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To learn how to tune the ASSET Propagation Models
• Modeling M d li
• Model Calibration Process • Model Calibration • Typical Results • Model Validation • Recommendations
What is Modeling?
• The Purpose of a Model • Model M d lC Criteria it i • Propagation Models
The Purpose of a Model
• Characterise the topology with network limits – identification of operating range for
• Minimise Standard Deviation Error. • Provide P id zero mean error • Determine model parameters in accordance to realistic propagation effects existing
within proposed regions. regions
• Make sure calibrated model corresponds well with the collected data – data is
The Purpose of a Model
▪ ▪ ▪
To predict the receiving signal strength from a Base Station (BTS) To help with the Radio Plan without the need for an individual CW measurement verification Most steps in the planning of a network are highly dependent on the accuracy of the model. e.g.
▪ ▪ ▪ ▪
C Coverage Traffic Analysis Frequency Planning Parameter Analysis
. ▪ Have mean error of zero.Model Criteria ▪ Accurate close to and far from the site (DISTANCE INDEPENDENT) (TERRAIN INDEPENDENT) ▪ Accurate in hilly as well as flat areas ▪ Accurate in Urban as well as in open areas (CLUTTER INDEPENDENT) ▪ Accurate for varying antenna heights (ANTENNA INDEPENDENT) (AREA INDEPENDENT) ▪ Applicable in different areas with similar characteristics ▪ Have an overall RMS error of between 6 and 8 dB.
Okumura-Hata Model • Okumura conducted propagation tests for landmobile radio service in Japan. • It requires some correction factors and d . • Curves were produced which allowed the estimation of field strength at different distances from the transmitter • Hata H t th then analysed l d Okumura’s Ok ’ work k presented it in a mathematical formula.
Okumura-Hata in Asset Asset uses slightly modified Okumura-Hata: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Ploss =K1 + K2*log(d) + K3*Hms + K4*log(Hms) + K5*log(Heff) + K6*log(Heff)*log(d) + K7*Ldiff + Lclutter d is distance in km between Tx antenna and mobile station Hms is mobile station height Heff is effective antenna height in metres Ldiff is a loss due to diffraction Lclutter is a clutter loss ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Asset has 4 algorithms g for calculating g effective antenna height g Absolute Average Relative Slope ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Asset has 4 algorithms for calculating diffraction Epstein Peterson Epstein-Peterson Bullington Deygout .
5m) these two terms in the equation become constants. 1. Therefore. data All K parameters must keep the same polarity as in the original Okumura Hata model ▫ K1.g. K2. K5. Since the MS height is normally fixed (e. p These factors correspond p to a constant offset ( (in ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ dBm) and a multiplying factor for the log of the distance between the base station and mobile. K3 and K4 relate to the mobile height and how it affects the path loss.82 and K6=-6. K7 (Diffraction Parameter) Diffraction effects occur only where there is no line of sight (LOS) from the site to the mobile. K6 <0 Above step can be easily fulfil by determining the delta range under Auto tune window . These values are difficult to calibrate without gathering data at a wide variety of base station heights. and how this affects the path loss. If sufficient data has been gathered then these can be calibrated (one at a time) by an iterative process of incremental changes and reanalysis until the standard deviation of the error is minimized.K parameters ▪ K1 and K2 Intercept p and Slope.55. K7 >0 0 ▫ K3. K5 and K6 are very important parameters since they relate to the effective base station antenna height. The default Hata values are K5=-13. in order to determine the K7 parameter the survey data needs to be filtered to exclude the LOS data. They only require calibration if you employ a variable mobile height.
Models are generally based on the principle that the level (measured in dB) falls in a linear fashion with distance from the transmitter.General Principles. At some distance from the transmitter the level is set to a fixed value. “Local” offsets may be applied to the model at different points to reflect the effects of different clutter types at different points along the path or the effects of a diffracted path i. An offset may be applied for effective base station antenna height or mobile effective antenna height all along the path. Intercept p Offsets Caused By Clutter etc. value This takes the form of a “magic number” and is known as the intercept.e.. Receive e Level Slope Distance from Base Station . transmitter This is represented by a term in the model of Klog(d) where K is the slope. shadowing g by y terrain or other obstructions.
Asset improvements ▪ K1 near and k2 near are designed to overcome Okumura-Hata limitation for close distances. ▪ Advantages in improved accuracy/reduced standard deviation error and more realistic calculated predictions predictions. . ▪ Through Clutter Loss – takes into the account clutter profile along distance d from mobile station to base station.
The clutter nearest the mobile station has the highest effect. .Through Clutter Model Definition Each clutter category is given Through Clutter Loss (dB/km) on the path between transmitter and receiver. Through clutter losses are linearly weighted.
ASSET’s Propagation Models .
CW Measurements and Model Calibration Process Drive Route Definition CW Survey y Campaign Data Post Processing Data Data Validation Validation Propagation Model Requirements Identification Site Selection Calibration YES Report Pass Model? NO .
p ▪ Path Loss Intercept. ▪ Effective Antenna Height. . ▪ Clutter Values. ▪ Effective Eff ti G Gain i Of M Mobile bil Antenna.Tuning A Model. ▪ Path Loss Slope. ▪ Diffraction Loss. A t ▪ Path Clutter.
. If the line that had been drawn was the blue one instead of the red one there is obviously an error. therefore. it will come to zero. If the mean error is calculated. the RMS error must be calculated. Measure ed Level (dBm) . To test the accuracy of the line that has been drawn it is necessary to calculate the error at every measurement point and hence a mean error. In practice there would be over a thousand of these measurements. To test the slope. The diagram represents a number of signal g level measurements taken at various points within the coverage area of a cell. It is p possible to draw a straight g line through this plot that will show the underlying slope of the level/distance characteristic.Path Loss Slope. because there are both positive and negative p g errors.
The diagram shows a red line with the correct offset and a blue line with an incorrect offset. Measur red Leve el (dBm) . between the line and the actual measurements. It is now possible to mark the plot at a fixed distance from the base station and to obtain a value in dBm for the intercept point. If this is done and the mean error. This point is shown marked in green on the diagram. The slope p of the line is now fixed. measurements is calculated it is possible to place the line so that there is close to zero mean error. diagram The slope and intercept values have now been calculated and may be used in the propagation model.Path Loss Intercept. It is possible to move the line up or down on the plot.
There is also an overall clutter weighting to be assigned. The local variations in level may be due to clutter at the mobile location.Clutter Values. the model must be run and its predictions compared with the real measurements. This helps in deciding what sort of value to assign to each sort of clutter. Measur red Leve el (dBm) ) Having assigned clutter values. . The calculation of mean errors in different types of clutter and the standard deviation of errors enables these values to be fine tuned. In this slide the samples have been color coded to indicate the type of clutter present at each sample site.
▪ Drawing a Path Profile identifies diffracted paths ▪ Diffraction problems are handled as single or multiple knife edges ▪ An overall weighting factor must be found .Diffraction Loss.
The Effective earth radius is set in the propagation model parameters. Relative Method (Effective Height) The Relative method calculates the effective antenna height as follows: H eff = H b+H ob-H 0m (for H 0b > H 0m) H eff = H b (for H 0b < = H 0m) Where: H b : is the base station antenna height above ground H ob : is the ground height at the base station H 0m : is the ground height at the mobile Note: The algorithm already takes into account the affect of earth curvature.Effective Antenna Height. Here is an illustrative diagram of the Relative Method: .
located ▪ Clutter Height may be added to Terrain Height to calculate obstruction losses. . ▪ Clutter may be considered over a larger area than the point at which the mobile is located.Path Clutter Factors.
▫ Within geographic region of model Height Distribution Site Selection ▫ Spread of site heights representative of network sitesforheights within modelled region 6 ▫ Allow o measurements easu e e ts in a all c clutter utte types 5 ▫ Rooftop sites are preferred in a case test transmitter has to be 4 Fr requency mounted ▫ Ease of access 3 Frequency 2 ▫ No blocking objects in close vicinity 1 ▫ Nothing g unusual. d l Less L number b of f sites it can be b considered id d if modelled geographical area is fairly small. we are characterising g the majority j y of the network not 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 More 0 the minority -1 Height of Site ▫ Add Panoramic photographs at every 45 degree interval .Site Selection ▫ More M or 8 sites it per model.
do not drive other lake side ▫ Data in regions of terrain slope variation ariation ▫ Avoid large blocking objects as high building or long roof ▫ Long enough to ensure sufficient data is captured ▫ Check map data validity .Hata model can’t model this. cuttings etc ▫ Mix of radial and tangential roads ▫ Do not plan a map along the roads with ground height above the istance lutter oads Miscellaneous transmitter antenna.CW Drive Route Definition ▫ Must account for expected coverage propagation ▫ Must account for expected interference propagation ▫ Sufficient measurement in all local clutter types ( >1000 ) ▫ Avoid street canyons. tunnels. if site is on the one side of the lake. elevated roads. Okumura. situations ▫ Good balance between measurements taken in LOS and NLOS ▫ Do not plan a route across a big water surface.
In Vehicle.CW Measurements Spectrum p clearance ▫ During CW survey allocated test frequency shouldn’t be use for other purposes ▫ 10-15KHz bandwidth monitoring ▫ Check restrictions on test frequency TX EIRP E i Equipment t configuration fi ti ▫ Raw/Averaged data ▫ Accurate Radiated Power setting. Receive equipment attached to roof mounted . cuttings etc ▫ Distance/Time triggering Omni Antenna with Transmitter attached through feeder. tunnels tunnels. EiRP should be greater than 40dBm ▫ Use Omni antenna with minimum vertical beamwidth of 12 degrees ▫ Directional antenna can be used but in postproccessing everything beyond 3dBm should be dismissed RF Signals Driving ▫ Do not drive out of RX noise floor ▫ Avoid street canyons canyons. elevated roads roads.
t minimum 36 samples should be taken over 40λ.Lee Criteria Lee C L Criteria it i – In I order d to t eliminate li i t f fast t fading f di from f measurements. A local mean should be found for the chosen number of samples. .8λ. 50 samples should be averaged and give the local mean mean. Common practice is to take 50 samples which gives one sample every 0.Sampling .
Slow fading follows log normal distribution.Slow fading vs Fast fading ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fast fading is fading due to multipath effect. Slow fading is fading due to terrain and clutter. Fast fading is characterized by Rayleigh probability distribution therefore can’t can t be modelled by log normal distribution. Okumura-Hata is log normal distribution L L . Fast fading is superimposed onto signal envelope (slow fading) which we try to model.
Whenever possible choose distance triggering. it i Time triggering is very difficult to follow Lee criterion due to change in p drive vehicle speed.Distance triggering vs time triggering Di t Distance triggering ti i allows ll us t to easily il apply l L Lee criterion. . Averaging A i over 40 λ is i problem bl t to i implement l ti in ti time t triggering i i since i there is not constant number of samples over 40 λ caused by speed variation. Sampling in time triggering is not a problem since Lee states just minimum number of samples.
Total driving route per model In order I d for f model d lt to be b realistic. tuning can be performed with 10000 data per site. practise is to have at least 30000 data. b f in i a case of f modelling d lli small ll geographical hi l area with ith less sites. The more data the model is more realistic . Aircom p If this distance is not achievable due to limitation in drivable roads it is recommended to have more than 8 sites per model. li ti statistically t ti ti ll sufficient ffi i t number b of fd data t need to be collected. As stated A t t d before.
dat ) contains longitude. Tx antenna height. latitude (decimal degrees) and received level (dBm) ▫ Every E d data t fil file must t have h h header d fil file with ith id identical ti l name b but t with ith extension t i . If vectors are not aligned with measurements measurements.Data Post processing Depends on customer requirements: ▫ Averaged Measurements – post processing involves simple conversion into Signia format supported by Enterprise ▫ Signia data file ( .hd. Atg-transmitting antenna gain (dBi) Arg-receiving antenna gain (dBi) Crl-cable loss between receiver and receiving antenna (dB) It is important to get the projection system correctly so collected samples are lined up with the vectors in map data data. Ct-cable loss between transmitter and antenna (dB). during post process this should be adjusted. . hd ▫ Header file must have antenna type (identical name to one in Asset). ▫ It is common practice to include all gains and losses under Tx power value and leave other fields relevant to gain/losses in the header blank. coordinates. Tx power. Therefore in a Tx field usually is put: Tx – Ct +Atg –Arg+Crl where Tx-Tx power(dBm).
se Asset utilities to get visual representation of the eceived signal vs distance. surrounding lutter and terrain profile) to the Clutter and DTM ayer of the map data provided.CW Data Validation Compare the site data (photographs. Height. Check the driven routes against vectors within the map data. ocation. ilter out any invalid data that may cause anomalies n the calibration process Make sure that details relating to a site (EIRP (EIRP. . Antenna file) correspond to reports rom CW Survey.
Having more than one file per site makes filtering during post processing much easier . or driving along route which is higher than antenna.Data filtering Filter clutter types that have less than 500 bins. Filter out any file which shows extreme in signal level. With careful route planning filtering can be avoided. . bins Clutter offsets or them will be estimated later in the model tuning process. therefore these data must be filtered out. Okumura –Hata can’t model above situations. Unusually high signal level at far distance can be caused by reflection over big water surface. Unusually weak signal level can be caused by driving behind blocking object.
Filtering example-Driving above Tx antenna .
Filtering example-Blocking object .
Displaying CW measurements in Asset ▫ Data Types-CW Measurements- g CW Signal ▫ To set up thresholds double click on CW Signal and specify thresholds under Categories tab inside CW Measurements ▫ The same goes for other options .
CW Window ▪ 3g/Asset-Tools-Model Tuning ▪ Click Cli k Add t to add dd measurements t file from its destination. they mast have extension .hd Remove button to remove particular file ▪ Highlight Hi hli ht Sit Site ID and d click li k .
Model setting ▪ Tools-Model Tuning-Options ▪ Select S l t th the resolution l ti of f mapping i data ▪ Select the model as a start tuning t i model. d l It is i recommended d d to use default model .
Filter seting ▪ Tools-Model Tuning-Options- Filter ▪ Set up distance filtering ▪ Set up signal level filtering ▪ Filter out clutter types with insufficient data by highlighting them ▪ If you tune k7 click just NLOS ▪ Click antenna button if directional antennas were used .
Auto Tune ▪ Tools-Model Tuning-Auto Tune ▪ Set S t up deltas d lt ▪ Click fix box next to the k factor you don’t want to tune ▪ Click Auto Tune under Tools tab ▪ Wait for results ▪ You can apply new parameters by clicking apply new parameters ▪ Through clutter offsets and clutter offsets are under Clutter tab .
Default K parameters .
. antennas antennas. sites sites. usually: ▫ ▫ -110dBm to -40dBm 125m to 10000 ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Start with the default values for k parameters Do Auto Tune Try y all combination of effective antenna height g and diffraction algorithms and determine which one gives the lowest standard deviation Take note of second and third best . propagation model) in order to start tuning Load CW data Make appropriate filtering filtering.Overview of Model Calibration ▪ ▪ ▪ There must be project set up (map data data.
10k Apply found k parameters. . ▪ Tune model again with k5. ▪ If standard deviation is still bad try with other distances until you find the best fit. auto tune the model from 700m to 10k. for example up to 700m. di distances above b 700 700m.k2 near calibration ▪ If model is not good close to the site.k1.k6 and k7 locked and filter out ▪ Result will be k1near and k2 near.
Clutter offset ▪ Some through clutter offsets and clutter offsets need to be estimated due to insufficient data data. ▪ Estimation is done relative to the clutter offsets with sufficient data. . ▪ Water W t will ill h have th the smallest ll t offset ff t while hil b building ildi and d forest f t the th highest. ▪ Clutter offsets must be realistic relative to each other.
▪ ME can be easily bring back to 0 by changing k1 ▪ If mean error is ∆ change k1 to k1+ ∆ .Adjusting ME ▪ Mean error is usually altered after estimation of clutter offsets.
ranges ▪ In the range of interest. l t try with ith changing the dual slope distance or take the second best model from the initial tuning. following requirements should be fulfilled ▫ -1 < ME < 1 ▫ SD < 8 ▪ If ME or SD is i outside t id the th above b specified ifi d values. typically 1km to 4km.Model analyses ▪ Make statistical analyses for ME and SD for different distance ranges. .
Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot Sites Details Over shoot signal from .
Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot Over shoot signal from DXB3208 and DXB3005 .
Dxb3217 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .
Dxb3218 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .
Dxb3005 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .
Dxb3208 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .
Dxb3209 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .
Dubai Dense Urban Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .
Dubai Residential Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .
Abu Dhabi Dense Urban Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .
Abu Dhabi Residential Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .
Optimisation will always be required. .Recommendations • Apply the model on Macro cell sites as opposed to Micro cell or Minicell • Update clutter classes regularly • A Generic Model could be applied • REMEMBER: Models are NOT perfect.