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LEAH DICKERMAN WITH CONTRIBUTIONS BY MATTHEW AFFRON YVE-ALAIN BOIS MASHA CHLENOVA ESTER COEN CHRISTOPH COX HUBERT DAMISCH RACHAEL Z. LOWRY PHILIPPE-ALAIN MICHAUD JAROSLAW SUCHAN LANKA TATTERSALL MICHAEL R. TAYLOR 2 The Museum of Modern Art. DELUE HAL FOSTER MARK FRANKO MATTHEW GALE PETER GALISON MARIA GOUGH JODI HAUPTMAN GORDON HUGHES DAVID JOSELIT ANTON KAES DAVID LANG SUSAN LAXTON GLENN D. New York .
AS SUCH MASHA CHLENOVA 206 0.10 MASHA CHLENOVA 226 PIET MONDRIAN: TOWARD THE ABOLITION OF FORM YVE-ALAIN BOIS 238 3 DE STIJL MODELS YVE-ALAIN BOIS 254 THE SPATIAL OBJECT MARIA GOUGH 262 THE LANGUAGE OF REVOLUTION MARIA GOUGH 370 INDEX 274 SENSE AND NON-SENSE HAL FOSTER 292 DANCED ABSTRACTION: RUDOLF VON LABAN MARK FRANKO 296 DANCED ABSTRACTION: MARY WIGMAN MARK FRANKO 300 THE COLOR GRID LANKA TatTersall 310 THE ABSTRACT ENVIRONMENT MARIA GOUGH 324 EARLY ABSTRACTION IN POLAND JAROSLAW SUCHAN 373 LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 332 WHITE SHADOWS: PHOTOGRAMS AROUND 1922 SUSAN LAXTON 338 RHYTHMUS 21 AND THE GENESIS OF FILMIC ABSTRAcTION PHILIPPE-ALAIN MIChAuD 346 THE ABSOLUTE FILM ANTON KAES 350 CONCRETE ABSTRACTION PETER GALISON 358 ABSTRACTION IN 1936 BARR’s DIAGRAMS GLENN D. LOWRY 364 ABSTRACTION IN 1936 CUBISM AND ABSTRACT ART AT THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART LEAH DICKERMAN 376 TRUSTEES OF THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART . AND ABSTRACTION CHRISTOPH COX 154 VORTICISM: PLANETARY ABSTRACTION MATTHEW GALE 172 PAINTING STRIPPED BARE DAVID JOSELIT 182 DECORATION AND ABSTRACTION IN BLOOMSBURY MATTHEW AFFRON 188 AGAINST THE CIRCLE RACHAEL Z. D E LUE 110 FRANCIS PICABIA: ABSTRACTION AND SINCERITY MICHAEL R. TAYLOR 116 FERNAND LÉGER: METALLIC SENSATIONS MATTHEW AFFRON 124 GIACOMO BALLA: THE MOST LUMINOUS ABSTRACTION ESTER COEN 9 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 134 PAROLE IN LIBERTÀ JODI HAUPTMAN 144 MUSIC. WITHOUT WORDS LEAH DICKERMAN 64 MR.40 contents Pablo Picasso: THe CADAQUÉS EXPERIMENT YVE-ALAIN Bois 46 COLORS AND GAMES: MUSIC AND ABSTRACTION. LOWRY 82 CONTRASTS OF COLORS. KUPKA AMONG VERTICALS LANKA TatTersall 72 ON THE MOVE HUBERT DAMISCH 74 ABSTRACTION CHEZ DELAUNAY GORDON HUGHES 7 FOREWORD GLENN D. CONTRASTS OF WORDS MATTHEW AFFRON 94 LÉOPOLD SURVAGE’S PAPER CINEMA JODI HAUPTMAN 100 WITH COLOR RACHaEL Z. 1909 TO 1912 DAVID LANG 50 VASILY KANDINSKY. D E LUE 12 INVENTING ABSTRACTION LEAH DICKERMAN 200 EARLY RUSSIAN ABSTRACTION. NOISE.
and Francis Picabia exhibited works that marked the beginning of something radically new: they dispensed with recognizable subject matter. Robert Delaunay. and others within the historical framework it shaped. and atonal music developed in parallel with pictures that no longer pictured. The story of its sudden flourishing may have something to tell us about the nature of innovation itself: abstraction was not the inspiration of a solitary genius but the product of network thinking — of ideas moving through a nexus of artists and intellectuals working in different media and in far-flung places. Alfred H. and in others to provide a new perspective on familiar ones. The show surveyed the early history of abstraction at a moment when modernist artists were under real threat from totalitarianism in Europe. the Mimi and Peter Haas Fund. Hans Richter. Masha Chlenova. Paul Klee. We are delighted to work with MoMA once again as a sponsor of this extraordinary exhibition about abstraction. These new forms of practice suggest how abstraction at its inception may be seen as a cross-media imperative. Mikhail Larionov. It brings together a wide range of art forms — paintings. They have our profound gratitude.FOREWORD A B S T R A C T IO N may be modernism’s greatest innovation. a series of artists including Vasily Kandinsky. Marie-Josée and Henry Kravis. Wyndham Lewis. and ranks among the top ten major shipping carriers in the world. its birth and growth. sponsoring a variety of exhibitions and programs including Monet’s W ater Lilies in 2009. Franz Marc. sculpture. as artists and images moved quickly across borders. film. abstraction’s practitioners included Hans Arp. I wish to acknowledge the lenders — private individuals and museum colleagues — who have entrusted us with the care of their works. Picasso: Guitars 1912–1914 in 2011. Inventing Abstraction is made possible by Hanjin Shipping. Jr. each jettisoned the weight of convention. and Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III. Beginning in late 1911 and across the course of the next year. On behalf of the Trustees and staff of the Museum. and Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of Language in 2012. Within five years. Kazimir Malevich. LOWRY Director. An important touchstone for this project has been Cubism and Abstract Art. 1910-1925 and to be part of sharing this important exhibition with the global audience of The Museum of Modern Art. Inventing Abstraction explores abstraction as both a historical idea and an emergent artistic practice. — GLENN D. The implications of these opening moves were registered with astonishing rapidity. Abstraction is a vital subject in The Museum of Modern Art’s own history. Natalia Goncharova. Curator in the Department of Painting and Sculpture. Fernard Léger. As the Museum’s first major exhibition on the early development of abstraction in seventy-five years. around 100 years ago — they took many observers by surprise. a landmark exhibition organized by the Museum’s founding director. Inventing Abstraction offers a chance to reflect on the legacy of MoMA’s own practice. Hanjin has been a dedicated supporter of the Museum. Arthur Dove. Our Chairwoman. it makes a priority of partnering with museums worldwide. Inventing Abstraction accordingly takes a transnational perspective: surveying key episodes in abstraction’s early history. books. drawings. the Blavatnik Family Foundation. Hanjin Shipping is Korea’s largest shipping company. The Museum of Modern Art 7 . We are especially grateful to the generous supporters of this project and of the Museum’s programming in general. in 1936. art helps us to communicate with the global community. was her essential partner. Curatorial Assistant in the Department of Painting and Sculpture. Inventing Abstraction explores the productive relationships among artists and composers. Barr. yet when those works first appeared — quite suddenly. abstraction was an international phenomenon. We are grateful to Leah Dickerman. and its international role in modern art. nonnarrative dance. is passionate about this goal and believes strongly that as the scope of our business extends to every corner of the world. The coming of these first abstract pictures was matched by extraordinary developments in other spheres. photography. Sonia Delaunay-Terk. dancers and poets. It is now H A N JI N S H I P PI N G is delighted to sponsor Inventing Abstraction. From the start. sharing in a new exhibition and media culture. František Kupka. so central to our conception of artistic practice that the time before the idea of an abstract artwork made sense has become hard to imagine. Piet Mondrian. Its pioneers were more closely linked than is generally understood. Sound poetry. Eunyoung Choi. Major support is provided by the Anna-Maria and Stephen Kellen Foundation. Vanessa Bell. sound recordings. The seminars bringing together scholars in a variety of disciplines in the exhibition’s planning stages were made possible by MoMA’s Wallis Annenberg Fund for Innovation in Contemporary Art through the Annenberg Foundation. A proud supporter of the arts. music and dance footage — to draw a rich portrait of this watershed moment in which art was wholly reinvented. in establishing a new modern language for the arts. and the exhibition is also supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities.. Marsden Hartley. printed matter. for the conception and organization of this exhibition and book. it includes work made across Eastern and Western Europe and the United States. Their generosity has in many cases allowed us to exhibit works that have not yet been seen in this country. It had a lasting impact on MoMA’s collection: many works were acquired directly from it. and more.
and Geurt Imanse. Akademie der Künste. Fondazione Marguerite Arp. Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. Amon Carter Museum of American Art. Barbara Buhler Lynes. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Paloma Alarcó.. Minneapolis. Yale University Art Gallery. Nicole Delissen. Montclair Art Museum. Carnegie Museum of Art. There were also the eighty-four lenders who parted with their great treasures to allow us to show them in our galleries. Walker and Rebecca Lawton. Arp Museum Bahnhof Rolandseck. and Cynthia Iavarone. New Haven. and Jaroslaw Lubiak. Bethany. Musée national d’art moderne/ Centre de création industrielle. Tanzarchiv Leipzig e. Stephan Berg and Volker Adolphs. Renate Rätz. Bernhard Mendes Bürgi. Many of them have acted as true collaborators on this project. Jean Bonna Library. David Franklin and William Robinson. We are deeply thankful for our many generous lenders.J. Remagen. Jonas Storsve. I was moved by and very grateful for the extraordinary gestures of generosity that make such a collaborative undertaking possible. Locarno. Oliver Kornhoff and Astrid von-Asten. Lynn Zelevansky. Ann Goldstein. Charles Esche and Marcia Vissers. Buffalo. Angelica Charistou. and Frans Peterse. Tex. Philipp Kaiser. securing loans. We warmly thank our colleagues in lending institutions: Madeline Schuppli and Brigitta Vogler-Zimmerli. Dana Miller. and Susan Davidson. and Sandra Gianfreda. New York. LWL–Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte. State Museum of Contemporary Art – 8 9 . Malcolm Daniel. Ole Bouman. and scores of others who helped make this project happen in other ways: generously giving us their advice and support in shaping the checklist. Centre national de la danse... Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. Santa Fe. Maja Oeri and Charlotte Gutzwiller. private collection courtesy of the Aargauer Kunsthaus Aarau. N. The Hague. Essen. Jaroslaw Suchan. Louis Grachos. Fort Worth.V. France. Walker Art Center. Taylor. New Haven. Eindhoven. 375. Paris. Remagen. Matthew Gale. Stiftung John Neumeier. The Latvian National Museum of Art. The Art Institute of Chicago. and Pascale Pere. Rotterdam. Frankfurt am Main. Thomas P. Centre Pompidou. Deutsches Tanzfilminstitut Bremen. listed on p. Anthony G. enlightening us about the works in their care. Christian Müller. Stedelijk Museum. Houston. Michael R. Fabrice Hergott and Jacqueline Munck. Conn. The Cleveland Museum of Art. Benno Tempel. Switzerland. Doede Hardeman. Amy Meyers. Vivien Green. and making suggestions about other works and collections to be considered. Westfälisches Landesmuseum. and Charlotte Gutzwiller. Munich. The makers of those gestures include the many dedicated teams of people at The Museum of Modern Art who use their great skills to realize ambitious exhibition projects such as this one. Catherine Amé. and Philippe-Alain Michaud.2 cm). and in working on them both. All of us at The Museum of Modern Art are profoundly grateful. Georgia O’Keeffe Museum. CarlHeinz Heuer and Nicolai von Cube. Carolyn Kastner. Hamburg. Paris. Columbus Museum of Art. Sean Rainbird and Ina Cozen. Mariet Willinge. Münster. Robert A.. and Stephan Diederich. The Museum of Fine Arts. Walburga Krupp. Maciejunes and Melissa Wolfe. Geneva. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Susan L. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Brigitte Leal. Douglas Druick and Stephanie D’Alessandro. and Emily Neff. Heide-Marie Härtel. Hartford. and Steffen Hoffmann. Rebecca Rabinow. facilitating loans. Netherlands Architecture Institute. Emanuel Hoffmann-Stiftung. van Straaten. 8 1⁄4 × 11 1⁄2" (21 × 29. Schaulager. providing financial support. Gary Tinterow. Tate. New York. Maria Tsantsanoglou. Gabriele Ruiz. Geneva. Curator of American Art. University of Chicago. Liz Kreijn. Christine Macel. Hans Janssen. and Judy Chiba Smith. Jean-Yves Marin and Christian Rumelin. sweeping across nations and across media. Museum Ludwig.. Münchenstein. Christian Rumelin. Helmut Friedel and Karola Rattner. Tracey Bashkoff. Gwendolyn H. Kasper König. Monique Barbaroux and Laurent Sebillotte. Ink on paper. The development of abstract art is a prime example of the power of network thinking. Hirschel and Richard Born. and Laura Fleischmann. Andrew J. Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris. Muzeum Sztuki w Łodzi. Sabine Rewald. the twenty-three authors who contributed their ideas and expertise to this volume. Nationalgalerie. Lora Urbanelli and Gail Stavitsky. Pantin. Alfred Pacquement. Rainer Hüben. Madrid. Malgorzata Ludwisiak. Nicholas Serota. Museum Folkwang. Yale Center for British Art. John Neumeier and Hans-Michael Schäfer. Miguel Ángel Recio Crespo. Klaus Bussman. Curator. Sammlung Hans Richter/Deutsches Filminstitut –DIF. and André Strattman. and Anna Vallye. Nicholas Cullinan. Goff. Otterlo. 1915. Complesso di fili giranti (Complex of turning wires). and Carol Mancusi-Ungaro. Lisette Pelsers. Toos van Kooten. Mart — Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto it moved among artists and intellectuals. The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation. Olga Viso and Darsie Alexander. Jock Reynolds and Jennifer Gross. Berlin. Douglas Dreishpoon. Whitney Museum of American Art. Māra Lāce and Iveta Derkusova. Richard Armstrong. Philadelphia Museum of Art. and Guillermo Solana. Campbell. This catalogue and the exhibition it accompanies were also made possible by the efforts of a far-flung network of individuals. Kunstmuseum Bonn. Nicholas Fox Weber and Oliver Barker. Cologne. New York. Kröller-Müller Museum. Amsterdam. Joëlle Pijaudier-Cabot and Héloïse Conesa. Smart Museum of Art. London. Lodz. Guggenheim Museum and Foundation. Talbott and Eric Zafran.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I N V E N T I N G A B S T R A C T I O N traces the sweep of a radical new idea as FORTUNATO DEPERO . Collection Viktor and Marianne Langen. and Stephan Dörschel. and Adrian Glew. Nannette V. Hartwig Fischer. Ute Eskildsen. Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus und Kunstbau München. Patrick Primavesi. Evert J. and Olga Fota.V. figuring out the right recordings. Jennifer Russell. Bruno Racine and Antoine Coron. Claudia Dillmann and Beate Dannhorn. Timothy Rubb. Pittsburgh. Riga. Udo Kittelman and Dieter Scholz. Barbara Haskell. Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Musée d’art moderne et contemporain de Strasbourg. Solomon R. Adam Weinberg. Kret. Musées d’art et d’histoire. Van Abbemuseum. Kunstmuseum Basel. Stiftung Hans Arp und Sophie Taeuber-Arp e. Museo ThyssenBornemisza. Jean Bonna.
. and Beatrice Avanzi. Jim Coddington. David Sadighian. and Michelle Harvey assisted and advised our research efforts on many fronts.. Genevieve Allison. She has handled complex administrative and diplomatic responsibilities. D. New York. National Gallery of Art. Lanka Tattersall. and Lynda Zycherman all put their great expertise at the service of this project. and Kitty Cleary in the Department of Film. and on its relation to contemporary shifts in music. Our in-house diplomat Jay Levenson. Thomas Trabitsch and Ursula Klein. Hannah Kim. and Cara Manes. our many conversations during this process have honed its content. Alexander Klar and Hanne Danneberger. The State Tretyakov Gallery. Our curatorial and design team worked with Paul Ingram and Mitali Banerjee at the Columbia Business School in creating the diagram on this book’s front endpapers tracing the connections among artists represented in the exhibition. We also acknowledge our museum colleagues for their support of this project: Annemarie Jaeggi and Klaus Weber. and Matthew Pimm oversaw its complex production. In the Department of Conservation. Bernd Eichhorn. Cara Manes. and Doryun Chong provided camaraderie and generous aid of many kinds. Lee Ann Daffner. The project benefited from the leadership and counsel of Peter Reed. and Michael R. Sabine Breitweiser. Katherine Alcauskas. Paris. Kathy Curry. Guggenheim Foundation. Corcoran Gallery of Art. Milan Hughston. St. its elegance and intelligence reflect his great skills. Gabriella Belli. Our foremost thanks go to Glenn D. Universität für angewandte Kunst Wien. With the support of MoMA’s Wallis Annenberg Fund for Innovation in Contemporary Art through the Annenberg Foundation. Catherine Wheeler has handled the organization of both things and people. worked to provide superior new photography of the collection works for this project. and to Lauren Stakias and Heidi Speckthart. Anton Kaes. Clarenza Catullo. Director of the Museum’s International Program. Peter Perez. Natalia Metelitsa and Evgenia Suzdaleva. Sabine Dowek. For financial support of this exhibition we are extraordinarily grateful to Hanjin Shipping. Marie-Josée and Henry Kravis. Maria DeMarco Beardsley and Randolph Black have adroitly facilitated the exhibition’s logistics. Washington. Emily Delheim. Ursula Graeff-Hirsch. the Blavatnik Family Foundation. Ingrid Chou. Natalie Strasser. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. D. Samantha Friedman. Juan Hamilton. keen eye. led by Christopher Hudson. Philip Rylands. Berlin. and Lanka Tattersall have all contributed in key ways. Kerry Rose. Christoph Cox.C. Michelle Elligott. Pablo Schugurensky. and Lauren Robbins all provided critical support. and who are listed in the Contents. and Johanna Schultheiss. The State Hermitage Museum. deftly facilitated key international relationships. Mempho. Roxana Marcoci. Sarah Wood. Karola Kraus and Susanne Neuburger. the Mimi and Peter Haas Fund. Senior Deputy Director for Curatorial Affairs. It was a great pleasure and privilege to collaborate again with Jerry Neuner. Many individuals have provided essential information and assistance with loans. Jodi Roberts. we were able to host a series of seminars on abstraction as a historical idea and an emergent artistic practice. Steve West. Thessaloníki. has been an effective advocate of and sage advisor to this project. Francis Naumann. Aleksandra Shatskikh. and Leora Morinis in the Department of Media and Performance. Isabel Palandjoglou. and eleven anonymous donors. served as a sounding board for ideas at several key points. Spencer Tsai and Osvaldo Da Silva. and David Lang made specific suggestions that found their way onto our checklist. Irina Lebedeva and Tatiana Gubonova. both practical and conceptual. Vienna. St. Sarah Greenough. Our colleagues in Marketing and Communications have helped us get the word out: Kim Mitchell. Maria Marchenkova.. led by Erik Landsberg. Yve-Alain Bois. The gerundive title “Inventing Abstraction” is the product of a long and lovely conversation with Hubert Damisch. Vienna. Maria Graciela and Luis Alfonso Oberto. David Frankel. and Henry Lanman in the Office of the General Counsel office have provided invaluable advice. Zurich. The assistance of our colleagues in Special Events. who has offered enthusiasm. The project has drawn on virtually every department at the Museum. Our great thanks go to the many esteemed writers who contributed to this volume. St. Lisa Fischman and Bo K. Ebsworth. as did teaching with Pamela Lee at Stanford University many years ago. Makiko Wholey. have worked as true collaborators in creating rich interpretative materials and programs that enhance the exhibition’s content. my sister and trusted friends. We extend warm thanks to our colleagues in the Department of Development for enabling us to realize this project — to Todd Bishop. GAM–Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea. We particularly wish to acknowledge the generous help.. We warmly thank: Emily Braun. ThyssenBornemizsa Collections. and Desiree Gonzalez in the Department of Education. Stephanie Pau. were the first to read my texts and offered comments and suggestions that have improved them in both form and content. Richard Koshalek and Kerry Brougher. Davis Museum and Cultural Center. Jeri Moxley. Natalie Seroussi and Anne-Sarah Bénichou. Washington. Kat Ryan. the Anna-Maria and Stephen Kellen Foundation. philosophy. and helped us to craft innovative solutions to bring a variety of voices from different fields into the discussion of this project. myself among them. and Josh Siegel. Mart –Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto. Director of the Department of Exhibition Design and Production. and Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III. and I am very grateful for her counsel in key moments. Associate Publisher Chul Kim sagely guided the book to its finished form. Museum Wiesbaden. In the Department of Exhibitions.C. Peter Galison. Sylvia Liska. RH Quaytman. Dina Sorokina. Sara Dickerman. Although this project lay outside their many responsibilities. Nina Léger. Kathryn Holihan. Ana Janevski. Wien Museum. along with those of the highest scholarship. Smithsonian Institution. Patrick Werkner and Sylvia Herkt. Iris Schmeisser. These conversational events helped to motivate and refine the conceptual premises of the exhibition. Sacha Eaton. They deserve praise for both their skills and their tremendous dedication. Henry Finder.C. as always. Österreichisches Theatermuseum. I am most indebted and most grateful to those who were most intimately involved in this exhibition. Sarah Hermanson Meister. Triton Foundation. Danilo Eccher and Arianna Bona. Sara Bodinson. Our colleagues in the Department of Collection Management and Exhibition Registration managed the complexities of moving so many works of art with graciousness and efficiency: Susan Palamara. In the Museum Library and Archives. and a contribution to the catalogue. and Claire Corey all played a key role in realizing this design. Solomon R. Masha Chlenova has been a true partner. and Ian Eckert. Participants in these three sessions included Charles Bernstein. and on their generosity with interdepartmental loans. Eliane Cordia von Reesema. and Victoria Sung have lent their talents and enthusiasm to realizing the project. Moscow. Ginevra Elkann. and fine-tuned sense of good prose is reflected on every page. Mark Franko. Fred Bollerer and Philip Brookman. Evgeniia Petrova and Marina Panteleymon. has improved this catalogue in countless ways. and their team. The in-house transportation and installation of artworks was smoothly coordinated by Rob Jung. giving special meaning to the idea of teamwork. both legal and strategic. Associate Director. and Kim Conaty in the Department of Prints and Illustrated Books. In our own Department of Painting of Sculpture. mumok. The Edward John Noble Foundation Deputy Director for Education Wendy Woon and Pablo Helguera. Senior Deputy Director for Exhibitions and Collections. Arnold Schönberg Center. as well as Allegra Burnette and Maggie Lederer D’Errico in the Department of Digital Media. Vienna. Brien McDaniel. Petersburg. Katie Trainor. The State Russian Museum. and Ramona Bannayan. Barney A. Director. Jennifer Tobias. Anne Morra. Anton Kaes. Julia Hoffman. Kunsthaus Zürich. David Senior. Bauhaus-Archiv Museum für Gestaltung. Wellesley College. Departmental interns Nicole Benson. and science. Alexander Shedrinsky. and Allison Whiting. his broadreaching erudition. Christian Meyer and Therese Muxeneder. poetry. Nancy Adelson. Scott Gerson. Department of Painting and Sculpture 10 11 . Elizabeth Kujawski. have been our valued partners in the realization of this book. Mark Franko. Caroline Luce. and Visitor Services has been. crucial.Costakis Collection. Christophe Cherix. Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music. Venice. Michael Duffy. Charlotte Douglas. Mass. Maria Carlota Perez. and I am very grateful for her warm and adroit corralling. Jeffrey Sherwin. D. Josh Siegel. our new Senior Deputy Director of External Affairs. Barbara Lesak. strategic insight. Sheetal Prajapati. Hal Foster. Anne Umland. and Wolfgang Kos and Ursula Storch. and Mitra Abbaspour in the Department of Photography. Jasmine Helm. — LEAH DICKERMAN Curator. We are also extremely grateful to private lenders: Rachel Adler. Diana Howard. Editorial Director and this book’s editor. Neither exhibition nor catalogue would be possible without her vital support. Vienna. Ann Temkin. The Marie-Josée and Henry Kravis Chief Curator. John Elderfield provided key advice on specific loans. Alexandra Lawrence. Mikhail Piotrovsky and Maria Haltunen. Teaching alongside Hal Foster in the Department of Art History at Princeton University in the spring of 2010 provided another important forum for working out ideas. Lowry. David Joselit. The multimedia nature of the exhibition has made us more dependent than usual on the expertise of our fellow curators in other curatorial departments. Powell III. Robert Kastler and Roberto Rivera in the Department of Imaging and Visual Resources. Frances Vigna. Christoph Becker and Karin Marti. Masha Chlenova. Colleagues in the Department of Publications. Margaret Doyle. Chris Stephens. Turin. Mark Nelson of McCall Associates has produced an elegant and intelligent design that admirably suits the subject. Jason Herrick. Laura Hoptman. Seth Kim-Cohen. Jodi Hauptman. of Christophe Cherix. Cora Rosevear and Lily Goldberg worked attentively to the arrangement of loan issues. Yve-Alain Bois. Earl A. Peggy Guggenheim Collection. museum moderner kunst stiftung ludwig wien.. Thomas Rosemann. Galerie Natalie Seroussi. Christoph Cox. dance. and Harry Cooper. Facilities. on the exhibition’s design. Hal Foster. Jodi Hauptman. Connie Butler. Taylor. Security. Washington. PhilippeAlain Michaud. and David Moreno in the Department of Drawings. Petersburg. Vienna. Kathy Halbreich. Barry Friedman Ltd.
Gouache and ink on paper. Sonia Delaunay-Terk. and not yet as abstract as it wants to be. cosmogonic images. 1807) sphere that in the end amounted to as great a rewriting of the rules of artistic production as had been seen since the Renaissance. where comparison with the past was impossible. 1920. theosophical and mediumistic images. Mikhail Larionov. an entirely new art form. a flood of words flung forth perhaps in compensation for their makers’ worry about how the meaning of these pictures might be established. sheet: 17 3⁄4 × 13 3⁄4" (45 × 35 cm). by different artists working in different places and with different philosophical foundations. Marsden Hartley. to be sure. Kazimir Malevich. Indeed they abandoned the premise of making a picture of something. Cologne INVENTING ABSTRACTION LEAH DICKERMAN 12 1. Observers spoke of the exhilaration and terror of leaping into unknown territory. Johnson. This shift in the frontier of possibility moved so suddenly as to shake the foundations of art as it had been practiced. and criticism. Paul Klee.” In the period immediately following.” the poet and critic Guillaume Apollinaire wrote in February 1912. artists producing abstract works could be counted in the dozens. František Kupka. By the eve of World War I. abstraction was proposed many times over. THOMAS YOUNG . 1 It is only at its beginning. hardly a silent disappearance. Hans Richter. Vanessa Bell. Scores of earlier images from other Western disciplines — chromatic studies. From A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts (London: J. Galerie Gmurzynska. Its pioneers included Hans Arp. Francis Picabia.Must we not then renounce the object altogether. Handwritten explanatory text to accompany a copy of the Proun Portfolio. Piet Mondrian. Diagram of the pattern of wave interaction obtained by throwing two stones of equal size into a pond at the same instant. That transformation would fundamentally shape artistic practice in the century that followed. Natalia Goncharova. but rather was accompanied by a shower of celebratory manifestos. “Young painters of the extreme schools. Robert Delaunay. Arthur Dove — presented paintings that differed from almost all of those that had preceded them in the long history of the medium in the Western tradition: shunning the depiction of objects in the world. a handful of artists — Vasily Kandinsky. a series of precipitous shifts took place in the cultural Opposite: EL LISSITZKY . Beginning in late 1911 and across the course of 1912. they displayed works with no discernible subject matter. Franz Marc. lectures. scientific images (fig. 1) — may resemble abstract art. Fernand Léger. in several European and American cities. throw it to the winds and instead lay bare the purely abstract? — Vasily Kandinsky. But these are not art at all. and Wyndham Lewis. for despite any formal similarity they 13 . 1911 R O U G H LY O N E H U N D R E D Y E A R S A G O. This evacuation of the object world was. “want to make pure painting.
M . M. and Hermann Obrist’s theater sets. into this territory. You always have to begin with something. that the idea of an abstract artwork began to make sense. in a manuscript for a planned fourth edition of On the Spiritual in Art that was forestalled by World War I. and the composition was done as composition. he edited this paragraph to allow for the possibility of a fully abstract art. it seems. W.2. Detroit Institute of Arts. . Picasso asserted that these “pure” pictures required supplements to function as painting. but it was only in the annus mirabilis that followed Kandinsky’s showing of Komposition V that abstract pictures began to be exhibited publicly as art. clearly and effectively advocat11 ing a practice that would advance “deeper . Gift of Dexter M. Turner Bequest 3.7 cm). Within the sphere of modern art. which he had seen in photographs sent to him by Kahnweiler. J.” wrote Picasso’s biographer John Richardson. He would later declare that abstraction was impossible: “There is no abstract art. 23 3⁄4 × 18 3⁄8" (60. referential form is almost but not quite effaced. In 1910. to the 5 terrifying novelty of these new works: he declared them “unfinished. Jr. radically innovative artist of the first decade of the twentieth century — also struggled with the implications of these works. however. It was only towards the end . J. Leaving behind the hillsides of reversible cubes that he had made the previous year in Horta. James McNeill Whistler’s Nocturnes (fig. of possibilities tested and rejected and of ideas yet unrealized. in the first exhibition of the Blaue Reiter. the artists’ group he had co-founded. Picasso incorporated the shattered forms of representation as if to tether his paintings securely to the world of things. he now worked in an idiom that seemed closer to a diagram (plates 3. W HISTLER . Kandinsky conversely could develop a theoretical rationale for abstraction but could not make the final break. In a later conversation reported by his wife Françoise Gilot. Kandinsky sets abstraction as a goal. while Pablo Picasso was summering at Cadaqués. it is impossible to conjure up maturity artificially at any particular time. and their philosophical justification developed in treatises and criticism. among other images. . “the artist cannot manage exclusively with purely abstract forms. His new paintings featured angled planes defined by linear scaffolding that shifted across the work’s surface. “The Cadaqués images are so difficult to decipher. one could say. when Kandinsky exhibited Komposition V (Composition V. Turner’s seascapes (fig.” He nonetheless balks 12 in embracing in the present day an art that breaks “the tie that binds us to nature.” These works seem abstract in all but name. Gustave Moreau’s ink drawings and watercolor sketches. as several previous studies of abstraction have done.” 13 “Today. he explained. there was some sense of building consternation around this issue. Spain. . anyway. the artist commented on the difficulty of this intellectual passage: “As yet. 1840.” Writing to Marc in October 1911. have been held up as important forms of proto-abstraction. Kandinsky described Picasso’s pictures. Oil on canvas. J. which appeared in December 1911 and May 1912 respectively. A . that I 7 brought in the attributes. I T W O S T O RI E S from the years immediately preceding 1912 convey some sense of how difficult it was to arrive at the novel idea of an abstract picture. 35 7⁄8 × 48 1⁄4" (91. Oil on panel. but there is no danger then. Afterwards you can remove all appearances of reality.” The Picasso scholar Pierre Daix has noted that while Kahnweiler had the right of first refusal of Picasso’s paintings. . I call them ‘attributes. these particular works went to a rival dealer. I myself was not yet sufficiently mature to be able to experience purely 15 abstract form without bridging the gap by means of objects. “I painted them in afterwards. in his paintings of that date.2 × 46.” Indeed. as “split[ting] the subject up and scatter[ring] bits of it all over the picture. it seems. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket. In the years preceding. musical instruments. Ambroise Vollard — suggesting 6 that Kahnweiler had rejected them. 3).6 cm). And it seems that Picasso himself — the most nimbleminded. abstraction not only began to seem plausible but took on the character of an imperative. Edgar Degas’s landscape monoprints. do not. First. But his opinion changed in the next two years (as did his painting).” an effect that was “frankly false” but nonetheless 9 an auspicious “sign of the enormous struggle toward the immaterial. even though. Ferry. “only a few artists can manage with purely abstract forms. was “a laboratory for abstract art. .” While Picasso in 1910 could paint a picture approaching abstraction but could not embrace it philosophically. It was only then. Tate.” 14 15 . and by 1914. Picasso’s dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler could not reconcile himself. “Today.” he writes. objects did not want to — and were not to — disappear altogether from my pictures. Referring to the fragmented forms of bodies. 4). and words that began to appear in the Cubist pictures he made immediately after his sojourn in Cadaqués (plates 1. 5).” In a lecture written (but never delivered) some years later. The sheer difficulty of thinking such a radically new idea — thinking within a new paradigm — is evident in the publication history of Kandinsky’s hugely 10 influential tract On the Spiritual in Art (plate 10).” In the works that followed those almost abstract images made in Cadaqués. But these works do not declare a break with subject matter. it seems to have been impossible for artists to step away from a long-held tenet of artistic practice: that paintings describe things in a real or imaginary world. . though of course they have 3 bearing on the story being told. 2). M. . c. attempt to inventory such precedents for abstraction avant la lettre. The manuscript existed in draft form as early as 1909. In the first two published editions. W. 1875. plate 18) in Munich. in so rigorously defining it in terms of atmospheric and experiential qualities that it is all but obscured.”) This exhibition and book. threatened painting itself. And for some artists and intellectuals.” the new 14 phrasing read.1 × 122. T URNER . Only the faintest traces of the structure of the female figure or still life named in the pictures’ titles were discernible within. he made a small group of strange pictures that looked unlike any that had preceded them. Sun Setting over a Lake. (Landscape above all. Before December 1911. Failure to do so. because the idea of the object will have left an 8 indelible mark.’ At that period I was doing painting for its own sake. were intended to produce meaning in other discursive frameworks. “that even the artist sometimes forgot what a particular image 4 represented. It was really pure painting. they provide an important foundation for the emergence of abstraction in the twentieth century. wrote 2 the art historian Henri Zerner.
plate 87) — 27 at the Salon de la Section d’Or. Picabia had made both works the summer before. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. it may be relevant that he was something of an outsider in the sphere in which he worked: he was trained in Prague and Vienna in a heady Symbolist milieu. H O W E V E R. he was a member of artistic circles in which some of the most experimental ideas about avant-garde practice were discussed (giving him an insider/outsider status that seems particularly fertile for paradigm-shifting thought): he lived next door to Raymond Duchamp-Villon. Léger showed his Femme en bleu (Woman in blue. Musée Picasso. seems to efface the figure with large arcing planes of that color. crude paint handling. distilled from images of trees (plate 252). “I do not know any painters in Paris who are truly seeking 20 this ideal world.” Each of these early efforts stood as a manifesto. a canvas bounded by a border of painted stripes more than eleven feet high (plate 77). Although those who gathered there have often been labeled the “Puteaux group. For some critics these works only offered proof of the dangers of such a departure: Gustave Kahn called them “games which are not within everyone’s reach. the Czech painter Kupka dispensed with all lingering hesitations. his loquacious paean to the ineffable. who had been corresponding 17 with Kandinsky since late 1911. The Swiss artist Klee. “This inquiry into pure painting is the current problem. La Femme en bleu was probably one of two works he sent to the Armory Show. in February 1912. which Stieglitz had hung at 291 in 1911. 4). responses were published through October. plate 24). he published On the Spiritual in Art. Self-portrait of the artist in his studio on the Boulevard de Clichy. nota bene. That December in Munich. Léger began his defiantly abstract Contrastes de formes series (Contrasts of forms. 1912. 5). who had participated in the selection of the works for this show. 1910. Dove. He. something else was clearly also in the conversational mix: a core group of participants in these Sunday 26 salons were to play important roles in abstraction’s early history. December 1910. the poet was working on his booklet Les Peintres cubistes. to a completely abstract life form. which leads. rather than describing a woman dressed in blue. Albert Gleizes. Then. showed a gargantuan tableau. in October of that year. described it as “certainly ‘abstract’ nothing 33 but angles and lines that has got [to be] the wildest thing you ever saw laid out for fair. At the time. and on his return had been struck by the first American exhibition of work by Picasso. Picabia’s irreverent pair of pictures invoked Picasso’s work through their faceted planes and rose-period palette. 5 13⁄16 × 4 9⁄16" (14. on Cubism 28 and its aftermath. the impact of the 1912 exhibitions led him to make major late-stage 29 changes in the proof of the book. more monumental one called Amorpha. displaying two paintings. He simultaneously placed a closely related canvas of the same scale — Danses à la source II (Dances at the spring II. plates 92–95). Apollinaire described a series of pictures.” And then the flow of events thickened: toward the end of 1912. who saw the Zurich show. so that the only remaining trace of human reference is the painting’s vertical orientation. “With their clear musical titles. The show included a drawing Picasso had made the winter before (fig. understood these works to 19 herald the birth of abstraction. but savored nonetheless: the work was reproduced on the front page of the newspaper Éclair. which Picasso had maintained.4 cm).6 cm). 1912. chromatique chaude (Amorpha. The work’s indecipherability was played out in the press. which opened in New 34 York in February 1913. Léger. a traditional forum for scandalous artistic gestures. at the Salon d’Automne in Paris. preludes to Russell’s grand contribution to the Salon des Indépendants the following spring. his Fenêtres (Windows) series (plates 31–33). and had studied French translations of On the Spiritual 18 of Art made by Sonia Delaunay-Terk and Elisabeth Epstein. without motifs from nature. which appears like a talisman of things to come in a number of photographs showing him or his friends seated proudly below it (fig. as “a very abstract Cubism. don’t they demonstrate 24 the difficulty with titles and the worry of escaping from painting for painting?” In considering Kupka’s role as the one who took this particularly public step in breaching convention. a work that. New York. and showed them in July 1912 in the Ausstellung des Modernen Bundes. The photographer Edward Steichen. in March-May of 1912. The Americans Morgan Russell and Stanton MacDonald-Wright showed abstract works at the Munich Neue Kunstsalon in June 1913 and at the BernheimJeune gallery. a monumental manifesto for abstraction that maintained only the most inscrutable traces of figural references. 16 17 . fugue in two colors. the subject of jest. 25 Apollinaire. that declared independence from traditional subject matter. plate 86). Connecticut. Yet in Paris. Gelatin silver print. and in March 1913. On a different shore. La Source (The spring. New York. Kandinsky exhibited Komposition V. Divided between venues. showed works so distilled from natural motifs as to approach abstraction in a one-man show in the gallery at 291 Broadway. Charcoal on paper. Three Kandinsky works — none quite so ambitious or so determined in their evacuation of referential content as Komposition V — were shown a few months later in Paris. Paris newcomer Picabia thrust his own stake in the ground of this terrain at the same Salon d’Automne in which Kupka’s Amorpha works appeared. and Jean Metzinger. by a Dutch artist working 35 in Paris. proclaimed in a review that Delaunay “has created the type of autonomous picture. Gino Severini. PABLO PICASSO . and pulsing eroticism. almost as far removed as a Bach 22 fugue is from a carpet. Dove was no stranger to European modernism: he had spent fifteen months in France in 1908–9. established by the 32 photographer and aesthetic impresario Alfred Stieglitz (plate 81).” and identified with the rigid second-generation Cubism of Gleizes and Metzinger. PABLO PICASSO . That same month. at the invitation of Bund co-founder Arp 21 (who had in turn obtained his address from Kandinsky). a proclamation of the viability of abstraction. 1912. which he had spent almost continuously in the company of Apollinaire.” Soon afterward the French artist made his own near-abstract works. warm chromatic) and a second.” At the same Salon d’Automne. should there have been any doubt that something was happening. fugue à deux couleurs (Amorpha. Picabia. Paris. T H E A S S A U LT WA S L A U N C H E D. 19 × 12 3⁄8" (48. Paris II I N 1911. with the drawing Femme nue debout mounted on the wall behind him. These works similarly announced a new form of picture-making to key viewers in German-speaking realms. which also opened that October. Femme nue debout (Standing female nude). Paris. The paintings were filmed for Gaumont newsreels and shown across Europe and the 23 United States. until the mystery 31 was “solved” in a letter from Léger himself on November 3.” And then in October of that year. Emile Le Fauconnier. frequented by a changing cast of characters including Marcel Duchamp (Duchamp-Villon’s and Villon’s brother). One critic wrote that Picabia had “set the year’s record for fantasy” with 30 “ugly” works that “evoke incrusted linoleum. which invoked a figurative reference through its title but was nonetheless an audacious declaration of abstraction.” wrote Delaunay to Kandinsky. Amorpha. the Delaunays. and during 1911 and 1912 was a sometime guest in the Sunday salons held at Jacques Villon’s house in Puteaux. plate 89).7 × 11. too. as well as through their defiant breach of the figurative tradition. in the Kunsthaus Zurich. at the 16 Salon des Indépendants. Mondrian.3 × 31. Alfred Stieglitz Collection 5. far from being the isolated émigré figure he is frequently portrayed as in the literature. then seemed to travesty its refinement in their billboard scale. A structure of plastic life.4. Delaunay.” and Louis Arnould Grémilly asked. who had been living and working in Westport. the public was invited to decipher it.
abstraction resembles many other intellectual developments studied by sociologists. 135. often repeated in the literature: he tells of seeing one of his own paintings leaning on its side. whose visitors included Duchamp. and on July 1. almost simultaneous inventions of the same or related things: many investigators converging on the same finding is a common pattern of scientific discovery. those who make these artistic gestures and those who recognize and proclaim their significance to a broader audience. prompting individuals to take positions far more extreme. Henri Poincaré hosted an international conference that established a method for transmitting accurate radio time signals around the world. It is a distinctly modern interconnectedness that emerges here — one that is decidedly international. to simultaneous acclaim and disparagement so divisive as to precipitate the dissolution of Russian 40 Cubo-Futurism and the formation of its radically innovative successor movements. multiple creators. a development crucial in abstraction’s incubation. host to an international community of intellectuals. There are also many less-well-rehearsed examples of the dissemination of ideas in the history of early abstraction. the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung (First Russian art exhibition) at the Van Diemen gallery in Berlin. with a momentum that builds up and accelerates. where he saw the Spanish artist’s constructed sculptures and then returned home to display “assemblages of materials” of his own in his studio in May. 136. there is something else misleading about speaking of the invention of abstraction through stories of solitary protagonists: what we have already heard here suggests that abstraction was incubated. 11 7⁄16 × 8 3⁄4 × 13⁄16" (29 × 22. Within the art world specifically. multiple heralds. more than a year before exhibiting his famous Uglovye kontr-reliefy (Corner counter-reliefs. Instead. hung on the 41 walls. founded by Kandinsky and Marc and first published in Munich in May 1912. which introduced a Western audience to the Soviet avant-garde after the borders had been closed to the cultural products of the new Bolshevik state in the years since the Russian Revolution of 1917. which facilitated the establishment of coordinated international markets and set the stage for the vertiginous growth of a modern speculative 45 economy and commodity culture. Certain forums were particularly significant. German and Russian painting. Kandinsky and Franz Marc. The Russian literary scholar Aleksandr Smirnov. then again in a widely distributed second edition in 1914. One example is Kandinsky’s famous reminiscence. telephones. Abstraction’s network was fostered in the years immediately before World War I by a new modern culture of connectivity. automobiles. an old friend and distant cousin of Delaunay-Terk’s from her native St. which mixed European and American artists and pulled in the crowds. And it is perhaps more significant that he recounted the tale in 1913. sharing ideas. organized by David Shterenberg and El Lissitzky. It was this drive to speak of individual priority in invention that led the makers of so many of the early works in this exhibition and catalogue to backdate them. plate 219) at the 0.” Yet despite the epiphanic quality of this story. at dusk. 35. sometimes 37 to several years earlier than they were actually made (plates 22. Paris. than they 38 would alone. The Museum of Modern Art Library. in 1912. and Smirnov showed a copy of La Prose du Transsibérien et de la petite Jehanne de France (Prose of the Trans-Siberian and of little Joan of France. 310). countering the Romantic ideal of the genius as an inspired loner. The network of sociability built by transit pathways. fig. 6). The answer to the question “How do you think a truly radical thought?” seems to be: you think it through a network. Abstraction’s pioneers. and radio relayed news of events quickly across the globe.” he wrote of his work in a letter to Theo van Doesburg. the idea of a transnational avant-garde was fostered by the rampant proliferation of journals. 39 Merton has suggested. when he lived in Paris. Piper). 1913. Randall Collins looks at the social dimension of innovation. In trains. Moreover. Petersburg. his defiance belying the strength of his feelings on the 43 subject. Returning to St. lecturing in July 1913 at the Brodiachaia Sobaka (Stray dog). despite being far flung.10 exhibition in Petrograd in December 1915. spending time at their country house in Louveciennes. it seems. are far more interconnected than is generally acknowledged. This sort of productive sociability may also lead to multiple. “Poster-poems” by DelaunayTerk. visited the Delaunays in France during the summers of 1912 and 1913. Collins suggests. sometime after his arrival in Munich in 1896. “Let them call it too abstract. the arrival of Marinetti in Russia in 1914. and the American artist Joseph Stella. innovation is found in groups: it arises out of social interaction — conversation. the first time signal to be broadcast globally was sent from the 46 Eiffel Tower. it took Kandinsky years more to produce an abstract picture himself. facilitating intellectual dialogue between established cultural capitals like Paris. through a relay of ideas and acts among a nexus of players. as the sociologist of science Robert K. for example. in 1922. Telegraphs. In its emergence within a rich social network. he was nonetheless captivated by the forms and colors of this mysterious work — an event prompting the realization “that objects harmed 36 my pictures. Art historian David Cottington estimates that there were approximately 200 “little reviews” of art and culture in Paris alone in the decade 47 preceding World War I. the Russian artist Aleksandra Ekster. would seem to follow this model. Marc wrote in the prospectus for the publication that it would “show the latest movements in French. and multiple rationales. In Paris in 1912. All of this fed a more international. and new forms of communication allowed for the movement of ideas and images across a broad terrain. stories contained in discrete narrative silos. one such being the Blaue Reiter almanac (fig. the proliferation of print media. Incapable of discerning its content. and steamships. In his book The Sociology of Philosophies. people were travelling internationally in numbers far greater than ever before. National boundaries became porous as people crossed them with new ease — and until the outbreak of World War I. the huge International Exhibition of Modern Art held at the New York Armory on Lexington Avenue in 1913. plate 41) that he had 42 brought with him.2 × 2 cm).6. Petersburg. 129. which combined bright arcs of color with an array of verbal fragments. Abstraction. even before the show traveled to London and then around Europe. Subtle connections are revealed between modern and Gothic and 18 19 . Second ed. New York III T H E I N V E N T I O N O F A B S T R A C T I O N is usually told through stories about individual actors. ed. Smirnov spread the word of the new art he had seen in France. Line block reproduction after woodcut. 44 most European countries had minimal passport requirements. These same communication technologies allowed for the synchronization of times and clocks across distance. 1914. on Robert and Sonia Delaunay’s work and the theory of simultaneous contrasts. 30. (Munich: R. far more convention defying. with almost simultaneous “first” pictures appearing in a scattering of places. The sinking of the Titanic in 1912. 16. and centers in Central and Eastern Europe and the United States. validation and competition. Illustrated book. a key step in adopting a universal standard time. global sense of one’s world. Certain recognized points of contact suggest this: the revelatory exhibition of Italian Futurism organized by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti at the BernheimJeune gallery. 1913. he argues. Picabia. was not only followed achingly by those on ships just out of reach of the ocean liner but was also one of the first news stories to be reported virtually simultaneously with the event. Indeed. Cover of Der Blaue Reiter (The blue rider). thanks to wireless telegraphy. an avant-garde gathering place in the years before the Revolution. can radicalize intellectual innovation. Vladimir Tatlin’s visit to Picasso’s Paris studio in March 1914. just as abstraction had become a public fact. the right sort of group. and later. each with some claim to priority. It was an invention with multiple first steps. Some nonmeetings had a charged significance too: Mondrian. was so eager to avoid Picasso’s charismatic influence — and insistence that painting represent things — that he would recall taking pains to avoid meeting the Spanish artist in the years 1912–14. VASILY KANDINSKY .
Jr. Repr. the one who 56 introduced him to Georges Braque in 1907. Kandinsky declared it his goal to “show that something was happening 49 everywhere. He lived for a while with the Delaunays in late 1912. 55 the most far-reaching man of his time. and it was he. The Museum of Modern Art Library. 8). appearing 64 in 1915. One key actor in the development of abstraction was Kandinsky himself. then. By September 1911. Apollinaire quickly established himself as a formidable master of the new print-media world. at The Museum of Modern Art in 1936 (plate 452). And in some respects he may have precipitated them: in the Francophone context. Apollinaire met the Mexican artist Marius de Zayas. In bringing people into contact. Delaunay wrote coyly to Kandinsky in a letter of April 3. With these combined forums. with the highly expressive. Apollinaire played a key role in publicizing the incremental developments in the new modes of artistic abstraction.” For all Apollinaire’s media savvy. the most well-known. and Apollinaire’s polemical pieces on the direction of painting. In 1912. declaring in the first. “I will speak to you sometime about the subject in painting. Key 53 20 21 . Kandinsky and Marc conceived the Blaue Reiter this way. MARIUS DE ZAYAS . Connectors do the social work of many. who has begun to believe in us. Carrà parole in libertà (plate 112). 1914). Les Soirées de 52 Paris. precipitously popular. Stéphane Mallarmé. Gabrielle Buffet. February 1912 issue of Les Soirées de Paris that “the new painters paint pictures which no longer have any real subject matter” (sujet véritable). and Buffet recalls the pair’s endless discussions of abstraction. was modeled in part on Les Soirées de Paris (fig. Les Soirées de Paris no. suggesting the unexpected density of contacts among abstraction’s pioneers. some figures play a disproportionate role. Barr. 1912.” In its very conception. by Apollinaire. In the period from 1910 to 1914. Stieglitz’s journal 291 (fig.” Poem and typographic layout with illustration “Voilà Elle” by Francis Picabia.000 copies. with a daily 51 run of 40. 25 (June 15. in 291 no. and the two saw each other almost daily. facilitating relays of ideas among their broad acquaintance. New York primitive art. New York 8. connections with Africa and the vast Orient. it was Apollinaire who threw down the gauntlet. another was certainly Apollinaire.7. The Museum of Modern Art Library. including Stendhal. an encounter 59 that would result in their collaboration on La Prose du Transsibérien (plate 41). The poet began to publish art criticism in 1910. He often accompanied Picabia on road trips in one of the latter’s 58 magnificent fleet of cars. (He even managed to broker a 63 gallery contract between the Italian and Kahnweiler. The network through which the idea of abstraction spread is suggested in this book in a diagram (front endpapers). “Lettre-Océan” (Ship-to-ship letter). with friends. The author Malcolm Gladwell uses the term “connectors” to describe charismatic. with almanac and exhibiting society as complements to each other. made with a tip of the hat to the famous chart that graced the cover of Alfred H. Honoré de Balzac. 9 (November 1915). and he stresses their impor50 tance in understanding how certain ideas may become suddenly. GUILLAUME APOLLINAIRE . for the occasion. even before Kupka’s and Picabia’s audacious showings in the fall of 1912. he traveled with Robert Delaunay to Germany for the painter’s show there at the Sturm gallery in Berlin. people took off in trains and cars. who introduced Sonia Delaunay-Terk to the poet Blaise Cendrars. spontaneous folk and children’s art. he wrote a column that appeared most days in L’Intransigeant. temporal realms. then produced graphically innovative free verse in quick succession — Apollinaire the 62 first calligramme (fig. he put up the poet-painter 61 Carlo Carrà in his offices at Les Soirées de Paris. which published poetry and cultural commentary of all sorts — reviews. He recommended that Kupka read the color 57 theory of Paul Signac. and the brothers Edmond and Jules de Goncourt.) Through Picabia. socially adept people with contacts dispersed among many different social pools.” An emergent modern exhibition culture — for this was the dawn of international loan shows — played a parallel function: pictures moved across borders to new audiences. and media. “Femme! (Elle). Picabia’s wife. too. and whose rapturous report of the meeting prompted Stieglitz to begin an exchange of journals with Apollinaire through the mail. who was scouting for Stieglitz in Paris in 1914. and especially with the most recent musical develop48 ments in Europe and the new ideas for theater of our time. considered Apollinaire “the most social. he launched a review of his own. where he held court with the German Expressionists and gave an 60 influential lecture on modern painting. and another for Paris-Journal. “Les Fenêtres ” (The windows). Not surprisingly.’s catalogue for his Cubism and Abstract Art exhibition. his personal social reach was perhaps more remarkable. 7). about an exciting conversation at the home 54 of Apollinaire. images were distributed through print media. When a delegation of Italian Futurists made an extended visit to Paris. On the subject of Apollinaire. the duo published a catalogue of Delaunay’s paintings. the almanac aimed at a dissolution of boundaries — between national schools. a key moment for our topic.” He was a close friend of Picasso’s. feuilletons. soliciting both pictures for exhibitions and essays and images for publication. following a long line of French writers who had done so. prefaced with a dedication (reproduced in the present volume on the half title page) and a poem.000 copies. Kandinsky was corresponding with artists in cities throughout Europe. Vectors link individuals who knew each other. 7). a paper with a daily print run of about 50. In January 1913.
to purify it of all its dependence upon life. Russian zaum (transrational poetry). plate 80]. 1910–11. Malevich. Kupka among verticals.” “Suprematism. they excitedly discussed the congruence they recognized between Schoenberg’s music.” “Unism. or vestiges of a natural or figurative motif seem to provide an armature for a new type of painting (Picabia’s Source. When the term “abstraction” does appear in the sphere of art. for example. ideas of the absolute — have likewise lingered. V T H E P U B L I C A P P E A R A N C E O F T H E FI R S T A B S T R A C T PA I N T I N G S was matched by equally momentous developments in other spheres. Charles Clément. the adherence 22 23 .e. attended a concert of music by the Viennese composer Arnold Schoenberg. Here abstraction functions as an operation. at a New Year’s Eve party celebrating the incoming year of 1911. Perhaps not surprisingly. the word had the sense of “considering in isolation. requesting reproductions. along with Aleksei Jawlensky.” of “separating accident from substance” (Lebensztejn). independent of compositional or harmonic development. distinguishing it from a generalized Cubism just weeks after Kupka displayed his Amorpha paintings at the Salon d’Automne. of everything about it that was arbitrary. so that one might. A spate of appellations for this new form of picture-making soon followed: pure painting (Apollinaire. Marc wrote of the evening. The artists pursuing nonrepresentational painting splintered into an array of grouplets with neologistic self-nominations like “Rayism. and this understanding is still present in early abstract works in which traces of descriptive subject matter abound. Marinetti. The crowd was dumbfounded but the artists were dazzled. the one that I use here — abstraction — had been in existence long before this moment.connectors can be discerned: they appear at the center of a burst of rays and include Kandinsky. these new friends. what many of these individuals have in common is the fact that they served. for example. and Mondrian). out of the unending flux of being. On January 14. These elements are common enough to suggest that evacuating all ties to the natural world was not key to the models of abstraction first proposed around 1912. not only through their similar challenges to the conventions of their respective genres but also through important relationships among key figures in these different disciplines. plate 252]). commissioning manuscripts. purity. layered under paint applied in a different mode (Kupka’s Mme Kupka dans les verticales [Mme.” “to isolate. Stieglitz. who had appeared in one of Apollinaire’s poems of 1911 as 65 an avatar of “pure poetry. he described a “will to abstraction” in both primitive and modern societies. the difficulty that observers and participants apparently had in finding a suitable name for them suggests how they continued to defy easy categorization. and Kandinsky’s companion. The word that we have come to use as shorthand for painting that jettisons the depiction of things. Although Worringer did not speak of contemporary art. arbitrariness. . Some of the connotations Worringer found in the “will to abstraction” — separation from the world. humanly created and therefore essentially artificial: “In nature there is neither line nor color.” Yet in an essay of the same year. and Tristan Tzara. an overspecialized search for shape which can only lead to a kind of abstraction — to a coldness inevitable in conceptions which are determined 69 by completely false and rigid pictorial ideas. of 1908 — actually written in 1906. . At times the figure seems to be aggressively effaced. and the critic Maurice Raynal). Gabriele Münter. Line and color have been created by man. from real-world concerns. our inner feeling for the primitives” 72 on the opening page of On the Spiritual in Art. relationships that facilitated the movement of ideas across media. his theories (his writing had been published in the program). and his use of the term “abstraction” in that essay probably also shows its influence. though he did not mention Kupka by name. Futurist parole in libertà (words in liberty). Léger. over drinks after the concert. He first met the Russian artist in Munich. at others. a common expression of anxiety and vulnerability in relation to an external world not confidently mastered. . Kandinsky. Even so. 1911. They are abstractions. Morton Schamberg’s Figure (Geometric Patterns) [1913. and Kandinsky’s painting. Marianne Werefkin. The “aim of abstraction” — here Worringer picked up on the meaning of the word as an isolating operation — was “to wrest the object of the external world out of its natural context. described the work of the followers of Jacques-Louis David as characterized by “a tense style. and dance abandoned its traditional grounding in costumed narrative to stress the kinesthetic movement of the body. our understanding. yet they are perfectly equal to and absolutely independent 70 of the subject of the picture. its importance for Kandinsky is signaled in his declaration of “our sympathy. The pleasures we derive in them are of a different sort. to render it necessary and irrefragable. “Can you imagine a music in which tonality (that is. Charles Baudelaire broached a new sense of abstraction as a language separate from nature.” “Synchromism. to 71 approximate it to its absolute value. objectless painting (Klee and Malevich in German and Russian respectively) — each indica67 tive of subtle shifts in philosophical orientation.” and so forth. in a letter to the artist August Macke. writing in 1868. begin to define the “abstract sciences” as those removed from practical application or empirical study — that is. That night they began an intense and productive friendship that would include the cofounding of the Blaue Reiter group and the publication of the Blaue Reiter almanac. IV A P O L L I N A I R E WA S P E R H A P S T H E F I R S T to give a name to this new phenomenon. Two days later. and soliciting support.” Evoking too the Orphic cults and the Alexandrians. on January 2. The term he bestowed — Orphism — was both awkward and decidedly anachronistic: it paid homage to the mythical Greek poet/musician Orpheus.” By the sixteenth century. New types of music celebrated sound. at least on reflection. new pictorial realism and variations thereof (Delaunay. shattered fragments of recognizable elements emerge as if to maintain ties between the artwork and things in the world (Delaunay’s Fenêtres or Kandinsky’s Komposition V). as a doctoral thesis — reintroduced the term at a moment in which it resonated with conversations within the international avant-garde. especially in German avant-garde circles around Berlin’s Sturm gallery.” Wilhelm Worringer’s book Abstraktion und Einfühlung (Abstraction and empathy). building a network in their cross-border correspondence. Scholars have long noted the historical coincidence of these phenomena but not often the fact that they were deeply linked. plate 25] or Léger’s Femme en bleu). Delaunay. Georges Roque and Jean-Claude Lebensztejn have recently traced its evolution 68 from early senses as a verbal act meaning “to remove. among their other roles. the writers of the classical period who fascinated Apollinaire. in the nineteenth century. as abstract pictures began to appear. i. the act of abstracting one thing from another. 73 Marc tells a famous story about Kandinsky’s embrace of abstraction. it suggested a fusing of ancient mystery 66 and modern image. and Dadaist sound poetry privileged the graphic and aural quality of language over communicative comprehensibility. as editors of little reviews. Apollinaire. it was often deployed pejoratively to mean overly intellectual or theoretical. Mondrian’s “The Trees” [1912.” The text had great impact.
299. 5 �⁄₁₆ x 7 �⁄₁₆" (12. Bühler: pl. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Covarrubias/Vanity Fair: pl. photo Vladimir Terebenin. © 2012 Vilmos Huszar/Artists Rights Society (ARS). Courtesy Centre Pompidou–Mnam–Bibliothèque Kandinsky– E. Bonn. Courtesy: The Art Institute of Chicago: pl.Y.J. Paris. Stedelijk Museum. 384. 53 Street. 390. New York/SIAE. 258.Y. The text reads in translation. 173.com Cover: Liubov’ Popova. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. The Solomon R. N. 247. 170. 163.: pl. Thomas Griesel: pls. Zentrum Paul Klee: pl. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.V. fig. Vienna: pl. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS).Y. 398. 194–199. 129. Tate. 466. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Amsterdam: pl. The Horace W. 175. 34.. 216. Courtesy National Gallery of Art. New York/ADAGP. Gilman Collection. Amsterdam: p. 1911. 13 �⁄₈ x 10 �⁄₈" (34 x 27 cm). Nina Léger. New York 155 Sixth Avenue. 2012. N. N. Paris. 367. Petersburg State Archive of Cinema. © 1910.C. Bonn. “I Love the Art of today because I Love/Light above all and all people/Love Light above all/they invented Fire/G A” Title: Anton Giulio Bragaglia. Paris. pls. New York/PICTORIGHT. Courtesy Kunstmuseum Basel. Courtesy Deutsche Kinemathek–Museum für Film und Fernsehen/ Schriftgutarchiv: pl. Courtesy Muzeum Sztuki w Łodzi: pls. Department of Painting and Sculpture The exhibition is made possible by Major support is provided by the Anna-Maria and Stephen Kellen Foundation. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 240–46. London. Imaging and Visual Resources Department: p. N. Photo Marcin Muchalski. photo Sheldan C. New York/ADAGP. 12. New York/ADAGP. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 141. 125. Courtesy and © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Washington. 157. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). Mart — Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto: p. Courtesy: The Solomon R. N. 379. New York. © 2011 courtesy The David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art. Photo and Sound Documents: p. 444. Locarno: pl. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 1910 – 1925 at The Museum of Modern Art. 405. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Courtesy Adrien Sina: pl. Madrid This book is typeset in Placard Condensed. 266. Courtesy the Muzeum Sztuki w Łodzi: pls. 325. Should the Museum have been unable to locate the rights holder. 91.Y. 386.9 cm).A. 113. 284. 10. 204. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). New York. Courtesy Stiftung Hans Arp und Sophie Taeuber-Arp e.artbook. Bonn. Cologne: p. 225–39. 167. or elsewhere. © 2012 Fundación Pettoruti: 107. photo Ed Restle: pl. Courtesy and © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. © 2012 Art Acquest: pls. 357. Whitney Museum of American Art. 16. 88. 400–403.: pl. New York. 210. 359. 34. photo Sabine AhlbrandDornseif: pl. 25. and Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III. fig. 109. © 2012 A. 108. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Courtesy: The Art Institute of Chicago: pl. 168. © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). 255. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 224. New York/ADAGP. 21. 190.. New Haven: pls. The Hague. Paris. 223. 285. fig.Y. Jodi Roberts. 111. Bonn. 35. 310. Bonn. 110. N. Gelatin silver print. © mumok. St. 307. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012 L & M Services B. Paris. 86. © 2012 Gino Severini/Artists Rights Society (ARS).Y. 331. 340. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). New York/VG Bild-Kunst. © 2012 Duncan Grant/Artists Rights Society (ARS). New York/VG Bild-Kunst. © Diamond Shot Studio: 140. Produced by the Department of Publications. p. 274. 312–22. Madrid: pl. Santa Fe/Art Resource. 343. Courtesy St. 347.. Courtesy Van Abbemuseum.Y. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS).: pls. Hubert Damisch’s and Philippe-Alain Michaud’s essays were translated from the French by Jeanine Herman. Rome. pls. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Masha Chlenova. Courtesy Netherlands Architecture Institute. Madrid: pls. January–February 1913. Courtesy State Tretyakov Gallery. 364. Bonn. 1938 Universal Edition A. photo Nic Tenwiggenhorn: pls. Courtesy a private collector. 251.V. Curatorial Assistant. 368. 17. 345. Paris: pl. 353. 174. 142. Texas: pls. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Albers Foundation/Art Resource. 21. Bereich Sondersammlungen: pls. The Hague: pl.thamesandhudson. Courtesy: Triton Foundation: pl. 102. N. through Joyce and Robert Menschel Printed in Spain 374 375 . 287. 308. © The Cleveland Museum of Art: pl. N. 144. 181. 80.Y.Y. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. The Museum of Modern Art Library.: pl. Courtesy Thyssen-Bornemisza Collections. Courtesy Arnold Schönberg Center. Yuri Molodkovots: pl. The paper is 150gsm Luxosamt. fig. 31. 3. and Mitali Banerjee. pls. Paris. 336. museum moderner kunst stiftung ludwig wien. 151. © 2012 The Estate of Helen Saunders.: pls. 43–49. pls. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Warsaw: pl. New York/ADAGP. © 2012 Estate of Oskar Schlemmer: pl. © Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. 131–36. 338. and Freight Sans. Halftitle: Guillaume Apollinaire. Peter Butler: pls. Courtesy L ’Illustration: pl. 120. the names in red are those with the most connections within this group. Courtesy a private collector: pl. New York/DACS. 152. © 1912. 31. 252. courtesy Tate. © HIP/Art Resource. Courtesy Columbus Museum of Art. Photo Marcin Muchalski. 76.G. Petersburg: p. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York/ADAGP. 255. Courtesy a private collector: pl.: p. Courtesy CNAC/MNAM/Dist. New York/ADAGP. 96–99. 27. 95. 268. fig. 157–62. 154. Collection Barney A. pl. © 2011 Kunsthaus Zürich. 200. 405. Courtesy Corcoran Gallery of Art. 161. 17. © 2012 L&M Services B. Paris. Houston: pl.: pl. 401. 280. This exhibition is supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 335. 249. Courtesy Staatsgalerie Stuttgart: pl. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Paris.Y. Stepanova Archive. 182. and Catherine Wheeler. 23. Zürich: pl. New York/ADAGP.Y.: pl. 337. © 2012 The Estate of Arthur G. 123. December 23. 139. N. 185. 467. photo Martin P. 184. Bonn. 150. New York 10019 © 2012 The Museum of Modern Art. Vienna: p. photo Giuseppi Penisi (Foto Brunel): pl. 269. Remagen.. fig.Y. 42. 324. 5. Courtesy Stedelijk Museum. Courtesy a private collector: pl.: p. Guggenheim Foundation: pl. N.. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Courtesy St. Vienna/UE 2291.Y. 251. Paris. N.: pls. photo Wolfgang Morell: pls. 170. London. 164. Paris. p. Courtesy Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. 167. 173. Collins: pl. 264. 298. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 212. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Photo Marcin Muchalski. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 36. Rachel Adler: pl.: pls. 441.: pl. New York/ProLitteris.: pl. Courtesy a private collector: pls. © 2012 André Longchamps Photographe: pl. Bonn. New York/ PROLITTERIS. 87. Courtesy Mondadori Portfolio/Electa/Art Resource. Bonn. Courtesy Musée d’art et d’histoire du Judaïsme. Courtesy Arnold Schönberg Center. Paris: pls. 2012 André Longchamps Photographe: pls.A. Berlin: pls. © 2012 Estate of Wacław Szpakowski. 147. N. The Philadelphia Museum of Art/Art Resource. D. 206. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). courtesy Terry Dintenfass. Courtesy bpk. 327. 145. Moscow: pl. © 2012 Johannes Itten/Artists Rights Society (ARS). © Werner Graeff ’s Estate. Paris. In reproducing the images contained in this publication. Remagen-Rolandswerth. Pittsburgh: pl. 292. 2013. N. Cologne. image Art Resource. Purchase.Y. 11. 9. 334. it requests that any contact information concerning such rights be forwarded so that they may be contacted for future editions. Paris. Berlin/Nationalgalerie. © 2012 Miriam Cendrars. Albright-Knox Art Gallery/Art Resource. New York/SIAE. Leeds/Bridgeman Art Library: pl. 361. 41. 1. 137. 355. 138. N. 265. © Diamond Shot Studio: pl. 305. 37. 56–73.Y. Rotterdam: pls. 392–94. 396. New York. 136. 398. Bonn. N. Courtesy a private collector: pl. 208. Bonn. Courtesy State Tretyakov Gallery.. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. © Tate. 100. and may not be reproduced in any form without the permission of the rights holders. 249. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. 85. New York/ Beeldrecht. Rome: pls. fig. RMN–Grand Palais/Art Resource. Mimi and Peter Haas Fund. 330. Anders: pls. Photo Erich Lessing/Art Resource. 2012: pl. 15. 341. Rodchenko and V. New York. 353. 122. 25. Ebsworth: pl. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Rome. New York.: pl. © 2012 Stiftung John Neumeier: pls. The Museum of Modern Art. 30. London/Art Resource. N. 253. Bonn. image Art Resource. Vectors connect artists whose acquaintance with one another during these years could be documented.8 x 17. Thessaloníki: pl. Leah Dickerman. 19. Marie-Josée and Henry Kravis. 8. 107. Guggenheim Foundation: pls.Y. Bertola: pl. Bonn. fig. 29. Courtesy private collection courtesy the Aargauer Kunsthaus Aarau. 95. Washington. 143. 342. Berlin/ Kupferstichkabinett. 94. Mali Olatunji: pls. 18.. 159. The endpapers are set in Futura. © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). 407. 307. 303. pls. © Diamond Shot Studio: half title page. 369. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. 188. New York/ADAGP. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). fig.C. 458. Photo Marcin Muchalski. Courtesy Landes-Stiftung Arp Museum Bahnhof Rolandseck. 2. 25. Bonn. Rome. 296. New York/ADAGP. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 177. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 171. New York. 105. 168. 333. Rome. Moscow: pl. Courtesy State Museum of Contemporary Art–Costakis Collection. 309. 389. 346. © Wyndham Lewis Memorial Trust: pl. 201. © Artists Rights Society (ARS). Courtesy Wilhelm-Hack-Museum. 33. © 2012 L & M Services B. p. 305.Y.Y. 40. Staatliche Museen. 164.: pl. © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). New York. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Courtesy Mary-WigmanArchiv. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 311. Thessaloníki: pls. 155. New York/SIAE. N.PHOTOGRAPH CREDITS © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). Paris. © RMN–Grand Palais/Art Resource. 20120503.C. Berlin/ Art Resource. 361. 442. 193. photo Peter Cox: pl. New York/ADAGP.Y. D.Y. New York/ADAGP. Photos The Museum of Modern Art. 82. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 304. photo M. doctoral candidate. 104. 248.P.: pl. Courtesy A. London/Art Resource. Art Resource. 192. 27. Courtesy the Walker Art Center. 254.: pl. The back endpapers list the artists. Philip Johnson Fund. birth and death dates.Y. von Dühre: pl. Washington. © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). New York: pl. large detail). © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). 128. Photo Erich Lessing/Art Resource. 10. 6.: pl. D. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Scala/ Art Resource. London/Art Resource. Courtesy Arnold Schönberg Center. Courtesy the Sherwin Collection. pls. Vienna/PH 229. 127. Dove. pls. Moscow: pl. Guggenheim Foundation: pl. 262. 93. London. Berlin/Nationalgalerie. 1913.: p. New York/ ADAGP. Published by The Museum of Modern Art. Courtesy State Museum of Contemporary Art–Costakis Collection. 77. Kravis Professor of Business. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS).com Distributed outside the United States and Canada by Thames & Hudson Ltd 181A High Holborn. 101. RMN–Grand Palais/Art Resource. Courtesy Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus. Courtesy The Museum of Fine Arts. 271. Guggenheim Foundation: pls. Vienna: pl. 445. 347. Paris: p. New York/ ProLitteris. Courtesy: CNAC/ MNAM/Dist. New York/ADAGP.: title page. The Museum of Modern Art. N. Wellesley College. and the countries where they worked during the period covered by the exhibition. 450.Y. RMN–Grand Palais/Art Resource. © RMN–Grand Palais/Art Resource. The Hague. Latvian National Museum of Art. 261. 397. 295. 248. © ARS.: pl. 220. Courtesy Muzeum Sztuki w Łodzi: pls. Courtesy the Art Institute of Chicago: pls. 4. London/ Published in conjunction with the exhibition Inventing Abstraction. 323.Y. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Courtesy Charlotte Douglas. 366. Washington. London/Art Resource. London: pl. Courtesy: Centre national de la danse: pls. 20. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. 75. 31 �⁄₂" × 38 �⁄₈" (80 × 98 cm). David Allison: pl. p. 86. 15. 8. photo Jörg Müller: pl. New York. 139.V. 466. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. 270. 3. New York. Photo Michael Herling and Aline Gwose: pl. Courtesy © L & M Services B. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). pls. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Moscow: pls. New York/ADAGP. Zhivopisnaia arkhitektonika (Painterly architectonic. 406. Organized by Leah Dickerman. Petersburg. Courtesy Sammlung Hans Richter/ Deutsches Filminstitut–DIF. all rights reserved: pl. N. Image source: Art Resource. fig. and their birthplaces. 298. 149.: pl. Courtesy Tate. 153. Rodchenko and V. 156. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Essen: pl. Courtesy Amon Carter Museum of American Art. N.: pl. Courtesy Museum Folkwang. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 211. 11 W. Berlin/Art Resource. 290. 114. Staatliche Kunstsammlungen. Cambio di posizione (Change of position). 440. 329.: pl. 443. fig. 272. Paris. 215. New York/ADAGP. John Wronn: pls. 207. D. Rome. Geneva. 186.: p. The Solomon R. Ester Coen’s essay was translated from the Italian by Marguerite Shore. fig.C. N. 328. Courtesy CNAC/MNAM/Dist. N. 1940 Universal Edition A. 126. J. Courtesy: Tate. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Courtesy the Museum Wiesbaden. 313–22. Bonn. Jaroslaw Suchan’s essay was translated from the Polish by Klara Kemp-Welch. 9. 115–19. © Diamond Shot Studio: pls. Fort Worth.. New York Production by Matthew Pimm Printed and bound by Brizzolis. 391. Vienna: pl. The Philadelphia Museum of Art: pl. Courtesy a private collection: pl. 276–79. © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012 Georges Vantongerloo/Artists Rights Society (ARS). 190. N. Jonathan Muzikar: p. 33. 131–34. 213. Smithsonian Institution. 443. 354.. Courtesy: Montclair Art Museum. 20120503. 183. New York/ADAGP. Courtesy Tate. 388. The Solomon R. Courtesy Kunsthaus Zürich. 358. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. fig. 160. 397.: pls. 5. photo Martin P. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 399. 124. Paris.: p. 17. Courtesy Maria Graciela and Luis Alfonso Oberto Collection: pl. Rome. 442. Courtesy Mary-Wigman-Archiv. Dresden: pl. New York Edited by David Frankel Designed by McCall Associates. © 2012 Carnegie Museum of Art. with Masha Chlenova. © 2012 Stichting Kröller-Müller Museum: pls. © 2012 Peyton Wright Gallery. Amsterdam: pl. Ingrid Chou. 5.Y. 26. Paige Knight: pls. New York. 365. 294. photo Sheldan C. 13. photo Joerg P. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 146. 10. 166. © 2012 Mary Wigman Foundation. © Diamond Shot Studio: pl. 28. 440. The University of Chicago: pl. Bonn. 377. New York. photo Martin P. 260.: pl. © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). New York/ADAGP. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Oil on canvas. 276. © Conde Nast. Rome. 6. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art/ Art Resource. Ohio: pl. Courtesy Gemeentemuseum Den Haag: pl. 259. NY 10013 www. Courtesy Kunstmuseum Basel. 18. 83. 21. Courtesy Philadelphia Museum of Art: pl. 187. London/Art Resource. 385.Y. The Netherlands. 402. 385–88. N. Bonn.Y. 380. Henschel and C. Photo Marcin Muchalski. Delaunay. the catalogue for a Delaunay exhibition at Der Sturm gallery. Berlin: pl. 165. 379. N. Robert Gerhardt: pls. © and courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 409–38. London WC1V 7QX www. 106. Courtesy New York Academy of Medicine: pls. 26.: pl. 13. Paris. Courtesy a private collector: pl. Courtesy Musée d’art moderne et contemporain de Strasbourg. Paris: pl. N. 446–48. 348–52. Dedication preceding Apollinaire’s poem Les Fenêtres (Windows) in R. 165. The State Tretyakov Gallery. p. D. Courtesy State Russian Museum. courtesy Bibliothèque national de France. 346. N. 38. 51. Philadelphia Museum of Art: pl. 289.: pl. New York/SIAE. 32. Courtesy a private collection: pls.V. the Museum obtained the permission of the rights holders whenever possible. 22. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 17. 74. 56–73. 113. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 356. Switzerland: pl. 112. 404.: pls. Bonn. Inc. New York/SIAE. Courtesy Philadelphia Museum of Art: pl. 209. © 2012 Rheinisches Bildarchiv Köln: pl. The accompanying seminars are made possible by MoMA’s Wallis Annenberg Fund for Innovation in Contemporary Art through the Annenberg Foundation. Akademie der Künste. Bonn: pls. New York/SIAE. Courtesy Sprengel Museum Hannover: pls. Courtesy Galerie Gmurzynska. 2012–April 15. photo Normunds Brasliņš: pls. © 2012 Luigi Russolo Estate: 125. pls. 2012 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artist’s Rights Society (ARS). 326. 79. Frankfurt am Main: pls. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Mass. The Hague. 89. New York/VG Bild-Kunst.: pl. Bühler: pls. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS).: pl. 449.: pl. 6. Courtesy Staatsgalerie Stuttgart: pl.G. 257.Y. 395. Bonn. 7. 217. 50. Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. Courtesy Tate. 52–55. N. 4. 202. 300. Gemeentemuseum Den Haag: pls. New York/SIAE. Bonn. 286. © The State Hermitage Museum. National Gallery of Art. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Paris: André Marty. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Courtesy Viktor and Marianne Langen Foundation: pl. Courtesy Kunsthaus Zürich: pl. Eindhoven. Hoeffler Text. photo Pieter Boersma: pls. Sabine Dowek. London/Art Resource. 158. Paris. © Rheinisches Bildarchiv Köln: pl. N. Stepanova Archive. New York/VG Bild-Kunst.. Jasmine Helm. Paris. Courtesy and © Tate. 176. Curator. 205. Courtesy Yale University Art Gallery. N. 180. 84. New York Copyright credits for certain illustrations are cited opposite. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 20. 2. New York. Rome. Georgia O’Keeffe Museum. 8. 24. Blavatnik Family Foundation. Berlin.Y. Kate Keller: pls. Switzerland: pl. Yale Center for British Art. 135. 121. Courtesy Kunstmuseum Basel. Courtesy Whitney Museum of American Art. fig. photo Lee Stalsworth: pl. bpk. Courtesy bpk. New © York: pl. Courtesy: a private collection: pl. Courtesy National Gallery of Art. 189. 267. Bonn.: pl. All rights reserved ISBN: 978-0-87070-828-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2012950682 Distributed in the United States and Canada by ARTBOOK | D. 250.C. 370. Collins: pl. New York/ADAGP. 332. 78.Y.Y. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. N. image Art Resource. 221. © 2012 Estate of Rudolf von Laban. 288. Munich: pls. New Haven: pl. pl. Vienna: pl. Courtesy Fondazione Marguerite Arp. 403. N. courtesy Henrietta Garnett: pl. Minneapolis: pl.Y. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). 19. 148. 13. 203. 218. 264. 339. © 2012 Ewa Sapka-Pawliczak. Riga. 19. 378. Courtesy Scala/Art Resource. New York/SIAE. St. 11.V. See plate 224 Endpapers: the diagram on the front endpapers maps the nexus of relationships among the artists represented in the exhibition and book Inventing Abstraction 1910–1925.Y. Paris. fig. 169. 24. 341–43. 81. 363. Fondazione Torino Musei/Studio Gonella: pls. 2nd floor. Rome. 344. Courtesy Galerie Natalie Seroussi. Courtesy Musée d’art et d’histoire. pl. 176. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). © 2012/Artists Rights Society (ARS). Davis Museum and Cultural Center. N. Staatliche Museen. Courtesy Muzeum Plakatu w Wilanowie. New York. 179. Washington. New York/ADAGP. A private collector: pl. 362. The chart was a collaboration among the exhibition’s curatorial and design team and Paul Ingram. © Courtesy LWL–Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Münster (Westfälisches Landesmuseum). 7. 87. 162. © Stichting Kröller-Müller Museum: pls. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. 92. Ludwigshafen am Rhein: pl.Y. 306. Columbia Business School. Courtesy Arnold Schönberg Center. New York/ADAGP. New York/ADAGP. 114. 39. fig. 263./National Archives. 372. 35. 291. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). notwithstanding good faith efforts.Y. 387. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Akademie der Künste. Goldsmith Foundation Gift. 1917. 12. 14. 383. 297. 360. Leonard Kheifets. © 2012 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust. 12. N. 439. Bühler: pls. S. Courtesy a private collector. Paris. photo Becket Logan: pl. Contributors at MoMA were: Allegra Burnette. New York/VG Bild-Kunst. Moscow: pl. Courtesy: Tate. 14–17. Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music: p. 27. 214. 172. 451. New York/SIAE. 90. 330. 281–83. 256. 371. 219.Y. Bereich Sondersammlungen: pl. 130. fig. 382. 373–76. 15. 20120809: pls. 1. Individual images appearing in this publication may be protected by copyright in the United States of America. Bonn. c/o HCR International: pls. Paris. 275. © Estate of Vanessa Bell. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS). N.: pl. 399. Courtesy Courtesy Scala/Art Resource. 178. 103. 15–17. New York/SIAE. image Art Resource. 408. 381. 274. figs. N.
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