(such as cruising flight), flying at the point where lift coefficient is equivalent with Cli is the goal, while

for some other flight operations (such as loiter), the objective is to fly at the point where lift coefficient is equivalent with Cld . This airfoil lift coefficient is a function of aircraft cruise lift coefficient (CLi) as will be discussed later in this chapter.

4. The variations of lift-to-drag ratio (Cl/Cd) as a function of angle of attack The last interesting graph that is utilized in the process of airfoil selection is the variations of liftto-drag ratio (Cl/Cd) as a function of angle of attack. Figure 5.17 illustrates the typical variations of lift-to-drag ratio versus angle of attack. As it is noted, this graph has one maximum point where the value of the lift-to-drag ratio is the highest at this point. The angle of attack corresponding to this point is an optimum candidate for a loitering flight (Dl). The application of these four graphs and twelve parameters in the airfoil selection process will be introduced in the later sections.

Cl Cd
(Cl/Cd)max

0

Dl

D

Figure 5.17. The typical variations of lift-to-drag ratio versus angle of attack

5.4.4. Airfoil Selection Criteria Selecting an airfoil is a part of the overall wing design. Selection of an airfoil for a wing begins with the clear statement of the flight requirements. For instance, a subsonic flight design requirements are very much different from a supersonic flight design objectives. On the other hand, flight in the transonic region requires a special airfoil that meets mach divergence requirements. The designer must also consider other requirements such as airworthiness, structural, manufacturability, and cost requirements. In general, the following are the criteria to select an airfoil for a wing with a collection of design requirements: 1. The airfoil with the highest maximum lift coefficient ( Clmax ).
Wing Design 23

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