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COMBUSTION

The Fire Triangle

The Fire Triangle

Combustion Theory and Stoichiometric Combustion


Stoichiometric Combustion is defined as having just the right amount of oxygen and fuel mixture so the most heat is released.

Combustion Theory and Stoichiometric Combustion


Stoichiometric reactions for pure carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are as follows: C + O2 -> CO2 + 14,093 Btu/lb. H2 + 1/2 O2 -> H2O + 61,100 Btu/lb.

Combustion Theory and Stoichiometric Combustion


For example, methane (CH4) is a hydrocarbon gas that burns as follows: CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2H2O + 1,013 Btu/ft.3

Why Use Air Instead of Pure Oxygen


On most applications the cost to process oxygen outweighs the benefit of increased combustion control.

Why Use Air Instead of Pure Oxygen


When you use air instead of oxygen, one cubic foot of methane (at standard temperature and pressure) will burn completely with 9.53 cubic feet of air as shown below: CH4 + 2O2 + 7.53N2 -> CO2 + 2H2O + 7.53N2 + 1,013 Btu/ft.3

The Importance of Excess Air


Flue gas heat loss is the single largest energy loss in a combustion process.

The Importance of Excess Air

The Importance of Excess Air

Unburned Fuel Loss


For combustion efficiency, you never want to operate a burner with less air than is required for stoichiometric combustion.

Unburned Fuel Loss

Unburned Fuel Loss

Combustion Efficiency
Measuring Oxygen and Combustibles in Flue Gas Combustion efficiency is maximized when the correct amount of excess air is supplied so that the sum of energy losses from both unburned fuel loss and flue gas heat loss is minimized.