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rajymwwfb;l

[kwcf siaf wmhvnf;


[kwfr,f
b,fvkdu b,fvdk&,fawmh rodbl;/ olBuD;wl armifrl&,f? awmif½Gmu
armifwm&,f? ,kefvkdufoGm;&mu zGwfBuD;waumif rdwmu pw,fyJ ajym&awmhr,f/
'DzufrSmuawmh zGwfwkdY? y'wfwkdY&&if ]rD;zkwf? ta&qkwf? usKyfwkdY? t[kwfAsKdU? wkwfpkdY}
vkdYawmif ajymMuwmrsKd;udk;/ pyfvdkY ajymvdkuf&OD;r,f/ 'gudk NrdKUu ajymif;vmwJh rlvwef;
ausmif;tkyfq&m udkjr0if;ursm;qkd&if aoaocsmcsm a&;rSwfw,f/ 'g awmu [kduúL
qkdovm;yJ/ 'Du vlawGuawmh b,fodrSmwkef;/ [ku d úLqkdwmeJY teD;pyfqHk;u wmvrf;
[kdb,fjcrf;rSm aewJh [kwfMunfqkdwmyJ odw,f/ [kwfMunfu t&ifu
avmfvDarmif;w,f/ ckawmh NrdKUzufajymif;oGm;NyD/ xm;awmh? 'Dudpö/

oif;wkdYESpfaumif tajymt&awmh? zGwfBuD;udk waumifaumifu udkufxm;yHk&w,fwJh/


emaeowJh/ 'Dawmh olwkdYESpfa,mufu rypf&ufawmhbl;/ zGwfBuD;u olwkdYudk
toem;cHovdkrsKd;eJY Munfhw,fqkdyJ/ 'Dawmhvnf; olwdkYESpfa,mufu tomzrf;vmNyD;
armifwmu olYtdrfaemufzufrSm xm;w,f/ 'Pf&mawG bmawGudk qEGif;uav;eJY
aoG;aq;rIefYav;a&mNyD; odyfay;&mu? ckawmh zGwfBuD;Munfh&wm tawmfaeomxkdifom
&SdvmyHk&w,f/ vlawGuawmh zGwfemBuD;? zGwfemBuD;vdkY ajymMuw,f/ olBuD;wl
armifrlwkdY? awmif½Gmu armifwmwkdYa&SUawmh b,fac:&JrSmwkef;? em;&if; ½kdufoGm;rSm/

wcsKvdU lBuD;awGuawmh tpu ½Gmemw,f? bmbmnmnm ajymMuw,f/


a&SUwifajymwmawmh r[kwfbl;/ waeYawmh b,fu b,fvdkMum;oGm;w,f rodbl;/
pmoifwkdufu OykofZ&yfrSm vlBuD;wcsKdU xkdifNyD; pum;ajymaeMuwkef;? armifrlu
Z&yfab;vmNyD;? ]cifAsm;wkdYawG? bk&m;pum;? w&m;pum; ajymMuzkdYaumif;wJh t½G,fawG
a&mufaeMuNyD/ awmajymawmifajymawG ajymraeMueJY/ tvkyfr&Sd&if? igb,fawmhrsm;
aoyghrvJom pOf;pm;Mu/ cifAsm;wkdYu aor,fvdkY xkdifapmifhaeMuwm r[kwfvm;}vdkY
ajymoGm;w,f/ tJ'Du pvdkY vlBuD;awGvnf; zGwfBuD;taMumif; odyfrajymMuawmhbl;/

1
armifrludk aMumufvdkY&,fawmh [kwfyHkr&bl;/ olwkdYzmom armifrlYpum;udk jyefawG;
Munfhawmh [kwfom;uvm;vdkY jrifvdkufMuvdkYyJ jzpfr,f/

½Gmemw,f qkdwmuvnf; rjzpfavmufbl;/ awmif½Gmu armifwmu awmif½Gm&JU


awmifzsm;rSm aewm/ wu,fawmh awmif½GmwckvHk;udku olwkdYbkd;bGm;
vufxufuwnf;u ajrawG/ 'DwaMumrSm awmif½Gmu tppt&m&m tawmfudk
tqifajywJh ½Gm/ w½GmvHk;vnf; aqGawGrsKd;awGvdkcsnf;rdkY? armifwmBuD;tdrfaemufrSm
zGwfBuD;xm;wmudk b,folrSm rajymMuygbl;/ [kdem;? 'Dem;u awmajymawmifajym
ajymaywJh? b,folurS olwkdY ESpfa,mufudk u@aump rvkyf&JMubl;/ olwkdYeJYvnf;
ruif;EkdifMubl;udk;/ 'djyif 'if;wkdYu wlw,f/ bmjzpfjzpf r[kwfrcH aumifrsKd;awG/
b,folYrSvnf; odyf*½kpkduw f m r[kwfbl;/ wcgwcg umvom;acgif;tcsif;csif;
*sifuv,f udpöavmufeJY pum;tlaygufajym&if; tcsif;rsm;Mu&if? ESpfzufpvHk;ac: NyD;
Budrf;ypfwm/ oif;wkdYpdwfwkdaewmeJYrsm; wkd;&ifawmh xNyD;em;&if;½dkufawmhwm/ NyD;rS
aomif;wifwkYdwJ ac: NyD; xef;&nfwkduf&if; ESpfzufpvHk;udk oifhjrwfzkdYajymwwfw,f/

zGwfBuD;taMumif; quf&&ifawmh armifwmu zGwfBuD;udk EGm;wJab;rSm 0if;wckeJY


xm;wm/ tpuawmh zGwfBuD;rsm; ajrwl;NyD; xGufoGm;rvm;vdkY ylMuw,f/ zGwfBuD;u
'Pf&mawG bmawG usufoGm;vdkY yHkrSefjzpfoGm;aywJh xGufjyKajy;r,fhyHk ray:bl;/
armifrlwkdY? armifwmwkdYuvnf; t&yfxHk;pHtwkdif; rD;zkwf? t&nfqkwf vkyfr,fhyHk ray:bl;/
'gwif bm[kwfao;vJ/ ckqkd EGm;pmauR;wJh aygufcRef;u EGm;pmauR;NyD;wmeJY zGwfBuD;udk
tcsdefrSef tpmauR;&owJh/ zGwfBuD;uvnf; tck? tcsdefrSef tpmarQmfqkdyJ/ zGwfBuD;udk
bmauR;rSef;awmh rodbl;/ zGwfBuD;u awmfawmf taumifBuD;vmw,f/ waeYawmh
aygufcRef;u zGwfBuD;xm;wJh 0if;xJ Muufwaumif csMunfhw,fwJh/ zGwfBuD;rsm;
vdkufrvm;vdkY/ 'gaywJh zGwfBuD;u vIyfawmif rvIyfbl;qkdyJ/ tJ'gudk aygufcRef;u
olYq&mudk ajymjyawmh olYq&marmifwmu ]zGwfBuD;u rifhvdk r[kwfbl;/
olawmfaumif;BuD;uG}vdkY ajymowJh/ ajymwkef;uawmh? &Dp&m aemufp&m jzpfrSmyg/
'gaywJh? aygufcRef;qDuae t&yfxJa&mufawmh? um;oGm;yHk&w,f/ ckawmh armifrlwkdY?
armifwmwkdY zGwfBuD;u zGwfolawmfaumif;vdkY jzpfaew,f/

ajymr,fqkd&ifawmhvnf; ajymp&m jzpfvmwJh taMumif;awGu ay:vmjyefw,f/ zGwfBuD;


armifwmtdrfa&mufNyD; ESpfvavmuftMumrSm armifrleJY armifwmu atmifbmavrSm
ig;&maygufw,f/ jzpfwmu 'Dvdk/ NrdKUrSm ajrcGefoGm;xrf;NyD; jyeftvm? wHwm;xdyfu
um;qdyfrSm um;apmifh&if; armifrlwkdYu tmhpdefqkdif aemufbufrSm? wyufESpfyuf

2
0ifESdyfMuowJh/ tJ'DrSm cGufykef;vmaqmfwJh OD;av;bwifeJY awGUw,fqkdyJ/
OD;av;bwifu 'DESpfaumifudk ighrSm xDvufrSww f apmif usefaew,f/ igjzwfydkif;
jyefydkYawmhrSmrkdY ay;csifoavmufay;vdkY ajymowJh/ 'Dawmh armifrlwkdY ESpfa,mufom;
tdyfaxmifxJrSm &SdorQ ta<uawG xkwfa&Munfawmh ESpfusyfrwfwif;vm;?
wusyfjym;&Spfq,fqkdvm;yJ &SdowJh/ OD;av;bwifu &Sdwmom ay;uGm/ usefwm
aygufrSay;vdkYawmif &,fp&majymao;qkdyJ/ NyD;awmh twdwfa&;vuGmvdkY ajymowJh/

'Dawmh armifwmu twdwftjzpfeJY ]zGwfuloH aomaomnHap}vdkY a&;owJh/


tJ'Dwkef;uawmif armifrlu ]rif;[mu bmwkef;}vdkY ar;ao;w,f qkdyJ/ ]rif;
rMum;zl;bl;vm;/ zGwfuloHMum;&if urÉm&mZ0ifBuD;qkdvm;? orkdif;BuD;qkdvm;
NyD;oGm;w,fvdkY qkw
d m}vdkY armifwmu ajzw,f/ armifrluawmh odyfrauseyfbl;/ 'Dawmh
ckvdk ajymjyefw,f/

]zGwfu ul&w,fvdkY igrMum;zl;aygifuGm/ *sKd;wkdY bmwkdYom ulw,f Mum;zll;w,f/ rif;


[mu rawmfrwnfh rkd;BudK;awG bmawG ypfaeygOD;r,f/ }

][aumif? armifrl/ a'G;BuD;ausmfvif; ajymwm rif; rMum;zl;bl;vm;/ *syefNynfudk


tEkjrLAHk;qkdwm rBuJcifu awmifay:u zGwfBuD;waumifu ulowJh/ aemufawmh
*syefjynfBuD;rSm AHk;usa&m/ orkdif;qkdwmBuD;vnf; &yfoGm;a&mwJh/ *syefawGu zGwfulwJh
awmifudkawmif txdrf;trSwf vkyfxm;ao;qkdyJ/ oif;wkdYu awmifukd ,mrvdkY ac:w,f
qkdovm;yJ/ 'Dawmh tckqkd zGwful,mrqkdNyD; tJ'D[mBuD;u emrnfBuD;aewmwJh/
rif;uawmh cufw,f/ bmrS tMum;tjrif r&SdwJhaumif}vdkY ajymNyD;? armifwmu
armifrludkawmif rmefao;wm/

'Dawmh armifrlu ]rif;[mrif; zGwful,mryJ jzpfjzpf? orkdif;BuD;yJ NyD;oGm;? NyD;oGm;?


ighaomufvkyf r[kwfbl;/ xDaygufr,fqkdvkdYuawmh rif;ESrjrpdef emrnfyJa&;a&;?
ayguf&if NyD;wmyJ}vdkY jyefajymw,f/

oif;wkdYESpfaumif xDayguwf Jh Zmwfvrf;uawmh tJ'gyJ/ tJ'Dvdk xDaygufoGm;awmh


zGwfBuD;u olawmfaumif;BuD;vdkY owif;jzpfae&mu zGwfBuD;u vmbfoyÜum ½Tifw,f
jzpfjyefua&m/ tJ'Dvdk owif;jzpfaewmudk axmufcHzdkY taMumif;u ay:vmjyefao;w,f/
jzpfyHku 'Dvdk/ 'DbufwaMumrSm zJ½dkufpm;aewJh pHyqkdwJh taumifwaumif&Sdw,f/ olu
ajrmuf½Gmu/ pHyu zJ½dkufw,fqkdawmh zJorm;vdkY emrnfysufaeaywJh? zJ½dkufwmu vGJvdkY

3
bmrSawmh rawmfrw&m; rvkyf&Smbl;/ waeYawmh? armifwmBuD;u zGwfBuD;udk
tpmauR;aekwkef; pHya&mufvmNyD; armifwmhudk ajymw,f/ ]tpfudk&,f
anmifuefbufu tokbrSm 'Dn0kdif;aumif;r,fqkdvdkY uRefawmfoGm;r,fvdkY/ tJ'g
tpfudkYzGwfBuD;ezl;udk uRefawmfhydkufqHw½GufeJY yGwfoGm;yg&ap/ uufuif;oabmaygh
tpfudk&,f}vdkY ajymowJh/ 'Dawmh armifwmu ]yGwfcsif yGwfavuGm/ rif;zmom
uufuif;"gwf,lwm igrodbl;/ ½HI;&ifawmh zGwfBuD;aMumifh r[kwfbl;/ Ekdif&ifawmh ighzkdY
wvHk;}vdkY &D&if; ajymw,f/ 'Dawmh pHyu olYvufxJu yku d fqHwxyfeJY zGwfBuD;ezl;udk
yGwfoGm;owJh/

vdk&if;ajym&&ifawmh? aemufaeY rGef;rvGJao;cif? pHywa,muf rEÅav;&rfwvHk;eJY


armifwmhqDa&mufvmw,f/ vufxdyfvufatmuf a&Smif&½Hk r[kwfbl;/
0kdif;vHk;uRwfawmif EkdifvmwmwJh/ 'Dawmh armifwmhudk &rfwvHk;ay;&if;? tpfukdwYdk
tm;wJhaeY uRefawmfwHwm;xdyfu tmhpdefBuD;qkdifrSm auR;OD;r,fvdkYawmif ajymw,f/
tJ'Duwnf;u pNyD; zGwfBuD;u orkdif;opfawG wGifp&mjzpfvmw,f/ 'djyif olBuD;wl
armifrleJY awmif½Gmu armifwmwkdY ESpfa,mufom;[m? emrnfwvHk; wkd;vmw,f/
zGwfBuD;&JU zufpyfydkif&SifawG jzpfvmMuw,f/ zGwfBuD;vnf; ydkNyD; xifxif&Sm;&Sm;
jzpfvmw,f/ ½GmeD;pyfcsKyfu vlawGawmif vrf;BuHKwJhtcg 0ifMunfhMu&w,f/ wcsKdUu
tomxdMunfh? wkdYMunfhMuw,f/ uHaumif;w,f? vmbfoyÜum½Tifw,fvdkY
qkdMuwmudk;/ bmyJajymajym? tJ'DwaMumu vlawGrSm ]zGwf}eJY ywfoufvdkY tjriftod
ajymif;oGm;w,f/ zGwfqkdwm rGJwwfw,fqkdwJh ae&mrSm? zGwfqkdwm tusKd;ay;w,f
jzpfvmMuw,f/ t&ifu zGwfBuD;jrif&if rsufpyftxufatmuf ajcrIefYokwfwwfwJh
aps;onfrawGawmif? aps;oGm;aps;jyef 0if0ifNyD; zGwfBuD;udk MunfhMu&w,f/

waeYawmh jyóemay:vmw,f/ armifrlwkdY bkd;atBuD; bkd;tkef;yGifh tBuD;tus,f


zsm;ygava&m/ bkd;tkef;yGifhu awmif½Gm? ajrmuf½GmawGudk pwnfwJh olawGtxJu
rlvvufa[mif;BuD;/ olwa,mufyJ usefawmhwm/ bkd;tkef;yGifhu vmr,fh 0gqkdrSm
udk;q,fxJ 0ifawmhrSm/ rmawmh tawmfrmw,f/ 'gaywJh a&csKd;rSm;NyD;? tyl&Syf&mu
irf;zrf;ovdkvdk awGawmif jzpfvmw,f/ touf½Ir0bl; jzpfvmw,f/ wHwm;xdyf
um;qdyfu q&m0efuav;wkdY? Mo|m&du aq;q&mawGuawmh vlBuD;emqkdNyD;
vufavQmhMuaywJh? "gwfq&m OD;rSefuawmh vufravQmhbl;/ bl;oD;eJY zGwfom;[if;cg;
oHk;&ufpm;ckdif;NyD; a&EkdifEkdifcsKd;&if? 0#femuHemuvGJ&if aysmufrSmyJwJh/ 'Dawmh w&yfvHk;&JU
rsufaphxJrSm zGwfBuD;udkyJ jrifvmMuw,f/ armifrleJY armifwmvnf; bmajym&rSef;
rodawmhbl;/ 'gaywJh jyóemu bl;oD;yJ/ "gwfq&m OD;rSeftvdkt&awmh

4
qGwfoD;jzpf&r,fwJh/ bl;oD;ajcmufwkdY bmwkdY r[kwfbl;wJh/ cufwmu ckvdk&moDrsKd;rSm
'DbufrSm bl;oD;b,frSm &rSmwkef;/ teD;pyfqHk;u uGif;omq,fhw½GmbufrSm
&aumif;&Ekdifw,fvdkY udkOD;MunfajymvdkY od&w,f/ tJ'Dudk 'vjyif; vlvTwfNyD;
t&Smckdif;&rSmyJ/ 'gawmif toGm;tjyef wntdyfawmh MumOD;r,f/

b,fvdkyJ jzpfjzpf? tJ'Dudk aumifav;ESpfa,muf vTwfvdkufw,f/ 'DrSmuawmh armifrleJY


armifwm acgif;csif;½dkufaeMu&w,f/ r½kdufvdkYuvnf; rjzpfbl;/ bkd;tkef;yGifhtwGufqkd
zGwfBuD;udk ay:oifhay:&awmhr,fh tajctaersKd; a&mufaeNyD;ukd;/ aqGawGrsKd;awGuvnf;
zGwfBuD;ukd rsufapmif;xkd;aeMuNyD;udk;/ aemufqHk;awmh oif;wkdYESpfa,muf
qHk;jzwfcsufwck csvdkufMu&w,f/ bl;oD;&? r&apmifhNyD; bl;oD;&cgrS zGwfBuD;udk ay:r,fvdkY
qHk;jzwfvdkufMuw,f/ jzpfcsifawmh aumifav;awG uGif;ombuf xGufoGm;wJh
naerSmyJ? bkd;tkef;yGifh toufxGufoGm;&Smw,f/ aqGawGrsKd;awG idk,kdaeMuwkef; armifrleJY
armifwmwkdY NyHK;EkdifMuw,f/ zGwfBuD;uvnf; armifrlwkdYudk awGUw,fqkd&if
acgif;warmharmheJY aus;Zl;wifygoAsmvdkYrsm; ajymaeovdkvdkyJvdkY? aygufcRef;ajymjyvkdY
t&yfxJrSm Mum;Mu&w,f/ uGif;ombufu jyefvmwJh aumifuav;awG ,lvmwJh
&Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; bl;oD;udkawmh armifwmBuD;tdrfu Muufwaumifudk pyg;vifrsm;rsm;eJY
umvom;[if; csufpm;vkdufMuw,f/ pHyuvnf; aemufxyf rEÅav;&rfwvHk;
,lvmay;w,f/

t&yfxJrSm wjcm;vlawGvdk odyft,lronf;wwfwJh a':av;rjrwifuawmh ajymw,f/


½Gmxdyfu vufyHyifudk uyfuvlawG usuwnf;u bkd;tkef;yGifh r&awmhbl;qkdwm
odowJh/ ykdqkd;wmu zGwfBuD;eJYoGm;NyD; uHcsif;NydKifwmyJwJh/ zGwfBuD;Zmwm pef;xaecsdefrSm
bkd;tkef;yGifhu xdyfwkduwf kd;awmh? uHedrfhwJhvl cH&wmyJwJh/ bkd;tkef;yGifh&,f
toufudk;q,fem; eD;aewJhtaMumif;awmh rajymbl;/ a':av;rjrwifajymwJh txJu
vufyHyif&,f? uyfuvl&,f? bkd;tkef;yGifh&,f? zGwfBuD;&,f/ tJ'DMum;xJrSm b,fvdkawG
qufpyfaew,fqkdwmawmh rodbl;/ 'Dawmhvnf; em;axmifrdwJh vlawGtzkdYawmh
[kwfcsifawmhvnf; [kwfr,fvdkYyJ awG;Munfh&awmhw,f/

jrifhoef;
(pwkdifopf r*¾Zif;)
{NyD? 2001/