study to evaluate earth quake dangers 2007 http://www.htm WIND ENERGY Pakistan is facing acute shortage of energy. The following is a brief road map for developing a wind form 1. The Board is headed by Retd Air Marshal Shahid Hamid. Pakistan is spending a very large amount of foreign exchange to purchase the furnace. Feasibility study . Laboratory testing of the cores samples 13. Coring and getting samples of the soil at 50-200 meters depth 12. identified 50. Wild life and fish study 10. issuance of letter of intent ( LOI ) 5. Although Pakistan meteorological Department was gathering wind data for quite long time But recently United States provided wind energy map for Pakistan which confirms a strong wind corridor in Sind coastal area. AEDB issued about 80 LOI to the investors List of LOI holders )to develop 50 MW wind farms.pk/hydel. Out of which 15 are already issued the land and feasibility reports and financial closings are in progress. with 7% increase of its economy this short fall soon to slow down its economic growth and will shatter its dream to become one day a developed country. The gas reserves already start depleting and oil markets are sky rocketing.com.000 MW energy potential from wind resource Pakistan is blessed with a large resource of wind corridor. Posting of Bank Guarantee 4.
Tariff Determination 8. Tariff determination by NEPRA 10. Issuance of Letter of support IPRI Factfile 14 . Generation License 7. Submission of performance guarantee 11. Submission of Performance Guarantee 9.6.
Nordex.0%) .environdata. Enercon.de 3.1%) 8. 1.1%) 1 Mitsubishi. This document explains the method for installing weather station.com. Suzlon.1%) 6.2%) 4.7%) 3.au Geological. 2. Japan (2. www.Ger many (13. tectonic and environmental studies will be required along with Digital mapping and topography of the site for preparing a bankable feasibility study. Germany (3. Ecotecnia.wilmers. Repower. seismic.6%) 9.9%) 5. Denmark (5. US (17. www.com 2. Some large Denmark manufacturer (27. Gamesa. The three major manufacturers of wind data are listed below. A confirm EPC cost will also be needed for calculation of tariffs. www. India (6. Siemens.The first requirement of conducting feasibility study is to install a wind mast.5%) 7. GE Wind. Spain (2. Germany (2.ammonit.9%) s of wind turbines are given below 1. Spain (12.
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