Section 3 Chemical Industry Process Flow 3-1 Ammonia 3-2 Caustic Soda 3-3 Naphtha Cracking 3-4 BTX

137

Chemical (Ammonia) : Production Process and Energy Saving Technology

Grassification (reforming) process

CO conversion process

Gas refining process

Synthesis process

Item No.

Technology Item/Title

Item No.
Item No. Technology Item/Title

Technology Item/Title

Item No.

Technology Item/Title

CA-PE-2 Heat exchanger type primary reformer for waste heat recovery in ammonia production process CA-ME-4 Installation of pre-reformer in ammonia reforming process CA-ME-5 Primary reformer waste heat recovery unit for ammonia plant

CA-PE-5 Isothermal CO converter for ammonia production CA-OM-1 Humidification process prior to primary reforming in ammonia production process

CA-PE-6 CO oxidizer in ammonia production process CA-ME-3 High pressure water power recovery turbine in ammonia production process CA-OM-3 Ammonia production process: Carbonate removal process

CS-PE-3 Ion exchange membrane NaCl electrolysis bath for caustic soda production CA-ME-4 Installation of pre-reformer in ammonia reforming process CA-ME-1 Waste heat recovery unit for synthesis gas compressor exit gas in ammonia production process CA-ME-2 Membrane separation hydrogen recovery unit in ammonia production process CS-ME-2 Improvement of active cathode for ion exchange membrane electrolysis for caustic soda production

Item No.

Technology Item/Title

CS-OM-2 Reduction of electrolytic power for NaCl electrolysis bath in caustic soda production process

138 -139

Chemical (Caustic soda) : Production Process and Energy Saving Technology

Caustic soda production process

Item No. CS-PE-3 CS-PE-2 CS-ME-1 CS-ME-2 CS-OM-1

Technology Item/Title Ion exchange membrane NaCl electrolysis bath for caustic soda production Energy saving ion exchange membrane electrolysis bath for caustic soda production Brine preheater using recovered heat of NaCl electrolysis in caustic soda production process Improvement of active cathode for ion exchange membrane electrolysis for caustic soda production Caustic soda production process: Switching from diaphragm electrolytic process to ion exchange membrane electrolytic process Reduction of electrolytic power for NaCl electrolysis bath in caustic soda production process

Item No. CS-PE-1

Technology Item/Title Quadruple-effect concentration for diaphragm-type electrolytic caustic soda production

CS-OM-2

140 -141

Chemical (Naptha Cracking) : Production Process and Energy Saving Technology

Naptha cracking production process

Item No.

Technology Item/Title

CN-ME-1 Switching quenching tower trays to packing in naphtha cracking process CN-ME-2 Installation of turbo-expander in top gas line of demethanizing column in naphtha cracking process CN-ME-3 Cold heat recovery from demethanizing column bottom liquid in naphtha cracking process CN-ME-4 Combustion air preheating for boilers using cooling tower bottom hot water in naphtha cracking process CN-ME-5 Hot water heating by distillation column top vapor CN-OM-1 Control of excess air ratio at cracking furnace in naphtha cracking process CN-OM-2 Change of feed step for depropanizing column in naphtha cracking process CN-OM-3 Pressure control of ethylene rectification column by suction pressure of propylene refrigerator in naphtha cracking process CN-OM-4 Naphtha cracking process: Energy saving in ethylene cracker

142 - 143

Chemical(BTX) : Production Process and Energy Saving Technology

Item No.

Technology Item/Title

CB-ME-1 Recovery of top vapor heat of ortho-xylene separation column in aromatics production process CB-ME-2 Waste heat recovery from heating furnace flue gas in BTX production CB-ME-3 Steam turbine power generation using waste heat of distillation column top vapor in BTX production process CB-OM-1 Change of washing system in amine desulfurization process for BTX production CB-OM-2 Reboiler heating by waste heat of top vapor of distillation column in BTX production process CB-OM-4 Control of reflux ratio of distillation column using on-line analyzer

144 -145

Data Sheets 3-1 Ammonia 3-2 Caustic Soda 3-3 Naphtha Cracking 3-4 BTX 3-5 General 146 .

The vapor generated in the preceding stage is used as the heat source of the next evaporator with reduced pressure. This type of facility is called a multi-effect evaporator. Q : steam consumption for a n-stage evaporator Qs : steam consumption for a single stage evaporator n : number of stages k : effectivity factor (normally 0. Energy saving effects Q = Qs/kn where. If the number of stages is increased at aspecific temperature difference. Concentration and solidification of nonvolatile matters in waste liquid. 1. Shape. Vaporizers in which pressure is reduced from the preceding stage are installed in a train to use the vapor generated in preceding stage. 3. 3. 2. For a multi-effect evaporator with n-stage. corresponding to the boiling point rise.CA-PE-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory [Energy Source] Fuel (general) Steam Multi-effect evaporator [Practical Use] After 1960 An evaporator used for vaporizing aqueous solution containing nonvolatile substances in a chemical plant. thus the heat transfer area increases. taking into account of the investment and operating cost. 1 Liquid supplying method example of multi-effect evaporator The steam consumption becomes 0. Production of concentrated fruit juice. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. Principle & Mechanism [Description] Structure explanation. That is. ECCJ (JIEC) 147 . Desalination of sea water. In the next evaporator in which the pressure is further reduced. the temperature difference per stage becomes small." P190.2 years Production of nonvolatile products such as NaCl and NaOH. the boiling point of the solution is lower than the saturation temperature of the vapor generated in the preceding stage. Figure shows a multi-effect (2-stage) distillation flow scheme. The saturation temperature of generated vapor is lower than the boiling point of the solution. the consumption of heating steam is theoretically 1/n times.8) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 130 million yen Improvement effect: 40 million yen/year Investment payback: 3. [References] [Inquiry] Energy Conversion Forum.8 times the steam consumption of a single stage evaporator divided by the number of stages. 4.7 to 0.7 to 0. the general formula given below determines the steam consumption. "Energy Utilization Japan Chemical Industry Association / Engineering. 2. 1. the number of stages less than 6 is generally adopted. Ohm Sha. 1980. Accordingly.

000 t/D) Energy saving effects Improvement effect Reduction in specific energy consumption Reduction in energy consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 0. 2) The principle is to use the primary reformer as a heat-exchanger-type reactor. and the hot gas from the secondary reformer flows through the annular space between these tubes.15 x 106 kcal/NG3-t 10. 51. [Description] Structure explanation. 50. 3) The mixture flows downward through the catalyst bed while being reacted. where inner tubes are inserted into outer tubes. [Structure of heat-exchanger-type reactor] (Refer to Fig. 2) The catalyst tubes are of a double-tube type.CA-PE-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Principle & Mechanism Energy Conservation Directory Heat exchanger type primary reformer for waste heat recovery in ammonia production process [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1990s - By using the reactor in the reforming process of an ammonia plant.708 kL/y Remark Accounting for about 10% of the fuel supplied to the primary reformer Operation days 330 d/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks Investment amount: 200 million yen Improvement effect: 200 million yen/year Investment payback: 1 year [Example sites] Adopted at many sites. [References] [Inquiry] Makers’ in-house technical documents Japan Chemical Industry Association / “Chemical Process” p. The exit gas of the secondary reformer flows through the shell side. Heat-exchanger-type primary reformer Improved section Fig. and/or [Improved process flow] (Refer to Fig. 2 Improved reforming process flow of ammonia plant Table 1 Energy saving effect by heat-exchanger-type primary reformer (production capacity: 2. then turns upward inside of the inner tube to enter the secondary reformer. 1) Process waste heat of about 1. 4) Each outer tube is surrounded by a sheath tube. and the exit gas of the secondary reformer flows through the shell side as heating fluid.000˚C at the exit of the secondary reformer is utilized as the reaction heat (endothermic reaction) in the primary reformer. the high-temperature process waste heat at the exit of the secondary reformer is utilized as the reaction heat for the endothermic reaction in the primary reforming process to achieve energy saving. 2) System diagram Fig. Shape. and works as heating fluid. Tokyo Kagaku ECCJ (JIEC) Dojin 148 . The mixture of preheated feed natural gas and steam flows through an annular space filled with catalyst between the outer tube and the inner tube. 1) 1) The primary reformer is used as a heat-exchanger-type reactor. The heat transfer tubes are filled with Ni-based catalyst. The heat transfer tubes are filled with Ni-based catalyst.102 x 103 m3/y 10. 1.

and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. The method has.000 t/y) Energy saving effects Heat recovered to steam Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) Reduction in unit requirement after the improvement 0. disadvantages that the ammonia concentration which was increased by the synthesis reaction is diluted by the cooling gas and that the temperature at exit of the reactor is lowered. 3) Fig.500˚C. Thus. Shape.708 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 150 million yen Improvement effect: 100 million yen/year Investment payback: 1. however. 2) The indirect cooling reactor gives the exit gas temperatures of the reactor from about 300˚C to 450 . recent ammonia synthesis plants have adopted a new synthesis reactor of indirect cooling method. [Features of the high conversion synthesis reactor (indirect cooling reactor)] 1) The method uses the inlet gas of the reactor to cool the hot exit gas at each catalyst bed through a heat exchanger. 3) Owing to the drawbacks. the disadvantages of cool gas quenching method are solved. which temperature allows effective use of the reaction heat to generate high pressure steam and superheated steam.CA-PE-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Principle & Mechanism Energy Conservation Directory Ammonia plant High conversion synthesis reactor [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1970s ~ The facility is an energy saving type reactor which is placed between the reactors of synthesis process of ammonia plant and which effectively recovers the heat of exit gas while controlling the reaction heat to maintain the reaction temperature at an adequate level through the heat exchange with the reactor inlet gas. 2) Conventionally-applied quenching method has a simple structure facility.5 years [References] Makers’ in-house technical documents [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Adopted at some sites.14 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 of unit requirement compared with that of conventional quenching method. and the quenching method which uses unreacted synthesis gas directly for cooling. The method achieves energy saving of about 0. 1 shows an example of indirect cooling high conversion synthesis reactor.14 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 Effect of improvement 5. [Description] Structure explanation. 1 Schematic drawing of cross section of indirect cooling high conversion synthesis reactor Table 1 Improvement in unit requirement of high conversion synthesis reactor (production rate of 300. 1) There are two methods for removing reaction heat in the ammonia synthesis reactor: the indirect cooling method that employs a heat exchanger having the structure that is applied in this case. 149 .

in which the direction of gas flow within the reactor catalyst bed is controlled to reduce the pressure loss. Improved section Fig. (Refer to Table 1. The pressure difference in the synthesis loop reaches to a range of from 7 to 14 kg/cm2. thus decreases the condensed refrigerant ammonia and decreases the power consumption of the refrigerator. diagram thus the catalyst activity is improved the conversion at exit of reactor is improved. 3) Increased conversion reduces the circulation gas rate. 4) Increased ammonia concentration at exit of the synthesis reactor increases the condensation temperature. and axial-radial significantly reduces the presStructure sure difference.5 . energy saving resulted from reduced pressure difference and packing of small sized synthetic catalyst particles owing to the reduction of pressure difference are available. the conversion increases and the driving energy for circulator and refrigerator decreases. Reduction of pressure difference reduces the power consumption of explanation. and/or 2) The developed low pressure difference reactor allows to reduce the catalyst particle System size from 6 . which induces pressure differences of from 7 to 14 kg/cm2. cross sectional.CA-PE-4 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Principle & Mechanism Energy Conservation Directory Ammonia plant Low pressure difference synthesis reactor [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1980s ~ The improvement is related to an energy saving reactor of ammonia synthesis process. A feature of the ammonia synthesis process is unavoidably forming a synthesis loop. 1 Schematic cross sectional drawing of radial direction flow reactor Table 2 Reduction in unit requirement in a pressure difference reactor Energy saving effects Heat recovered to steam Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) Reduction in unit requirement after the improvement 0.) Shape. increases the condensed generated ammonia by water cooling. Table 1 Comparison of gas flow directions and of power consumption Power consumed for circulation Axial direction flow Cross sectional direction flow Radial direction flow Axial-radial direction flow 44 kWh/t-NH3 39 kWh/t-NH3 37 kWh/t-NH3 32 kWh/t-NH3 5 kWh/t-NH3 7 kWh/t-NH3 12 kWh/t-NH3 Reduced power [Features of low pressure difference reactor] 1) Conventional synthesis reactor employs axial gas flow direction through the catalyst bed. the circulator. Since the catalyst of small particle size has high activity. The new [Description] design of reactor which uses the gas flow directions of radial. With the use of a low pressure difference type synthesis reactor.12 mm to 1.3 (6) mm.931 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: million yen Improvement effect: million yen/year Investment payback: years [References] [Inquiry] Adopted at some sites. thus decreases the power consumption of the circulator. Makers’ in-house technical documents Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) 150 . and the exit ammonia concentration is increased.17 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 Effect of improvement 6.

the high temperature conversion operated at temperatures of from 370 to 430˚C. 31.2 years The facility is also applicable to hydrogen plants. The CO is converted to H2 by the reaction of CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 The reaction is advantageous in terms of chemical equilibrium at lower temperatures. [Description] Structure explanation. 1) The secondary reformer exit gas contains about 13 vol. 1 shows the reactor used in the CO conversion process in the ammonia plant. 2) The facility adopts an isothermal reactor to carry out the reaction in a single stage at about 250˚C.1 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 Effect of the improvement 128. and the low temperature conversion operated at temperatures of from 200 to 230˚C. Shape.560 million yen/year Investment payback: 0. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. No. an adiabatic reactor filled with Fe-Cr catalyst (usually) is operated to conduct two stage reactions: namely. 3) Fig.000 t/y) Unit requirement after the improvement Heat recovered as steam Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) 0. 1979). [References] “Energy Saving Journal (Vol.000 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 500 million yen Improvement effect: 2. The reaction heat generated by the CO conversion in the reactor is recovered by generating medium pressure steam in a built-in heat exchanger.% of CO.” [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) 151 . 1 Reactor used in the CO conversion process Table 1 Effect of improvement of energy unit requirement during ammonia production Energy saving effects (at operation rate of 100. 8. 1) Conventionally.CA-PE-5 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Principle & Mechanism Energy Conservation Directory Ammonia plant Isothermal CO converter [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1990s ~ The converter is a reactor with built-in heat exchanger to implement the CO conversion in the ammonia plant at a single stage and to recover the reaction heat.

5 vol. 1) The CO remained after the conversion is converted to CH4 in the downstream methanation stage. which improves the purity of the syn-gas.3 to 0.07 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 Effect of improvement 2. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. 2) The unit oxidizes CO into CO2 using a catalytic reaction. however. particularly to the unit which conducts two stage reactions at high and low temperature levels. The CO is.000 t/y) Energy saving effects Recovered energy Reduction of energy Reduced unit requirement after improvement 0. accumulated in the synthesis reaction to hinder the reaction. into CO2 gas. the amount of CH4 generated in downstream methanation stage decreases. 1 shows the ammonia production flow diagram with the addition of the CO oxidizer.851 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 80 million yen Improvement effect: 57 million yen/year Investment payback: 1. Increased purity of syn-gas decreases the amount of purge gas in the synthesis stage.4 years The facility is also applicable to hydrogen plants. 152 . As a result. [References] Makers’ in-house technical documents [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Adopted at some sites.CA-PE-6 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) CO oxidizer in ammonia production process [Practical Use] 1971~ The improvement relates to the CO conversion step in ammonia plant. the H2 loss also decreases. 1 Flow diagram of CO conversion in ammonia production process Table 1 Improvement in energy unit requirement in CO converter (at production rate of 300. 3) Fig. Principle & Mechanism [Description] Structure explanation. which CO2 is removed in succeeding carbonate removing stage. Shape. (CO + H2O = CO2 + H2). followed by oxidizing the residual CO with air on a Pd catalyst to obtain CO2.% after the CO conversion. [Pd metal catalyst] The catalyst selectively oxidizes CO remained at 0. Since the treatment reduces CO amount.

not used because it gives bad influence to the control of the inlet temperature of the low-temperature converter of the succeeding process.454 kL/y Effect Total 1. Feed steam to the reboiler of the CO2 regenerator is decreased as well owing to the increase in the heating value. For effective use of the heat exchanger. and fed. The boiler feed water at 130˚C is injected into the process gas to change the sensible heat to the latent heat. A heat exchanger to preheat the methanator feed gas was installed as the intercooler of this compressor. Improvement] Structure explanation. in-process heat recovery from compressed gas out of the synthesis-gas compressor was not applied because the heat exchanger hinders temperature control in the succeeding process. 1 Flow chart of synthesis gas purification and compression process 1) When the heat is exchanged with the compressor exit gas. 2 System to inject boiler feed water to low-temperature converter Energy saving effects Table 1 Energy saving effect Amount of steam reduction Recovered heat of boiler feed water at heat exchanger Reduction in steam supply to steam reboiler Reduction in crude oil equivalent 1. Thus the heat of compression was discarded into coolImproved section ing water.CA-ME-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Waste heat recovery unit for synthesis gas compressor exit gas in ammonia production process [Energy Source] Fuel [Practical Use] 1984 Outline Before Improvemet In an ammonia plant. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. the load of feed steam to the steam reboiler can be decreased. the inlet temperature of the low-temperature converter increases from 214˚C to 238˚C.664 MMkcal/h 3. which is maintained at the set level of 214˚C. It also shortens the catalyst life. 1) Fig. the boiler feed water is injected into the process gas. compressed by the ammonia synthesis-gas compressor from 24 kg/cm2 to 150 kg/cm2 .372 kL/y (in heavy oil equivalent) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 60 million yen Improvement effect: 30 million yen/year Investment payback: 2 years [References] [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals’ “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases Osaka plant 1985. 2) & 2) This improvement increases the supply rate of latent heat to the process reboiler of the CO 2 regenerator. The heat exchanger was. Feed gas generated in the reformer was purified.” p. Accordingly. the heating value increases without raising the [Description temperature. In this manner. (Refer to Fig. however. Shape. 1223 153 . (Refer to Fig.572 t/h 1. thus the temperature control becomes possible.

“Oil Refinery Process (Japan Petroleum Society)” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Kodansha Investment amount: 220 million yen Improvement effect: 114 million yen/year Investment payback: 2 years 154 .708 kL/y Improvement effect . Its maintenance is easy.5 mm or a flat membrane wound in a spiral form. 5) Condensation of the heavy fraction in feed gas results in the decrease in the hydrogen permeation rate. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. (Refer to Fig. 4) The product hydrogen has a low pressure owing to the permeation treatment. 6) The investment cost is low. [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] [References] [Inquiry] Adopted at some sites.Additional effect: From the same volume of natural gas. chemicals resistance. Shape.CA-ME-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Membrane separation hydrogen recovery unit in ammonia production process [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1979 ~ The membrane separation unit is an energy saving unit which does not employ any moving parts and does not need any complex operation while consuming minimum energy.1-0. an adequate pre-treatment is required.14 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 5. pressure durability.) Principle & Mechanism [Description] Structure explanation.Energy saving effect Energy saving effects Table 1 Improvement effect in specific consumption by membrane separation hydrogen recovery (production rate of 300. separation coefficient and permeation rate. the production is increased by 4-6% compared with conventional process. These elements are packed in a pressure vessel to form a module. and saves energy. and is suitable for a process for producing hydrogen of the concentration of 90-99%. To prevent it. 2) After installed. 1 Schematic cross section of separation membrane module . [Structure of hydrogen separation membrane] 1) The gas separation membrane used for hydrogen gas recovery is made of a non-porous polymer which has excellent properties in the heat resistance. the throughput can be readily changed responding to the operating conditions. 3) The process has no moving part. [Features of the membrane separation process] 1) The process attains high hydrogen recovery rate in a high-pressure process. 1. because the separation is carried out using the pressure of the gas itself as the driving force.000 t/y) Reduction in specific consumption after improvement Heat recovered as steam Reduction in crude oil equivalent 0. 2) The membrane element is either a hollow type having approximate diameters of 0.

which are directly connected to a power recovery turbine and to a absorbing liquid feed pump via clutches. Structure explanation.04 x 10 kcal/(NH3-t) 1.000 t/d Operation days 330 d/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 150 million yen Improvement effect: 36 million yen/year Investment payback: 4. 1 Flow diagram of waste heat recovery of primary reformer of ammonia plant Table 1 Energy saving effect by power recovery turbine Energy saving effects After improvement Reduction in specific energy consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent Reduction by 0.1992) [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Adopted at many sites. [Power recovery system using high-pressure water turbine and power recovery calculation formula] Principle & Mechanism [Before the improvement] [Description] 1) In the carbon-dioxide removal process. 2) The liquid which absorbed CO2 is sent to the regenerating column after the pressure is reduced from 30 to 1 kg/cm2 by a pressure-reducing valve. diagram Improved section Fig. and utilizes the pressure to drive the feed pump for the absorbent liquid. System 2) The facility comprises an electric motor with shafts on both sides. a large quantity of absorbent liquid is supplied to the top of the absorbing column under a pressure of about 30 kg/cm2 to remove about 15 vol.% of CO2 contained in the crude gas coming from the reforming process and the CO conversion process. 155 .CA-ME-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory High pressure water power recovery turbine in ammonia production process [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1980s ~ This improvement is to utilize a high-pressure water turbine in order to recover power from the high-pressure liquid which absorbed carbon-dioxide in the carbon-dioxide removal process of an ammonia plant. and/or 1) The facility employs a power recovery turbine instead of the pressure-reducing valve.794 kL/y 6 Production and operation conditions Production rate 1. [After the improvement] Shape.1 years [References] “Hydrocarbon Processing (Aug.

051 x 103 m3/y 5.15 x 106 kcal/NH3-t 5. explanation. which is then fed to the primary reformer. 4) The reactor exit gas is reheated by the flue gas.000 t/d. 1) Using high-temperature (600˚C or more) waste heat of the primary reformer flue gas. & 3) Part of the primary reforming reaction is carried out in the pre-reformer (adiabatic reformer) which is also Improvement] filled with a Ni catalyst. and/or System diagram Fig.The conventional process adopted natural gas reforming by the primary reformer. and CO2. where the feed natural gas is cracked by steam on a Ni catalyst to yield H2. Structure 5) Installation of the pre-reformer allows to reduce the capacity of the primary reformer by 10%. .354 kL/y Accounting for about 10% of the fuel supplied to the primary reformer (Note *: Production capacity of 2. operating days of 330 d/y) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] [References] “Hydrocarbon Processing (Aug. Shape. CO. the mixture of feed natural gas and reaction steam is heated up to 620˚C. the exit gas temperature is lowered by 60-80˚C. [Description 2) The heated mixture is sent to the primary reformer. 1 Flow chart of reforming process with pre-reformer Table 1 Energy saving effect by pre-reformer Improvement effect Remark Improved section Energy saving effects Reduction in specific energy consumption Reduction in energy consumption * Reduction in crude oil equivalent 0. 1992)” [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Investment amount: 280 million yen Improvement effect: 110 million yen/year Investment payback: 1. Since the reaction heat (endothermic reaction) is supplemented by the sensible heat of the mixture.7 years 156 .CA-ME-4 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Before Improvemet Energy Conservation Directory Installation of pre-reformer in ammonia reforming process [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1980s ~ This technology is a process improvement aiming at energy saving by installing a pre-reformer in the reforming stage of the ammonia production process.

857 kL/y 19. process air. 1 Flow chart of ammonia plant primary reformer waste heat recovery Table 1 Energy saving effect by waste-heat recovery [Case A] Preheating temperature of 260 Reduction in specific energy consumption Reduction in fuel consumption (heavy oil C)* Reduction in crude oil equivalent About 0.28 x 106 kcal/(NH3-t) 18. operation days 330 days/year) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 500 million yen Improvement effect: 400 million yen/year Investment payback: 1. and steam.CA-ME-5 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Primary reformer waste heat recovery unit for ammonia plant [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1980s ~ This unit preheats the combustion air by hot flue gas generated by combustion. fuel is combusted outside of catalyst tubes to supply heat to the reforming reaction (endothermic reaction) in the catalyst tubes. and supplies the heat to the endothermic reaction (reforming reaction) in the heating-furnace-type primary reformer of an ammonia plant.3 years This technology was demonstrated at Sichuan Chemical Complex in Sichuan province of China as the NEDO’s Model Project for Ammonia Primary Reformer Waste Heat Recovery. Principle & Mechanism [Description] Structure explanation. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. thus the fuel consumption of the primary reformer is reduced. the waste heat of the flue gas needs to be utilized to a temperature as low as possible by using it to heat low-temperature fluids.000˚C) generated by combustion is used to heat the feed natural gas. Waste heat is used to heat the combustion air from the normal temperature to temperatures of 200 to 400˚C.988 kL/y Energy saving effects (Remark*: Ammonia production 2. 2) To increase the thermal efficiency of the primary reformer. The waste heat of the flue gas (about 1. Shape. Combustion air for the primary reformer is one of the low-temperature fluids.796 kL/y 13.564 kL/y [Case B] Preheating temperature of 400 About 0. 1) In the primary reformer.000t/D.19 x 106 kcal/(NH3-t) 12. [References] NEDO reports [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) 157 .

05 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 1 kWh/t-NH3 8. (2)The process natural gas is preheated to about 200˚C by the flue gas. Then the natural gas is again preheated to 620˚C. [References] Makers’ in-house technical documents [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Some sites adopting similar technology 158 . by spraying into the natural gas and by vaporizing the process condensate using the heat of preheated natural gas. before entering the primary reformer of the ammonia plant. The process steam (40 kg/cm2G) is added to thus desulfurized natural gas to a level of S/C molar ratios of from 3.4 years The technology is applicable also to methanol plants and hydrogen plants. 1 Humidification flow diagram of before the primary reforming Table 1 Effect of energy saving by the humidification process Effect Remark Energy saving effects Reduction in energy unit requirement Increase in power unit requirement Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) 0. Before Improvement [Description of Improvement] Structure explanation.809 kL/y Production rate of 100. (1)For primary reforming natural gas. and is desulfurized.CA-OM-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Ammonia production process Pre-humidification process for primary reforming [Energy Source] Fuel [Practical Use] 1980s ~ The case is a process improvement to humidify the feed natural gas with the process condensate. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. the natural gas is again preheated. Shape.0 to 3. as a part of the humidifying steam. On the other hand. the process condensate is sprayed form the top of the saturation tower to make contact with the warmed natural gas to saturate with water. and is fed to the catalyst tubes to perform reforming. and is fed to the catalyst tubes of the primary reformer to perform the reforming. the natural gas is preheated to 400˚C before subjected to desulfurization.000 t/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 250 million yen Improvement effect: 180 million yen/year Investment payback: 1. (3)After adding the steam to the natural gas to satisfy the necessary total amount of steam.5. (1)The low temperature waste heat at about 200˚C of the flue gas of the primary reformer is utilized. followed by feeding to the bottom of the saturation tower. The saturated natural gas is used as a part of the 42 bar reforming steam.

” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) p.240 kL/y Remark (Operating time: 4.CA-OM-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Ammonia production process Improvement in heating feed to ammonia stripper [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1986 Melamine which is synthesized from urea is dissolved into aqueous ammonia in the pressurized quencher. [References] [Inquiry] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1980.1021 [Example sites] Adopted at some sites. Description of Process Fig. 159 . The improvement is energy saving through preheating the filtrate discharged from centrifugal separator in the crystallizing step for ammonia recovery.0 t/h 4. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. Shape.3 million yen/year Investment payback: 2.1 years The improvement is a typical example of widely utilizing methods for preheating raw material feed for all kinds of distillation columns. [After improvement] Before the existed preheater in the filtrate feed line to the distillation column. thus the temperature of filtrate is increased. Structure explanation.000 h/y) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks Investment amount: 7 million yen Improvement effect: 3. an additional preheater is inserted in series. 2 Flowchart of ammonia recovery (before improvement) Fig. 3 Flowchart of ammonia recovery (after improvement) Table 1 Improved effect of energy saving in the ammonia recovery step Energy saving effects Improved effect Reduction of steam consumption Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) 13. 1 Process flowchart of ammonia recovery from filtrate after separating melamine [Description of Improvement] [Before improvement] The temperature of residue as the heating medium was 51˚C at the exit of filtrate preheater. followed by depressurized and cooled in the crystallizer to yield crystalline melamine.

[After improvement] (1)The improved technology for removing carbonate is the physical absorption type (Selexol process). [Before improvement] (1)Conventional carbonate removal applies chemical absorption method using an absorbing liquid such as monoethanolamine (MEA) aqueous solution.000 kcal/Nm3-CO2. (3)With natural gas as the raw material. 160 .733 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 1.6 x 106 kcal/t-NH3 10 kWh/t-NH3 Improvement effect 23. (2)The regeneration heat of the solution after absorbing CO2 is about 1.5 years [References] Makers’ in-house technical documents [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Adopted at some sites.CA-OM-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Ammonia [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Ammonia production process Carbonate removal process [Energy Source] Fuel (natural gas) [Practical Use] 1980s ~ The improvement is the one for energy saving in the carbonate removal process of ammonia production process.000 t/y) Energy saving effects Reduced unit requirement after improvement Heat recovered as steam Increased power consumption Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) 0. the quantity of removed carbonate is about 620 Nm3-CO2/t-NH3. Before Improvement [Description of Improvement] Structure explanation.% in the crude synthesis gas coming from the CO conversion process. and the process is the largest consumer of energy in the ammonia plant.000 to 2. The method removes CO2 contained at about 18 vol. the energy required for regeneration of the solution is significantly reduced to 22 kcal/Nm3-CO2. Shape. The regeneration of the solution is performed by vacuum flashing and air stripping. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. As a result. 1 Flowchart of energy saving type carbonate removal process Table 1 Improved effect in the carbonate removal process in the ammonia production process (production capacity: 300.200 million yen Improvement effect: 470 million yen/year Investment payback: 2.

CS-PE-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Caustic Soda [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Quadruple-effect concentration for diaphragm-type electrolytic caustic soda production [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1977 When the electrolytic production method of industrial salt is converted from the mercury process to the diaphragm process. 2 evaporator No. 30.0 t/t-NaOH Improvement effect Reduction by 0.000 h/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] [References] [Inquiry] Many sites adopting similar “Energy Saving Journal (Vol.140 million yen/year Investment payback: 4 years 161 .” P. The energy efficiency is improved.7 t/t-NaOH Quadruple effect type 2. The flow chart of the quadrupleeffect evaporation vessels is shown in Fig. 3 evaporator No. 1 evaporator No. Structure 3) Comparison of triple-effect explanation. (Refer to Table 1) Shape. Japan Chemica Industry Association / ECCJ(JIEC) 1978). 2) The existing triple-effect concentration method is modified to the quadruple-effect concentration method. 9. No.7 t/y 700. Accordingly.077 kL/y Note*: Operating hours: 7. It also contains NaCl of about 15%. 1. This improvement enhances energy efficiency and saves energy by modifying the existing triple-effect concentration method to the quadruple-effect concentration method. It is necessary to concentrate the NaOH by a concentrator to about 50% to separate the salt as crystals. evaporation and quadruple-effect evaporation. and the steam con[Description] sumption is reduced by 26%. 45 technology Investment amount: 4. 4 evaporator Quadruple-effect evaporation Temperature Concentration 158˚ C 43% 102˚ C 25% 76˚ C 17% 50˚ C 12% Improved section Fig.1wt% Triple-effect evaporation Temperature Concentration 142˚ C 45% 87˚ C 25% 53˚ C 16% - No. it is necessary to concentrate the NaOH by a concentrator to about 50% to separate the salt in a form of crystals. and/or System diagram Concentration of electrolyte Concentration of product NaOH 10.560 million yen Improvement effect: 1.1wt% NaOH 50 wt% NaCL 1. 1 Flow chart of caustic soda concentration by quadruple-effect evaporation vessels Table 2 Energy saving effect by quadruple-effect evaporation Energy saving effects Triple-effect type Specific steam consumption Reduction in steam consumption * Reduction in crude oil equivalent 2.3wt% NaCL 15. the electrolyte generated in the process becomes a dilute NaOH solution containing a large amount of NaCl salt. Table 1 Comparison of triple-effect evaporation and quadruple-effect evaporation 1) The electrolyte generated in the diaphragm process is a dilute solution of NaOH (about 10%).000 t/y 57.

Principle & Mechanism Improved section Fig.CS-PE-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Caustic Soda [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Energy saving ion exchange membrane electrolysis bath for caustic soda production [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1994 The newly developed electrolysis bath gives less voltage drop owing to its structure compared with a conventional multi-polar ion-exchange-membrane electrolysis bath. 1. 3 Flow of electrolyte Energy saving effects Table 1 Power saving effect of improved type compared with conventional multi-polar ion-exchange-membrane electrolysis bath Reduction in specific power consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 131 DC kWh/t-NaOH 3. current density 3 kA/m2 [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 124 million yen Improvement effect: 62 million yen/year Investment payback: 2 years The technology is economically applicable to the operation with a high current density up to 6 kA/m2.000 t-NaOH/y. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. 1 Cross section of multi-polar element [Description] Structure explanation.183 kL/y Operating condition: production of 100. the voltage drop becomes less. 2 Configuration of multi-polar element Fig. [References] [Inquiry] “Soda Industry Technical Information (No. 162 .” Japan Chemical Industry Association / Oct. it achieves power saving of about 6%. making it an energy-saving compact NaCl electrolysis bath. Accordingly it allows to increase the current density. Shape. Owing to this structure. As the electric conductivity of Ni is six times that of Ti. Compared with a conventional type. 449). a minimum level of current flows through the Ti section. The current flows as indicated in Fig. 1994 ECCJ (JIEC) Adopted at some sites.

595 kWh/t-NaOH 2. The mounting method was also modified. Improved section Fig. 163 .390 kL/y Effect Energy saving effects NaOH concentration at electrolysis bath exit Salt concentration at electrolysis bath exit Specific power consumption Specific steam consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 12 % 14 % 2.4 t/t-NaOH [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 2.42 t/t-NaOH 257 kWh/t-NaOH 1. 2 and 3) 1) The electrolysis bath was switched from the asbestos membrane method to the bag-shaped ion exchange membrane method. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. 1) 1) Caustic soda and chlorine generated by electrolysis of saline water are separated by an ion exchange membrane. 1 Schematic drawing of electrolysis bath Principle & Mechanism [Description] [Improvement of ID-process NaCl electrolysis bath] (refer to Figs. 2) The cathodic material of the cathodic can was switched to SUS310S. 2) The ion exchange membrane is formed to a bag by which the saline water and pure water are sealed from each other more easily than a flat membrane.8 million yen/year Investment payback: 4.338 kWh/t-NaOH 0. Structure explanation. This improvement significantly reduced electric power consumption. 449). 4) The treatment of the periphery of the anode was modified.003 % 2. 2 Modification of cathodic can Fig. 3) The inner material of the can nozzle was changed to SUS310S.CS-PE-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Caustic Soda [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Ion exchange membrane NaCl electrolysis bath for caustic soda production [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1992 This technology is to switch the method employed in the NaCl electrolysis bath for caustic soda production from the asbestos membrane method to the bag ion exchange method. The thickness of the Ti spring was increased and the flatness was improved.98 t/t-NaOH 22.015 million yen Improvement effect: 447. [Features of ID-process NaCl electrolysis bath] (Refer to Fig.5 years [References] “Soda Industry Technical Information (No. 1994 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Adopted at some sites. 3 Comparison of anode before and after improvement Table 1 Comparison of energy saving effect between conventional membrane method and ion exchange membrane method for electrolysis bath Conventional membrane method Improved ion exchange membrane method 34 % 0. Shape.” Oct.

“Soda Industry Technical Information (No.500 km3 of hydrogen) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 90 million yen Improvement effect: 30 million yen/year Investment payback: 3 years [References] [Inquiry] Adopted at some sites.000 t/y 1.000 t-chlorine/y (17. The materials of the main parts are listed in Table 1. 449). 3) The heat exchanger is a shell-and-tube type. Table 1 Materials of main parts of brine preheater Shell side Chlorine gas .468 kL/y Remark Production rate: 55. the heat is exchanged with the sensible heat of chlorine and hydrogen gases generated in the NaCl electrolytic bath (particularly membrane-type electrolysis bath). the feed brine was heated by steam using a carbide-made heat exchanger. 1 shows the flow diagram around the preheater.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / Oct. using sensible heat of chlorine and hydrogen gases generated in the membrane electrolysis bath. Shape. [Before improvement] Conventionally. and/or System diagram [After improvement] 1) After the improvement. 2) Fig. 1994 ECCJ (JIEC) 164 .brine TP35 (Titanium) SS40V (SS) Tube side TTH35W (Titanium) TTH35W (SS) Improved section Fig.brine Hydrogen gas . [Description] Structure explanation. thus the steam consumption is reduced compared with the conventional steam heating.CS-ME-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Caustic Soda [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Brine preheater using recovered heat of NaCl electrolysis in caustic soda production process [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1992 This improvement is to install a preheater which preheats brine (NaCl water) fed to the electrolysis bath. 1 Flow diagram of brine preheating syste Table 2 Heat recovery effect of brine preheater Energy saving effects Effect Energy recovery (in steam equivalent) Reduction in crude oil equivalent 18.

Focusing on the fact that the overvoltage at an electrode depends on the electrolysis voltage and its surface area. 3 illustrates its cross section. 1 Mesh-type cathode Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of electrolysis bath [Description] Structure explanation.9 30. and the hydrogen overvoltage is reduced. and/or System diagram [Structure of active cathode] 1) Fig. 2) The coating layer is a Ni-C-S porous alloy. 2 Schematic drawing of the cross section of cathode Table 1 Example of energy saving (Production scale of 100.000. [Principle of ion-exchange-membrane method and breakdown of energy loss] Table 1 Breakdown of energy loss in ion-exchange-membrane electrolysis Principle & Mechanism Reduction in specific power consumption (kWh/tNaOH) Ion-exchange-membrane resistance Anode liquid resistance Cathode liquid resistance Anode overvoltage Cathode overvoltage Conductor resistance Total 345 15 53 67 263 112 755 Rate(%) 40.CS-ME-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Caustic Soda [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Improvement of active cathode for ion exchange membrane electrolysis for caustic soda production [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1985 This improvement is to use an active cathode.7 13.“Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1988. which significantly widens the surface area of the electrode. Improved section Fig. Thus. This type of cathode was developed to reduce the overvoltage at the cathode which generates large energy loss in ion-exchange-membrane NaCl electrolysis for caustic soda production. the operating current density is 20-40 a/dm3.” Japan Chemical Industy Asociation / nology p. 3) For normal industrial-scale production.000 kWh/y 3.0 Improved section Fig. Shape. 2 shows the mesh-type cathode.1 7.1 million yen Improvement effect: 72. Fig.000 t-NaOH) Energy saving effects Reduction in specific power consumption Annual power reduction Reduction in crude oil equivalent 150 kWh/(t-NaOH) 15. the power consumption was remarkably reduced.645 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 255. Special coating is applied on the stainless or nickel cathode.2 100.3 1. The overvoltage of the active cathode is reduced by more than 0.9 million yen/year Investment payback: 3. 197 ECCJ (JIEC) 165 .5 years [References] [Inquiry] Some sites adopting similar tech.2 V compared with that of a conventional one. a new coating method was adopted.8 6.

008 % Improved section Fig.500 kWh/t-NaOH 200 to . 4 Flowchart of ion exchange membrane process Table 2 Energy saving effect through the switching to ion exchange membrane process (basis: 100.00009 ~ 0.0018 0.9).634 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industy Asociation / ECCJ (JIEC) Many sites adopting similar technology 166 . and/or is the final product.000 t/y of production) Conventional process New process average 2. 4 (3)Caustic soda yielded in the electrolytic bath Shape. 2 Conceptual drawing of ion exchange process electrolytic bath [Description] [Conventional process] Refer to Fig. NaOH concentration : about 12% NaCl concentration : about 16% (2)Content of impurities NaCl : 0.0018 % Fig. New process] Refer to Fig.500 million yen Improvement effect: 616 million yen/year Investment payback: 4 years [References] “Chemical Engineering Journal (Vol. NaOH concentration: about 20 to 35% System (4)Content of impurities diagram NaCl : 0. The ion exchange membrane process gives significant energy saving compared with conventional diaphragm process.86 ~ 0. There developed a process to produce high concentration and high purity caustic soda through electrolysis using ion exchange membrane.100 kWh/t-NaOH average 75 kWh/t-NaOH 0.93 % Na2CO3 : 0.0072 % Na2CO3 : 0.180 % Fe2O3 : 0. 3 Flowchart of diaphragm process Structure explanation.400 kWh/t-NaOH 2 ? 3.CS-OM-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Caustic Soda Energy Conservation Directory [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1988 Caustic soda production process Switching from diaphragm electrolytic process to [Technology Classification] ion exchange membrane electrolytic process Operation & Management Outline In the past. 1 Conceptual drawing of diaphragm process electrolytic bath Fig. 56. [Principle of diaphragm process electrolytic bath and of ion exchange process electrolytic bath] Principle & Mechanism Fig. No.018 ~ 0.082 ~ 0.09 % Fe2O3 : 0. caustic soda production was conducted by the diaphragm process in which anode and cathode in the NaCl electrolytic bath were separated by an asbestos diaphragm from each other.843 kL/y Energy saving effects Electric power unit requirement Steam unit requirement for electrolysis for power 2.68 t/t-NaOH Effect of improvement 16% reduction 75% reduction 74% reduction 30. 3 (1)Caustic soda yielded in the electrolytic bath needs further concentration and purification.” p.2 t/t-NaOH Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 2.

1) Equation (3) suggests that. 803 167 . a and b are the constants. proportional to the bath voltage (V).208 kL/y Remark Reduction rate of 7. Equations (1) and (2) suggest that the power is saved by this approach.The reduction in the electrolyte concentration is prevented by adjusting the membrane and strictly controlling the electrolytic bath. The electrolytic power (W) of NaCl electrolysis is. the load current can be reduced when the number of baths is increased. The technology is applicable to ionexchange-membrane NaCl electrolysis bath and electrolytic production of high-purity chromium and manganese-dioxide. [References] [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industy Asociation / ECCJ (JIEC) Similar technologies are adopted “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1980. . and/or System diagram Table 1 Example of energy saving effect Energy saving effects Reduction in annual power consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent Effect 13. caustic soda production was conducted by the diaphragm process in which anode and cathode in the NaCl electrolytic bath were separated by an asbestos diaphragm from each other. if the current is simply reduced: .The current efficiency is reduced due to the increase in liquid resistance resulted from the decrease in the electrolyte temperature. p. [Description] Structure explanation. n is the number of baths. . Principle & Mechanism (1) (2) (3) Improved section where. . and the current efficiency is reduced. However. The ion exchange membrane process gives significant energy saving compared with conventional diaphragm process.The membrane is consumed and degraded due to the changes in the pH value in the membrane bath.000 kWh/y 3. The production rate (P) is proportional to the product of the current and the number of baths (n) as shown in equation (3). thus maintaining the current efficiency. . and K is a coefficient. W is the electrolytic power (==). V is the bath voltage. which is in turn.4% [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 128 million yen Improvement effect: 64 million yen/year Investment payback: 2 years The improvement for a membrane NaCl electrolysis bath is illustrated. nearly in a linear relation with the current (I).” at some sites. There developed a process to produce high concentration and high purity caustic soda through electrolysis using ion exchange membrane. P is the production rate. Shape. as shown in equation (1).CS-OM-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Caustic Soda [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Reduction of electrolytic power for NaCl electrolysis bath in caustic soda production process [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1977 In the past.The electrolyte temperature is increased by about 2˚C by preheating the feed saline water using the waste heat of generated hydrogen gas drain. As the measures to these problems. 670 is the electrochemical equivalent (=).200. I is the load current (kA). as shown in equation (2). for a certain production rate.The specific steam consumption for enriching increases due to the reduced concentration of electrolyte. hc is the current efficiency.

0.07 kg/cm2 0. The pressure difference occurs at each tray according to the liquid depth.9 t/h Annual reduction (7. the heat source of the de-ethanizing column can be switched from low-pressure steam to quench water. The bottom oil-bearing hot water (quench water) of the quenching column is used as heat sources in various processes in the plant.6 t/h After improvement 0.01 kg/cm2 0. the pressure difference occurs at the valve tray sections.000 kWh/y 41.31 kg/cm2. If the valve trays are changed to packing. 4) As a result. the pressure difFig.05 kg/cm2 0. and is recirculated to perform contact cooling after its temperature is controlled using cooling water. 3 Tray packing section in quenching column(after improvement) Table 1 Comparison of operating conditions before and after improvement Before improvement -Pressure difference in gasoline-fractionating column -Pressure difference across quenching column -Inlet pressure of feed gas compressor -Driving force of feed gas compressor. so the steam consumption is reduced.300 t/y 4. the pressure difference across the quenching process is reduced to save energy. 1173 technology 168 . Fuel [Practical Use] 1987 Outline Principle & Mechanism Power consumption by the feed gas compressor of the naphtha cracking process is reduced by increasing the suction pressure. 1) The quenching process comprises a gasoline-fractionating column and a quenching column.7 t/h Fig. etc. [Before improvement] [After improvement] [Description] Structure explanation. thus the top reflux is decreased and the bottom temperature is increased. 1) The pressure difference across the quenching process is 0.CN-ME-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Switching quenching tower trays to packing in naphtha cracking process [Energy Source] Electricity. The suction pressure is determined by the exit pressure of the cracking furnace and by the pressure difference across the quenching process.700 kW/h 86˚ C 8. [Process flow of the facility] (Refer to Fig.49 kg/cm2 12. Shape. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. 2 Quenching column (before improvement) Temperature of quench water Reboiler steam Table 2 Energy saving effect by changing trays to packing Energy saving effects Hourly reduction Reduction in power consumption Reduction in steam consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 670 kW/h 5.01 kg/cm2 0.59 kg/cm2 12.030 kW/h 88˚ C 2.690. Since the increase in the exit pressure of the cracking furnace significantly reduces the ethylene yield. 1 Flow chart of naphtha-cracking quenching ference is decreased and the heat transfer coefficient process is increased.508 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 180 million yen Improvement effect: 90 million yen/year Investment payback: 2 years [References] [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Many sites adopting similar “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1988. 2) In the both columns. The bottom oil of the quenching column is recirculated to the gasoline-fractionating column.” p.000 h/y) 4.

Shape. and reduces the steam consumption at the refrigerant propylene of compressor by 3. and further lowered to -136˚C by isentropic change.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) p.14 x 106 kcal/h 7. In order to further reduce the pressure from the conventional level and lighten the load to the compressor. Structure explanation. a turbo-expander is installed in the top gas line and the low-temperature heat is recovered for energy saving. 761 169 .7 t/h 6. which was formerly changed under the isenthalpic condition. Before Improvement Fig. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. Improvement] 3) The process flow with the turbo-expander installed is shown below.14 x 106 kcal/h. 1 Flow chart around demethanizing column (before improvement) 1) The top gas temperature of the demethanizing column. 2) This improvement increases the heat recovery to 2.4 million yen/year Investment payback: 5 years [References] [Inquiry] Adopted at some sites. 2 Flow chart around demethanizing column after turbo-expander is installed Table 1 Energy saving effect by installing turbo-expander After improvement Remark (Operating hours: 8. reduces the steam consumption at the [Description refrigerant ethylene compressor by 4.CN-ME-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Installation of turbo-expander in top gas line of demethanizing column in naphtha cracking process [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1991 Outline This improvement is a measure to overcome capacity shortage of a refrigerant ethylene compressor under increased ethylene production. “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1993. is now lowered to -128˚C by using a turbo-expander.2 t/h.000 h/y) Energy saving effects Cold heat recovery Reduction in steam consumption at compressors Reduction in crude oil equivalent 2. The conventional flow is given below.5 t/h.874 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 687 million yen Improvement effect: 137.

Before Improvement Fig. Reduction in power by recovering cold heat Reduction in crude oil equivalent 6. 2 Flow chart of cold heat recovery from bottom liquid of demethanizing column Table 1 Refrigerator power saving effect After improvement Remark Operation of 8. the bottom liquid of the demethanizing column is at a temperature of -30˚C and is fed to the ethylene rectificating column at a vapor/fluid ratio of 0. of 3) The flow after improvement is shown below.11. The conventional process flow is shown below. the cold heat of the bottom liquid is utilized to reduce the power of the propylene refrigerator for energy saving. 1 Flow chart of demethanizing column and ethylene rectification column 1) Two aluminum-made heat exchanger is Newly installed: one to the top vapor section of the depropanizing column. thus reducing the power of the propylene refrigerator. Shape.640. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig.CN-ME-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Cold heat recovery from demethanizing column bottom liquid in naphtha cracking process [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1986 Outline In the naphtha cracking process. and the cold heat is recovered. Improvement] Structure explanation.” p.614 kL/y Investment amount: 160 million yen Improvement effect: 32 million yen/year Investment payback: 5 years [References] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1987. [Description 2) The recovered power of the propylene refrigerator is 830 kWh/h. 618 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) 170 .000 h/y Energy saving effects [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Adopted at some sites. Since the increase in the vapor/fluid ratio of the feed does not affect much to the efficiency of the ethylene rectificating column.000 kWh/y 1. the other to the feed chiller (refrigerator) of the demethanizing column. The bottom liquid of the demethanizing column is flashed in the adiabatic mode using two control valves.

[Flow for utilizing process waste heat at boilers] (Refer to Fig.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / technology ECCJ (JIEC) p. Shape. and further cooled to 35-50˚C using the cooling water (TW) before sending back to the cooling tower. [Description] Structure explanation.000 h/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks Investment amount: 500 million yen Improvement effect: 170 million yen/year Investment payback: 3 years [Example sites] [References] [Inquiry] Many sites adopting similar “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1980. 1021 171 . and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. the combustion air is heated to 240˚C using the 13 kg/cm2 steam and the boiler flue gas before sent to the boilers. hot water at the bottom of the cooling tower is cooled by process fluid to 60˚C. at the power plant boilers.000 t/y (13 t/h) 8. 2 boilers. Steam is no more used for preheating.CN-ME-4 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Combustion air preheating for boilers using cooling tower bottom hot water in naphtha cracking process [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1979 Outline In a naphtha cracking plant. 1 and No. 1) 1) An air-preheater using waste heat from circulating hot water of the naphtha cracking plant was installed ahead of the forced draft fan (FDF) for No.480 kL/y Remark Operating hours: 8. 2) This improvement reduced the steam consumption by 13 t/h. 1 Flow chart of combustion air preheating using process waste heat of cooling tower bottom hot water Table 1 Energy saving effect by reducing combustion-air preheating steam for boilers Energy saving effects Improvement effect Reduction in steam consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 104. On the other hand.

2. a top heat exchanger was installed. and the top temperature was changed from 105 to 117˚C. Structure explanation. No. 1) Principle & Mechanism Fig. 1 Flow chart of heat among ethylene-oxide plant. Both vapors are cooled by cooling water. 39 172 . On the other hand. Accordingly. 2) As for the MEG distillation column. 37. 1985).180 t/y 3. B and P plants [Description] 1) It reduces the overall heat transfer coefficient to convert the cooling water to hot water at the top condenser of the CO2 stripper. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. [Energy flow with B and P plants] (Refer to Fig.” technology P. and the top vapor of the MEG distillation column is at about 105˚C. and the reboiler is heated by steam. the pressure was changed from 25 to 36 Torr. After these modifications. and utilize the waste heat as a heat source of the reboiler of the “P” plant. 1 Use of waste heat of top vapor of distillation column at reboiler by hot-water circulation Table 1 Energy saving effect by utilizing top vapor waste heat of distillation column Energy saving effects Reduction in steam consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent Improvement effect 37. the bottom temperature of the rectificating column is at about 60˚C.CN-ME-5 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Hot water heating by distillation column top vapor [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1979 The top vapor of the CO2 stripper in this plant is at about 94˚C. A reboiler and a hot water tank were installed at the P plant. Shape. This improvement is to circulate hot water along with the waste heat of the top vapor of the rectificating column in the “B” plant. 3) A condenser was installed at the B plant. the internal structure of the condenser was modified. in the “P” plant in the same industrial complex.032 kL/y Remark [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 120 million yen Improvement effect: 60 million yen/year Investment payback: 2 years [References] [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Many sites adopting similar “Energy Saving Journal (Vol.

454 kL/y Remark (Equivalent to 15 cracking furnaces) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 230 million yen Improvement effect: 90 million yen/year Investment payback: 2. and compared with the oxygen volume actually consumed for combustion. Since the cracking furnace is operated under negative pressure. and the theoretical oxygen volume [Description] Structure explanation. The feed rate of the air is controlled based on the theoretical oxygen volume. air is sucked into it. Principle & Mechanism Fig. 1 Relation between the molecular weight and calorific value of the fuel gas. and its flue gas is used as combustion air for the cracking furnace. This improvement for energy saving is to control the excess air ratio using an oxygen analyzer mounted to each cracking furnace. 811 173 . [References] [Inquiry] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1992. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig.CN-OM-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Control of excess air ratio at cracking furnace in naphtha cracking process [Energy Source] Fuel [Practical Use] 1991 At this plant. 1) [Control of excess air ratio] The theoretical oxygen volume necessary for combustion is computed based on the molecular weight and feed rate of the fuel.6 years Adopted at some sites. 2 Flow chart for using gas turbine flue gas as combustion air Table 1 Energy saving effect by controlling excess air ratio of cracking furnace Energy saving effects Reduction in energy consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent Improvement effect 41.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) p.2 x 109 kcal/y 4. Shape. a gas turbine generator was introduced. [Relation between fuel gas flow rate and theoretical oxygen volume] (Refer to Fig.

This improvement is to separately feed the bottom liquid of the condensate stripper to a lower step of the depropanizing column. 1. 1 Temperature profile of depropanizing column Fig. 765 [References] 174 . and reducing steam consumption at the reboiler of the depropanizing column.8 t/h) 1. 2) The temperature profile in the depropanizing column is as shown in Fig.600 t/y (2. cooling water supply to the cooler in the feed line of the bottom liquid of the de-ethanizing column is stopped.4 % 10 kg/cm2 Pump up Depropanizing column 10. the bottom liquid of the de-ethanizing column and the condensate stripper were jointly fed to No. After the improvement. Structure explanation. 3) At the same time. 19 step of the depropanizing column. the bottom liquid of the condensate stripper is fed to the lower No.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) technology p.4 % 49. 2 Feed system to depropanizing column Energy saving effects Table 2 Energy saving effect by changing feed step to depropanizing column Improvement effect Reduction in energy consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 19.5 kg/cm2 [Description] 1) Conventionally.598 kL/y Remark (Operating hours: 7.0 % 8.000 h/y) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 96 million yen Improvement effect: 32 million yen/year Investment payback: 3 years [Inquiry] Many sites adopting similar “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1979.CN-OM-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Change of feed step for depropanizing column in naphtha cracking process [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1978 Conventionally the bottom liquid of the de-ethanizing column and the bottom liquid of the condensate stripper in the naphtha cracking process were joined and fed to the depropanizing column via the cooler. 34 step. Table 1 Main components of bottom liquid of de-ethanizing column and condensate stripper Principle & Mechanism De-ethanizing column Main components Operating pressure Transfer method C3 C4 C5 77. the steam consumption by the reboiler of the depropanizing column is reduced.2 % 22. thus eliminating the use of cooling water for the cooler.6 % 27 kg/cm2 Pressure transfer Condensate stripper 23.6 % 0. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. Shape. Thus.

60 to 0. the suction pressure of the refrigerator was changed from 0. Before Improvement Improved section Fig.000 h/y 425 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 45 million yen Improvement effect: 10 million yen/year Investment payback: 4. System diagram [Description of Improvement] Improved section Fig. 1 Pressure control method of ethylene rectification column 1) A function to control the suction pressure of the refrigerator was added to the system to control the pressure of the ethylene rectification column within the framework of the decentralized control system (DCS). 2 Suction pressure control method of propylene refrigerator Table 1 Energy saving effect of pressure control of ethylene rectification column Energy saving effects Reduction effect Reduction in refrigerator power Reduction in crude oil equivalent Reduced by 250 kWh/h Remark Operation hours of 7. and the power of the propylene refrigerator was reduced by 250 kW.CN-OM-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Pressure control of ethylene rectification column by suction pressure of propylene refrigerator in naphtha cracking process [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1991 This improvement is to reduce the refrigerator power by improving the control method of the propylene refrigerator of the top condenser of the ethylene rectification column. 2) As a result.5 years [References] [Inquiry] Many sites adopting similar “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1988.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / technology p. 2) On the other hand.68 Shape. This improvement was made at the time of introducing a decentralized control system (DCS) to the naphtha cracking plant. 1) 1) Before the improvement. 1173 ECCJ (JIEC) 175 . and/or kg/cm2G. the pressure of the ethylene rectification column was controlled by the liquid level of refrigerant propylene in the top condenser. [Pressure control method of ethylene rectification column] (Refer to Fig. Thus the heat transfer area of the condenser Structure is now utilizd to the maximum degree. explanation. the suction pressure of the propylene refrigerator was controlled by the revolution speed of the compressor.

0 Lower burner section: O2 Upper burner section: O2 1.0 explanation.CN-OM-4 [Industry Classification] Chemical : Naphtha Cracking [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Naphtha cracking process Energy saving in ethylene cracker [Energy Source] Fuel (gas) [Practical Use] 1979 Operation technology on uniform and low oxygen combustion of fuel gas for heating the ethylene cracker.2 ~ 0.Primary air valve opening for burner is adjusted. the following-listed effects appeared. [References] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1981. Energy saving (3)Fuel consumption is reduced as follows. and exhaust gas O2 concentration of 1 to 3% (at exit of convection zone). For the case of individual burners. 105.Reduction by 30 Nm3/h effects Before improvement 2190 Nm3/h After improvement 2160 Nm3/h Reduction 30 Nm3/h . and/or .0 ~ 0.2 ~ 1. . and a convection zone at upper part (for preheating raw material and steam). thus the side walls function as the radiation plane.8 years This is the uniform O2 content combustion technology in the case that many burners are arranged in a single furnace.Draft is adjusted to 3 to 3. (3) Actions Shape.3 (2)Difference in O2 content exists in vertical direction. Those control variables are checked by sampling from a single point over the whole furnace. and has a radiation zone at lower part provided with many burners (112 units) of short-flame radiation type at lower side walls. Principle & Mechanism Ethylene cracker heats raw material naphtha to temperatures of from 800 to 850˚C to decompose into ethylene (thermal cracking).5 ~ 1. ECCJ [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) 176 . Many burners are arranged on the side walls. “Low O2 Burners”. (2)Vertical distribution of O2 content is also improved as shown in the right figure. .0 ~ 5.Effect as amount: about 7 million yen (as 33 yen/Nm3) Improved section [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 20 million yen Improvement effect: 7 million yen/year Investment payback: 2.7 Left side: O2 [Description] Right side: O2 0.7 Structure Exit of convection zone: O2 1. somewhat stronger degree. The cracker is an upright type with long depth. also the sec ondary air valve is kept slightly open. Observation of distribution of O2 content in vertical and horizontal directions in the furnace revealed the following. (1)Lateral O2 content distribution is not uniform. Through the above-described improvement (actions).5. 7.For the third row and upper burners. The current combustion control values are: intrafurnace pressure at top of the radiation zone to a reduced pressure by 3 mm H2O.” p. refer to the Energy Saving Handbook. . (1)Horizontal distribution of O2 content becomes almost uniform.Primary air valve for each of lowermost row of burnSystem ers is opened to a minimum necessary degree to prevent burning. The fuel consumption for heating is 2. 1. Equipment Common to All Industries. diagram .190 Nm3/h per furnace.

6. 2) The system comprises an evaporator. No. The waste heat of the top vapor is dissipated from the air-fin cooler.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) P. [Balance of waste energy by form] Before Improvement Fig. 2) 1) Through studying the use of a heat pump for generating a high-temperature heat source and the Ranking cycle for recovering the power. This improvement is to recover this waste heat. a steam turbine.500 .250 MWh/y 10.CB-ME-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Energy Conservation Directory Recovery of top vapor heat of ortho-xylene separation column in aromatics production process [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1979 The top condenser of the ortho-xylene separating column in the aromatics production process is of an aircooling type. and a generator. power generation by a low-pressure steam turbine was adopted. The dissipated heat is as large as 46. a feed-water heater.500 kW 41. [Description of Improvement] Structure explanation.024 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 720 million yen Improvement effect: 700 million yen/year (including the stoppage of one pump) Investment payback: 1 year [Inquiry] “Energy Saving Journal (Vol. a condensate pump.000 kcal/h and the temperature is 153˚C.000. 1 Waste energy balance at ortho-xylene separation column [Outline of heat recovery system] (Refer to Fig.500 kW 7. Shape. a condenser.500 h/y Energy saving effects Average power generation capacity Total power generation Reduction in crude oil equivalent 5. 13. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. 2 Flow chart of waste-heat-recovery generator for ortho-xylene separation column Table 1 Energy saving effect by heat-recovery generator Recovered energy Remark 4. 1983). 35. 105 [References] 177 .

At the same time. [Before improvement] [Description] Fig.2million yen/year Investment payback: 8. the heat of flue gas is utilized to generate steam.8%.CB-ME-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Waste heat recovery from heating furnace flue gas in BTX production [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1983 Outline This process carries out secondary hydrogenation purification of cracked gasoline generated as a by-product in an ethylene plant.” p. waste heat is recovered with a significant energy saving effect. 1181 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) 178 . 2 Flow chart of steam generation by recovered flue gas heat of heating furnace (recycle heater) Table 1 Energy saving effect by steam generation by heating-furnace flue gas Improvement effect Total 1.6 years [References] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1984.21 x 106 kcal/h 1. thus improving its thermal efficiency from 74 to 89.166 kL/y Energy saving effects Reduction in steam consumption Steam generation by recovered heat Reduction in crude oil equivalent 0. Thus. The heating furnace was modified from natural draft type to forced draft type.100 kL/y (in fuel oil C equivalent) 1. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. The heating furnace (recycle heater) heats the unreacted hydrogen from 340 to 500˚C.51 t/h [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 200 million yen Improvement effect: 23. 1 Flow chart of cracked-gasoline secondary hydrogenation process Structure explanation. [After improvement] Shape.

978 kL/y Remark (Fuel oil C basis) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 240 million yen Improvement effect: 240 million yen/year Investment payback: 1 year [References] [Inquiry] “Energy Saving Journal (Vol. 3) Specification of the facility Condensing turbine: 3-stage impulse-type turbine with adiabatic efficiency of 72% Generator capacity: 6. Power balance is maintained by adjusting the condensing power generation. steam consumption in the processes was significantly reduced. 1 System flow chart of steam-turbine power generation using top vapor of distillation column Table 2 Energy saving effect Energy saving effects Improvement effect Recovered energy in heavy oil equivalent Reduction in crude oil equivalent 11.Low-pressure vapor generation . 45 x 106 kcal/h) of the distillation column for separating ortho-xylene from mixed xylene in the xylene production process was formerly cooled by an air-fin cooler (AFC). 1980). and the condensing power generation nearly reached the upper limit. The system comprises an evaporator generating low-pressure steam (1.72 kg/cm2G) in parallel with the existing AFC. and the operation of one of the boilers was stopped. electricity generation) Economy OK OK Some OK Prior adoptions Many A few None Many Outline Improvement Study [Description] Structure explanation. 32. No. 12.Turbine drive (power. thus the steam to be generated by the old in-house power generator was reduced. 2) The 4th case among those studied was adopted to recover waste heat. a new condensing turbine was installed to recover power from the process. . Shape. a condensing turbine power generator.300 kL/y 11. On the other hand.Case study for utilizing top vapor waste heat of distillation column (Table 1) Type 1 Absorption refrigeration 2 Low-pressure steam recompression 3 Heat pump 4 Low-pressure steam turbine Waste heat recovery method Top vapor . However. Steam for production processes is the bleed from the turbine.Low-pressure steam generation .” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) P.600 kW 4) System flow (Refer to Fig.CB-ME-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory [Energy Source] Steam turbine power generation using waste heat of Electricity [Technology Classification] distillation column top vapor in BTX production process [Practical Use] 1980 At this plant. power is generated in-house using a bleeding-condensing turbine. 1) Improved section Fig. 43 179 . and/or System diagram 1) The top vapor (153˚C.Low-pressure steam generation . along with the progress in energy saving.Turbine drive (power.Cold water generation Top vapor . energy of distillation column top vapor of the xylene production process was not recovered. and a feed-water heater. electricity generation) Top vapor . Therefore.(Compression) Medium-pressure steam generation Top vapor .

Rotary[Description type air preheaters are installed.975 kL/y 6 Note*: Heating furnace operating hours: 7. conventional burners were changed Improvement] to low-NOx burners which assure stable combustion even under a low excess-air ratio.5 x 10 kcal/h (0. The low-NOx burner type: Voltmetric Structure burner of sonic atomizing type explanation. 1 Combustion system of heating furnaces (before improvement) 1) The natural draft system was modified to a system using forced draft fans (FDFs) and induced draft fans (IDFs).19 m3N/h 7. and their thermal efficiencies were as low as 70 to 75%. their flue gas temperatures were as high as 400 to 500˚C.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) p. This improvement achieved the thermal efficiency of 88% by lowering the flue gas temperature through installing preheaters for combustion air and employing mechanical draft.29 m3N/h 10.000 h/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Many sites adopting similar technology [References] [Inquiry] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1979. 3) The result of the improvement is shown in Table 1.1 m3N/h After improvement Effect Reduction by 0. All of them are of a horizontal natural draft type.94 kl/h Reduction by 48% Reduction by 32% Improved section Fig.CB-ME-4 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Combustion air preheating using heating furnace flue gas in BTX production process [Energy Source] Fuel [Practical Use] 1977 Outline This plant has three heavy-oil/gas fired reboilers for the distillation column and one gas fired furnace for the reaction-system charge heater. Accordingly. of 2) As a measures to suppress NOx emissions.7 year 180 .94 kL/h) 6. 2 Flow chart of improvement by combustion air preheating using heating furnace flue gas Table 2 Energy saving effect by combustion air preheating Improvement effect Remark (in fuel oil C equivalent) Energy saving effects Recovered energy Reduction in crude oil equivalent * 8. 1263 Investment amount: 100 million yen Improvement effect: 140 million yen/year Investment payback: 0. and/or System diagram Table 1 Energy saving and environmental improvement data Before improvement Energy saving effect SOx emissions NOx emissions 2. Before Improvement Fig.4 m3N/h 1. Shape.

However. Water [Practical Use] 1984 Outline At this plant. 3) As a result. A survey of the current operation showed that the sulfur concentration in feed naphtha was in a range of 1/4 to 1/ 14 of the designed value. 2) The return water from V301. which was a cause of poor water quality. and/or System diagram Fig. This change reduced the pure water feed rate. Before Improvement [Description of Improvement] Structure explanation. and reduce the steam rate to the reboiler of the amine regeneration column. V302. the circulation rate of amine as the absorbent of hydrogen sulfide was maintained at the excessive design level. eliminating a significant amount of unnecessary energy input. [Operating condition] .The design value of the sulfur concentration in feed naphtha : 1.400 ppm Current operation data: 100 ~ 350 ppm . 1) 1) The circulation rates of amine at V301. Shape.200 t/y 342 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 10 million yen Improvement effect: 7 million yen/year Investment payback: 1.The circulation rate of amine (monomethanolamine) used to absorb hydrogen sulfide was at the design level.5 years [References] [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Many sites adopting similar “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1985. was re-routed so as to be directly fed to V308. 1 Flow chart of amine desulfurization process Table 1 Energy saving effect by reducing amine circulation rate Improved section Improvement effect Remark Energy saving effects Reduction in steam consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 4. 1001 technology 181 . sulfur-bearing gas generated as a by-product of BTX production by reforming is desulfurized. [Description of the process flow] (Refer to Fig. This improvement is to reduce the circulation rate of amine. steam for the reboilers of V304 and V108 was reduced.CB-OM-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Energy Conservation Directory Change of washing system in amine desulfurization process for BTX production [Energy Source] Fuel (steam). and V303 were adjusted to optimal values according to the respective feed gas flow rate of each column.” p.

2) 1) By increasing the heat transfer area of the heat exchanger for the top vapor of the crude benzene column by three fold. Shape. 2 Improved flow for reboiler heating by top-vapor waste heat of distillation columns Table 1 Energy saving effect by waste heat recovery Energy saving effects Improvement effect Reduction in steam consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 11. This improvement is to utilize heat of condensation of top vapor of the distillation column. 371 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Many sites adopting similar technology 182 . Improved section Fig. a circulation pump for the reboiler liquid of the pure benzene column and a drain heat exchanger are newly installed. 2) To do this. heat held by condensate of steam used in the reboiler. the heat of condensation of the top vapor of the crude toluene column and the heat held by the condensate of reboiler steam are utilized as the heat source of the reboiler of the pure benzene column. and xylene from light oil generated as a by-product of coke production. and/or System diagram [Flow after improvement] (Refer to Fig. In addition.” p. 1 Flow chart of BTX production around distillation columns (before improvement) [Description of Improvement] Structure explanation. toluene.860 t/y 967 kL/y Remark [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 10 million yen Improvement effect: 2 million yen/year Investment payback: 5 years [References] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1977.CB-OM-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Reboiler heating by waste heat of top vapor of distillation column in BTX production process [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1976 This BTX production plant produces benzene. Before Improvement Fig. the heat of condensation of the top vapor is utilized for preheating the feed crude light oil.

To enlarge the tray spacing (reduction of number of stages).0 kgf/cm2G with heating steam of 5.CB-OM-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Outline Energy Conservation Directory Waste heat recovery from heating furnace flue gas in BTX production [Energy Source] Fuel (general) (steam) [Practical Use] 1979 A unit to strip (separate) H2S dissolved in oil after hydrogenation of sulfur compounds (mainly thiophene) in a benzene derivative production process. To enlarge the cross-sectional area of the downcomer and the gap between the downcomer and the inlet weir. •The cross-sectional area of the downcomer at each stage shall be sufficiently large in relation to the amount of liquid flowing down in the column. Improvements to be made on a conventional stripper are. •The inlet weir was distanced from the downcomer by 18 mm. The safe operation range of the stripper is an area surrounded by the blowing (upperlimit).1 million yen/year Investment payback: 2 years Energy saving effects [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] [References] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1981. Thus. This unit is operated at 3. •The gap between the bottom of the downcomer and the tray. and the stripping pressure are the following.0 Effect 125 (accounting for ¥ 7. the unit enables to reduce steam consumption and steam pressure. 1. 4. 3. the steam pressure. The requirements for modification are the following two items.5 After modification 535 5. 1. the steam consumption. At a capacity of 300 t/d. 4. (Before modification) (After modification) Principle & Mechanism [Description] Structure explanation. and the gap betweenthe downcomer and the inlet weir shall be adequate. the treatment capacity. 2. and/or System diagram Improved section Modifications •The downcomer length was shortened by 17 mm. pulsating (lower limit).100. and the pressure drop shall not be excessively high. that is. and flooding. Configurations of strippers before and after the modification are shown below.2 3.000 per year including the benefit of lowered steam pressure) Investment amount: 15 million yen Improvement effect: 7. The operating pressure in a conventional system is 7.” Firs volume [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) 183 . To change the tray to a low pressure-loss type (bubble cap tray to perforated tray). Steam consumption Steam pressure Stripping pressure (kg/h) (kgf/cm2G) (kgf/cm2G) Before modification 660 10 7.2 kgf/cm2G. The unit is a multi-stage deaerator to remove H2S by heating the oil with steam. Shape. 3. •The inlet weir was raised by 2 mm due to the fabrication convenience. 2.5 kgf/cm2G with heating steam of 10 kgf/cm2G.

AC-2 is added to control the benzene concentration in the bottom liquid at a constant level. which raised problems in quality. 1)The quantity of benzene (FC-7) in the feed is determined using the feed analyzer (GC-1) and the flow meter (GC-1). (2)The result is the stabilized dispersion of toluene concentration. [Flow after improvement] Refer to Fig.” p. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. Before Improvement [Description of Improvement] Structure explanation. and the adoption of reflux ratio control of distillation column under the on-line control. 2)Instead of the control of temperature inside of the distillation column. thus controlling the quantity of crude benzene (FC-1).CB-OM-4 [Industry Classification] Chemical : BTX [Technology Classification] Operation & Management Energy Conservation Directory Control of reflux ratio of distillation column using on-line analyzer [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1976 Outline Since the operation control of the benzene distillation column in this plant was done by analog instruments. 793 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Many sites adopting similar technology 184 . and the control loop is changed to Fig. the internal reflux ratio control (RC1) is adopted. 1. changes in feed rate and composition varied the toluene concentration in the product benzene. 1 (1)The GC analysis values of feed are entered to the decentralized control system via an advanced control system (ACS). thus attains the reduction of steam consumption in reboiler. 3)To the superior group of the temperature inside of the column TC-1. the reduction in reflux ratio. The operation is under a condition of excess value of reflux ratio of distillation column aiming to prevent the toluene content in benzene from largely fluctuate owing to the changes of benzene concentration resulted from fluctuation of feed rate of crude benzene to the benzene distillation column caused by upstream influence (disturbance) or from fluctuation of composition of feed. and the reduction in steam consumption in the reboiler. (20%) Effect Energy saving effects Toluene content in benzene Reduction of steam unit requirement Reduction of energy (crude oil basis) 130±50 ppm 508 kg/t-Bz [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 10 million yen Improvement effect: 5 million yen/year Investment payback: 1 year [References] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1991. Shape. 1 Control system of benzene distillation column after improvement Table 1 Effect of control of reflux ratio of distillation column Before improvement After improvement 180±10 ppm 470 kg/t-Bz Reduction by 101 kg/t-Bz. Furthermore. and AC-1 is employed in the superior loop to control the toluene concentration in benzene to a constant level. The improvement is the introduction of decentralized control system (DCS) to the plant. the bottom temperature of the column is set to higher level than normally expected value to prevent entering benzene into the residue.

42.Flow diagram of heat pump drying process Principle & Mechanism Improved section [Improved heat pump drying system] (Fig. 4. The system is a case of energy saving as well as improving the product quality by switching the conventional steam heat source hot air drying method to the heat pump method.” ECCJ Version [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) . [Description] Structure explanation.Closed system of heat energy employs recycle of heat not to generate waste heat. Shape.CG-PE-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Gelatin drying system using heat pump in pharmaceutical production line [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1980s ~ Outline Gelatin which is widely used in photograph films. No. drugs. and/or System diagram Improved section Energy saving effects [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Adopted at many sites. 1990). . An actual plant result: Conventional method: 52 million yen/year Heat pump method: 26 million yen/year Investment amount: 80 million yen Improvement effect: 26 million yen/year Investment payback: 3 years 185 . and foods is an extremely hygroscopic material. 4) .Flow diagram of steam heating drying process .Energy cost is reduced by 50%. and the drying of gelatin consumes large quantity of energy. [References] “Energy Saving Journal (Vol.

atomizing-air volume. 2 Relation among fuel types. When planning in-house power generation for peak power demand in the plant. 1) [Relation among fuel types. 3 Flow chart of direct utilization of gas turbine flue gas for drier Energy saving Gas-turbine energy efficiency: power generation (about 20%). and/or System diagram Detergent Improved section Fig. Fuel Powder detergent drier utilizing turbine flue gas [Practical Use] 1990 Outline This improvement significantly reduced fuel consumption by a heating furnace in a powder-detergent production line. The recovered heat is used as heat sources for driers and other facilities for producing powder detergents for clothing. total 95% (Refer to Fig. [References] “Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1989. and dust generation] (Refer to Fig. 2) When planning to use flue gas directly. Shape.CG-PE-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General [Technology Classification] Production Equipment Energy Conservation Directory [Energy Source] Electricity. 1 Energy balance of gas turbine Fig. its effect on the product quality needs to be checked. atomizing-air volume.” p.1273 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Investment amount: 30 million yen Improvement effect: 10 million yen/year Investment payback: 3 years 186 . [Energy balance of gas turbine generator] (Refer to Fig. 1) effects [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Some sites adopting similar technology. Principle & Mechanism Fig. and dust generation [Description] [Gas-turbine specification] Gas-turbine generator: 750 kW. single-axis type Flue-gas temperature: 300-500˚C Structure explanation. a power generation system in which all the gas discharged from the gas turbine is recovered for reuse was adopted. waste heat recovery (about 75%). simple open cycle.

000 kWh/y 277 kL/y Reduction of 636 kL/y (Operating hours: 7.08). 1. and utilized to heat the bottom liquid of the column.141. is recompressed by a screw compressor (VRC. The heat of condensation of top vapor of the distillation column.8 million yen/year Investment payback: 4 years 187 . 78.15˚C.” P. 1 Heat recovery system by steam recompression using heat pump at alcohol distillation column Table 1 Energy saving effect by heat pump VRC Conventional system Heat pump VRC Reduction effect Energy saving effects Steam consumption Power consumption Annual energy consumption Consumption in crude oil equivalent 1.CG-ME-1 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Ethanol recovery unit using steam recompression heat pump at alcohol distillation column [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1992 Outline This improvement is to utilize a high-temperature heat pump for recovering waste heat of the alcohol distillation column. 49 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Investment amount: 52 million yen Improvement effect: 12. and the steam (73˚C. [Description] Structure explanation.000 h/y) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Buyo Gas Corporation [References] “OHM (No. MRC). 2) Since the facility gives a nearly zero alcohol concentration at the bottom of the column. the discharged steam can be directly injected. and no reboiler is necessary. The steam is heated to 816 mmHg (saturation temperature of 102˚C) using a screw compressor (compression ratio of 3.600 kg/h 163 kWh 11.6 wt. which was formerly wasted into cooling water. 1988). the vapor having a composition near to that of azeotrope (ethanol: 95. 6. 760 mmHg) is taken out from the column top.%. 265.200 t/y 913 kL/y 1. Shape. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig.3 mmHg) is generated by the condenser/evaporator. [Example of ethanol recovery from aqueous ethanol solution] 1) As shown in Fig.

2) It was decided that only the waste water from the distillation system is to be processed by the reverse osmosis membrane (RO membrane) after preliminary treatment. As the property of waste water from each system differs. The treated liquid can be reused as a process water as its phenol content was reduced.. and polymers of these. the volume of concentrated liquid to be incinerated was reduced to about one fourth.000 Black-brown Fig. As a result.000 500 Brown Treated liquid 94 200 50 Transparent Concentrated liquid 31 27. and 72 t/ d from other systems. acetone. 1 Incineration of waste water of phenol plant [Description of Improvement] [Flow of reverse osmosis membrane treatment] (Refer to Fig.385 kL/y Remark (Fuel oil C) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks Investment amount: 120 million yen Improvement effect: 26 million yen/year Investment payback: 4.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / nology p.6 years [Example sites] [References] [Inquiry] Some sites adopting similar tech. 2) 1) Waste water to be treated is 228 t/d from the oxidizer system. and/or System diagram Item Water throughput (t/d) COD (ppm) Phenol (ppm) Color Feed liquid 125 7. Description of Process Fig. 3) For reference.“Collection of Energy Conservation Cases 1987. several kinds of membranes were tested. Fuel consumed to treat the waste water accounts for about one third of the total consumption of fuel in the plant. This improvement is to reduce this fuel consumption. and all of the waste water is incinerated by incinerators. 125 t/d from the distillation system.400 2. 1685 ECCJ (JIEC) 188 . Table 1 Observed data of RO-membrane treatment of waste water from distillation system Structure explanation. Table 1 shows the observed data of RO-membrane treatment of waste water from the distillation system. 2 Flow chart of RO-membrane treatment of waste water from distillation system Table 2 Energy saving effect by RO membrane Improved section Energy saving effects Improvement effect Reduction of auxiliary-fuel consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 1.307 kL/y 1.CG-ME-2 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Reduction of waste water to be incinerated using reverse osmosis membrane in phenol production process [Energy Source] Fuel [Practical Use] 1986 Outline Since the waste water generated in a phenol production plant contains phenol. the biological treatment is difficult. Shape.

000 kWh/Y 3. unmanned operation was not possible.CG-ME-3 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Outline Before Improvement Energy Conservation Directory Improvement of oxygen enrichment process for bulk pharmaceutical production [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] Around 1994 In a conventional process for producing pharmaceuticals. the oxygen enrichment process adopted a vacuum concentrator using a steam ejector. and they consumed a large amount of energy. 1) Instantaneous power failures or equipment troubles increased the liquid temperature. and evacuating. In addition.6 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 61 million yen Improvement effect: 32.000 kWh/Y Reduction of energy 60 kW 15. Conventional vacuum concentration using steam for oxygen enrichment had following problems.000 kWh/Y After improvement 15 kW 3. and generated a large amount of poor-quality products. cooling. and/or System diagram Ultra-filtration membrane system [After improvement] Improved section Table 1 Comparison of energy saving effect and environmental improvement Energy saving effects Before improvement Facility capacity Reduction in power consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 75 kW 18. Evacuation-concentration system [Before improvement] [Description of Improvement] Structure explanation. Shape.7 million yen/year Investment payback: 1. This improvement saved significant energy by switching the vacuum concentrator to a membrane (ultra-filtration membrane) concentrator. 2) It required many types of equipment for the purposes such as heating.9 years [References] “Collection of Improvement Cases at Excellent Energy Management Plants (1995)” [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Tokyo Tanabe’s Ashikaga Plant 189 .

600 kWh/h 3) Power generation system (Refer to Fig. 2) Structure explanation.The turbine rotor shall be made of SUS materials. This improvement significantly saved energy by recovering the energy of the flue gas. 31 190 .6 [Description] 1) The flue gas has the energy of 36. 2) Gas expander specification Expansion turbine: three-stage impulse-type (with heaters at inlet and intermediate stage) Generator : induction generator Output : 2. using a gas expander (expansion turbine). 32. [Selection of energy recovery system] Table 1 Selection of a system to recover energy from flue gas Principle & Mechanism Energy recovery system Gas expander + Steam (1) c ompressor as expander + Turbo (2) G compressor (3) Gas expander + Small power generator Recoverable energy 5kg/cm2G steam 13. 1980). 2. a large amount of non-reactive nitrogen contained in the air is emitted to the atmosphere. 2 Power generation system by gas expander (expansion turbine) Table 1 Energy saving effect by gas expander Energy saving effects Improvement effect Power generation Increase of steam consumption Reduction in crude oil equivalent 20.CG-ME-4 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Power generation by turbo-expander in telephthalic acid production process [Energy Source] Electricity [Practical Use] 1992 Outline In the feed-oxidizing reaction process for telephthalic-acid production.445 kL/y Remark (2.000 t/y 2. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. [References] [Inquiry] “Energy Saving Journal (Vol. which had formerly been dissipated to the atmosphere.6 years .800 Mcal/y 32.” Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) P.1 2.1 1.740kW Steam: 3. No.000 m3/h and the pressure of 20 kg/cm2G.0t/h Merit (million yen/year) 100 136 176 Investment (million yen) 450 290 280 Invesment effect (Investment/Effect) 4. The temperature of the emitted flue gas varies with seasons: about 20˚C in winter and about 60˚C in summer.600 kW) (4 t/h) [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 280 million yen Improvement effect: 170 million yen/year Investment payback: 1. Shape.7t/h Electricity: 2.600kW Steam: 4.8t/h Electricity: 1.

120˚ C Cooling water Not necessary 160 or less Necessary [Description] 1) A Class-2 absorption-type heat pump is installed in parallel with the existing cooler. 15 [Inquiry] Japan Chemical Industry Association / ECCJ (JIEC) Many sites adopting similar technology 191 . steam is introduced to the separator to heat and separate the solvent from the feed.3 x 106 kcal/h. and reuse the steam at the separator. This improvement for energy saving is to recover the waste heat in a form of hot water using a heat pump. 1 Flow chart of Class-1 absorption-type heat pump Fig. 2 Flow chart of Class-2 absorption-type heat pump applied to solvent separation process Table 2 Energy saving effect by waste heat recovery using heat pump Energy saving effects Improvement effect Reduction in steam consumption Increase in power consumption * Reduction in crude oil equivalent 24.9 years [References] “Energy Saving Journal (Vol.900 kL/y Remark Total (in heavy oil equivalent) 1. 1984). No. The temperature of vapor leaving the separator was about 90˚C.” P. from which steam (127˚C) is generated in the flash tank.000 t/y 234 x 103 kWh/y 1. Heat of condensation at the cooler is 4. Structure explanation. The absorption heat pumps are classified into Class 1 and Class 2 as shown in Table 1 by the application method of waste heat.CG-ME-5 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General [Technology Classification] Machinery & Equipment Energy Conservation Directory Waste heat recovery from solvent separator vapor using absorption heat pump in butadiene production process [Energy Source] Fuel (steam) [Practical Use] 1981 Outline In this process. Table 1 Classification and features of heat pumps Principle & Mechanism Driving power Class 1 (cycle) Class 2 (cycle) Steam (5 to 10 kg/cm2G) or fuel Waste heat (60 or more) Low-temperature heat source Waste heat. The vapor condensed in the heat pump is separated into solvent and water in the drain tank. The separated water is reused as make-up hot water for the heat pump. vaporize it in a flash tank. and this heat of condensation was wasted into the cooling water at the cooler. 36. The generated steam is supplied to the solvent separator.792 kL/y [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Investment amount: 150 million yen Improvement effect: 38 million yen/year Investment payback: 3. 7. 2) The absorption heat pump recovers the waste heat of the cooler in a form of hot water (133˚C). Shape. and/or System diagram Improved section Fig. environment Waste heat (60 or more) Usable heat About 170% of the driving power in thermal equivalent Less than 50% of the waste heat used Generated heat temperature range 80 .

Pd. 1986. 3) The operating condition is space velocity of 20. Japan Chemical Industry Association / "Energy Conservation Setsubi Souran. 192 . effective use of oxidization heat.000 to 40. 2) The catalyst effect enhances oxidization at a low temperature level (150 to 350˚C depending on the type of gas). foam.CG-ME-6 [Industry Classification] Chemical : General Energy Conservation Directory Low temperature catalyst combustor [Energy Source] Fuel (general) [Practical Use] [Technology Classification] 1970s Machinery & Equipment 1) A catalyst to oxidize waste gas containing organic matters.3 years Deodorizing and removal of harmful substances from waste gas of a chemical plant. or Rh. the fuel cost is decreased to a level of 30 to 35%. [References] [Inquiry] The Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. 3) Low temperature combustion suppresses the thermal NOx generation Principle & Mechanism 1) The supporting metals are Pt. oxidization cleaning of unburnt gas and tar in an incinerator. [Description] Structure explanation. Japan. ECCJ (JIEC) The Energy Conservation Center. Shape." P245. 2) Oxidization decomposition allows to apply the catalyst for deodorizing. and catalyst bed height of 15 to 25 cm. or fiber. 2) Following is an example of a catalyst system. Outline and cleaning of waste gas. and/or System diagram Substance Operating temperature (˚C) Concentration before treatment (ppm) Concentration after treatment (ppm) Improved section Energy saving effects [Economics] Equipment cost Remarks [Example sites] Compared with a direct heating (high temperature oxidization) waste gas treatment facility. honeycomb.000 l/h. Investment amount: 50 million yen Improvement effect: 15 million yen/year Investment payback: 3. tar generated in a furnace and hydrocarbons at a low temperature of 350˚C or below. 1) The catalyst is used in a shape of grain. etc. depending on the operating condition.

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