Quantitative www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/ www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/ Aptitude for the
TEST
CAT
a r u n sh a r m a
common mission
> ri\W N I< y Q
TATA McGRAWHBLL*S
SERIES ^D6*‘
How to Prepare fo r
Quantitative Aptitude fo r the
F ourth E dition
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Arun Sharma
Educational Consultant
Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited
N EW D E L H I
McGrawHill Offices
New Delhi New York St Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota C aracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal San Juan Santiago Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION
W
ith the CAT going online, we felt the need to create a comprehensive and updated book that caters to CAT aspirants. Some salient features are given below:
1. Questions from this book: Over the past 57 years, it has been noticed that a minimum of 1020% questions in CAT and other major management entrance examinations have been directly taken from the questions provided in this book. Furthermore, it was seen that between 2003 (when the book was first released) to 2008, 8090% of the questions in CAT and other top management entrance tests were covered in this book. , ' * v ; The CAT having gone online saw no change in this trend. Many questions in each of the 22 test papers that the CAT administered in its online avatar in 2009 have been covered in this book. In fact, 2009 can be said to be a watershed year for CAT preparation because this is the first year when there have been multiple CAT papers to study and base our writing on. So while in previous years we would have to second guess what the CAT would do based on just one test paper (to which we had access that year), we are now richer by 22 test papers when it comes to understanding what we need to provide our readers for their preparation. It is on the basis of this rather rich insight that we have based the changes in this edition. (Note: Similar changes have been incorporated in my other books How to Prepare for Data Interpretation and Logical Reasoning fo r CAT and How to Prepare fo r Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension for the CAT published by Tata McGrawHill.) 2. Not too many changes in the pattern: Looking rationally into the paper patterns of the 22 CAT papers in 2009, there have not been too many changes with regard to the pattern of the examination as compared to previous years. While the difficulty level of the QA section varied from one paper to another (which was to be expected really because it is close to impossible to create two test papers with the same level of difficulty), what you would do well to keep in mind while preparing for the CAT is that the QA section continues to remain a thorough test of your academic intelligence. Thus, although on the first few days of the online CAT in 2009, some of the papers had a lot of easy questions (that you would expect to see in less tougher exams), on the later days the quality of the questions and the difficulty level of the papers had become pretty much ‘CAT Standard’. As we head into the future with CAT 2010 and beyond, it is naturally expected that the IIMs would ensure that they maintain the quality standards associated with this prestigious examination. Hence, the LOD 1, LOD 2 and LOD 3 scheme of questions followed in this book is even more relevant now than ever before. In fact, by 2012, the CAT is expected to shift to an adaptive format (like the GMAT) where every testtaker would get a different set of questions. In the adaptive format in the future, question banks of varying difficulty levels would be loaded into the computers and questions would appear for the student one by one. The difficulty level of the next question would increase if the previous one has been answered correctly and vice versa. In order to do this, the examiners would need to build a database of questions which would be parallel to the LOD scheme followed in this book. These factors make this book and the content within all the more relevant for CAT aspirants in 2011 and beyond. 3. The need for greater variety in your preparation: Prior to the CAT going online, preparing for QA used to be a battle for Blocks 1,4, 5 and 6. Even out of these, if someone did Blocks 1 and S well, he stood a strong chance at QA section. However, as explained in details in the introductory note to the online CAT, the new avatar of this exam requires the aspirant to be much more balanced in the context of portion coverage. W ith these things in mind and also keeping in mind the fact that past users of this book have asked for greater and more detailed solutions, following are the major highlights in this book.
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Major highlights:
1. A comprehensive solutions to most questions in all LODs of all chapters. 2 Based on an assessment of any logic we have missed in any chapter, we have introduced extra questions for the read*' in the form of additional blockwise practice tests. The questions in these tests have been carefully selected to eogtyl that we do not miss out on any probable question type. 3. An introductory write up on the QA section of the online CAT to give you a holistic view of how to approach the onW CAT from the perspective of the examinee. The book is totally in sync with the new trend and pattern of the examination. Ultimately the endeavour is to provide a onestop solution for CAT and MBA exam aspirants to tackle the QA sectiono f all major management entrance exams—an endeavour we feel we have managed to do pretty well. Through this book, we are confident of giving you—the reader—an invaluable resource for enhancing your QA sectionsc o r e drastically. Contained in this book is the very best advisory for each and every question type. Your job is simple—to e n su r e that you follow the process contained in this advisory.
KEY POINTS FOR YOUR PREPARATION Outline and Strategy
The first aspect I would like to deal with here is to focus on helping you with the formulation of your strategy with r esp ec t to the portion to be covered for the Quantitative Aptitude section of the various management entrance exams including th e CAT, XAT, FMS, CET, 11F1 and other examinations. Let us start by trying to understand some of the key areas in Quantitative Aptitude (QA).
Tackling Each Portion
My experience shows that very often students look at the vast number of chapters and concepts to be studied for Q Aa n d get disheartened. This is especially true for students who do not have a strong traditional background in Mathematics. In d e e d if you were to look at it with a chapterwise approach, you can easily define the course to be studied by dividing it into2 0 + chapters—preparation for which is such a longdrawn effort that it ends up draining the student’s energy enthusiasma n motivation. It is in this context and for this precise reason that I have divided this book into 7 manageable blocks—the approach b e in g rationalising the chapters and grouping them according to the amount of shared concepts these chapters have amongst eac other. i The outline as defined in the index to this book would divide your work into 7 major areas to prepare for. For your conveni^ and strategising we have put down the relative importance of each of these seven blocks into perspective:
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Block 1: Number Systems and Progressions
Importance: Very High for CAT, XAT, IIFT, FMS &High for M AT, CET, SNAP, IRMA, etc.
Block 2: Averages and Alligations
Importance. Low for QAin CAT, XAT, IIFT, FMS but High for Data Interpretation as la a lot of questions m in ^ the concepts of averages and alligations. Also High for MAT, CET, IRMA, NMIMS, etc. JHbas1
t red u A ' Block 3: Percentages, Ratio Proportions, Time and Work, Time Speed and Distance. (Subsidiary but aunow chapters in this block  Interests, Partnerships and Profit and Loss)
Preface to the Fourth Edition I
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Importance: Moderate to High for QA in CAT, XAT, ilFI , FMS and Very High for Data Interpretation (DI) as DI is almost entirely based on the concept of Percentages and Ratio and Proportions. Very High for MAT, CET, IRMA, NMIMS, etc.
Note: The chapter o f "Time, Speed and Distance ” is extremely important fo r theseexams (especially fo r the CAT as this chapter has been a constant presence in the CAT fo r almost a decade.)
Block 4 : Geometry and Mensuration. Importance: Very High for CAT, XAT. Average for MAT, CET, SNAP, IRMA, DPT, FMS, etc. Block 5 : Functions, Inequalities, Logs and Quadratic Equations Importance: Very High for CAT, XAT. Low for MAT, CET, IRMA, NMIMS, etc. Block 6 : Permutations and Combinations and Probability Importance: Very High for CAT, XAT, FMS, IIFT etc. Average for MAT, CET, IRMA etc. Block 7 : Set Theory, Coordinate Geometry Importance: Low to Moderate for all exams. Set Theory is used for DI in CAT while coordinate geometry shows itself up in
the DFT exam. Based on the experience of the online CAT, the strategic preparation imperative for you should be to do at least 4 blocks and if possible up to 6 blocks “really well”. What does it mean to prepare a block “really well”? This is something we feel needs emphasis here. •Well what we mean to say is that do not just focus on studying the theory in each of these areas but develop an intuitive knowledge of all problem scenarios which emerge out of each block. Only then would you be able to reach a situation in the exam—that when the question presents itself to you in the exam—you would have had the logic for the same worked out before hand. This is something that can make a huge difference to your chances in the CAT.
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Analysing Your Knowledge Level
The first thing you need to focus on is an analysis of your knowledge level in each of these seven parts. In each of the above areas, first analyse your level of knowledge/ability. In order to do so the typical question you should ask yourself is: For the next 100 questions I face in each of these areas, how many would I be able to handle comfortably? Think of a number as an answer to this question for each of the seven blocks. Based on your answer, the following analysis would provide you a thumb rule which would tell you how much of a knowledge issue you have: 1. 90+: You know pretty much every question type and variant in the area. You should focus your energies on other aspects rather than knowledge improvement in the area. 2 80+: Maybe you need to increase your exposure to questions a little bit; around 200300 more questions in that area would be sufficient. 3. 6080+: You have a significant knowledge issue in the area. You might need to go back to the basics, but it is less likely to be a theory issue but more of an exposure to questions issue. 4. <60: You need to work on both theory and exposure to questions. Needless to say, the target and objective for preparations has to be to reach the 90+ range as explained above in any block you intend to do “really well”.
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Preface tothe Fourth Edfflon
Looking beyond Ability (Quick Reflexes)
A common frustrating experience for testtakers while taking the test is to not being able to solve a known question/logic and subsequently, not being able to score marks in questions which they knew. In order to handle this problem, you would need to work on your reactions and reflexes when faced with QA questions. Once you have solved your knowledge/ability issue in a particular block, your next step is to improve your reactions and refle^ while solving a question. Needless to say you would need to do this block wise. So obviously the main issue is how to improve reflexes and reactions. (a) For every block, once you have solved the LODs and the PreAssessment/Review tests, the most crucial exercise in this context would be a comprehensive revision and review of each and every question you have solved in that block. Solve every question of every LOD and PreAssessment/Review test again and review the logic/process of problem solving used. This need to be done to the point where you almost “recollect” the logic of the'question and are able to recognise die same if it is used again in a different context/problem. (b) A thorough revision on the theory of the block.
I . Im prove your ability to select what you know and, leave w hat you do n o t
In the context of an examination where the required scores for 99 percentile would be 6070% attempts with 100% accuracy, it is easy to see that perfect knowledge is perhaps not needed in order to crack the CAT. Hence, even if you have around 6070% knowledge of the questions in an average test, you are perhaps good enough to crack the exam. A good way to test whether you have sufficient knowledge would be to pick up 1020 test papers and divide your QA section into blocks of 5 questions each. Then test your knowledge by looking at the average number of questions you know. If on an average for every 5 QA test questions that you pick up, if you know more than 3, then the prognosis would be that you have adequate knowledge for cracking the CAT. Thus, while you may want to move towards knowing 5 out of 5 in this context, there are other things that you should focus on—developing your ability to decide on whether you are going to be able to solve a question w hile reading it for the first time. This would help you stop fishing during the test. (Fishing can be described as the activity of trying to solve a question without knowing whether you would actually complete the question.) Your mind should give you a clear indication of whether you would be able to do the last step in a question, before you start doing it. In that sense you should be able to clearly define three types of outcomes when you finish reading a question for the first time:
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(a) I see a clear flowchart and the steps are manageable— Obviously you need to go on and solve these questions. (b) I see a clear flowchart but the steps are too lengthy—In this case you need to see where you stand in your testtime and attemptwise. (c) I do not see a clear flowchart but I can try as I see a starting point— This is potentially the most dangerous situation for you in the duration of the test, as once you get sucked into a question, there is a strong tendency to lose track® the time you are using up while trying the question. Our advice is that while taking the test you should not even start doing such questions (d) I see no flowchart and no starting point to the question—Obviously you should leave such questions and in fact if th e * ® are limited to around 2030% of the paper there is no problem and you need not worry about them.
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Z Focus on thorough knowledge o f \problem scenarios' rather than theoretical learning
... .. To illustrate this, we would like to start with a few examples. i Consider the following string of 3 questions. Before I come to my main point here, I would like you to start by solving questions before looking at the explanations provided: 1. A boy starts adding consecutive natural numbers starting from 1. After some time he reaches a total of 1000 w he® I realises that he has double counted a number. Find the number double counted. i
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Preface to the Fourth Edition
2. A boy starts adding consecutive natural numbers starting from 1. He reaches a total of 575 when he realises that he has missed a number. What can be said about the number missed? 3. Find the 288th term of the series: ABBCCCDDDDEEEEEFFFFFFG... We can now start to look at each of these 3 questions: 1. Consider the fact that when you add numbers as stated above (1+2+3+4+....... ) the result is known as a triangular number. Hence, numbers like 1,1+2=3,1+2+3=6 and so on are triangular numbers. This question asks us to consider the possibility of making the mistake of double counting a number. So instead of 1+2+3+4 if you were to do by error 1+2+3+3+4 you would realise that the number you would get would be 13 which would be more than 10 (which should have been your correct addition) and less than 15 (the sum of 1 to 5) which is the next triangular number. And the double counted value could be achieved by spotting 10 as the immediately lower value—and the difference between 10 and 13 would give you the required double counted number. To carry forward this logic into the given question, we should realise that we are just bothered about finding the last triangular number below 1000— and in trying to work this out is where we really apply our intelligence. Before one writes about that though, one fully realises that a lot of readers (especially aspirants with an engineering background at this point are thinking about n x (n + 1)/2. Knowing that process, one chooses to write about the alternate way to think about in this question. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ... + 10 = 55; Hence, we can easily see that 11+12+13+14+15+...+20 would equal 155 and the sum of 21 to 30 would equal 255 and so on. Thus, in trying to find the last triangular number below 1000 we can just do: 55+155+255+355 = 820 (which is the sum of the first 40 natural numbers) and since we have still not reached close to 1000 we start by adding more numbers as: 820 + 41 + 42 + 43 + 44 = 990 and the difference between 990 and 1000 is 10 which is the required answer. 2. For this question we would just need to carry the learning from the previous question forward and realise that when we miss a number, we actually get a total which is lower than the correct total. Hence, if we want to find the number missed all we need to do is to find the first triangular number greater than 575. This can be got simply by 55+155+255+31+32+33+34 = 595, so the number missed has to be 20. 3. In this question all you would need to notice is that in the series ABBCCCDDDDEEEEEF...
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A ends after the first term; B ends after the third (1+2) term; C ends after the sixth (1+2+3) term and so on. So we can infer that what we are looking at is how many numbers need to be added before we get to a number just below 288. So 55 + 155+21+22+23 gives us 276 which pretty much means that the 24th alphabet (i.e. x) would be running in this series when we reach the 288® term. So looking at the three questions above and the solutions, one wants the reader to only answer one specific question: How much does knowing the first question and developing your thought ability and your intelligence help you in solving the second and the third one? I hope you see the connection. For your information, the three questions presented above were asked in CAT2001, CAT 2002 and CAT 2003!!!
CONCLUDING NOTE You sit in front of your CAT question paper and the first question comes in front of you. If you have identified the logic of the question or seen the question itself earlier, your entire QA preparation is fructified. In fact, every question/logic (that you would face in your test) which you have seen earlier represents a triumph of your preparation process. It is for this very reaction that you prepare for an aptitude exam like the CAT. Any other preparation is quite worthless. Your battle for CAT would be won if you get a “YES I KNOW THIS PATTERN/LOGIC” reaction to 5060% of the questions ffi your test
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I Prefaceto the Fourth Edition
Contained in this book is the finest collection questions which you would hope to find anywhere. Remember, each solved needs to be a learning experience—one that is to be kept in your mind for future problem solving. Adopt this with the problems contained in this book and we are quite confident that you would KNOW over 50% of your act paper since you have already solved something like that before.'!
A ll Th e B E S T !!!!!!
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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
Over the last few years, as a trainer o f CAT and other aptitude tests, I have felt the need for a comprehensive book on the subject. Students appearing for the CAT and other aptitude tests usually struggle for appropriate study material to prepare for this vital section o f the examination. This book comes as a humble attempt to fulfil this gap. Structure of the book The book is divided into 19 chapters and five test papers. Each chapter is divided into three broad parts: (a) Theory (b) Solved examples (c) Chapter end exercises (LODs I, II & III), with answer key I, The questions in the chapter end exercises have been categorised into three levels o f difficulty, viz. Level of Difficulty Level of Difficulty II and Level o f Difficulty HI.
Level of Difficulty I (L O P I): These are the basic types o f questions pertaining to the chapter. A majority o f the MBA entrance tests would test the student with LOD I questions. Tests which ask LOD I questions include MAT, IMT. IRMA, IIFT, NIFT, CET Maharashtra, Bank PO examinations, BBA, BCA, Law, and so on. Besides, there are about 10 questions of LOD I type in the CAT nowadays. Level of Difficulty II (LOD II): These are questions, which are more advanced than the LOD I questions. These questions test all basic as well as applied concepts in the chapter. LOD II questions are closest to the difficulty levels o f the CAT. Hence, the objective o f LOD Q questions should be to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Clearly understand the concept which underlies the question. Create a judgment of time required for different mental processes. Identify the time guzzlers. Reinforce application o f a method in mental processes through the question. Leam to flowchart complex questions.
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Level of Difficulty HI (LOD III): LOD III questions build on the previous questions and are a stepbeyond the LOD II questions. Although they are also normally more difficult than the average CAT question, approximately 510 LODIII questions could be asked in the CAT every year. Hence, the learning objectives at LOD III are to: (a) Leam applications o f the basic concepts at the highest level. (b) Sharpen the flowcharting skills learnt at LOD II. (c) Use each question as a learning opportunity. One should not be disheartened if he/she is unable to solve LOD III questions. These questions are extremely tough and uncommon in the CAT and other aptitude tests. Questions in actual tests will appear very simple and elementary if one can solve LOD ID questions. Approach Taken in W riting This Book to my experience, the ‘math skill’ o f students appearing for CAT can be classified into three levels: Level 1: Students who are weak at Mathematics Level 2: Students who are average at Mathematics Level 3: Students who are strong at Mathematics This book has been written keeping in mind all the three kinds o f students.
Preface to the First Edition
From my experience I have given below my perspective of what one should aim for (based on the category that he/she belongs to). It is important to clearly understand the starting level and accordingly define strategy for the QA section. Level 1: Students who are weak at mathematics: Typically, these are students who were weak at mathematics in school and/or have left mathematics after their 10th or 12th class. They face a mental block in mathematics and have problems in writing equations. They also have severe problems in understanding mathematical language and are unable to convert the mathematical language into mathematical equations. They make mistakes even in interpretation of the most basic statements in mathematics (leave alone the complex statements). Besides, these students also have problems in solving equations. They suffer from the insecurity of knowing that they are unable to solve most problems which they face. Level 2: Students who are average at mathematics: These students lie between the Level 1 and Level 3 students.
Level 3: Students who are strong at mathematics: These are the students who have got strong, structured and logical thinking ability. They not only understand the basic repetitive statements in mathematics but also complex statements. They are able to create their own flowcharts to arrive at solutions of these complex mathematical situations. There are two alternative approaches that a student can take in solving this book. Approach 1: “Start with basic concepts, solved examples then move on to LOD I, then LOD II in the chapter. Do not go into LOD IQ in the chapter in the first go. Complete all 19 chapters and then restart with Chapter 1 —review the basic concepts, resolve LOD I and LOD II, then move on to LOD III. This approach is advocated for students who are weak to average in mathematics (i.e. students of Level 1 and Level 2). After completing the theory and practice exercises of the book for a second time, go to the practice sets 15 provided at the end of book. Set a time limit of 40 minutes for each set and take the tests. The questions contained in the sets are questions which have appeared in the CAT over the last 5 years (based on memory).”
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Approach 2: “Start with the basic concepts, solved examples and then go through the exercises of LOD I, LOD D and LOD QL This is recommended for students who have strong concepts in mathematics (Level 3 students).” Then go to the 5 practice tests given at the end of the book and take them one by one (time limit of 40 minutes for each test).” An Important Point Each of the questions contained in the LOD I, LOD II and LOD III exercises in the chapters have immense learning valueHence, the approach that one takes while solving the questions should be one of learning. The reader should try to clearly understand the interpretation of each sentence used in the construction of the questions. In other words the learning in every chapter should not be restricted to the solved examples or the theory c o n t a in e d u> the chapter, but should continue through each of the questions contained in the exercises. In conclusion, this is a book which is unique in approach and coverage. Any CAT aspirant who goes through the questions contained in this book in the manner advised in this book would get a distinct advantage when he/she faces the CAT.
ONLINE CAT: FROM THE QA PERSPECTIVE
Welcome to the world of online CAT! The advent of the online version of the Common Admission Test (CAT) in 2009 brought with it a whole lot of opinions and views about what has changed in the examination and what should be the ideal preparation pattern. Therefore, one objective in this revised edition of this widely read book is to look at the issues that an aspirant needs to consider while preparing for the online CAT. I would like to discuss this issue in the following parts: 1. What has changed? A comprehensive analysis of what are the critical dimensions of the changes that have taken place in the CAT in its online avatar and what it means for the aspirant, both in respect of positive and negative factors, taking into account the following: (a) Changes in the TestTaking Experience (b) Changes in the Exam pattern (c) Changes in the Marking process 2 What does all this mean fo r the Preparation Process? How it should change in the context of an online examination and how has it remained constant whether online or paperandpen? While doing so I have taken the help of a varied experiential sample of testtakers from across India and also my own personal experience of taking (and may I add dominating) the CAT. Given below are some of the implications o f the online version of the CAT in the context of the Quantitative Aptitude section (which this book is all about)
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I. WHAT HAS CHANGED? The 'Experience' of Taking the Test 1. Cleaner & M ore Efficien t: Compared to the paperandpen based CAT, the online version is much cleaner as the clarity
of questions, their visibility, as well as the overall feel of the question solving expferience is much better. Consequently, the efficiency (of the thought processes) is much higher, leading to a much superior testsolving experience.
2. Space Managem ent on the Table: In the paperandpen version, the aspirant had to typically manage the test paper,
admit card, watch, pencils (at least 2), eraser, sharpener as well as the answer sheet on the table. To add to their woes, the paperandpen versions of the exam were mostly conducted in schools. Very often the aspirants had to contend with the additional challenge of managing all this paraphernalia on a school boy’s small table. In addition, if luck did not run your way and you were made to sit in a classroom meant for juniors, (between classes 3 to 6) you really had a challenge. Most of these problems have disappeared in the new version. The fact that computer terminals at most colleges and universities are of standard shape and size eliminates the imbalance created due to nonuniformity. Besides, while writing the online version of the CAT, all you need to manage on the table are the mouse, the key board, a pencil and a sheet of paper for rough work; no watches, erasers, sharpeners and most importantly, no test paper and no answer sheet.
3. Moving Q uestions in the T est: Unlike the paperandpen version, where testtakers could scan the whole question paper in one look, in the online CAT, aspirants had to move one question at a time. This had both its advantages and disadvantages in terms of the overall test experience. The obvious disadvantage that most aspirants faced was the fact that since you could not really see the whole paper in one look, you could not make a judgment about the balance, the difficulty level or the portion wise question distribution in the paper. (Although we are referring to the quantitative aptitude section here, this was also true for all the sections in the exam)
X V lii Online CAT: From the QA Perspective
Ironically, the biggest advantage for the examinee in terms of the online CAT was exactly the same i.e. since you <v,i see the paper entirely at one go, the only option while taking the test was to look at the questions one by one. This turned out to be a huge advantage because o f two main reasons mentioned below: Higher Focus while Solving an Individual Question: Not knowing the exact number of questions from various areas& > being able to estimate the difficulty level of the paper, left individuals with no choice but to focus on the one quests ‘ was visible to them on the screen. The result was that achieving the all important ‘tunnel vision’ while solving a quest** much easier. The immediate result of this was that the focus on the 'problem at hand’ was infinitely more in the online w than in the conventional paperandpen format. Thus, ironically, not knowing the pattern o f the paper resulted in examinees their best chance to solve a question. The main reason for this was that while solving the question in front of the computer screen the experience of the pre, ,.. question was totally blanked out. In the paperandpen version, students who had a negative experience while soh^ question or two carried that negativity to the next question. Thus the specific advantage of the online version was that “forgetting” a bad experience was relatively easier. The 15^ you navigated away from the question in front of you, it went away from your mind as well. So much so, that rem em lxa a question that was just two questions back was close to impossible. Naturally the ‘carry over' emotions from a pm* negative experience were significantly reduced. The Imperative for Faster Navigation (less time wasted on unsolvable questions): Since the examinees had not seenthe! question paper right at the beginning, the imperative to move to the next question was extremely strong. This resuW j students seeing a higher percentage of the questions in the online test than in the paperandpen version. Author’s Note: One of the problems I had noticed in the paperandpen version was that most examinees were u otabk to ‘see' the entire paper, i.e. the fraction of the quantitative aptitude section that they were able to process was a fractal of the entire test paper. As a result they used to miss out on a large number of sitters! On an average, out of a 5pas question paper in quantitative aptitude, students were able to process at most upto 23 pages. So they would narnafc miss out on all easy ones on the pages they did not process. A lot of time would get wasted in questions that they ms and were unable to solve or even if they solved, they were unable to get them correct. Part of this time mismanagement also occurred due to the fact that they did not have the clock ticking on the scree: in front of them. Therefore, they naturally lost track of how much time they had spent in attempting to solve a q u estio n A good percentage of the time the aspirants used to spend in the QA section was spent in trying to solve a quesw * which they were eventually unable to solve. All this changed for the better in the online version. There was a greater imperative to move to the next question u * to the twin facts that you had not seen the entire paper as you were moving from one question to the other, andw the ticking clock was omnipresent in front of your eyes on the screen. As a result, you were aware of the exact anw u r of time you had spent on a particular question. The net result was that after trying a question for maybe 60 to 90 second in case you did not have a clue about what to do in the same, you moved to the next question. Thus time managed improved drastically for the examinee. 1 believe this is one of the main reasons why a lot of students who were trying to compare the two versions 0* CAT said that the online version was easier. Since the amount of time spent in questions which they were eventual!) able to solve, reduced drastically, they got a feeling that they were solving questions all the time as opposed ^ ^ paperandpen version where aspirants used to have an overall negative experience of the test (as they wouldtl1 spending a lot of time in attempting “unsolvable” questions.
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4. Mark/Unm ark Button A the Review Button: A very important feature in the online version was the intf1
>f the REVIEW button. In the paperandpen version, it was extremely difficult to track the number of your
Online CAT: From the QA Perspective I
x iX
especially so in the context of questions that you were unsure about and/or questions which you wanted to come back to. There was simply no way in which you could keep a track of those and as a result there was effectively ‘no second chance’ at a question. This too changed in the online CAT. For every question, apart from the facility to answer it. you also had a MARK button, which would give you easy access to the question at the end of the paper. When you have completed the paper (reached the last question in the paper), you also got access to a review screen that in one visual showed you all the questions you had solved as well as all the questions you had marked with the MARK button.So going back to a specific question in the paper was just the click of the mouse away. To sum up, the net effect of the online CAT was a superior testtaking experience — something that gives you a chance to be more in control of your test— and thus aim for a higher score assuming that the same set of questions would have been asked in the paperandpen version.
What has Changed in Terms of the Exam Pattern?
Having seen the specific changes that have occurred in terms of the testtaking experience, let us now examine another crucial aspect.
Changes in Exam Pattern: Obviously for the puipose of this book, the analysis will pertain to the QA portion only. In order to read a similar analysis with respect to the other sections namely, Verbal Ability & Data Interpretation you can refer to my book on those subjects, also published by Tata McGrawHill. The major changes in the pattern of the Quantitative Aptitude paper can be summarised through the following points:
1. 2 3. 4. More balanced portion coverage Reduction in number of questions Lack of uniformity Higher percentage cutoffs
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1. More Balanced Portion Coverage: As per the scheme followed in this book, the QA portion can be divided into 7 major parts (or blocks as I call them in this book). The underlying constant that used to exist in the paperandpen version (through the entire decade prior to the first online CAT) was the prominence of Block 1 and Block 5. (Block 1 comprising Number Systems and Progressions and Block 5 comprising the chapters of Functions, Inequalities, Quadratic Equations and Logarithms.) In each of the years from 1999 to 2008, the QA section required you to get a net score of approximately 30  40% of the total marks in order to score a high 90 percentile in this section. In the light of this fact, the importance of Block 1 and Block 5 can be gauged from the table below:
Block Block 1 BlockS Combined weightage of Blocks 1 & 5 Weightage (as a % of total marks) 30  50% 15  50% 60  80%
Add to this, the chapter of Time, Speed and Distance with a minimum weightage of 510% and you pretty much had the QA section well covered. In a nutshell, QA for CAT preparation had become “do 10 chapters well". However, this scenario has changed in the context of the online version of the exam. The balance of weightage of questions shifted and each of the 7 blocks have become important. The aspirant of CAT online version saw a weightage distribution of the kind illustrated below.
X
X
I Onlne CAT: From the QA Perspective
Block Block 1 Blocks 2 & 3 Block 4 Bk>ck5 Block 6 Block 7
Total Out of 20 Questions 3 4 3 5 3 6 4 5 1 3 0 2 questions questions questions questions questions questions
?. Reduction in Number o f Questions: The second major change in the QA section is the reduction of questions to 20.
tom 55 questions in the late nineties to 50 between 2000 to 2003 to 30 & then 25 in the last years of the paperandpen version, jte number of questions has further gone down to 20 in the online version. Naturally, this reduced the amount of choice the Spirant had for leaving out a question. For instance in CAT 2003 out of 50 questions, you needed to solve 15 to get to the cut off. This meant that at 100% accuracy c h i could afford to leave 35 questions. This scenario has now changed drastically as in evident from the table below. Year No. o f Questions in QA 55 50 30 25 20 Number o f Marks Cut off at (approx number o f marks) 1618 1214 1214 2832 4048 No. o f Questions you could leave @ 100% accuracy 37+ 36+ 20+ 17+ 8+ No. o f Questions you could leave @ 90% accuracy 32+ 32+ 16+ 14+ 5+
CAT 99 CAT 200004 CAT 2005 200608 Online CAT
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55 50 50 100 80
• As you can see, there is very little elbowroom available in the online version now to leave out questions and expect a good percentile score. • The expectation in the future is that students taking the CAT would have to really use their mathematical intelligence and attempt as many questions as possible in order to get a top percentile in the test. Lack o f Uniformity: The third major factor in terms of paper pattern was the lack of uniformity of the test paper. Different □dents got tests with differing difficulty levels. The papers on the first few days of CAT 2009 were quite simple, but utter c third day most papers had a pretty good difficulty level. An issue that is being discussed widely on the Net is fairness. A lot of voices rose against the CAT committee and the online Brsion of the exam questioning the fairness of the testing process. he key criticism was: In the context of multiple papers with varying difficulty levels, how would the HMs judge fairly between udents who solved a high percentage of the questions in an easy test versus students who were able to solve a lower number Fquestions in a more difficult paper? The answer to this is simple really. Since the population size of each paper was gnificantly large, the UMs could easily define individual percentiles in each test and ensure fairness to all. The key point to be nrted here is that there are infinite statistical ways through which processes like this can be made tuir i everyone. As a future CAT aspirant, however, what you need to worry about is preparing diligently and lacing the exam ith a positive attitude.
, Higher Percentage Cutoffs: [n the online version, aspirants wasted less time in questions which they thought was
^solvable and moved on to those they could solve. The result— most students were able to raise their scores in this section gnificantly.
Online CA T: From the QAPerspective  I
xxi
Consequently sectional cut offs which used to be in the range of 30% of the net marks rose to around 40  45% of the marks.
Changes in the Marking Process
The key change that an analysis of CAT 2009 results showed us was that there was an increase^! emphasis on accuracy. Mistakes were heavily penalised. This was evident from the fact that two students solving the same test paper (December 3 evening slot) scored: (a) 14 attempts 1 incorrect  score 98.23 percentile (b) 19 attempts 3 incorrect  score 92.6 percentile There were innumerable such examples where students solving more questions with higher errors scored significantly lower than students who attempted much less but got njost correct. Hence, the key learning for you while preparing is to focus on improving your accuracy as well as the belief in your process of solving. This is especially true while preparing for the QA section. While solving a QA question, you should be able to know that if your process is correct then so would your answer would also be correct. The need to check the answer to a QA question is something that is only required for minds weak in Quantitative Aptitude. This is where an underprepared aspirant loses out to the best—in the knowledge of whether what IBiv are solving is correct or not. Unfortunately, most students I see are more, in v e ste d in seeingthe answer tothe question as soon as they solve the same. This is a habit I would strongly discourage you from. The ideal preparationprocess for you should be: (a) solve the question, (b) review your process and tell yourself, “if your process is correct, so is your answer”, and (c) only check your answer after you have reviewed your process. This is important, because when you are solving a QA question inside the CAT, you would not have the cushion to ‘look’ at the answer. The only thing you have is the question and the process you use in solving the same. Yourmind should be able to tell you whether the answer you have got is correct or not. This is a key difference in solving questionsin practice and solving them under exam pressure. Hence, developing more confidence in your QA problemsolving processes becomes a key ingredient and objective of your preparation process for this section.
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D. WHAT DOES ALL THIS MEAN FOR THE PREPARATION PROCESS? HOW HAS IT CHANGED AND HOWHAS IT REMAINED CONSTANT?
Let us look at this aspect in two broad parts: 1. What are the changes that need to happen in the preparation processes for the online CAT visavis the preparation process for the traditional paperandpen version? 2 What are the things and issues that remain constant in the preparation process? 1. For the first question, the specific things that come to my mind are: (*) More Balanced portion coverage needed: As explained above, in the paperandpen version the best approach for Quantitative Aptitude preparation was “do 10 chapters well — really well”. In fact, even 4 chapters done well were mostly sufficient to crack this section. However, in the new online version, since the weightage of distribution of questions is much more even, this approach is no longer going to work. Hence, the need to cover all aspects of the portion well and not ignore any particular portion is perhaps the first and the biggest change that needs to be done in the preparation process. H Need to cover the basics well, namely, speedily solving LOD 1 questions and the ability to think through LOD 2 and LOD 3 questions: In the early years (1980s and upto the late 1990s), the CAT used to be essentially a speed test (including the QA section). There were times when the paper used to consist of upto 225+ questions to be solved
in 120 minutes. Questions used to be oneliners and could be solved in 12 steps. The key differentiation used to be the speed at which the aspirants could solve questions. However, from late 1990s onwards the QA section of the CAT had become a real test of quantitative intelligence. Questions ceased to be oneliners unless you had a very high degree of mathematical understanding and intelligence. The online CAT in its first year tended to be a mix of both these extremes. Papers consisted of between 46 oneliners topped up by LOD 2 and LOD 3 questions. So while most aspirants found 46 very easy questions in each paper, they also had to really use their mathematical strengths to cross 1012 attempts. In the future, as the IIMs improve the quality of the database of quantitative questions, one can expect the quality of the questions to improve drastically and hence the LOD 2 and LOD 3 questions contained in this book would be an extremely important resource to solve for maximising your score in this section in the exam. [In fact after the first 34 days of the exam in 2009, examinees taking the test on the subsequent days found the paper to be of really good quality]. For the future CAT aspirant and the readers of my books, my advice is short and simple. Cover both the flanks— the short cuts and quicker methods to solve the easier LOD 1 questions and improving your mathematical and logical intelligence to cover the higher end questions of LOD 2 and LOD 3 level. (c) The need to take computer based tests in order to be able to think on the computer: Thinking and solving questions from the computer screen is a slightly different experience than solving from a physical book. Thus students and aspirants are advised to experience this change by going for online solving experience. It is in this context that we have tied up with www.mindworkzz.in to give our readers a feel of the online problem solving experience. However, in spite of these seemingly big external changes, my personal opinion is that the changes are mostly external in nature. 2 The essence of preparation of the Quantitative Aptitude section remains the same in a lot many fundamental ways. Some of these that come readily to mind are: (a) The need to develop mental structures for the CAT: QA preparation has always been associated with the development of the mathematical thinking processes and thought structures for specific mathematical situations. The smart CAT aspirant is able to create mathematical thoughts in his mind to situations that he would encounter in the exam. The whole battle for QA preparation in the CAT can be essentially summarised in terms of the quality of pre formed logic that you have to the specific questions that you are going to face in the exam. In other words, your battle in QA section is won if you have during your preparation process, encountered the logic to the question which is in front of you. Hence, the focus of your QA preparation process has to be on creating the logics for as many questions and mathematical situations as possible. You would have well and truly won your battle at the CAT in case you encounter 15 ‘known’ mathematical situations out of the 20 questions in your set. Hence, the imperative to form “thought algorithms” for standard and nonstandard mathematical situations related to various chapters and concepts in the portion remains as strong as ever. In fact, if anything this imperative is expanded to the entire portion base due to the wider and more balanced portion coverage in the exam. The need for thoroughness in your preparation: This is again something that does not change. The key point you need to remember is that the CAT still remains a test of your intelligence and an aspirant should focus on this aspect This book provides plenty of mathematical thinking situations and alternatives related to each and every part of this section that help you hone your skills in the QA section of the examination.
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CONTENTS
Preface to the Fourth Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgements Online CAT: From the QA Perspective
w r
xiii xv xvii
BLOCK 1
Introduction 1 BacktoSchool 2 PreassessmentTest 3 Score InterpretationAlgorithm Core Concepts 8 1. NUMBER SYSTEM S Introduction
1
5
15
Definitions 15 Some Properties of Prime Numbers
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15 15 16 18 16 18
Short Cut Process 16 To Check Whether a Number is Prime or Not A Brief Look into Why This Works?
The Concept of GCD (Greatest Common Divisor or Highest Common Factor) Rules for Finding the GCD of Two Numbers nl and n2 18 The Concept of LCM (Least Common Multiple) Rule for Finding the LCM of 2 numbers n, and n2 18 Rule for Finding out HCF and LCM of Fractions 19 HCF and LCM 19 Practice Exercise 19 Divisibility 21 Theorems of Divisibility
22 24
Number of Zeroes in an Expression 24 Finding the Number of Zeroes in a Factorial Value Divisibility Rules Certain Rules 27 28 28 29 30 30
The Remainder Theorem Another Important Point
Using Negative Remainders
An Application of Remainder Theorem
Exercises 30
X X iV I Contents
Units Digit Counting
31 32 37 42 48 33
Workedout Problems
Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 57 2. PRO GRESSIO N S Arithmetic Progressions
(( 60 60 61 60
To Find the Sum of the Given Number ofTerms in an Arithmetic Progression To Find the Arithmetic Mean between anyTwo Given Quantities Geometric Progression 63 63 To Insert a Given Number ofArithmetic Means between Two Given Quantities To Find the Geometric Mean between Two Given Quantities
To Insert a Given Number of Geometric Means between Two Given Quantities To Find the Sum of a Number of Terms in a Geometric Progression Harmonic Progression 65 65 65 To Find the Harmonic Mean between Two Given Quantities Theorems Related with Progressions Useful Results 66 Workedout Problems 68 64
64
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70 72 75 86
Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III Answer Key 83 Block Review Tests
BLOCK 2
Back to School 99 101 102 PreassessmentTest Score Interpretation Algorithm 3. AVERAGES Introduction Theory 105 106 109 114 117 105 6.
Workedout Problems
Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 125
1
P Pi
4. ALLIGATIONS introduction Theory 128 128 129 131 130 128
The Alligation Situation
Graphical Representation ofAlligation The Straight Line Approach
Some Typical Situations Where Alligations Can be Used
Some Keys to Spot Av A, and Aw and Differentiate these from n, and n2 132 ATypical Problem 132 Level of Difficulty (LOD) I AnswerKey 136 137 Block Review Tests 132
BLOCK 3
Back to School 141 145 147 PreassessmentTest Score Interpretation Algorithm 5. PERCENTAGES Introduction
Basic Definition and Utility of Percentage Concept of Percentage Change 152
Importance of Base/Denominator for Percentage Calculations
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151 151 152 152 153 153 156 157 158
Difference between the Percentage Point Change and the Percentage Change Percentage Rule for Calculating Percentage Values Through Additions Effect of a Percent Change in the Numerator on a Ratio’s Value Percentage Change Graphic and its Applications Implications for Data Interpretation Fraction to Percentage Conversion Table
Some Utilisations of the Table 157 Calculation of Multiplication by Numbers Like 1.21,0.83 and so on Workedoul Problems 158 Level of Difficulty (LOD) I 160 Level of Difficulty (LOD) II 164 Level of Difficulty (LOD) III Answer Key 183 169
 PROFIT AND LOSS Introduction 186 Theory 186 Prolit and Loss in case of Individual Transactions 186 ProtH and Loss asApplied to Business and Commercial Transactions
187
X X V i I Contents
Profit Calculation on the Basis of Equating the Amount Spent and theAmount Earned Concept of Mark Up Workedout Problems Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 213 1. INTEREST Introduction 216 Concept of Time Value of Money 216 Terminology Pertaining to Interests Simple Interest 217 Relation Among Principal, Time, Rate Percent of Interest Per Annum and Total Interest Compound Interest 217 Formula 217 Depreciation of Value Population 218 Applications of Interests in D.l. Workedout Problems 221 218 218 216 189 189 193 197 202
Level of Difficulty (LOD) I 224 AnswerKey 233
Level of Difficulty (LOD) II 227
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8. RATIO, PROPORTION AND VARIATION Introduction 235 Ratio 235 Some Important Properties of Ratios 235 Mathematical Uses of Ratios 237 Proportion 238 Variation 239 Workedout Problems 240
Level of Difficulty (LOD) I 242 Level of Difficulty (LOD) II 245
Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 259 9. TIME AND WORK Introduction 262 Theory 262 262 AltemativeApproach
249
The Concept of Negative Work 263
Application of Product Constancy Table to Time and Work
263 264 265
Work Equivalence Method (To Solve Time and Work Problems) The Specific Case of Building a Wall (Work as Volume of Work) The Concept of Efficiency Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 283 265 268 272 275 Woikedout Problems 266
10. TIME, SPEED AND DISTANCE AND APPLICATIONS OF TIME, SPEED AND DISTANCE Introduction 286 286 286
Theory of TSD
Concept of Motion and Mathematical Representation of Motion An Application ofAlligation in Time Speed and Distance Applications of Time, Speed and Distance Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 318 Block Review Tests 321 294 299 304 291
290
BLOCK 4
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339 342
Back to School
Preassessment Test
11. GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION Introduction Theory Polygons 345 345 346 349 349 350 346 Straight Lines Triangles (A) 345
Equilateral Triangles (of side a) Isosceles Triangle
RightAngledTriangle 349 ImportantTerms with Respect to a Triangle Quadrilaterals 351 351 353 Types ofQuadrilaterals Regular Hexagon Circles 353 Tangents 355
X X V iii i Contents
Ellipse 355
Star 355 Woikedout Problems 356 How to Think in Geometry and Mensuration Special NoteAbout CAT Questions 365 Geometry: Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Mensuration: Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Geometry: Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Mensuration: Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Extra Practice Exercise AnswerKey 400 Block Review Tests 405 393 365 367 371 373 360
BLOCK 5
BacktoSchool 419 Preassessment Test 12. FUNCTIONS Basic Methods of Representing Functions Analytical Representation 431 Tabular Representation of Functions Even and Odd functions 432 Even Functions Odd Functions 432 432 432 428
419
431
431
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431 432
Graphical Representation of Functions
Inverse of a Function
Shifting of Graphs 434 Combining Movements 434 Inequalities 435 The Logical Graphical Process forSolving Inequalities Logarithms 435 Graphical View of the Logarithmic Function Workedout Problems 435 Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 452 438 441 444 435 435
13 INEQUALITIES
Properties of Inequalities Properties of Inequalities 455 456 456
.
455
Certain Important Inequalities
Contents Some Important Results 456 457 457 458
To Find the Greatest Value of a Product, the Sum of Whose Factors is Constant Definition of Solution of an Inequality Notation of Ranges 458 458 460 460
Solving Linear Inequalities in one Unknown Solving Quadratic Inequalities System of Inequalities in one Unknown Inequalities Containing a Modulus W orkedout Problems 461 461 465 Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II AnswerKey 473 14. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Introduction Theory 475 475
475
Properties of Quadratic Equations and Their Roots The Sign of a Quadratic Expression Workedout Problems 476 478 479 Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II AnswerKey 484 15. LOGARITHMS Introduction Theory 486 486 486 475
475
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486 486 487 487 487 487 488 489
486
Two Properties of Logarithms Laws of Logarithms Generalisation
The Characteristic and Mantissa of a Logarithm Base Change Rule Results on Logarithmic Inequalities Workedout Problems Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II AnswerKey 493 Block Review Tests 495
509 Backto School 509 514
f'eassessmentTest
XXX I Content
10, PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATION* Thoory 517
Important Results 318 Clrculnr Pornuitntlonn 319 Important ReeuNa 520 Workodoui Problems S!1 Lovol ol Dlllloully (LOD) I 523 Level ot Difficulty (LOD) II Level ol Difficulty (LOD) III AniweiKoy 339 17. PROBABILITY Concopt and Importonco ol Probiblllty 542 Underlying Factor! tor Realllle Estimation ot Probability Tho Um ot tho Conjunction AND (Tool No. 9) Tho Um of tho Conjunction OR (Tool No. 10) Combination ofAND and OR 544 Basic Facta About Probability 544 Soma Important Consideration Whllo Defining Evant Tho Concopt ol Odda for and OddaAgainst 545 543 543 528 529
AnotharApproach to Look at Iho Probability Probloma I Worktdout Problem 546 Laval of Difficulty (LOD) I Laval of Difficulty (LOD) II Laval of Difficulty (LOD) III A niw trK ty 588 571 Block RavlawTaata 543 552 557
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ft
BLOCK 7
11. SET THEORY 8tt Theory 581 581
Different Ways ot Raprasantlng a Sat Types o( Set 591
O perationson8ote 582
Algebreic Laws In Sat Thaory Some Important Results 583 383
Soma Important Results on Numbers of Elements In Bats WofktdotM Probkmi 583 Laval ot Difficulty (LOO) I A fltw tfK qr 583 534
19. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Cartesian Coordinate System Rectangular Coordinate Axes An Important Result 595 Level of Difficulty (LOD) I Level of Difficulty (LOD) II Level of Difficulty (LOD) III AnswerKey 601 MOCKTEST PAPERS MODELTEST PAPER 595 597 598 589 589
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BLOCK 
• N um b er S y s t e m s • P r o g r e s s io n s
r
INTRODUCTION
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As already mentioned in the introductory note, Block 1 constituted the most crucial aspect o f the Quantitative Aptitude Section in the paper & pen version o f the CAT. Throughout the decade 1999 to 2008, almost 3050% o f the total questions in every CAT paper came from the two chapters given in this block. However, the online CAT has shifted this weightage around, and consequently, the importance o f Block 1 has been reduced to around 2025% o f the total marks in the section. Thus, although Block 1 remains an important block fo r your preparations, it has lost its preeminence (as reflected in the strategy— "Do Block 1 well and you can qualify the QA section,,). However, this does not change the need fo r you to go through this block in great depth. Thus our advice to you is: Go through this block in depth and try to gain clarity o f concepts as well as exposure to questions fo r honing your ability to do well in this area.
C
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for (he CAT
BACK TO SCHOOL
• Chapters in this Block: Number Systems and Progressions • Block Importance  2025% The importance of this block can be gauged from the table below: Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 (cancelled) 2003 (retest) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Online CAT 2009 % of Marks from Block / 48% 36% 36% 30% 34% 32% 40% 32% 24% 40% 1530% Qualifying Score {approx score for 96 percentile) 35% 35% 35% ® § 35% 35% 35% 40% 32% 35% 60% with no errors
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As you can see from the table above, doing well in this block alone could give you a definite edge and take you a long way to qualifying the QA section. Although, the online CAT has significantly varied the relative importance to this block, the importance of this block remains high. Besides, there is a good chance that once the lIMs get their act together in the context of the online CAT and its question databases— the pre eminence of this block of chapters might return. Hence, understanding the concepts involved in these chapters properly and strengthening your problem solving experience could go a long way towards a good score. ‘ __ _______ H Before we move into the individual chapters of this block, let us first organize our thinking by looking at the core concepts that we had learnt in school with respect to these chapters.
Block 1 I
3
PREASSESSMENT TEST
This test consists of 25 questions based on the chapters of BLOCK ONE (Number Systems and Progressions). Do your best in trying to solve each question. The time limit to be followed for this test is 30 minutes. However, after the 30 minutes is over continue solving till you have spent enough time and paid sufficient attention to each question. After you finish thinking about each and every question of the test, check your scores. Then go through the SCORE INTERPRETATION ALGORITHM given at the end of the test to understand the way in which you need to approach the chapters inside this block. 1. The number of integers n satisfying  n + 2 > 0 and 2 n £ 4 is (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 2. The sum of two integers is 10 and the sum of their reciprocals is 5/12. Then the larger of these integers is (a) 2 (c) 6 (b) 4 (d) 8
(a) never divisible by 6. (b) always divisible by 6, and may or may not be divisible by 12. (c) always divisible by 12, and may or may not be divisible by 24. (d) always divisible by 24. 9. Iqbal dealt some cards to Mushtaq and himself from a full pack of playing cards and laid the rest aside. Iqbal then said to Mushtaq “If you give me a certain number o f your cards, I will have four times as many cards as you will have. If I give you the same number o f cards, I will have thrice as many cards as you will have”. O f the given choices, which could represent the number of cards with Iqbal? (a) 9 (b) 31 (c) 12 (d) 35 10. In Sivkasi, each boy’s quota of match sticks to fill into boxes is not more than 200 per session. If he reduces the number o f sticks per box by 25, he can fill 3 more boxes with the total number of sticks assigned to him. Which of the following is the possible number of sticks assigned to each boy? (a) 200 (b) 150 (c) 125 (d) 175 11. Alord got an order from a garment manufacturer for 480 Denim Shirts. He bought 12 sewing machines and appointed some expert tailors to do the job. However, many didn’t report for duty. As a result, each of those who did, had to stitch 32 more shirts than originally planned by Alord, with equal distribution of work. How many tailors had been appointed earlier and how many had not reported for work? (a) 12,4 (b) 10,3 (c) 10,4 (d) None o f these 12. How many 3digit even numbers can you form such that if one of the digits is 5, the following digit must be 7? (a) 5 (b) 405 (c) 365 (d) 495 13. To decide whether a number of n digits is divisible by 7, we can define a process by which its magnitude is reduced as follows: (iit 4 »*3..... *„ are the digits of the number, starting from the most significant digit). il2. ••?« ^ *V 3*~l + * 2. 3*”2 +•••• + e.g. 259 => 2 3 2+ 5.31+ 9.3°= 18 + 1 5 + 9 = 4 2 Ultimately the resulting number will be seven after repeating the above process a certain number of tunes.
3. If x is a positive integer such that 2x + 12 is perfectly divisible by x, then the number of possible values of x is
(a) 2 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 12 4. Let K be a positive integer such that k + 4 is divisible by 7. Then the smallest positive integer n, greater than 2, such that k + 2n is divisible by 7 equals. (a) 9 (b) 7 (c) 5 (d) 3 —272  271 is the same as (a) 2® (b) 270
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5.
(c) 271 ... (d) 272 6. Three times the first o f three consecutive odd integers is 3 more than twice the third. What is the third inte ger? (a) 15 (b) 9 (P) U (d) 5 7. x,y and z are three positive integers such that x > y > z . Which of the following is closest to the product xyzl (a) x y ( z  \ ) (b) (jc 1 )yz (c) U  y ) x y (d) * (y + l)z 8. A positive integer is said to be a prime number if it is not divisible by any positive integer other than itself and 1. Let p be a prime number greater than 5, then
4
 How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
After how many such stages, does the number 203 reduce to 77 (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 1 14. A third standard teacher gave a simple multiplication exercise to the kids. But one kid reversed the digits of both the numbers and carried out the multiplication and found that the product was exactly the same as the one expected by the teacher. Only one o f the following pairs of numbers will fit in the description of the exercise. Which one is that? (a) 14,22 (b) 13,62 (c) 19,33 (d) 42,28 15. I f 8 + 12 = 2 , 7 + 14 = 3then 1 0 + 1 8 = ? (a) 10 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 18 16. Find the minimum integral value of n such that the division 55/i/124 leaves no remainder. (a) 124 (b) 123 (c) 31 (d) 62 17. What is the value of k for which the following system of equations has no solution: 2x  % y = 3; and kx + 4 y = 10.
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2 (d) 5 21. If a < b, which of the following is always true? (a) a < (a + b) / 2 <b (b) (c) (d) a < ab!7. < b a < b —a 2 < b a < ab < b
22. The money order commission is calculated as follows From Rs. X to be sent by money order, subtract 0.01 and divide by 10.Getthe quotient and add 1 to it, if the result is Y, the money order commission is Rs. 0.5Y. If a person sends two money orders to Aurangabad and Bhatinda for Rs. 71 and Rs. 48 respectively, the total commission will be (a) Rs. 7.00 (c) Rs. 6.00 (b) Rs.6.50 (d) Rs. 7.50
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 2 18. A positive integer is said to be a prime if it is not divisible by any positive integer other than itself and one. Let p be a prime number strictly greater than 3. Then, when p2 + 17 is divided by 12, the remainder is (a) 6 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 8 19. A man sells chocolates that come in boxes. Either full boxes or half a box of chocolates can be bought from him. A customer comes and buys half the number of boxes the seller has plus half a box. A second cus tomer comes and buys half the remaining number of boxes plus half a box. After this, the seller is left with no chocolates box. How many chocolates boxes did the seller have before the first customer came? (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 3.5 20. X and Y are playing a game. There are eleven 50 paise coins on the table and each player must pick up at least one coin but not more than five. The person picking up the last coin loses. X starts. How many should he pick up at the start to ensure a win no matter what strategy V employs?
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(a) Rs.6.75 (c) Rs. 6.25
23. The auto fare in Ahmedabad has the following formula based upon the meter reading. The meter reading is rounded up to the next higher multiple of 4. For in stance, if the meter reading is 37 paise, it is rounded up to 40 paise. The resultant is multiplied by 12. The final result is rounded off to nearest multiple of 25 paise. If 53 paise is the meter reading what will be the actual fare? (b) Rs.6.50 (d) Rs. 7.50
24. Juhi and Bhagyashree were playing simple mathemati cal puzzles. Juhi wrote a two digit number and asked Bhayashree to guess it. Juhi also indicated that the number is exactly thrice the product of its digits. W hat was the number that Juhi wrote? (a) 36 (b) 24
(c) 12 (d) 48 25. It is desired to extract the maximum power of 3 from 24where n! = n.(n  1 ) . ( n  2) . .. 3.2.1. What will be the exponent of 3?
(a) 8 (b) 9
(c) 11
(d) 10
Answers (Block 1 Preassessm ent Test) 2, (c) % (b) 3. (c) 4. (a) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (b) 11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (a) 14. (b) 17. (c) 16. (a) 19. (b) 18. (a) 22. (b) 21. (a) 24. (b) 23. (a)
5. 10. 15. 20 25.
(c) (W (a) (b) (d)
Block 1 
5
SO LUTIO N S (P R E A S S E S S M E N T T E S T )
1. The only value that will satisfy will be 2. 2. V * + 1/6 will give you 5/12. 3. The possible values are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12. (i.e. the factors of 12) 4. k will be a number of the form In + 3. Hence, if you take the value of n as 9, k + 2n will become 7/1 + 3 + 1 8 = In + 21. This number will be divisible by 7. The numbers 3, 5 and 7 do not provide us with this solu tion. 5. 273 272  271 = 271 (22  2  1) = 271( 1). Hence option (c) is correct. 6. Solve through options. 7. The closest value will be option (b), since the percent age change will be lowest when the largest number is reduced by one. 8. This is a property of prime numbers greater than 5. 9. He could have dealt a total of 40 cards, in which case Mushtaq would get 9 cards. On getting one card from Mushtaq, the ratio would become 4:1, while on giving away one card to Mushtaq, the ratio would become 3:1. 10. Looking at the options you realise that the correct answer should be a multiple of 25 and 50 both. The option that satisfies the condition of increasing the number of boxes by 3 is 150. (This is found through trial and error.) 11. Trial and error gives you option 3 as the correct answer. 12. Given that the number must have a 57 in it and should be even at the same time, the only numbers possible are 570,572,574,576 and 578. Also, if there is no 5 in the number, you will get 360 more numbers. 13. 203 becomes 2.32+ 0 + 3.3° = 21 » 2.3* + 1.3° = 7. Hence, clearly two steps are required. 14. Trial and error will give option (b) as the correct an swer, since 13 x 62 = 26x 31 15. The solutions are defined as the sum of digits of the answer. Hence, 10 is correct. 16. There are no common factors between 55 and 124. Hence the answer should be 124. 17. Ai k =  l , the two equations become inconsistent with respect to each other and there will then be no solu tion to the system of equations. 18. Try with 5,7,11. In each case the remainder is 6. 19. Trial and error gives you answer 3 (b) Option. B h Picking up 4 coins will ensure that he wins the game.
21. Option (a) is correct (since the average of any two numbers lies between the numbers. 22. 8/2 + 5/2  6.5. 23. The answer will be 56 x 12 = 672 675. Hence, Rs. 6.75. 24. The given condition is satisfied only for 24. 25. The answer will be given by 8 + 2 = 10. (This logic is explained in the number systems Chapter)
SCORE INTERPRETATION ALGORITHM Block 1 Preassessm ent Test
(Use a similar process for one to six blocks on the basis of your performance).
If You Scored: < 7: (In Unlimited Time) Step One:
Go through the block one Back to School Section carefully. Grasp each of the concepts explained in that part carefully. In fact I would recommend that you go back to your Mathematics school books (ICSE/ CBSE) Class 8, 9 and 10 if you feel you need it.
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Step Two: Move into the first chapter of the block. Viz Number Systems. When you do so, concentrate on clearly understanding each of the concepts explained in the chapter theory. Then move onto the LOD 1 exercises. These exercises will provide you with the first level of challenge. Try to solve each and every question provided under LOD 1 of Number systems. While doing so do not think about the time requirement. Once you finish solving LOD 1, revise the questions and their solution processes. Step Three:
After finishing LOD 1 of number systems, move into Chapter 2 of this block, ( Progressions) and repeat the process, viz: Chapter theory comprehensively followed by solving LOD 1 questions.
Step Four: Go to the first and second review tests given
at the end of the block and solve it. While doing so, first look at the score you get within the time limit mentioned. Then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and tiy to evaluate the improvement in your unlimited time score. In case the growth in your score is not significant, go back to the theory o f each chapter and review each o f the LOD 1 questions for both the chapters.
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] HowtoPrepare fix Quantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
Step Five: Move to LOD 2 and repeat the process that
you followed in LOD 1—first in the chapter of Number Systems, then with the Chapter on Progressions. Concen trate on understanding each and every question and its underlying concept
the process, viz: Chapter theory comprehensively followed by solving LOD 1 questions.
Step Six: Go to the third to fifth review tests given at the end of the block and solve it. Again, while doing so measure your score within the provided time limit first and then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement that you have had in your score. Step Seven: Move to LOD 3 only after you have solved and understood each of the questions in LOD 1 and LOD 2. Repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1—first in the chapter of Number Systems, then with the Chapter on Progressions. If You Scored: 715 (In Unlimited Time)
Although you are better than the person following the instructions above, obviously there is a lot of scope for the development of your score. You will need to work both on your concepts as well as speed. Initially emphasize more on the concept development aspect of your preparations, then move your emphasis onto speed development. The following process is recommended for you:
Step Four: Go to the first and second review tests given at the end of the block and solve it. While doing so, first look at the score you get within the time limit mentioned. Then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement in your score. Step Five: Move to LOD 2 and repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1—first in the chapter on Number Systems, then with the Chapter on Progressions. Step Six: Go to the third to fifth review tests given at the end of the block and solve it. Again while doing so measure your score within the provided time limit first and then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement that you have had in your score. In case the growth in your score is not significant, go back to the theory o f both the chapters and resolve LOD 1 and LOD 2 o f both the chapters. While doing so concentrate more on the LOD 2 questions. Step Seven: Move to LOD 3 and repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1—first in the chapter on Number Systems, then with the Chapter on Progressions. If You Scored 15+ (In Unlimited Time)
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Step One: Go through the block one Back to School Section carefully. Revise each of the concepts explained in that part. Going through your 8th, 9th and 10th standard books will be an optional exercise for you. It will be recommended in case you scored in single digits, while if your score is in two digits, I leave the choice to you. Step Two: Move into the first chapter of the block. Viz Number Systems. When you do so, concentrate on clearly understanding each of the concepts explained in the chapter theory. Then move onto the LOD 1 exercises. These exercises will provide you with the first level of challenge. Try to solve each and every question provided under LOD 1 of Number Systems. Once you finish solving LOD 1, revise the questions and their solution processes. Step Three: After finishing LOD 1 of number systems, move into Chapter 2 of this block, ( Progressions) and repeat
Obviously you are much better than the first two categories of students. Hence unlike them, your focus should be on developing your speed by picking up the shorter processes explained in this book. Besides, you might also need to pick up concepts that might be hazy in your mind. The following process of development is recommended for you:
Step One: Quickly review the concepts given in the block
one Back to School Section. Only go deeper into a concept in case you find it new. Going back to school level books is not required for you.
Step Two: Move into the first chapter of the block: Number Systems. Go through the theory explained there carefully. Concentrate specifically on clearly understanding the concepts which are new to you. Work out the short cuts and in fact try to expand your thinking by trying to think of alternative (and expanded) lines of questioning with respect to the concept you are studying.
«*RKh
Block 1 j Then move onto the LOD 1 exercises. Solve each and every question provided under LOD 1 of Number Systems. While doing so, try to think of variations that you can visualize in the same questions and how you would handle diem.
7
Step Four:
Move to LOD 2 and repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1—first in the chapter of Number Systems, then with the Chapter on Progressions.
Step Six: Go to the first to fifth review tests—given at the
end of the block and solve it. While doing so, first look at the score you get within the time limit mentioned. Then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement in your score.
Step Three: After finishing LOD 1 of number systems,
move into Chapter 2 of this block, (Progressions) and repeat the process, viz: Chapter theory with emphasis on picking up things that you are unaware of, followed by solving LOD 1 questions and thinking about their possible variations.
Step Seven: Move to LOD 3 and repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1—first in the chapter of Number Systems, then with the Chapter on Progressions.
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g
] Howto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude forthe CAT I give two whole pieces each, to each of them. The 5tlj piece has to be divided equally between the two. 1 can nc longer do this, without in some way breaking the 5th piec< into 2 parts. This is the elementary situation that gives rise to the need for decimals in mathematics. Going back to the situation above, my only option is tc divide the 5th piece into two equal parts (which in quants an called as halves). This concept has huge implications for problem solvini especially once you recognise that a half (i.e. a .5 in the decimal) only comes when you divide a whole into two parts Thus, in fact, all standards decimals emerge out of certaii fixed divisors. Hence, for example, the divisor 2, gives rise to the decima •5. Similarly the divisor 3 gives rise to the decimals *33333 an •66666 etc.
CORE CONCEPTS
I. The concept of the number line is one of the most crucial concepts in Quantitative Aptitude. The number line is a line that starts from zero and goes towards positive infinity when it moves to the right and towards negative infinity when it moves to the left.
— .
4
 3  2 1
0
1
2
3
4 —
..................
♦ 
towards negative
towards positive
The difference between the values of any two points on the number line also gives the distance between the points. Thus, for example if we look at the distance between the points + 3 and  2 it will be given by their difference. 3  ( 2) = 3 + 2 = 5. II.Types of numbers We will be looking at the types of numbers in details, again when we go into the chapter of number systems. Let us first work out in our minds the various types of numbers. While doing so do not fail to notice that most of these number types occur in pairs (i.e. the definition of one of them, defines the other automatically).
Prime Numbers and Composite Numbers Amongsi
natural numbers, there are three broad divisionsU n ity It is representative of the number 1. P rim e N u m b e r s These are numbers which have no divisors/ factors apart from 1 and itself. C o m p o s ite N u m b e r s On the other hand, are numbers, which have at least one more divisor apart from 1 and itself. Note: A brief word about factors/ division — A number X is said to divide Y (or is said to be a divisor or factor of Y ). When the division of Y/X leaves no remainder. All composite numbers have the property that they can beI written as a product of their prime factors. Thus, for instance, the number 40 can be represented as:j 40 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 5 or 40 = 23 x 5 l This form of writing is called as the standard form of the composite number. The difference between Rational and Irrational numbers: This difference is one of the critical but unfortunately one of the less well understood differences in elementary M affl' emadcs. The definition of Rational numbers: Numbers which cant* expressed in the form plq where q * 0 are called ration** numbers. Obviously, numbers which cannot be represented in form plq are called as irrational numbers. However, one of the less well understood issues i° ^ regard is what does this mean? The difference becomes clear when the values of decima* are examined in details:
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Natural Numbers and Whole Numbers: Natural
numbers, also called counting numbers, are the first numbers we learnt. They are the number set 1, 2f 3 , 4 ........ «>. On the other hand, whole numbers is the set of natural numbers plus, the number zero. Thus, 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ......... oo is the set of whole number.
Integers and Decimals: All numbers that do not have a decimal in them are called integers. Thus, 3, 17, + 4, +13, + 1473,0 etc are all integers. Obviously, decimal numbers are number which have a decimal value attached to them. Thus, 1.3,14.76,  12.24 etc are all decimal numbers, since they have certain values after the decimal point. Before we move ahead, let us pause a brief while, to further understand decimals. As you shall see, the concept of decimals is closely related to the concept of division and divisibility. Suppose, I have 4 pieces of bread which 1 want to divide equally between two people. It is easy for me to do this, since 1 can give two whole pieces to each of them. However, if we alter the situation in such a way, that 1now have 5 pieces of bread to distribute equally amongst 2 people.
What do I do?
Block 1 I
g
Consider the following numbers (1) 4Z
(2) 4333....,
appeared while solving a question, it will remain till the end of the solution. It can only be removed from the solution if it is multiplied or divided by the same irrational number. Consider an example: The area of an equilateral triangle is given by the formula (V3/4) x a2 (where a is the side of the equilateral triangle). Since, V3 is an irrational number, it remains in the answer till the end. Hence, the area of an equilateral triangle will always have a \3 as part o f the answer. Before we move ahead we need to understand one final thing about recurring decimals. As I have already mentioned, recurring decimals have the property of being able to be represented in the plq form. The question that arises is— Is there any process to convert a recurring decimal into a proper fraction? Yes, there is. In fact, in order to understand how this operates, you first need to understand that there are two kinds of recurring decimals. The process for converting an infinite recurring decimal into a fraction basically varies for both o f these types. Let’s look at these one by one. Type 1Pure recurring decim als: These are recurring decimals where the recurrence starts immediately after the decimal pointy. For example : 0.5555... = 0.5 3.242424... = 3.24
(3) 4.1472576345....... What is the difference between the decimal values of the three numbers above? To put it simply, the first number has what can be described as a finite decimal value. Such numbers can be expressed in the formplq easily. Since 4.2 can be first written as 42/10 and then converted to 21/5. Similarly, number like 4.5732 can be represented as 45732/ 10000. Thus, numbers having a finite terminating decimal value are rational. Now, let us consider the decimal value: 4.3333......... Such decimal values will continue endlessly i.e. they have no end. Hence, they are called infinite decimals (or nonterminating decimals). But, we can easily see that the number 4.333.... can be represented as 13/3. Hence, this number is also.rational. In fact, all numbers which have infinite decimal values, but have any recurring form within them can be represented in the plq form. For example the value of the number: 1.14814814814.... is 93/81. (What I mean to say is that whenever you have any recurring decimal number, even if the value of * < ?’ might not be obvious, but it will always exist.) Thus, we can conclude that all numbers whose decimal values are infinite (nonterminating) but which have a recurring pattern within them are rational numbers. This leaves us with the third kind of decimal values, viz. Infinite nonrecurring decimal values. These decimals neither have a recurring pattern, nor do they have an end— they go on endlessly. For such numbers it is not possible to find the value of a denominator 'q' which can be used in order to represent them as plq. Hence, such numbers are called as irrational numbers. In day to day mathematics, we come across numbers like >M5,3V7,*.e, etc. which are irrational numbers since they do not have a plq representation. k* represented as 7l/3.J
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5.362362... =5.362 The process for converting these decimals to fractions can be illustrated as: 0.5555 = 5/9 3.242424 = 3 + (24/99) 5.362362 = 5 + (362/999) A little bit of introspection will tell you that what we have done is nothing but to put down the recurring part o f the decimal as it is and dividing it by a group of 9’s. Also the number of 9’s in this group equals the number of digits in the recurring part of the decimal. Thus, in the second case, the fraction is derived by dividing 24 by 99. (24 being the recurring part of the decimal and 99 having 2 nines because the number of digits in 24 is 2.) Similarly, 0.43576254357625.... = f j j Z625 9999999
INotr > 1 3 can also be represented as 3I/2, just as 3^7 can
An important Tip:
ty p e 2Im pure recurring decimals: Unlike pure recurring decimals, in these decimals, the recurrence occurs after a certain number of digits in the decimal. The process to National and Irrational numbers do not mix.: This means that convert these into a fraction is also best illustrated by an io case you get a situation where an irrational number has example:
Block 1 I
g
Consider the following numbers (1) 4.2, (2) 4.333....» (3) 4.1472576345........ What is the difference between the decimal values of the three numbers above? To put it simply, the first number has what can be described as a finite decimal value. Such numbers can be expressed in the form plq easily. Since 4.2 can be first written as 42/10 and then converted to 21/5. Similarly, number like 4.5732 can be represented as 45732/ 10000. Thus, numbers having a finite terminating decimal value are rational. Now, let us consider the decimal value: 4.3333......... Such decimal values will continue endlessly i.e. they have no end. Hence, they are called infinite decimals (or nonterminating decimals). But, we can easily see that the number 4.333.... can be represented as 13/3. Hence, this number is also.rational. In fact, all numbers which have infinite decimal values, but have any recurring form within them can be represented in the plq form. For example the value of the number: 1.14814814814.... is 93/81. (What I mean to say is that whenever you have any recurring decimal number, even if the value of lq' might not be obvious, but it will always exist.) Thus, we can conclude that all numbers whose decimal values are infinite (nonterminating) but which have a recurring pattern within them are rational numbers. This leaves us with the third kind o f decimal values, viz. Infinite nonrecurring decimal values. These decimals neither have a recurring pattern, nor do they have an end— they go on endlessly. For such numbers it is not possible to I find the value of a denominator ‘< 7’ which can be used in order to represent them as plq. Hence, such numbers are called as irrational numbers. In day to day mathematics, we come across numbers like V3W5,3^7, x; etc. which are irrational numbers since they do not have a plq representation. [Note. >/3 can also be represented as 3> /2, just as 3 V7 can 1 be represented as l xri.\
appeared while solving a question, it will remain till the end of the solution. It can only be removed from the solution if it is multiplied or divided by the same irrational number. Consider an example: The area of an equilateral triangle is given by the formula (V3/4) x a1 (where a is the side of the equilateral triangle). Since, \ 3 is an irrational number, it remains in the answer till the end. Hence, the area of an equilateral triangle will always have a v3 as part of the answer. Before we move ahead we need to understand one final thing about recurring decimals. As I have already mentioned, recurring decimals have the property of being able to be represented in the plq form. The question that arises is—Is there any process to convert a recurring decimal into a proper fraction? Yes, there is. In fact, in order to understand how this operates, you first need to understand that there are two kinds of recurring decimals. The process for converting an infinite recurring decimal into a fraction basically varies for both of these types. Let’s look at these one by one. Type 1Pure recurring decimals: These are recurring decimals where the recurrence starts immediately after the decimal pointy. For example : 0.5555... = 0.5 3.242424... = 3.24 5.362362... =5.362 The process for converting these decimals to fractions can be illustrated as: 0.5555 =5/9 3.242424 = 3 + (24/99) 5.362362 = 5 + (362/999) A little bit of introspection will tell you that what we have done is nothing but to put down the recurring part of the decimal as it is and dividing it by a group of 9’s. Also the number of 9’s in this group equals the number of digits in the recurring part of the decimal. Thus, in the second case, the fraction is derived by dividing 24 by 99. (24 being the recurring part of the decimal and 99 having 2 nines because the number of digits in 24 is 20 Similarly, 0.43576254357625.... =  ~ 57625 9999999 Type 2Impure recurring decimals: Unlike pure recurring decimals, in these decimals, the recurrence occurs after a certain number of digits in the decimal. The process to convert these into a fraction is also best illustrated by an example:
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An important Tip:
Rational and Irrational numbers do not mix.: This means that to case you get a situation where an irrational number has
I 0
! Howto Prepare torQuantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
Consider the decimal 0.435424242 1 0.43542 The fractional value of the same will be given by: (43542 1 435V99000. This can be understood in two steps. Step /: Subtract the nonrecurring initial part of the decimal (in this case, it is 435) from the number formed by writing down the starting digits of the decimal value upto the digit where the recurring decimals are written for the first time; Expanding the meaning— Note: For 0.435424242, subtract 435 from 43542 Step 2: The number thus obtained, has to be divided by a number formed as follows; Write down as many 9’s as the number of digits in the recurring part of the decimal, (in this case, since the recurring part ‘42’ has 2 digits, we write down 2 9’s.) These nines have to be followed by as many zeroes as the number of digits in the non recurring part of the decimal value. (In this case, the non recurring part of the decimal value is ‘435’. Since, 435 has 3 digits, attach three zeroes to the two nines to get the number to divide the result of the first step.) Hence divide 43542 — 435 by 99000 to get the fraction.
c  i i r i 436213 —436. Similarly, for 3.436213213 we get — — jJT"' 999000 Let us now move onto our next topic 
will reach points such as 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 .....and so on. Thj, 1 essentially means that the points the frog now reaches are displaced by 1 unit to the right of the 2n frog. In mathematics terms, this is represented as 2n + 1. In other words, 2n + 1 also represents numbers w hicjj leave a remainder of 1, when divided by 2. (Note: This is also the definition of an odd number. Hence, in Mathematics (2/i + 1) is used to denote an odd number. Also note th at taken together In and 2n + 1 denote the entire set of integers, i.e. all integers from  « * » to + « ®on the number line can b e denoted by either 2n or 2n + 1. This happens because w hen we divide any integer by 2, there are only two results possible with respect to the remainder obtained, viz: A remainder of zero (2n) or a remainder of one (2n + 1). This concept can be expanded to represent integers w ith respect to any number. Thus, in terms of 3, we can only have three types of integers 3n, 3n + 1 or 3n + 2 (depending o n whether the integer leaves a remainder 0, 1 or 2 respectively when divided by 3.) Similarly, with respect to 4, we have4 possibilities  4n, 4n+ 1, 4n + 2 or 4n + 3. This form of representation of integers is extremely crucial in logically solving QA. Rules of Indices: Indices means the power on a number. M any mathematical situations require us to be able to use the rules of indices. Hence, understanding these rules and their appropriate use might go a long way towards helping youin developing your skills in Quants. The following rules apply for indices. (1) am X aH= § p +n). Thus, 23 x 25 = 2s (2) am /an = am~n. Thus 25/22 = 23 (3) am = lla~m or a ' = l/am. Thus, 3~4 = 1/34 (4) (ah)ci a*. Thus, (52)4 = 58 (5) a0  1 for all values of a. Thus, 7° = 1 Besides, the following principles apply for indices: (1) If am  n, then a = nU m (2) an /bn  {afb)" or vice versa (3) ab * a**. Thus 23 = 281 and not 21 2 .
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Tables and their visualization: Imagine the number line and a frog sitting at point zero of the number line, Let us say that the frog always jumps an equal distance (say 2 units.) Imagine that the frog sitting at the origin (point 0) of the number line starts jumping to its right through equidistant jumps of exactly 2 units. It will first land on the point repre sented by the number 2 on the number line. It’s next jump will make it land on the number 4, then 6, then 8 and so on. This is how you should visualise the table of any number. Thus, a frog starting from 0 and jumping 7 units to the right will land on 7, then 14,21,28 and so forth. This frog’s jumps represent the table of the number 7. The meaning of 2n and 2n + 1: 2n means a number which is a multiple of the number 2. Since, this can be visualised as a frog starting from the origin and jumping 2 units to the right in every jump, you can also say that this frog represents 2n. (Note: Multiples of 2, are even numbers. Hence, 2n is also used to denote even numbers.) So, what does 2#i + 1 mean? Well, simply put, if you place the above frog on the point represented by the number 1 on the number line then the frog
S q u a re s a n d sq u a re ro o ts When any number * I multiplied by itself, it is called as the square of the number ■ Thus, 3 x 3 = 32 = 9 Squares have a very important role to play in matheman ■ In the context of preparing for CAT and other Managentf li exams, it might be a good idea to be able to recollect , squares of 2 digit numbers. Let us now go through the following Table 1.1 careful a
Table 1.1
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Square 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625 676 729 784 841 900 961 1024 1089 1156 Number 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 Square 1225 1296 1369 1444 1521 1600 1681 1764 1849 1936 2025 2116 2209 2304 2401 2500 2601 2704 2809 2916 Number 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Square 4761 4900 5041 5184 5329 5476 5625 5776 5929 6084 6241 6400 6561 6724 6889 7056 7225 7396 7561 7744 7921
Just follow the following processes and you’ll know all squares upto 100. Trick 1: For squares from 51 to 80  (N ote: This method depends on your m em ory o f the first thirty squares.) The process is best explained through an example. Suppose, you have to get an answ er for the value o f 672. Look at 67 as (50 + 17). The 4 digit answer will have two parts as follows:
p _______ y p _______ y
First 2 digits
Last 2 digits
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3025 3136 3249 3364 3481 3600 3721 3844 3969 4096 4225 4356 4489 4624 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 8100 8281 8464 8649 8836 9025 9216 9409 9604 9801 10000 Step 1: 76 = 50 + 26.
The last two digits w ill be the same as the last two digits o f the square o f the num ber 17. (The value 17 is derived by looking at the difference o f 67 w ith respect to 50.) Since, 172= 289, you can say that the last two digits o f 672 will be 89. (i.e. the last 2 digits o f 289.) A lso, you will need to carry over the ‘2 ’ in the hundreds place o f 289 to the first part o f the number. The first two digits o f the answer will be got by adding 17 (which is got from 67 —50) and adding the carry over (2 in this case) to the number 25. (Standard num ber to be used in all cases.) Hence, the first two digits o f the answ er will be given by 25 + 17 + 2 = 44. Hence, the answer is 672 =4489. Similarly, suppose you have to find 762.
Step 2 : 262 is 676. Hence, the last 2 digits o f the answ er will be 76 and we will carry over 6 . Step 3: The first two digits o f the answ er will be 25 + 26 + 6 = 57. Hence, the answer is 5776. This technique will take care o f squares from 51 to 80 (if you remember the squares from 1 to 30). You are advised to use this process and see the answers for yourself.
Squares for Numbers from 31 to 50
So, how does one get these numbers onto one’s finger tips? Does one memorize these values or is there a simpler way? Yes indeed! There is a very convenient process when it comes to memorising the squares of the first 100 numbers. First of all, you are expected to memorise the squares of the first 30 numbers. In my experience, 1 have normally seen that most students already know this. The problem arises with numbers after 30. You do not need to worry about that.
Such numbers can be treated in the form (50  *) and the above process modified to get the values o f squares from 31 to 50. Again, to explain we will use an example. Suppose you have to find the square o f 41. Step 1 : Look at 41 as (50 —9). Again, similar to what we did above, realise that the answer has two parts— the first two and the last two digits. Step 2: The last two digits are got by the last two digits in the value of (  9)2 = 81. Hence, 81 will represent the last two digits of 412.
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• How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Step 3: The first two digits are derived by 25 — 9 —16 (where 25 is a standard number to be used in all cases and — 9 comes from the fact that (50  9) = 41). Hence, the answer is 1681. Note In case there had been a carry over from the last two digits it would have been added to 16 to get the answer. For example, in finding the value of 36 we look at 36 = (5014) Now, (14)2 =196. Hence, the last 2 digits of the answer will be 96. The number ‘1’ in the hundreds place will have to be carried over to the first 2 digits of the answer. The, first two digits will be 25  14 + 1 = 12 Hence, 362= 1296. With this process, you are equipped to find the squares of numbers from 31 to 50.
This property is very useful when used in ™ posite direction— i.e. Given that the difference 1 tween the squares o f two consecutive integers is ^ you should immediately realise that the numjjJ i should be 40 and 41. 3. The square o f a number ending in 1,5 or 6 also ' in 1,5 or 6 respectively. 4. The square o f any number ending in 5: The last tw 0" 1 digits will always be 25. The digits before that intfe ' answer will be got by multiplying the digits leading^ 1 to the digit 5 in the number by 1 more than itself. 1 Illustration: 852 = ___ 25. The missing digits in the above answer will be gotb v9 8 x (8 + 1) = 8 x 9 = 72. Hence, the square of 85 isgiveii by 7225. Similarly, 1352 = 25. The missing digits are 13x141 = 182. Hence, 1352 = 18225. 5. The value of a perfect square has to end in 1 ,4 ,5 ,6 j 9 or an even number of zeros. In other words, aperieaH square cannot end in 2 ,3 ,7 , or 8 or an odd num berof zeros. 6. If the units digit o f the square o f a number is 1 , to I the number should end in 1 or 9. 7. If the units digit o f the square of a number is 4, tha■ the units digit o f the number is 2 or 8. 8. If the units digit o f the square o f a number is 9. tha■ the units digit o f the number is 3 or 7. 9. If the units of the square o f a number is 6. thenI*H unit’s digit of the number is 4 or 6. 10. The sum of the squares of the first V natural nu m b ®■ is given by [(n) (/i + 1) (2n + l)]/6. 11. The square of a number is always nonnegative12. Normally, by squaring any number we increase H value of the number. The only integers for which I is not true are 0 and 1. (In these cases squaring I number has no effect on the value of the nuflw^M Further, for values between 0 to 1, squaring; ■ number reduces the value of the number. Forexw^B 0.52 < 0.5.
Finding squares of numbers between 81 to 100:
Suppose you have to find the value of 822. The following process will give you the answers. Step 1: Look at 82 as (100 1 8 ). The answer will have 4 digits whose values will be got by focusing on getting the value of the last two digits and that of the first two digits.
Step 2: The value of the last two digits will be equal to the last two digits of (  18)2 . Since, (  18)2 = 324, the last two digits of Sj® r will be 24. The ‘3’ in the hundreds place of (—18)2 will be carried over to the other part of the answer (i.e. the first two digits).
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Step 3: The first two digits will be got by: 82 + (  18) + 3 Where 82 is the original number; (1 8 ) is the number obtained by looking at 82 as (100  x)\ and 3 is the carry over from
(
m
Similarly, 87 will give you the following thought process: 87= 1 0 0 1 3 » (  13)2 = 169. Hence, 69 are the last two digits of the answer Carry over 1. Consequently, 87 + (13) + 1 = 75 will be the first 2 digits of the answer. Hence, 872 = 7569. With these three processes you will be able to derive the square of any number up to 100. Properties of squares: 1. When a perfect square is written as a product of its prime factors each prime factor will appear an even number of times. 2. The difference between the squares of two consecu tive natural numbers is always equal to the sum of the natural numbers. Thus, 41“  402 = (40 + 41) = 81.
Finding the Square Root of a Given Nuffl
7016 Step 1: Write down the number 7016 as a product
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Prime factors.
7016=2x2x2x2x21x21
= 24 x 212
Thus, the cube root o f 3 x 5 x 17 x 2 is given by 32 x 53 x 17 x 22 3. The cubes o f all numbers (integers and decimals) greater than 1 are greater than the number itself. 4. 03 = 0 ,1 3 = 1 and —l 3 =  1. These are the only three instances where the cube o f the number is equal to the number itself. 5. The value o f the cubes o f a number between 0 and 1 is lower than the number itself. Thus, 0.53 < 0.52 < 0.5. 6. The cube of a number between 0 and —1 is greater than the number itself. (  0 . 2)3 >  0 .2 . 7. The cube of any number less than 1 , is always lower than the number. Thus, (— 1.53< (1.5). It is used for the ordering o f math ematical operations in a mathematical situation: In any mathematical situation, the first thing to be considered is Brackets followed by Division, Multiplication, Addition and Subtraction in that order. Thus 3 x 5  2 = 1 5  2 = 13 Also, 3 x 5  6 *3 =152=13 Also, 3 x ( 5  6 ) s3 = 3 x (  l ) + 3 =  l . Operations on Odd and Even numbers ■ K h EVENS Even x Even = Even Even + Even = Even Even  even = Even Even even = Even or odd
Step 2: The required square root is obtained by halving the values o f die powers. Hence, V7056 = 22 x 21!
CUBES AND CUBE ROOTS
When a number is multiplied with itself two times, we get the cube of the number. Thus, x x x x x = x 3 Method to find out the cubes of 2 digit numbers: The answer has to consist o f 4 parts, each o f which has to be calculated separately. The first part o f the answer will be given by the cube of the ten’s digit. Suppose you have to find the cube o f 28. The first step is to find the cube o f 2 and write it down.
23 = 8 .
The BODMAS Rule:
The next three parts of the number will be derived as follows. Derive the values 32, 128 and 512. (by creating a G. P. of 4 terms with the first term in this case as 8, and a common ratio got by calculating the ratio of the unit’s digit of the number with its tens digit. In this case the ratio is 8/2 = 4.) Now, write the 4 terms in a straight line as below. Also, to the middle two terms add double the value. 32 64 21 9 128 256 5 512
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ODDS Odd x odd Odd + odd O ddodd Odd s odd O d d = Even = Even = odd
2
(carry over 51)
ODDS & EVENS Odd x Even Odd + Even Odd  Even Even + odd = Even = Odd = Odd = Even
(8+ 13)
(32 + 64 + 43=139) Carry over 13
(128 + 256 + 51=435) (Carry over 43)
Odd + Even > Not divisible
Hence, 283 = 21952
SERIES OF NUMBERS Properties of Cubes
1. When a perfect cube is written in its standard form die values o f the powers on each prime factor will be a multiple o f 3. 2. In order to find the cube root of a number, first write it in its standard form and then divide all powers by 3. In many instances in Mathematics we are presented with a series of numbers formed simply when a group o f numbers is written together. The following are examples o f series: 1. 3,5 ,8 ,1 2 ,1 7 ... 2. 3, 7, 11, 15, 19...(Such series where the next term is derived by adding a certain fixed value to the previous number are called as Arithmetic Progressions).
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I How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
3. 5, 10, 2 0 ,4 0 .....(Such series where the next term is derived by multiplying the previous term by a fixed value are called as Geometric Progressions). (Note: You will study AP and GP is details in the chapter of p r o g r e s s i o n s which is chapter 2 of this block.) 4. 2 ,7 ,2 2 ,6 7 ^ ! 5. 1/3,1/5,1/7,1/9,1/11... 6. 1/12, 1/22 , 1/32, V 42 ,1 /5 2— 7. 1/13,1/33,1/53— Remember the following points at this stage: 1. AP and GP are two specific instances of series. They are studied in details only because they have many applications and have defined rules. 2. Based on the behaviour of their sums, series can be classified as: Divergent: These are series whose sum to ‘n ’ terms keeps increasing and reaches infinity for infinite terms.
Convergent: Convergent series have the property ^ sum tends to approach an upper limit/lower Hn^ ^ include more terms in the series. They have the add’^ 1 property that even when infinite terms of the I*; included they will only reach that value and not • . ross« For example consider the senes;
l / l 2 + 1/32 + 1/52 + 1/72 ...
It is evident that subsequent terms of this series u getting smaller. Hence, their value becomes negligible 1 few terms of the series are taken into account. If taken to infinite terms, the sum of this series will^ J a value which it will never cross. Such series are cab 1 convergent, because their sum converges to a limit and04 1 reaches that limit for infinite terms. Note: Questions on finding infinite sums of converts I series are very commonly asked in most aptitude eo* I including CAT and XAT. 1 I
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K  — — — NOTE FOR THE READER: NOW THAT YOU ARE THROUGH WITH THE BACK TO SCHOOL SECTION, YOU ARE READY TO PROCEED INTO THE CHAPTERS OF THIS BLOCK. HAPPY SOLVING!! 1 J
INTRODUCTION
T h e chapter o f number systems is amongst the most impor tant chapters in the whole o f mathematics syllabus for the CAT examination. Students are advised to go through this chapter with utmost care understanding each and every question type on this topic. The CAT has consistently set between 1015 marks based on the concepts of this chapter. Hence, going through this chapter and its concepts properly is very imperative for you. Seen in the context of the quali fying score in the CAT being in the range of 1214 marks (for Q A), this leaves us with a fair idea of the critical importance of this chapter. It would be a good idea to first go through die basic definitions o f all types of numbers (something I have found to be surprisingly very less known about). The student is also advised to go through the solutions o f the various questions illustrated in this chapter. Besides, while solving this chapter try to maximise your learning experience with every problem that you solve. To start off, the following pictorial representation o f the types of numbers will help you improve year quality of comprehension of different types of numbers.
Decimals
Real Numbers
Integers (Numbers having no decimals) Zero Positive. Lj____________ 1 NonNegative
Finite or Terminating Decimals
I Negative Integers j Infinite or j Terminating NonPostive Decimals
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Examples (4.2, 5.36, 6.274 etc.) Note: Such decimals can be represented in the form P/q, hence are rational number. Examples: 3.666,4.2626 5.427 427427 6.2718424242 etc. Such decimals can also be represented in the P/q form and hence are rational numbers
Positive Integers = Natural Numbers
Natural Numbers e.g.: V3, jc ,c,3^5 etc. are IRRATIONAL NUMBERS as Unity Prime Prime they cannot be (The No. 1) numbers number written in the P/q form. Also. Note: NonNegative integers = Whole numbers.
Based on divisibility, there could be two types of natural numbers: Prime and Composite.
DEFINITIONS
These are the numbers (1 ,2 , 3 etc.) that are used for counting. In other words, all positive inte gers are natural numbers. There are infinite natural numbers and the number 1 is the least natural number. Examples of natural numbers: 1, 2 ,4 , 8, 32,23,4321 and so chi. The following numbers are examples of numbers that are
Prime Numbers A natural number larger than unity is a prime number if it does not have other divisors except for itself and unity.
Note: Unity (i.e. 1) is not a prime number.
Natural Numbers
S o m e P ro p e r tie s o f P rim e N u m b e rs
not natural: H  3 1 ,2 .3 8 ,0 and so on.
The lowest prime number is 2. 2 is also the only even prime number. The lowest odd prime number is 3.
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How to Prepare forQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
■ The remainder when a prime number p 5 is divided by 6 is 1 or 5. However, if a number on being divided by 6 gives a remainder of 1 or 5 the number need not be prime. ■ The remainder of the division of the square o f a prime number p ^ . 5 divided by 24 is 1. ■ For prime numbers p > 3, p  1 is divisible by 24. ■ Prime Numbers between 1 to 100 are: 2 ,3 ,5 ,7 , 11, 13, 17,19,23,29,31,37,41,43,47, 53,59,61, 67,71,73,79, 83,89,97. ■ Prime Numbers between 100 to 200 are: ltfl, 103,107, 109,113,127,131,137,139,149,151,157,163,167,173, 179,181,191,193,197,199. ■ If a and b are any two odd primes then a2  b2 is composite. Also, a + b is composite. ■ The remainder of the division of the square of a prime number p > 5 divided by 12 is 1.
The same task will be performed by a trained windfollows:
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SHORTCUT PROCESS To C h e c k W h e th e r a N u m b e r is P rim e o r N ot . • .? .
To check whether a number N is prime, adopt the following process.
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(a) Take the square root o f the number. (b) Round of the square root to the immediately lower integer. Call this number z . For example if you have to check for 181, its square root will be 13.!.. Hence, the value of Zj is this case will be 13. (c) Check for divisibility o f the number N by all prime numbers below z. If there is no prime number below the value of z which divides N then the number N will be prime. To illustrate: . The value of \2 3 9 lies between 15 to 16. Hence, take the value of z as 16. Prime numbers less than 16 are 2, 3, 5,7,11 and 13,239 is not divisible by any of these. Hence you can conclude that 239 is a prime number.
2 x 20 4 x 10 and 5 x 8 i.e.. The discovery of one factor will automatically yield other factor. In other words, factors will appear in ternswhat can be called as factor pairs. The locating of one J will automatically pinpoint the other one for you. Thus, in^ 1 example above, when you find 5 as a factor of 40, you^ I automatically get 8 too as a factor. Now take a look again at the pairs in the example a b o v e If you compare the values in each pair with the square ra* i l of 40 (i.e. 6.___) you will find that for each pair the num bsM in the left column is lower than the square root of 40, w ift *1 the number in the right column is higher than the squarerax E of 40. This is a property for all numbers and is always true. I Hence, we can now phrase this as: Whenever, you ha« 0 to find the factors o f any number N , you will get the facto nI in pairs (i.e. factor pairs). Further, the factor pairs will bes u c kI that in each pair of factors, one o f the factors will be tow■ than the square root o f N while the other will be higher thr the square root of N. As a result of this fact one need not make any effort tofin i the factors of a number above the square root of the num bs ■ These come automatically. All you need to do is to findk ■ factors below the square root o f the number. Extending this logic , we can say that if we are not"* j to find a factor o f a number upto the value of its squaren* j j we will not be able to fin d any factor above the r ( H l1 and the number under consideration will be a p 1 number. This is the reason why when we need to cW * whether a number is prime, we have to check for factorsw below the square root. But, we have said that you need to check for divisibil^ i only with the prime numbers below (and including* q square root of the number. What logic will explain w* o Let us look at an example to understand why you1 1 1 look only at prime numbers below the square root Uptil now, we have deduced that in order to check^J^ J a number is prime, we just need to do a factor g g c b b ^ l l
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A Brief Look into Why this Works?
Suppose you are asked to find the factors of the number 40. An untrained mind will find the factors a s : 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 8,10,
(and including) the square root. vJ jj Thus, for example, in order to find whether 181 b 3  , nI number, we need to check with the numbers —2,3. jN 8,9,10,11. 12, and 13.
Chapter 1: Number Systems
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\U The first thing you will realise, when you first look at the list above is that all even numbers will get eliminated automatically (since no even number can divide an odd number and of course you will check a number for being prime only if it is odd!) This will leave you with the numbers 3,5,7,9,11 and 13 to check 181. Why do we not need to check with composite numbers below the square root? This will again be understood best if explained in the context of the example above. The only composite number in the list above is 9. You do not need to check with 9, because when you checked N for divisibility with 3 you would get either of two cases: ' Case I: If N is divisible by 3: In such a case, N will automati cally become nonprime and we can stop our checking. Hence, you will not need to check for the divisibility of the number by 9.
The Concept of the Number Line The number line is
a straight line between negative infinity on the left to infinity to the right. — — 2 — 1. 2........ +eo
The distance between any two points on the number line is got by subtracting the lower value from the higher value. Alternately, we can also start with the lower number and find the required addition to reach the higher number. For example: The distance between the points 7 and 4 will be 7  (  4 ) = 11.
L ’:'
If;
Case II: N is not divisible by 3: If N is not divisible by 3, it is obvious that it will not be divisible by 9. Hence, you will not need to check for the divisibility of the number by 9. Thus, in either case, checking for divisibility by a composite number (9 in this case) will become useless. This « # will be true for all composite numbers. Hence, when we have to check whether a number N is prime or not, we need to only check for its divisibility by W prime factors below the square root of N.
Real Numbers All numbers that can be represented on the number line are called real numbers. Every real number can be approximately replaced with a terminating decimal. The followning operations of addition, subtraction, mul tiplication and division are valid for both whole numbers and real numbers: [For any real or whole numbers a, b and c],
(a) Commutative property of addition: a + b  b + a. (b) Associative property of addition: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c). (c) Commutative property of multiplication: a b — b■ a. (d) Associative property of multiplication: (a  b) ■c . , =a (b ■ c). (e) Distributive property of multiplication with respect to addition: (a + b) c = ac + be. (f) Subtraction and division are defined as the inverse operations to addition and multiplication respectively.
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M Integers A set which consists of natural numbers, nega tive integers (1,2,  3 ... n . ..) and zero is known as the set L i of integers. The numbers belonging to this set are known as .. integers.
Composite Numbers It is a natural number that has at
I f least one divisor different from unity and itself. Evay composite number n can be factored into its prime factors. (This is sometimes called the canonical form of a number.) I In mathematical terms: n = p ] m . g f ., ,pk, wherep , , p 2. . .pk r.j are prime numbers called factors and m, n...k are natural numbers. Thus, 24=s233f 8 4 * 7 3  2 2 etc. U This representation of a composite number is known as a j the standard form of a composite number. It is an extermely useful form of seeing a composite number as we shall see.
Thus if a + b = c, then c — b = a and if q = alb then b • q = a (where b $ ■0). Division by zero is not possible since there is no number q for which b ■q equals a non zero number a.
Whole Numbers The set of numbers that includes all
natural numbers and the number zero are called whole num,jP ,n bers. Whole number are also called as Nonnegative integers.
Rational Numbers A rational number is defined as num ber of the form alb where a and b are integers and l i t 0. The set of rational numbers encloses the set of integers and fractions. The rules given above for addition, subtrac tion, multiplication and division also apply on rational numbers. Rational numbers that are not integral will have decimal values. These values can be of two types:
(a) Terminating (or finite) decimal (Tactions: For example, 17/41 4.25,21/5 = 4.2 and so forth.
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ib) Nm limiiwitinf decimal fractions: Amongst nootenwiiM inf deck—l ftictwm there are two types of decimal values: (i) Nonterminating periodicfractions'. These are nontHininarinf iW im a l fractions of the typex a^a^ZMs
..M m a ja2a3a4 ...a j 2 1 a ^ ija ^ ...a m . For example y
=
ff the nnmbers/I j and n2are exactly dhisMe by number x. then x is a common divisor of mt aca n _ . The highest of all the common divisors of ■, aai . caBed 2s the GCD or the HCF. TTss is denoted as GCD > „ Rules fo r Finding th e GCD of Tw o Num bers /»* and (a) Find the standard form of the nombers a, aad n _ fb) Write out all prime factors that are common to fe I standard forms of the numbers it and (c) Raise each of the common prime factors listed ikm* to the lesser of the powers in which k appears n fe standard fanns of the numbers nx and n. (d) The product of the results of the previoas step %ilfcr die GCD of nx and n:. Illustration: Find the GCD of 150.210.375. Step 1: Writting down the standard form of nuabga 150 = 5 x 5 x 3 x 2 210 = 5 x 2 x 7 x 3 375 = 5 x 5 x 5 x 3 Step 2: Writing Prime factors comm»:>n to ^ 1 1the tree so bers is 51 x 3l Step 3: This wSI give the same result, i.e. 5 x 3 Step 4: Hence, the HCF will be 5 x 3 = 15 For practice, find the HCF of the following: (a) 78,39,195 (b) 440,140,390 (c) 198,121,1331
53333, 1523232323.142876287618 7 6 ... and soon. termmating nonperiodic fractions: These are
of the form x ■ b}bJbybA. Jf^c^c^..
5.2731687143725186.
For example:
Of the above categories, terminating decimal and nonterminatmg periodic decimal fractions belong to the set of rational numbers Irrational Numbers Fractions, that are nonterminating, nonperiodic fractions, are irrational numbers. Some examples of irrational numbers are \ 2 . ^3 etc. In other words, ail square and cube roots of natural numbers that are not squares and cubes of natural numbers are irra tional. Other irrational numbers include jl e and so on. Every positive irrational number has a negative irrational number corresponding to it. AD operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division applicable to rational numbers are also applicable to krabonal numbers. As briefly stated in the Back to school section, whenever an expression contains a rational and an irrational number together, the two have to be carried together dll the end. In ocher words, an irrational number once it appears in the solution o f a question will continue to appear till the end of the question. This concept is particularly useful in Geometry For example: If \ou are asked to find the ratio of the area of a circle to that of an equilateral triangle, yon can expect io see aaAv3 in the answ er: This is because the area of a circle will always have a p o n y « k m in it while that of an equilateral triangle w il always have \3 . You realise that once an irrational number appears in the w hrtoo of a question, it can only disappear if it is pi— InplifH or divided by the m pe irrational number.
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THE CONCEPT OF LCM (LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE)
Let /tj. and n2 be two natural Bonbets distich P * other. The smallest natural number mflat is exA .~d> by nt and n: is calkd the Least Common Muiupie L a, and a* and is designated as LCM ia{ ,
THE CONCEPT Of GCD (GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR OR HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR)
C i n d e r two natural nombers n. and n2.
Rule for Finding th e LCM of 2 nx and u2
(a> Find the standard form of the oumfee
Chapter 1:
Number Systems
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(b) Write out all the prime factors, which are contained in the standard forms of either of die numbers. (c) Raise each of the prime factors listed above to the highest of the powers in which it appears in the stan dard forms of the numbers n t and n2> (d) The product of results of the previous step will be the LCM of I and Illustration: Find the LCM of ISO, 210,375. Step I: Writing down the standard form of numbers 15015 x 5 x 3 x 2 210 = 5 x 2 x 7 x 3 375 = 5 x 5 x 5 x 3 Step 2: Write down all the prime factors: that appear at least once in any of the numbers: 5, 3,2,7. Step 3: Raise each of the prime factors to their highest available power (considering each to the numbers). The LCM = 21x 31 x 53 x 71 = 5250. Important Rule: GCD (njf    LCM (nlf Mj' = nj • > Le. The product of the HCF and the LCM equals the product of the numbers.
2. Find the HCF of (a) 420 and 1782 • , (c) 54,72,198 3. Find the LCM of (b) 36 and 48 (d) 62,186 and 279
(a) 13,23 and 48 (b) 24,36,44 and 62 (c) 22,33,45, and 72 (d) 13,17,21 and 33 4. Find the series of common multiples of (a) 54 and 36 (b) 33,45 and 60 [Hint. Find the LCM and then create an Arithmetic progression with the first term as the LCM and the common difference also as the LCM.] 5. The LCM of two numbers is 936. If their HCF is 4 and one of the numbers is 72, the other is: [MAT] (a) 42 (b) 52 (c) 62 (d) None of these Answer: (b) use HCF x LCM = product of numbers. 6. Two alarm clocks ring their alarms at regular intervals of 50 seconds and 48 seconds. If they first beep to gether at 12 noon, at what time will they beep again for the first time? [MAT] ; (a) 12:10 RM. (b) 12:12 P.M. wj> (c) 12:11P.M. (d) None of these Answer: (d). Tie LCM of 50 and 48 being 1200, the two clocks will ring again after 1200 seconds. 7. 4 Bells toll together at 9:00 A.M. They toll after 7 , 8, 11 and 12 seconds respectively. How many times will they toll together again in the next 3 hours? [IIFT, MAT]     S (a) 3 (b) 4 y (c) 5 (d) 6 , Answer: (c). The LCM of 7 ,8,11 and 12 is 1848. Hence, the answer will be got by the greatest integer function of the ratio (10800)/( 1848)= > 5. 8. On Ashok Marg three consecutive traffic lights change after 36,42 and 72 seconds respectively. If the lights are first switched on at 9:00 A.M. sharp, at what time will they change simultaneously? (a) 9 : 0 8 :0 4 (b) 9:08:24 (c) 9 : 0 8 : 44 (d) None of these Answer (b). The LCM of 36,42 and 72 is 504. Hence, the lights will change simultaneously after 8 minutes and 24 seconds. 9. The HCF of 2472,1284 and a third number ‘A Tis 12. If their LCM is 23x 32x 5 1x 103 x 107, then the number is: (a) 22x 3 2 x 7* (b) 22x 3 3x l0 3
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RULE FOR FINDING OUT HCF AND LCM OF FRACTIONS:
(A) HCF of two or more fractions is given by: HCF of Numerators LCM of Denominators (B) LCM of two or more fractions is given by: LCM of Numerators HCF of Denominators Rules for HCF: If the HCF of * and y is G, then the HCF of (i) x, (jc + y) is also G (ft) x, (x  y) is also G (iii) (x + y), (x  y) is also G HCF and LCM
Practice Exercise
(Typical questions asked in Exams) 1. Find the common factors for the numbers. (a) 24 and 64 (b) 42,294 and 882 (c) 60,120 and 220
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How to Prepare forQuantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
(c) 22x 32 x 51 (d) None of these Answer: (c) 10. Two equilateral triangles have the sides of lengths 34 and 85 respectively. (a) The greatest length of tape that can measure both of them exactly is: Answer: HCF of 34 and 85 is 17. (b) How many such equal parts can be measured? Answer: 34/17 + 85/17 = 2 + 5 = 7 11. Two numbers are in the ratio 17:13. If their HCF is 15, what are the numbers? Answer 17x15 and 13 x 15 i.e. 255 and 195 respectively. 12. A forester wants to plant 44 apple trees, 66 banana trees and 110 mango trees in equal rows (in terms of number of trees). Also, he wants to make distinct rows of trees (i.e. only one type of tree in one row). The number of rows (minimum) that are required are: (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 10  t . (d) 11 Answer:, (c) 44/22 + 66/22 + 110/22 (Since 22 is the HCF) 13. Three runners running around a circular track, can complete one revolution in 2,4 and 5.5 hours respec tively. When will they meet at the starting point? (a) 22 (b) 33 (c) 11 (d) 44 (The answer will be the LCM of 2,4 and 11/2. This will give you 44 as the answer). 14. The HCF and LCM of two numbers are 33 and 264 respectively. When the first number is divided by 2, the quotient is 33. The other number is? (a) 66 (b) 132 <c) 198 (d) 99 (Answer 33 x 264 = 66 x n. Hence, n = 132) 15. The greatest number which will divide: 4003,4126 and 4249: (a) 43 fl>) 41 (c) 45 (d) None of these The answ er will be the HCF of the three numbers. (41 in (his case) 16. Which of the following represents the largest 4 digit number which can be added to 7249 in order to make the derived number divisible by each of 12,14,21,33, and 54.
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(e) 8727 (d) None of these Answer: The LCM of the numbers 12,14,21,33 a n d 54 is 8316. Hence, in order for the condition to b e satisfied we need to get the number as: 7249 + n =8316x2 Hence, n =9383. 17. Find the greatest number of 5 digits, that will give,. * a remainder of 5, when divided by 8 and 9 respective 1 (a) 99931 (b) 99941 (c) 99725 (d) None of these Answer: The LCM of 8 and 9 is 72. The largest 5 I multiple of 72 is 99936. Hence, the required answ er* ■ 99941. 18. The least perfect square number which is divisiblebv I 3 .4 .6. 8.10 and 11 is: Solution: The number should have at least one 3,tfeit 2’s, one 5 and one 11 for it to be divisible fay3,4,6.  8.10 and 11. Further, each of the prime factors should be having*I even power. Thus, the correct answer will be: 3x3*1 2x2x2x2x5x5x11x11 19. Find the greatest number of four digits which wk divided by 10, 11, 15 and 22 leaves 3,4,8 and 15a remainders respectively. (a) 9907 (b) 9903 (c) 9893 (d) None of these Answer: First find the greatest 4 digit multiple of& I LCM of 10,11,15 and 22. (In this case it is 9900).Ttoa subtract 7 from it to give the answer. 20. Find the HCF of (3125  1) and (335  1). Answer: The solution of this question is basedon® *! rule that: The HCF of (a*  1) and («"  1) is giv enb )
/^H C F o f m, n _ j \
Thus, in this question the answer is: (35 !)• is the HCF of 35 and 125. 21. What will be the least possible number of the J if three pieces of timber 42 m, 49 m and 63 mto*# 1 to be divided into planks of the same length 4 (a) 7 (b) 8 (c) 22 (d) None of these ■ 22. Find the greatest number, which will divide 2 1 *JM and 135 so as to leave the same remainder (b) 32 (a) 64
Chapter 1: Number Systems
21
23. Find the L.C.M of 2.5,0.5 and 0.175 (a) 15 (b) 5 (c) 7.5 (d) 17.5 The L.C.M of 4.5; 0.009; and 0.18 = ? (a) 45 (b) 45 (c) 0225 (d) 125 25. The L.C.M of two numbers is 1890 and their H.C.F is 30. If one of them is 270, the other will be (a) 210 (b) 220 (c) 310 (d) 320 26. What is the smallest number which when increased by 6 is divisible by 36,63 and 108? (a) 750 (b) 752 (c) 754 (d) 756 27. The smallest square number, which is exactly divisible by 2,3,4,  9,6,18,36 and 60, is (a) 900 (b) 1600 (c) 3600 (d) None of these 28. The H.C.F of two numbers is 11, and their L.C.M is 616. If one of the numbers is 88, find the other? (a) 77 (b) 87 (c) 97 (d) None of these 29. What is the greatest possible rate at which a man can walk 51 km and 85 km in an exact number of minutes? (a) llm/m (b) 13 m/m (c) 17 m/m (d) None of these 24.
For any integer / and any natural number n there is a unique pair of numbers a and b such that: / S Q N +R Where Q is an integer and AMs a natural number or zero and 0 > R < N (i.e. remainder has to be a whole number less than N.) If the remainder is zero we say that the number / is divisible by N. When R # 0, we say that the number / is divisible by N with a remainder. Thus, 25/8 can be written as: 25 = 3.8 + 1 (3 is the quotient and lis the remainder) While, 25/7 will be written as 25 = 7 (4) + 3 (4 is the quotient and 3 is the remainder) Note: An integer b & 0 is said to divide an integer a if there exists another integer c such that: a —be It is important to explain at this point a couple of concepts with respect to the situation, when we divide a negative number by a natural number N. Suppose, we divide —32 by 7. Contrary to what you might expect the remainder in this case is + 3 (and not  4). This is because the remainder is always non negative. Thus, 32/7 gives quotient as  5 and remainder as + 3. The relationship between the remainder and the decimal: 1. Suppose we divide 42 by 5. The result has a quotient of 8 and remainder of 2. But 42/5 = 8.4. As you can see, the answer has an integer part and a decimal part. The integer part being 8 (equals the quotient), the decimal part is 0.4 (and is given by 2/5). Since, we have also seen that for any divisor N, the set of remainders obeys the inequality 0 < R < N, we should realise that any divisor N, will yield exactly N possible remainders. (For example If the divisor is 3, we have 3 possible remainders 0, 1 and 2. Further, when 3 is the divisor we can have only 3 possible decimal values .00, .333 & 0.666 corresponding to re mainders of 0, 1 or 2. 1 would want you to remember this concept when you study the fraction to percent age conversion table in the chapter of percentages (Table 5.2)). 2. In the case of 42 being divided by 5, the value is  8.4. In this case the interpretation should be thus: The integer part is  9 (which is also the quotient of this division) and the decimal part is 0.6 (correspond ing to 3/5) Notice that since the remainder cannot be negative, the decimal too cannot be negative.
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j
30. The HCF and LCM of two numbers are 12 and 144 respectively. If one of the numbers is 36, the other number is (a) 4 (b) 48 (c) 72 (d) 432 Answers 21. <c) 26. (a) 21    27. (a) 23. (d) 28. (a) 24. (a) 29. (c) 25. (a) 30. (b)
DIVISIBILITY A number x is said to be divisible by another number k y' if it is completely divisible by Y (i.e. it should leave no remainder). In general it can be said that any integer /, when divided ^ by a natural number N, there exist a unique pair of numbers Q and R which are called the quotient and Remainder $ respectively. iT Thus,/ = QN+ R.
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I How to ftepere for Quantitative Aptitude fortheGAT
Theorems of Divisibility (a) If a is divisible by b then ac is also divisible by b. (b) If 1 is divisible by b and b is divisible by c then a is divisible by c. (c) If a and b are natural numbers such that a is divisible by 1 and b is divisible by a then a = b. (d) If n is divisible by d and m is divisible by d then (m + n) and (m  n) are both divisible by d. This has an important implication. Suppose 28 and 742 are both divisible by 7. Then (742 + 28) as well as (742  28) are divisible by 7. (and in fact so is + 28 — 742). (e) If a is divisible by b and c is divisible by d then ac is divisible by bd. (f) The highest power of a prime numberp, which divides nl exactly is given by
[nip] + [nip2] + [zi/p3] +...
Thus, for 1240, we create 3 brackets—one each for2 3 and 5. Further in the bracket corresponding to 2 I write (2° + 21+ 22 + 23 + 2*). Hence, for example for the number 40 = 23x 5 l ,the!?Q n . of factors will be given by: (2° + 21+ 22 + 23)(5°+\ I {2 brackets since 40 has 2 distinct prime factors2aJ 5} (b) Number of factors of the number: Let us explore the sum of factors of 40 in a diffe^ I context. (2° + 21+ 22 + 23) (5 ° + 5 1) = 2° x 5° + 2° x 51 + 21x 5° + 21x 51+ 22x 5°+^ X 5 1 + 23 x 5° + 23x 51 = 1+ 5 + 2 + 1 0 + 4 + 20 + 8 + 40 = 90 A clear look at the numbers above will make y o nI 1 realize that it is nothing but the addition of the factorsI # of 40 3. S Hence, we realise that the number of terms in th e f < expansion of (2° + 21 + 22 + 23) (5 ° + 5 1) will givens] 1\ the number of factors of 40. Hence, 40 has 4 x 2=81 factors. Note: The moment you realise that 40 = 23 x 51th e answer for the number of factors can be got by (3+1 1) (1 + 1) = 8 < . Sum and Number of even and odd factors of a num bet Suppose, you are trying to find out the number of facto rs1 of a number represented in the standard form by: 23x3j ld x 52 x 7 3 As you are already aware the answei to the question#! (3 + 1) (4 + 1) (2 + 1) x (3 + 1) and is based on the to g *I that the number of terms will be the same as the num W j of terms in the expansion: (2° + 21 + 22 + 23) (3 °+3l++ 33 + 34)(5° + 51 + 52) (7° + 71 + 72 + 73). Now, suppose you have to find out the sum of the e I factors of this number. The only change you need to in this respect will be evident below. The answerwi given by: J %
(2 1 + 22 + 23)(3 °+ 3 1 + 32 + 33 + 34) (5 ° + 5 1 + 52) (7° +
where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x. As we have already seen earlier Any composite number can be written down as a product of its prime factors. (Also called standard form) Thus, for example the number 1240 can be written as 23x 31* x5*. The standard form of any number has a huge amount of information stored in it The best way to understand the information stored in die standard form of a number is to look at concrete examples. As a reader I want you to understand each of the processes defined below and use them to solve similar questions given in the exercise that follows and beyond: X . Using the standard form of a number to find the sum and the number of factors of the number: (a) Sum of factors of a number: Suppose, we have to find the sum of factors and the number of factors of 240. 240 = 24 x 31x 51 The sum of factors will be given by: (2° + 21+ 22+ 23 + 2*) (3° + 31 ) (5° + 51 ) = 3 1 x 4 x 6 = 744
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Note: This is a standard process, wherein you create the gqm g. number of brackets as the number of distinct prime factors the number contains and then each bracket is filled with the sum of all the powers of the respective prime number starting'from0 to the highest power of that prime number contained in the standard form
+ 7z + 70 al*,1 Note: That we have eliminated 2° from the origin swer. By eliminating 2° from the expression for of all factors you are ensuring that you have only J h numbers in the expansion of the expression. ‘ii be § I] Consequently, the number of even factors wu» by : (3) (4+ 1)(2+ 1)(3 + 1)
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Chapter 1:
NumberSystems
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i.e. Since 2° is eliminated, we do not add I in the bracket corresponding to 2. Let us now try to expand our thinking to try to think about the number o f odd factors for a number. In this case, we just have to do the opposite o f what we did for even numbers. The following step will make it d ear Odd factors of the number whose standard form is : 2 x 34x 5 2x 7 3 Sum o f odd factors = (2°) (3°+ 31+ 32 + 33 + 3*) (5° + 51 + 52)(7° + 7 i + 72 + 7 3) i.e.: Ignore all powers o f 2. The result o f the expansion of the above expression will be the complete set o f odd factors of the number. Consequently, the number o f odd factors for the number will be given by the number of terras in the expansion o f the above expression. Thus, the number o f odd factors for the number 23 x 34 x 52 x 73 = 1 x (4 + 1) (2 + 1) (3 + 1). 3, Sum and num ber of factors satisfying other conditions for any composite num ber These are best explained through examples: (i) Find the sum and the number o f factors of 1200 such that the factors are divisible by 15. Solution : 1200 = 24 x 52 x 31. For a factor to be divisible by 15 it should compulso rily have 3 1and 5 1in it. Thus, sum o f factors divisible by 15 = (2° + 2 1 + 22 + 23 + 2*) x (51 + 52) (31) and consequently the number o f factors will be given by 5 x 2 x 1 = 10. (What we have done is ensure that in every individual term of the expansion, there is a minimum o f 31x 5 1. This is done by removing powers o f 3 and 5 which are below 1.) Task fo r the student: Physically verify the answers to the question above and try to convert the logic into a mental algorithm.
becomes internalised the concept becomes yours to apply and use. Practice Exercise on Factors For the number 2450 find. 1. The sum and number of all factors. 2. The sum and number o f even factors. 3. The sum and number of odd factors. 4. The sum and number of factors divisible by 5 5. The sum and number of factors divisible by 35. 6. The sum and number of factors divisible by 245. For the number 7200 find. 7. The sum and number of all factors. 8. The sum and number o f even factors. 9. The sum and number o f odd factors. 10. The sum and number of factors divisible by 25. 11. The sum and number of factors divisible by 40. 12. The sum and number of factors divisible by 150. 13. The sum and number of factors not divisible by 75. 14. The sum and number of factors not divisible by 24. 15. Find the number of divisors of 1728. f (a) 18 (b) 30 (d) 20 i (c) 28
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(a) 28 (c) 30 (a) 12 (c) 11
16. Find the number of divisors of 1080 excluding the throughout divisors, which are perfect squares. (b) 29 (d) 31 (b) 18 (d) 10
17. Find the number of divisors o f 544 excluding 1and 544.
18. Find the number of divisors 544 which are greater than . 3. (a) 15 (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) None of these. 19. Find the sum of divisors of 544 excluding 1 and 544. (a) 1089 (b) 545 (c) 589 (d) 1134 20. Find the sum of divisors of 544 which are perfect squares. (a) 32 (b) 64 (c) 42 (d) 21 21. Find the sum of odd divisors of 544. (a) 18 (b) 34 (c) 68 (<*) 36 22. Find the sum of even divisors of 4096. ' .
algorithms: I have often observed that the key difference between understanding a concept and actually applying it under examination pressure, is die presence or absence of a mental thought algorithm which clarifies the concept to you in your mind. The thought algorithm is a personal representation of a concept—and any concept that you read/understand in this book (or elsewhere) will remain an external concept till it remain in someone else’s words. The moment the thought
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I Nowto Prepare forQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
(a) 8192 rjjf 6144 (c) 8190 (d) 6142 23. Find ihe sum the sums of divisors of 144 and 160. (a) 589 (b) 781 (c) 735 (d) None of these 24. Find the sum of the sum of even divisors of 96 and the sum of odd divisors o f 3600. (a) 639 (b) 735 (c) 651 (d) 589 Answers 15. (c) 20 (d) 16. (a) 17. (d) 21. (a) 22. (c) 18. (b) 23. (b) 19. (c) 24. (c)
■ EXERCISES FOR SELFPRACTICE ■
Find the number of zeroes in the following cases: 1. 47! Z 58! 3. 1 3 x 1 5 x 2 2 x 1 2 5 x 4 4 x 3 5 x 1 1 4. 1 2 x 1 5 x 5 x 2 4 x 1 3 x 1 7 5. 173! 6. 144! x 5 x 15 x 22 x 11 x 44 x 135 7. 8. 9. 10. 148! 1093! 1132! 1142!x348!x 17!
NUMBER OF ZEROES IN AN EXPRESSION
Suppose you have to find the number o f zeroes in a product: 24 x 32 x 17 x 23 x 19 = (23 x 31 ) x (2s) x 171x 23 x 19. As you can notice, this product will have no zeroes because it has no 5 in it. However, if you have an expression like: 8 x 15 x 23 x 17 x25x22 The above expression can be rewritten in the standard formas: 23 x 31 x 5 1 x 23 x 17 x 52 x 2 1 x 11 1
A special implication: Suppose you were to find the num ber of zeroes in the value of the following factorial values: 45!, 46!, 47!, 48!, 49! What do you notice? The number of zeroes in each ofth e cases will be equal to 10. Why does this happen? It is n o t difficult to understand that the number of fives in any o f these factorials is equal to 10. The number of zeroes will o n ly change at 50! (It will become 12). In fact, this will be true for all factorial values between tw o consecutive products of 5. Thus, 50!, 51!, 52!, 53! And 54! will have 12 zeroes (sin ce they all have 12 fives). Similarly, 55!, 56!, 57!, 58! And 59! will each have 13zero es. Apart from this fact, did you notice another thing? T h atI while there are 10 zeroes in 49! there are directly 12 zeroes in 50!. This means that there is no value of a factorial which w iD I give 11 zeroes. This occurs because to get 50! we multiply® value of 49! by 50. When you do so, the result is that * * 1 introduce two 5’s in the product. Hence, the number o f zeroe> jumps by two (since we never had any paucity of twos.) I Note: at 124! you will get 24 + 4 => 28 zeroes.
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Zeroes are formed by a combination o f 2 x 5. Hence, the number of zeroes will depend on the number o f pairs of 2’s and 5’s that can be formed. In the above product, there are four twos and two fives. Hence, we shall be able to form only two pairs o f (2 x 5). Hence, there will be 2 zeroes in the product. (Refer to Solved Example No. 1.11 for another example of
tfas)
Finding the Number of Zeroes in a Factorial Value
Suppose you had to find the number o f zeroes in 6 !. 6 ! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = (3 x 2) x (5) x (2 x 2) x (3) x
At 125! you will get 25 + 5 + 1 = 31 zeroes. (A jump0 *! zeroes.)
(2)x(l).
The above expression will have only one pair of 5 x 2, since there is only one 5 and an abundance o f 2*s. It is clear that in any factorial value, the number of 5’s will always be lesser than the number of 2*s. Hence, all we need to do is to count the number o f 5*s. The process for this is explained in Solved Examples 1.1 to 1.3.
E X E R C IS E S FOR SELFPRA CTICE
1. n ! has 23 zeroes. What is the maximum poss of n? 2. n! has 13 zeroes. The highest and least values of* i y) < • ' 3. Find the number of zeroes in the product 1 * x 4 x 5 x 6 x .... x 4 9 .49
Chapter 1: NumberSystems 1 I 25 I find the number o f zeroes in: I00, x 992 x 983 x 974 x ............. x l ,0°
5
B. The number of zeroes will be: 2 + 3 + 4 + 3 + 6 = 18. An extension of the process for finding the number of zeroes. Consider the following questions: 1. Find the highest power of 5 which is contained in the value of 127! 2. When 127! is divided by 5" the result is an integer. Find the highest possible value for n. 3. Find the number of zeroes in 127! In each of the above cases, the value of the answer will be given by: [127/5] + [127/25] + [127/125] = 25 + 5 + 1 = 31 This process can be extended to questions related to other prime numbers. For example: Find the highest power of: 1. 3 which completely divides 38! Solution: [38/3] + [38/32] + 38/33] = 12 + 4 + 1 = 17 2. 7 which is contained in 57! [57/7] + [51n 2] = 8 + 1 = 9 . This process changes when the divisor is not a prime number. You are first advised to go through worked out problems 1.4,1.5,1.6 and 1.19. Now try to solve the following exercise: 1. Find the highest power of 7 which divides 81! 2. Find the highest power of 42 which divides 122! 3. Find the highest power of 84 which divides 342! 4. Find the highest power of 175 which divides 344! 5. Find the highest power of 360 which divides 520!
Find the number o f zeroes in: I ' i x f x ^ x ^ x S ^ x .........10IO ! the number o f zeroes in the value of: 22x54x46 x I08 x 6 ,0 x 15,2 x 8 ,4 x 2 0 16x 1018x2520 What is the number o f zeroes in the following: (a) 3200 + 1000+40000 + 32000 +15000000 P 3200x1000 x 40000 x 32000x15000000
1
7.
Solution:
1. This can never happen. 1 59 and 55 respectively.
3. The fives will be less than the twos. Hence, we need to count only the fives. Thus: 5s x 1010 x 1515 x 2 0 20 x 25 25 x 3030 x 3535 x
40*)x4545
gives us: 5 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 25 + 25 + 30 + 35 + 40 + 45 fives. Thus, the product has 250 zeroes. 4. Again the key here is to count the number of fives. This can get done by:
;el3M
i f e 'l
12
1001x 956 x 9011x 8516 x 8021 x 7S26x ....... 596 (1+6+11 + 16 + 21+26 + 31+36 + 41+ 46 + ....... + 96) + (1 + 26 + 51 +76) = 20 x 48.5 + 4 x 38.5 (Using sum of A.P. ex plained in the next chapter.) =970+154=1124. 5. The answer will be the number of 5’s. Hence, it will be 5!+ 10! 6. The number of fives is again lesser than the number of twos. The number of 5’s will be given by the power of 5 in
the product: 54 x 108 x 1512 x 2 0 16 x 1018 x 25
20
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Solution Hints:
1. You will check only with 7. 2. You will need to check with 7 only. (Since 42 = 7 x 3 x2) 3. 84 = 7 x 3 x 2 x 2 . You will need to check for the number of 7’s only. 4. 175 = 52 x 7 In this case you need to be careful. You will need to check the number of 52’s and the number of 7’s. 5. 36 = 23 x 32 x 51 . In this case you will need to check for the number of 2 s, the number of 32’s and the number of 5 s.
■ . Jt \W .
= 4 + 8 + 1 2 + 1 6 + 1 8 + 4 0 = 98. 7. A. The number of zeroes in the sum will be two, since:
3200
1000 40000 32000 15076200 15152400 Thus, in such cases the number o f zeroes w ill be the number o f zeroes amongst the numbers. Exception: 32001 1800 1 5000 (three zeroes, not two).
■ EXERCISES FOR SELFPRACTICE ■
1. Find the maximum value of n such that 157! is perfectly divisible by 10”.
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Howto PrepareforQuantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
(a) 37 (b) 38 (c) 16 (d) — 1.15 Find the maximum value of n such that 157! is perfectly divisible by 12". (a) 77 (b) 76 (c) 75 (d) 78 Find the maximum value of n such that 157! is perfectly divisible by 18". (a) 3 T 7 (b) 38 (c) 39 (d) 40 Find the maximum value of n such that 50! is perfectly divisible by 2520". (a) 6 (b) 8 (c) 7 (d) None of these Find the maximum value of n such that 50! Is perfectly divisible by 12600". (a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) None of these Find die maximum value of n such that 77! is perfectly divisible by 720”. (a) 35 , (b) 18 (c) 17 J S f i 36 Find the maximum value of n such that 42 x 57 x 92 x 91 x 52 x 62 x 63 x 64 x 65 x 66 x 67 is perfectly divisible by 42". (a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 6 Find the maximum value of n such that 570x60x30x90x100x500x700x343x720x81 is perfectly divisible by 30". (a) 12 (b) 11 (c) 14 (d) 13 Find the maximum value of n such that 77 x 42 x 37 x 57 x 30 x 90 x 70 x 2400 x 2402 x 243 x 343 is perfectly divisible by 21". (a) 9 (b) 11 (c) ip (d) 7 Find the number of consecutive zeros at the end of the following numbers. (a) 17 (c) 8 (b) 9 (d) 16 (b) 9 (d) 18
12. 100! + 200!
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if3 36. Answers can 4 ; 1. ( b ) 2. (c) 4. (b ) 3. (a) 5 (b)  3 14 6. (c) 7. (b ) 9. (d) 8. (b) 10. (d) I 14. (c) 11. (c) 12. (b ) 13. (d) 15. (b )1 1 16. (b ) 1 w h r CoPrime or Relatively Prime Numbers Tw oo rI hap in more numbers that do not have a common factor are k n o w nI w as coprime or relatively prime. In other words, these num ber*I have a highest common factor of unity. If two numbers m and n are relatively prime and the n atu ral I numberx is divisible by both m and n independently thenthe1 number x is also divisible by mn.
(a) 73 (b) 24 (c) 11 (d) 22 13. 57x60x30x15625x4096x625x875x975 (b) 16 (a) 6 (d) 15 (c) 17 — x50! 14. 1! x 2 ! x 3 ! x 4 ! x 5 ! x fa) 235 ( b ) 12 (c) 262 (d) 105 15. 1*x 22x 33x 44 x 55x 66x 77 (a) 25 (b ) 15 (d ) 20 (c) 10 16. 100! x 200! (a) 49 (b) 73 (c) 132 (d) 33
X 00 00 X
in P* 0*
P coi
\Q
ae
©
X
E» d ial
Sol
10. 72!
f t 77ix42!
(a) 24 <c) 27
Key Concept 1: The spotting of two numbers as coj prime has a very important implication in the context of&I two numbers being in the denominators of fractions. The concept is again best understood through an exam ptej Suppose, you are doing an operation of the followflW format  M/8 + N/9 where M & N are integers. What are the chances of the result being an integer, il is not divisible by 8 and N is not divisible by 9? A little of thought will make you realise that the chances are ze^jj§ The reason for this is that 8 and 9 are coprime and decimals of coprime numbers never match each other. I Note: this will not be the case in the case of: ++ AT/27. M /3 M] In this case even if 3 and 27 are not dividing M a ® *1 respectively, there is a possibility ilitv of the values of V ^ ■ being such that you have an integral answer. For instance: 5/3 + 36/27 = 81/27 = 3
Chapter 1: NumberSystems
2 7
The result will never be integral if the two denominators are coprime. Note: This holds true even for expressions of the nature ATI  B/6 etc. This has huge implications for problem solving especially in the case of solving linear equations related to word based problems. Students are advised to try to use these through out Block 1, 2 and 3 o f this book.
Divisibility by 11: A number is divisible by 11 if the differ ence of the sum of the digits in the odd places and the sum of the digits in the even place is zero or is divisible by 11. Divisibility by 12: All numbers divisible by 3 and 4 are divisible by 12. Divisibility by 7,11 or 13: The integer n is divisible by 7, 11 or 13 if and only if the difference of the number of its thousands and the remainder of its division by 1000 is divisible by 7,11 or 13. Example: 473312 is divisible by 7 since the difference be tween 473  312 = 161 is divisible by 7. Even Numbers: All integers that are divisible by 2 are even numbers. They are also denoted by 2n. Example: 2 , 4 ,6 , 12,122, 2 , 4 ,1 2 . Also note that zero is an even number. 2 is die lowest positive even number. Odd Numbers: All integers that are not divisible by 2 are odd numbers. Odd number leave a remainder of 1 on being di vided by 2. They are denoted by 2n + 1 or 2/i —1. Lowest positive odd number is 1.
Key Concept 2:
coprime.
TWo consecutive integers are always
Example: Find all fivedigit numbers of the form 3 4 X 5 Y that are divisible by 36. Solution: 36 is a product of two coprimes 4 and 9. Hence, if 34 X 5Y is divisible by 4 and 9, it will also be divisible by 36. Hence, for divisibility by 4, we have that the value of Y can be 2 ot 6. Also, if Y is 2 the number becomes 34 X 52. For this to be divisible by 9, die addition of 3 + 4 + X + 5 + 2 should be divisible by 9. For this X can be 4. Hence the number 34452 is divisible by 3 6 . Also for F = 6, die number 34 x 56 will be divisible by 36 when the addition of the digits is divisible by 9. This will happen when X is 0 o r9 . Hence, the numbers 34056 and 34956 will be divisible by 36.
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Example:  1, 3, 7 , 3 5 ,3 , 11 etc. Complex Numbers'. The arithmetic combination of real numbers and imaginary numbers are called complex numbers. Alternately: All numbers of the form a + ib, where i = V  l are called complex number: Twin Primes: A pair of prime numbers are said to be twin prime when they differ by 2. Example: 3 and 5 are Twin Primes, so also are 11 and 13. Perfect Numbers: A number n is said to be a perfect number if die sum of all the divisors of n (including ri) is equal to 2n. Example: 6 = 1 x 2 x 3 sum of the divisors = l + 2 + 3 + 6 = 12 = 2 x 6 28 = 1,2,4,7,14,28, = 56 = 2 x 2 8
Task fo r student: Find all perfect numbers below 1000. Mixed Numbers: A number that has both an integral and a fractional part is known as a mixed number. Triangular Numbers: A number which can be represented as the sum of consecutive natural numbers starting with 1 are called as triangular numbers, e.g.:  + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10
■ EXERCISES FOR SELFPRACTICE ■
Find all numbers of the form 56 x 3y that are divisible by 36. Find all numbers of die form 72 xy that are divisible by 45. Find all numbers of the form 135 xv that are divisible by 45. find all numbers of die form 517 xy that are divisible by 89.
Divisibility Rules
Divisibility by 2 o r 5: A number is divisible by 2 or 5 if die
last digit is divisible by 2 or 5. Diviofaflity by 3 (or 9): All such numbers the sum of whose digits are divisible by 3 (or 9 ) are divisible by 3 (or 9). Divisibility by 4: A number is divisible by 4 if the last 2 digtts are divisible by 4. 1 >iviability by 6: A number is divisible by 6 if it is simulta neously divisible by 2 and 3. Divisibility by 8 : A number is divisible by 8 if the j   I digits of the somber are divisible by 8.
w
R h to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
C ertain R u le s
1. Of n consecutive whole numbers n , o + I ...a + n — 1, one and only one is divisible by n. 2. Mixed numbers': A number that has both the integral and fractional part is known as mixed number. 3. If a number n can be represented as the product of two numbers p and q , that is, n  p • q, then we say that the number n is divisible by p and by q and each of the numbers p and q is a divisor of the number n. 1 Any number n can be represented in the decimal system of numbers as N = ak \& + a k_ , a, 10 + a0
Example: 2738 can be written as; 2 x 10 + 7 x 10 + 3 x 101+ 8 x 10P. 5. 3" will always have an even.number of tens. (Ex ample: 2 in 27,8 in 81,24 in 243,72 in 729 and so on.) 6. A sum of 5 consecutive whole numbers will always be divisible by 5. 7. The difference between 2 numbers— (xy)  (yjc)— will be divisible by 9
18. If a numerical expression contains no parent first the operations of the third stage (involmj^ raising a number to a power) are performed, th^* operations of the second stage (multiplication division) and, finally, the operations of , stage (addition and subtraction) are perform^ this case the operations of one and the same performed in the sequence indicated by the If an expression contains parentheses, then the tion indicated in the parentheses are to be Perform first and then all the remaining operations. In th is operations of the numbers in parentheses as w ell* standing without parentheses are performed intit order indicated above. If a fractional expression is evaluated, then then , , , T erations indicated in the n jmerator and denom inate of the function are perfoi led and the first r esu lti « divided by the second. 19. (a)n/(a + 1) leaves a remainder of
a if n is odd
IB
Thi&H
1 if n is even 20. (a + 1)"/a will always give a remainder of 1. 21. For any natural number n, n has the same unitsd ip as n has. 22. For any natural number: n 3  n is divisible by6. I
8. The square of an odd number when divided by 8 will always leave a remainder of 1. 9. The product o f 3 consecutive natural numbers is divisible by 6. 10. The product of 3 consecutive natural numbers the first of which is even is divisible by 24. 11. Products: Odd x odd = odd Odd x even = even Even x even = even
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THE REMAINDER THEOREM
Consider the following question: 17x23. Suppose you have to find the remainder of this exptf^j when divided by 12. We can write this as: 17 x 23 = (12 + 5 ) x (12+11) Which when expanded gives us: 12 x 12+ 12 x 11 + 5 x 12 + 5x11 You will realise that, when this expression is divided 1 the remainder will only depend on the last term ab° I Thus, 12 x 12 + 1 2 x 1 1 + 5 x12 + 5x11 giveSthe°
12
12. All numbers not divisible by 3 have the property that their square will have a remainder of 1 when divided by 3. 13. (aT + b2)l(b2 + c2) = (a2lb2) if alb —b/c. 14. The product of any r consecutive integers (numbers) is divisible by r! 15. If m and n are two integers then (m + n)! is divisible by m\n\ 16. Difference between any number and the number obtained by writing the digits in reverse order is divisible by 9. 17. Any number written in the form 1 0 ^ *—1 is divisible by 3 and 9.
remainder as
5x11
12
Hence, 7. I This is the remainder when 17 x 23 is divided W j
!%
v
Chapter 1: Number Systems i
2 9
Learning Point! In order to find the remainder of 17 x 23 when divided by 12, you need to look at the individual remainders of 17 and 23 when divided by 12. The respective remainders (5 and 11) will give you the remainder of the original expression when divided by 12. Mathematically, this can be written as: The remainder o f the expression [ A x f l x C + D x E\/M, will be the same as the remainder o f the expression [AR x BR x C* + 0 * x Er]/M. Where A r is the remainder when A is divided by M, Br is the remainder when B is divided by M, CRis the remainder when C is divided by M Dr is the remainder when D is divided by M and Er is the remainder when E is divided by M, We call this transformation as the remainder theorem transformation and denote it by the sign — — > Thus, the remainder of 1421 x 1423 x 1425 when divided by 12 can be given as: 1421x1423x1425 12 11x9
12
The obvious approach in this case would be 1 4x 15 6x7
However there is another option by which you can solve the same question: When 14 is divided by 8 , the remainder is normally seen as + 6 . However, there might be times when using the negative value of the remainder might give us more convenience. Which is why you should know the following process: Remainders by definition are always non negative. Hence, even when we divide a number like  27 by 5 we say that the remainder is 3 (and not  2). However, looking at the negative value of the remainder has its own advantages in Mathematics as it results in reducing calcula tions. Thus, when a number like 13 is divided by 8, the remainder being 5, the negative remainder is  3. (Note: It is in this context that we mention numbers like 13, 21,29 etc as 8n + 5 or 8n  3 numbers.) 14x 15 . 2 x1 „ > 2. Thus — — will give us  R —
o 8
Concept Note:
„
5x7x9 12
35x9 12
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51 x5 2 53 53
—— > gives us a remainder o f 3. In the above question, we have used a series of remainder theorem transformations (denoted by — — >) and equality transformations to transform a difficult looking expression into a simple expression. Try to solve the following questions on Remainder theorem: Find the remainder in each o f the following cases:
Consider the advantage this process will give you in the following question:
» 2 .
(The alternative will involve long calculations. Hence, the principle is that you should use negative remainders wherever you can. They can make life much simpler!!!)
L 17 x 23 x 126 x 38 divided by 8 . 2. 243 x 245 x 247 x 249 x 251 divided by 12. ,
j.
What If the Answer Comes Out Negative
„ . 62 x 63 x 64 For instance,77 R 4x— 3 x —2 24
—
173 x 261
i— 13
248 x 249 x 250 m u  — i 151
H 66
66
R
66
4. 1021x2021x3021 14 37x43x51 137x143x151
But, we know that a remainder of 24, equals a remainder of 42 when divided by 66 . Hence, the answer is 42. Of course nothing stops you from using positive and negative remainders at the same time in order to solve the same question (  l) x ( l) / ? —»  ! /? —* 8 .
USING n e g a t iv e
r e m a in d e r s
°nsider the following question: F* < 1 the remainder when: 14 x 15 is divided by
Pealing with Large Powers There are two tools which are effective in order to deal with large powers 
3 0
I Howto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
(A) If you can express the expression in the form («* + 1)" I . I ' .  — I  , the remainder w ill become 1 directly. In such a case, no matter how large the value of the power n is, the remainder is 1.
/ 3 7 1 *3 5 \ ( j I2635\
22x31x11x27x37x43  —  (on dividing by 4) 2 2 x 6 x 11x 2 x 12x 18 _ 25 7 x 22 x 16 25 4x16 154x16 > 14 25 25 Thus the remainder being 14, (after division by 4). The actual remainder should be 56. [Don’t forget to multiply by 4 !!] Hence, the last 2 digits of the answer will be 56. Using negative remainders here would have helped further. Note: Similarly finding the last three digits of an expression means finding the remainder when the expression is divided by 1000. 132x22x?i 6
B S U ri
For instance,   — — >  — — —
> 1.
In such a case the value of the power does not matter. (B) fil? —— . In such a case using 1 as the remainder
, jtt
it will be evident that the remainder will be +1 if n is even and it will be 1 (Hence a  1) when n is odd. e.g.: 31
127 127
JL_* (z i)
■ >7
ANOTHER IMPORTANT POINT
Suppose you were asked to find the remainder of 14 divided by 4. It is clearly visible that the answer should be 2. But consider the following process: 14/4 = 7/2 —— » 1 (The answer has changed!!)
EXERCISES
1. Find the remainder when 73 + 75 + 78 + 57 + 197® divided by 34. (a) 32 (b) 4
What has happened? We have transformed 14/4 into 7/2 by dividing the numerator and the denominator by 2. The result is that the original remainder 2 is also divided by 2 giving us 1 as the remainder. In order to take care of this problem, we need to reverse the effect of the division of the remainder by 2. This is done by multiplying the final remainder by 2 to get the correct answer.
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Note: In any question on remainder theorem, you should try to cancel out parts o f the numerator and denominator as much as you can, since it directly reduces the calculations required.
(c) 15 (d) 28 2. Find the remainder when 73 x 75 x 78 x 57 x l97i divided by 34. (a) 22 (b) 30 (c) 15 (d) 28 A 3. Find the remainder when 73 x 75 x 78 x 57 x 197* j is divided by 34. (a) 32 (b) 30 (c) 15 (d) 28 4. Find the remainder when 43197 is divided by 7(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 1 ^ 5. Find the remainder when 5 1203 is divided by (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 6 6. Find the remainder when 5928 is divided by (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 1 7. Find the remainder when 6 7" is divided by (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 1
AN APPLICATION OF REMAINDER THEOREM
Finding the last two digits of an expression: Suppose you had to find the last 2 digits of the expression: 22 x 3 1 x 4 4 x 27 x 37 x 43 The remainder the above expression will give when it is divided by 100 is the answer to the above question. Hence, to answer the question above find the remainder of the expression when it is divided by 100.
Solution.
22 x 31 x 44 x 27 x 37 x 43 100
I
Chapter 1:
Number Systems
31
8. Find the remainder when 7580 is divided by 7.
(») I (b) 3
(B) U nit’s digits in the contexts o f pow ers Study the follow ing table carefully.
(c) (a)
(c) (a) 8
 2
I
(d) 6 Unit’s digit when ‘N’ is raised to a pow er
Number Ending With 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Value o f power 4 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 4 9 6 5 6 9 4 1 0 1 8 7 4 5 6 3 2 9 0 1
9. Find the rem ainder w hen 4 1 77 ] is divided by 7.
(b )
(d) 4 (b) 13 (d) 9 (b) 5 (d) 15 (b) 9 (d) 2 (b) 15 (d) 2 In the table above, if you look at the columns corresponding to the power 5 o r 9 you will realize that the unit’s digit for all numbers is repeated (i.e. it is 1 for 1, 2 for, 3 fo r3 ....9 fo r9 .) 5 1 6 1 4 9 6 5 6 9 4 ' 1 0 7 1 8 7 4 5 6 3 2 9 0 8 1 9 I
10. Find the remainder when 21875 js divided by 17. (c) 16
(a) 4 (c) 13 (a) 13 <c) 8 (a) 13 (c) 4 Answers 1 (b) 6. (b) 11. (a)  (a) 7. (d) 12. (d) 3. (a) 8. (a) 13. (c) 4. (d) 5. (a) 10. (b)
11. Find the rem ainder w hen 5 4 124 is divided by 17
12 Find the rem ainder w hen 83261is divided by 17
13. Find the rem ainder w hen 2 5 102 is divided by 17
2 6 1 3 4 6 5 5 6 6 1 7 6 8 1 9 0 0
n 6 Z J 3 6 4 5 5 6 6 1 7 8 6 1 9 0 0
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Illustrations:
This means that whenever we have any num ber whose unit’s digit is V and it is raised to a power o f the form 4 n + 1, the value of the unit’s digit o f the answer will be the same as the original units digit.
Units Digit
(A) By the logic o f w hat we have ju st seen above, the unit's digit o f an expression will be got by getting the remainder when the expression is divided by 10. Thus for exam ple if we have to find the units digit of the expression: 17x22x36x54x27x31x63 We try to find the rem ainder x 22 x 36 x 54 x 27 x 31 x 63 B W B jll io
17
(1273) 01 will give a unit's digit o f3. (1547)25 will give a units digit o f 7 and so forth. Thus, the above table can be modified into the form —
Value of Power
Num ber
W
ending in 4n + 1
4n + 2 1 4 9
6
5
4n + 3
1
2
1
2
1
8
1
6
o 14x24x21
7x2x6x4x7x3
10
3
4
5
3
4
7
4 5
1
6
5 6
5
6 7
8
9
4x4x1
10
_16 = 10
*»6.
6
6
9 4
6
3
7
i
6
Hence, the required answer is 6. This could have been directly got by multiplying: 7 x 2 x 6 x 4 x 7 x 1 x 3 and only accounting for the units* digit.
I
[Remember, at this point that we had said (in the back school section of Block 1) that all natural numbers can be
*
I
3 2
HowtoPrepare forQuantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
expressed in the farm 4n + v. Hence, with the help of the logic that helps us build this table, we can easily derive the units digit of any number when it is raised to a power.) A special Case Question: What will be the Unit’s digit of (1273)I22!? Solution: 122! is a number of the form 4n. Hence, the answer should be 1. [Note: 1here is derived by thinking of it as 3 (for 4n + 1), 9 (for 4rt + 2), 7 (for 4n + 3), l(for 4w)]
14. 8243 x S344 X 8497x 8698x 87105x 88 (a) 2 (*>) 6 (c) 4 (d) 8 15. 432 x 532 + 532 x 974 + 537 x 531+947 x 997 (a) 5 (c) 9
Answers
® 6 (d> 8
6. (d) 11. (c)
7. (c) 12. (c)
8. (c) 13. (b)
9. (b) 14. (b)
10. fy 15. (d )
■ EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE ■
Find the Units digit in each of the following cases: 1. 22 x 44 x 66 x 88 2. I ' x 2 2x 3 3x 4 4 x 5 5x 6 6 .. .. x lOO100 3. 1 7 x 2 3 x 5 1 x 3 2 + 15x 1 7x 1 6 x 2 2 4. 1 3 x 1 7 x 2 2 x 3 4 + 1 2 x 6 x 4 x 3  1 3 x 3 3 5. 37123x 43144 x 57226 x 32127 x 525! 6. 67 x 37 x 43 x 91 x 42 x 33 x 42 (a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 4 7. 67 x 35 x 43 x 9 1 x 4 7 x 33 x 49 (a) 1 (b) 9 (c) 5 (d) 6 8. 6 7 x 3 5 x 4 5 x 9 1 x 4 2 x 3 3 x 8 1 (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 0 (d) 8 9. 67 x 35 x 45 + 91x 42 x 33 x 82 (a) 8 (b>*7 (c) 0 (d) 5 10. (52)97x(43)72 (a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 4 11. (55)7Sx (93)175x (107)275 (a) 7 (b) 3 fc) I (d) 0   (173J*5 x (152)77x (777J999 (a) 2 (b) 4 (® ) 8 (d) 6 13. 81 x 82 x 83 x 84 x 86 x 87 x 88 x 89 (a) 0 (b) 6 (c) 2 (d) 4
W O R K E D O U T PRO BLEM /
3* » i V ® J
Problem 1.1
Find the number of zeroes in the factorial o fI 3 g »
the number 18.
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Solution 18! Contains 15 and 5, which combined w ithout wHowI25^ even number give zeroes. Also, 10 is also contained in 1 8 ',I .H en ce[25K which will give an additional zero. Hence, 18! Contain)! tM H e n c e ,total m zeroes and the last digit will always be zero. Isd iv id edby8, v Problem 1.2 Find the numbers of zeroes in 27! tw o s.itw illbed Solution 27! = 2 7 x 2 6 x 2 5 x . . . x 2 0 x .. .x 15x...xMI
Problem 1.6
x . . . x 5 x ... x 1. A zero can be formed by combining any number contain1 Solution 15ing 5 multiplied by any even number. Similarly, everytimes I o fo D e5andone 7 !c ® ibfins_^gJ number ending in zero is found in the product, it will adda sj 8 additional zero. For this problem, note that 25 = 5 x 5 will gi*  2 zeroes and zeroes will also be got by 20,15,10 and 5. H en tf 27! Will have 6 zeroes. Shortcut method: Number of zeroes is 27! — »[27/5] + P™l where [*] indicates the integer just lower than the fracM * Hence, [27/5] = 5 and [27/52] = 1,6 zeroes
Problem 1.3
Find the number of zeroes in 137!
[137/5] + [137/52] + [137/53] = 27 + 5 + 1 = 33 zeroes (since the restriction on the number of zeroes is due i° I number of fives.) — — i—— I ■ EXERCISE FOR SELFPRACTICE * \ Find the number of zeroes in (a) 81! (b) 100! (c) 51!
Solution
LI a
a
Chapter 1: Number Systems
3 3
Ans**1 * 1 19
(b) What power of 210 will exactly divide 142! <*» I S ' 12 n p f l f f f f g g Find the last digit in the expression (36472),23! x (34767)761.
What exact power of 5 divides 87!
Solution
[87/5] + [87/25] = 17 + 3 = 20
Solution If we try to formulate a pattern for 2 and its
powers and their units digit, we see that the units digit for the powers of 2 goes as: 2,4, 8 , 6,2,4, 8 , 6, 2,4, 8 , 6 and so on. The number 2 when raised to a power of 4» + 1 will always give a units digit of 2. This also means that the units digit for 24” will always end in 6. The power of 36472 is 123! . 123! can be written in the form An. Hence, (36472)1231 will end in 6. The second part of the expression is (34767)761. The units digit depends on the power of 7. If we try to formulate a pattern for 7 and its powers and their units digit, we see that the units digit for the powers of 7 go as: 7 9 3 1 7 9 3 1 and so on. This means that the units digit of the expression 74th will always be 1. Since 76! Can be written as a multiple of 4 as 4n, we can conclude that the unit's digit in (34767)76! is 1. Hence the units digit of (36472)1 231x (34767)76! will be 6.
j g j g j S J what P°wer of 8 exactly divides 25!? Solution 1 8 were a prime number, the answer should be (i I [25/8]s 3 But since 8 is not prime, use the following process. Theprime factors of 8 is 2 x 2 x 2. For divisibility by 8, we need three twos. So, everytime we can find 3 twos, we add one to the power of 8 that divides 25! To count how we get L I 3 twos, we do the following. All even numbers will give one two’ at least [25/2] = 12 ill Also, all numbers in 25! divisible by 22 will give an addi tional two [25/22] = 6 Further, all numbers in 25! divisible by 23 will give a third two. Hence [25J/23] = 3 And all numbers in 25! divisible by 24 will give a fourth wo. Hence [25 !/24] = 1 Hence, total number of twos in 25! is 22. For a number to be divided by 8, we need three twos. Hence, since 25! has 22 twos, it will be divided by 8 seven times.
Problem 1.6 What power of 15 divides 87! exactly?
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Counting
Problem 1.8 Find the number of numbers between 100
Solution 15 = 5 x 3. Hence, everytime we can form a pair I of one 5 and one 3, we will count one. j 87! contains I [87/5] + [87/52] = 17 + 3 = 20 fives Also87! contains 1 [87/3] + [87/32] + [87/33] + [87/34] = 29 +...(more than 20 threes). Hence, 15 will divide 87! twenty times since the restriction °o the power is because of the number of 5s and not the “umber of 3s. j feet, it is not very difficult to see that in the case of all toe factors being prime, we just have to look for the highest Pn®e number to provide the restriction for the power of the
denominator.
to 200 if (i) Both 100 and 200 are counted. (ii) Only one of 100 and 200 is counted. (iii) Neither 100 nor 200 is counted.
Solution
(i) Both ends includedSolution: 200  100 + 1 = 101 (ii) One end includedSolution: 200  100 = 100 (iii) Both ends excludedSolution: 200  100  1 = 99.
Problem 1.9 Find the number of even numbers between
^ence>m this case we did not need to check for anything & number of 5s. •'P i
122 and 242 if: (i) Both ends are included. (ii) Only one end is inchided. (iii) Neither end is included.
Solution
■ Ex e r c i s e s f o r s e l f  p r a c t i c e ■ '^)WhatpoWerof30 w iii exactly divide 128! ^ .[1 2 8 /5 ] + £128/52]+ [128/53] (i) Both ends includedSolution: (242  122V2 = 60 + 1 = 61 (ii) One end includedSolution: (242  122V2 = 60 (iii) Both ends excludedSolution: (242  \22)fl  1 = 59
HH 
Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
5 e x e r c is e s f o r s e l f  p r a c t i c e ■ (a) Find the number of numbers between 140 to 259, both included, which are divisible by 7. (b) Find the number of numbers between 100 to 200, that are divisible by 3. Problem 1.10 Find the number of numbers between 300 to 400 (both included), that are not divisible by 2, 3,4, and 5. Total numbers: 101 Step I: Not divisible by 2 = All even numbers rejected: 51 Numbers left 50. Step 2: Of which: divisible by 3 = first number 300, last number 399. But even numbers have already been removed, hence count out only odd numbers between 300 and 400 divisible by 3. This gives us that: First number 303, last number 399, common difference 6 So, remove: [(399  303)/6] + 1 = 17. 50  1 7 = 33 numbers left. We do not need to remove additional terms for divisibility by 4 since this would eliminate only even numbers (which have already been eliminated)
Problem 1.1f Find the number of zeroes in the follow I multiplication: 5 x lOx 15x 2 0x 2 5x 30 x 35x 40x 45*^ I
Solution The number of zeroes depends on the numb*. I of fives and the number of twos. Here, close scrutiny show I that the number of twos is the constraint. The expression canI be written as
5 x (5 x 2) x (5 x 3) x (5 x 2 x 2) x (5 x 5) x (5 x 2x 3 ) x J x7)x(5x2x2x2)x(5x3x3)x(5x*5x2) Number of 5s  12, Number of 2s  8. Hence: 8 zeroes.
Problem 1.12
Solution
Find the remainder for [(73 x 79 x 81)/iji I
Solution The remainder for the expression: [(73 x 79x 81,1
11] will be the same as the remainder for [(7 x 2 x 4)/l l] I That is, 56/11 => remainder = 1
B H 2 S H O Find the remainder for (3560/8). Solution (3560/8) = =[(32)280/8] = (9280/8) = [9.9.9...(280 times)]/8
remainder for above expression = remainder for [1.1.1.. .(28)1 times)]/8 => remainder = 1.
Problem 1.14
Step 3: Remove from 33 numbers left all odd numbers that are divisible by 5 and not divisible by 3. Between 300 to 400, the first odd number divisible by 5 is 305 and the last is 395 (since both ends are counted, we have 10 such numbers as: [(395 —305)/10 + 1 = 10]. However, some of these 10 numbers have already been removed to get to 33 numbers.
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Find the remainder when (22225 3 5 5*1
Solution This is of the form: [(22225555)/7 + (5555")fll I
We now proceed to find the individual remainder ofl (22225555)/ 7. Let the remainder be /?,. When 2222 is divided by 7, it leaves a remainder of 3  I Hence, for remainder purpose (2222s555)/7 » ( 3 j = (3.35554)/7 = [3(32)27T7]/7 = [3.(7 + 2)2777]/7 = = (3.22 •22775)/7 = [3.22• (23)925]/7 = [3.22 • (8)925] H «(12/7) Remainder = 5. Similarly, (5555M 2V ?  (4m l )P = [(f)2222] ^ ) ^ p j 0 § m = [2.(23)1481]/7 = [2.(8)usl]/7 = [2.(U1 4 8 1 V 72lj mainder). Hence, (22225555)/7 + (55552222)/7 »(5 + 2)/7 =>R«Iliai
=0 Problem 1.15
Operation left: Of these 10 numbers, 305, 315.. .395, reduce all numbers that are also divisible by 3. Quick perusal shows that the numbers start with 315 and have common difference 30. Hence [(Last number  First number)/Difference + 1] = 1(375  315V30 +1] = 3 These 3 numbers were already removed from the original 100. Hence, for numbers divisible by 5, we need to remove only those numbers that are odd, divisible by 5 but not by 3. There are 7 such numbers between 300 and 400. So numbers left are: 33  7 = 26. ■ EXERCISES FOR SELFPRACTICE ■ Find the number of numbers between 100 to 400 which are divisible by either 2, 3, 5 and 7.
Find the GCD and the LCM of the nufll
126,540 and 630.
Solution The standard forms of the numbers a#*
Chapter 1:
Number System s ;
3 5
1 2 6 + 3 x 3 x 7 x 2 ‘» 32 x 7 x 2 540 * 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 2 x 5  + 2 2 x 33 x 5
6 3 0  > 3 x 3 x 5 x 2 x 7  » 2 x 3 2x 5 x 7 For GCD we use Intersection of prime factors and the lowest power of all factors that appear in all three numbers. 2x3*® 18. FOr LCM — »Union of prime factors and highest power of all factors that appear in any one of the three numbers => 2 *33x 5 x 7 = 3780.
Hence, the answer is not (c). Hence, option (d) is the answer [To confirm, put B = 8, then the solution A = 6 and C — 1 satisfies the condition.]
Problem 1.18
Find the remainder when 2851 x (2862) x
(2873)3 is divided by 23.
Solution We use the remainder theorem to solve the prob
lem. Using the theorem, we see that the following expressions have the same remainder. 2851 x (2862)2 x (2873)3 23 22x10x10x21x21x21 23 22 x 8 x 441x21 B 23 462 x 32 23 2x9 23 22 x 21 x 8 x 4 fT 23
■ EXER C ISES FOR S ELFP R A C T IC E ■
Find the GCD and the LCM of the following numbers: fi) 360,8400 (iii) 275,18a 372,156 (v) 75,114 (ii) 120,144 (iv) 70,112 (vi) 544,720
Problem 1.16  The ratio of the factorial of a number x to die square of the factorial of another number, which when in creased by 50% gives the required number, is 1.25. Find the numberx. (a) 6 (c) 9 (b) 5 (d) None of these
=> Remainder is 18.
Problem 1.19 For what maximum value o f n will the
10200! I expression  be an integer? 504" 504" the prime factors of 504 — »
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Solution F o r  —  to be a integer, we need to look at
504 = 32 x 7 x 8 = 23 x 32 x 7 We, thus have to look for the number o f 7s, the number of 2 s and the number of 32s that are contained in 10200!. The lowest of these will be the constraint value for n. To find the number of 23s we need to find the number of 2s as
10200
Solution Solve through options: Check for the condi tions mentioned. When we check for option (a) we get 6! = 720 and (4!)2= 576 and we have 6 !/(4!)2 = 1.25, which is the required ratio. Hence the answer is (a)
EEHIEI Three numbers A, B and C are such that the
difference between the highest and the second highest twodigit numbers formed by using two of A, B and C is 5. Also, the smallest two twodigit numbers differ by 2. If B> A> C then what is the value of B1 (a) 1 (b) 6 (c) 7 (4) 8
10200"1 1 r 10200
i J L
10200
16
10200 10200
10200 32
10200
Solution Since B is the largest digit, option (a) is rejected. Check for option (b). If Bis 6, then the two largest twodigit numbers are 65 and 60 (Since, their difference is 5) and we have B = 6, A —5 and C*  But with this solution we are unable to meet the second condition. Hence (b) is not the answer. We also realise here C cannot be 0. Check for option (c). ®is 7f then the nos. are 76 and 71 or 75 and 70. In both these ca*es, the smallest two twodigit numbers do not differ by 2.
10200 64 * 10200' 2048
10200 + 128 J
256 .
512
1024
10200' 1 10200 j 40961 ' L 8192
where [ ] is the greatest integer function. = 5100 + 2550+ 1275 + 637 + 318+159 + 79 + 39+ 19 + 9 + 4 + 2+1 Number of twos = 10192 Hence, number of 23 = =3397 Similarly, we find the number of 3s as
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Number of threes . [ J S S ] r 1Q200]
* [ > » » ] , [M S ]
r 102001 r 102001 L 2187 J
10200
r 102001
I 81 J
■!
+ £ 10200 49
L 243 J
L 729 J
In fact, for the last digit we just need to consider the u n its digit of each part of the product. A number (like 78) having 8 as the units digit will yie<j units digit as 781 — >8 782 — >4 783 — >2 784 — >6 Similarly, 78s — »8 786 — >4 787 — >2 78s > 6 561 —>6 562 — >6 563 —>6
84n+ 1 > 8 84n+ 2 — >4
"
■
= 3400+1133 + 377+125 + 41 + 13 + 4 + 1 Number of threes = 5094 Number of 32 = 2547 Similarly we find the number of 7s as
10200j
Hence'785562 will yield four as the units digit — >56256 Will yield 6 as the units digit
10200
343
10200
Similarly, 97 1 — »7 972 — »9 973 — >3 97 — »1 74"+ 1 — >7 74"+ 2 — >9 Hence, 971250 will yield a units digit of 9.
2401
= 1457 + 208 + 29 + 4 = 1698. Thus, we have, 1698 sevens, 2547 nines and 3397 eights contained in 10200!. The required value of n will be given by the lowest of these three [The student is expected to explore why this happens] Hence, answer = 1698.
Hence, the required units digit is given by 4 x 6 x 9 (answer). Find the GCD and the LCM of the num bo I P and Q where P = 23 x 53 x 72 and Q = 33 x 54.
Problem 1.21
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Solution
the common factors. Thus, GCD = 53.
Sh ort Cut We will look only for the number of 7s in this case. Reason: 7 > 3 x 2. So, the number of 7s must always be less than the number of 2 . And 7 > 2 x 3, so the number of 7s must be less than the number of 32. Recollect that earlier we had talked about the finding of powers when the divisor only had prime factors. There we had seen that we needed to check only for the highest power as the restriction had to lie there. In cases of the divisors having composite factors, we have to be slightly careful in estimating the factor that will reflect the restriction. In the above example, we saw a case where even though 7 was the lowest factor (in relation to 8 and 9), the restriction was still placed by 7 rather than by 9 (as would be expected based on the previous process of taking the highest number).
Problem 1.20 x562S6x 9 7 l Find the units digit of the expression: 785562
GCD or HCF is given by the lowest powostfl
LCM is given by the highest powers of all factors availab le. I Thus, LCM = 23 x 33 x 54 x 7 2
E E n E E i E l A school has 378 girl students and 675b o yI
students. The school is divided into strictly boys or strict?! girls sections. All sections in the school have the s a # J number of students. Given this information, what a r e » number of sections in the school.
Solution The answer will be given by the HCFof378#'
675. 378 = 2 x 33 x 7 675 = 33 x 52 Hence, HCF of the two is 33 = 27. Hence, the number of sections is given by: 378 .625*1 27 27 + 25 = 39 sections.
We can get the units digits in the expression by looking at the patterns followed by 78,56 and 97 when they are raised to high powers.
Solution
Chapter 1:
Number Systems '
3 7
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
I
8. What will be the remainder obtained when ( 9 + 1 ) will be divided by 8? (a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 7 (d) 2
1 The last digit o f the number obtained by multiplying the numbers 8 1 1 8 2 x 83 x 8 4 x 85 x 86 x 8 7 x 88 x 89 will be (b) 9 (c) 7 (d) 2 (e) 8 2 The sum of the digits o f a twodigit number is 10, while when the digits are reversed, the num ber decreases by 54. Find the changed number. (a) 28 (b) 19 (c) 37 (d) 46 (e) 82 When we multiply a certain tw odigit number by the sum of its digits, 405 is achieved. I f you multiply the number written in reverse order o f the same digits by the sum of the digits, we get 486. Find the number. I 81 (c) 36 (e) None of these 4. The sum of two numbers is 15 and their geometric mean is 20% lower than their arithm etic mean. Find the num bers. (a) 11,4 (b) 12,3
(c)
(e) 1
9. Find the ratio between the LCM and HCF of 5, 15 and
20?
(a) 8 : 1 (e) 1 :1 2 10. Find the LCM of 5/2, 8/9,11/14. (a) 280 (c) 420 (e) None of these 11. If the number A is even, which of the following will be true? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3A will always be divisible by 6 3A + 5 will always be divisible by 11 (A2 + 3)/4 will be divisible by 7 All of these None of these (b) 360 (d) 220 (b) 1 4 :3 (c) 1 2 :2 (d) 12:1
3.
(b) 45 (d) 54
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(a) 10 (b) 2 (c) 4 (e) None of these (d) 10,5
12. A fivedigit number is taken. Sum of the first four digits (excluding the number at the units digit) equals sum of all the five digits. Which of the following will not divide this number necessarily? (d) 5
13,2
(c) 9,6 5. The difference between tw o num bers is 48 and the difference between the arithmetic mean and the geomet ric mean is two more than h alf o f 1/3 o f 96. Find the numbers. (a) 49,1 (c) 50,2 (e) None of these 6. If A381 is divisible by 11, find the value o f the smallest natural number A1 U) 5 (c) 7 (*>) 6 (d) 9 (b) 12,60 (d) 36,84
13. A number 15# is divisible by 6. Which of these will be true about the positive integer B1 (a) B will be even (b) B will be odd (c) B will be divisble by 6 (d) Both (a) and (c) (e) None of these 14. Two numbers P = 23.310.5 and Q = 25.31.71 are given. Find the GCD of P and Q. (a) 2,3.5.7 (b) 3.22 (c) 22.32 (e) 23x 3 l0x 5 1 x7l 15. Find the units digit of the expression 256251 + 36528 + 7354. (a) 4 (b) 0 (c) 6 (d) 5 1 16. Find the units digit of the expression 55725 + 735810 + (d) 23.3
(e) None o f these 7. If 38w is divisible by 9, find the value o f smallest natural number A?
(a)  8 1
fl>) 5
22s53.
(a) 4 (e) 8 0>) 0   
i# i
r
How toPrepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
as H Find the units digit of the expression 111+ 122 + 13 +
(a)
1
(b) 9
(c) 7
'
(d) 0
(e) I
18. Find the units digit o f the expression 11*.122.133. 144.155.ltf. (a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 7 (d) 0 (e) None of these 19. Find the number of zeroes at the end of 1090! (a) 270 (b) 268 (c) 269 (d) 271 (e) None of these 20. If 146! is divisible by 5", then find the maximum value afn. (a) 34 (b) 35 (c) 36 (e) None of these 21. Find the number of divisors of 1420. (a) 14 (c) 13 (b) 15 (d) 12 (d) 37
metres respectively. Find the greatest length of tfe I by which the five sides may be measured compwjB (a) 7 (b) 13 (c) 11 (d) 9 (e) 10 27. There are 576 boys and 448 girls in a school thatarc I be divided into equal sections of either boys org j alone. Find the total number of sections thus form * (a) 24 (b) 32 (c) 16 (d) 20 (e) None of these 28. A milkman has three different qualities of milk. 403g J Ions of 1st quality, 465 gallons of 2nd quality and441 gallons of 3rd quality. Find the least possible numberfl bottles of equal size in which different milk of diffenl qualities can be filled without mixing? (a) 34 (e) 45 (b) 46 (c) 26 (d) 44
29. What is the greatest number of 4 digits that wbenil vided by any of the numbers 6,9,12,17 leaves arena! der of 1 ? (a) 9997 (b) 9793 (d) 9487 (c) 9895 (e) 9897
(e) None of these
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(a) 364 (c) 2964 (e) 2884
22. Find the HCF and LCM of the polynomials (x2 5x + 6) and(x2 7 x + 10). (a) ( x  2 ) ,( *  2 ) ( j c  3 ) ( j r  5 ) (b) (x  2), (x  2X*  3) (c) (x  3), (x  2) (x  3) (x  5) (d) ( x  2 ) , (x  2) (x 3) (x  5) (e) None of these Directions fo r Questions 2325: Given two different prime numbers P and Q, find the number of divisors of the following'. 23. PQ (a) 2 (e) 5 24. f^Q ■ (a) 2 (e) 9 25. (b) 4 (c) 6
30. Find the least number that when divided by 16,18*1 20 leaves a remainder 4 in each case, but is compW l divisible by 7. (b) 2254 (d) 3234
31. Four bells ring at the intervals of 6 , 8,12 and l8se c c* H They start ringing together at 12’0' clock. After^ many seconds will they ring together again? (a) 72 (b) 84 (c) 60 (d) #
(e ) 144 32.
(d) 8
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 8
For question 3 1 find how many times w ill M together during the next 12 minutes? (in c lu d in g minute mark) (a) 9 (b) 1 0 (c) 11 (d) 12 (e) None of these J * I
(a)
2
(b) 4
(c ) 6
(d) 12
(c) 8
26. The sides of a pentagonal fie ld (not reg u la r) are 1737 metres, 2160 metres, 2358 metres, 1422 metres and 2214
33. The units digit of the expression 125 4532828 is (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) 5 (e) None of these
Chapter 1: NumberSystems
3 9
34. Which of the following is not a perfect square? (a) 1,00,856 (b) 3,25,137 (c) 9,45,729 (d) All of these (e) None of these 35 . Which of the following can never be in the ending of a perfect square? (a) 6 ft .(b) 00 (e) 000 (d) 1 (e) 9 36. The LCM of 5,8,12,20 will not be a multiple of (a) 3 (b) 9 (c) 8 ■ » , (d) 5 (e) None of these 37. Find the number of divisors o f720 (including 1 and 720). (a) 25 ! Kb) 28 (c) 29 (d) 30 (e) 32 • 38. The LCM of (16  x2) and (x2 + x  6) is (a) (x 3 )(x + 3) ( 4  x 2) (b) 4 (4 * * )(x + 3) (c) ( 4  x 2) ( x  3 ) (d) ( 4  x ) ( x  3 ) (e) None of these 39. GCD of x2 4 and x2 + x  6 is (a) x + 2 (b )x 2 (c) x2  2 (d) x2 + 2 (e) None of these
45. Which of the following can be a number divisible by 24? (a) 432,15,604 ( b ) 25,61,284 (c) 13,62,480 (d) All of these (e) None of these 46. For a number to be divisible by 88 , it should be (a) Divisible by 22 and 8 (b) Divisible by 11 and 8 (c) Divisible by 11 and thriceby 2 (d) Both (b) and (c) (e) All of these 47. Find the number of divisors of 10800. (a) 57 (b) 60 (c) 72 (d) 64 (e) None of these 48. Find the GCD of the polynomials (x + 3 )2 (x  2)(x + l )2 and (x + l )3 (x + 3) (x + 4). (a) (x + 3)3 (x + l) 2(x  2) (x + 4) (b) (x + 3) ( x  2) (x + l)(x + 4) (c) (x + 3 ) ( x + l )2 (d) (x+ 1) (x + 3)2 (e) None of these 49. Find the LCM of (x + 3) (6*r + 5x + 4) and ( 2 r + Ix + 3 )
(* + 3 )
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(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (2x+ l)(x+ 3)(3x + 4) (4x2 1) (x + 3)2 (3*+ 4) (4x2 l)(x + 3) (3x + 4) (2x 1) (x + 3) (3x + 4) None of these 50. The product of three consecutive natural numbers, the first of which is an even number, is always divisible by (a) 12 (b) 24 (c) 6 (d) All o f these (e) None of these 51. Some birds settled on the branches of a tree. First, they sat one to a branch and there was one bird too many. Next they sat two to a branch and there wasone branch too many. How many branches were there? (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 6 (e) 2 52. The square of a number greater than 1000 that is not divisible by three, when divided by three, leaves a remainder of (a) 1 always (b) 2 always (c) 0 (d) either 1 or 2 (e) Cannot be said
40. The number .Ais not divisible by 3. Which of the follow ing will not be divisible by 3? (a) 9 x A (b) 2 x A (c) 18 x A (d) 24 x A (e) None of these 41. Find the remainder when the number 9100 is divided
by 8?
(a) 1 (e) 2 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) 4
42. Find the remainder o f 21000 when divided by 3? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 6 <e) 0 43. Decompose the number 20 into two terms such that their product is the greatest. (a) x, =*2 = 10 (b) X, = 5 , *2 = 15 (c) x, = 16, *2 = 4 (d) x, = 8, *2 = 12 (e) None o f these 44. Find the number o f zeroes at the end of 50! (a) 13
(e ) 10
(b) 11
(c) 5
(d) 12
4 0
Ho^lD^Bpare^CKjar«titativ<eAptitudefbrlheCAT
I
The value of the expression (1 53 • 2 12)/(35 2 • 34) is (a) 3 (b) 15 (c) 21 ■ (d) 12 ^ fe) 35 >B = ( x ) • c = (°3 » 2  ° = (l2)2 then (a) A > B > C > D (c) D > B > C > A (e) None o f these (b) D > A > B > C (d) D > C > A > B
(b) (c) (d) (e)
18 and 17 or 18 and 13 8 and 27 or 8 and 33 9 and 18 or 8 and 27 None of these (b) (0.4)4 or (0.8)3
54.
62. Which of these is greater. (a) 544 or 2112 63. Is it possible for a common fraction whose num erator^j less than the denominator to be equal to a fractal whose numerator is greater than the denominator? (a) Yes (b) No 64. What digits should be put in place of c in 38c to m ake I it divisible by (1 )2 (5) 6 < 2 )3 (6) 9 (3 )4 (7) 10 (4 )5
55. If 2 < x < 4 and 1 < y < 3, then find the ratio of the upper limit for jr + y and the lower limit o f x  y . (a) 6
(c) 8
(e) None o f these
(b) 7 (d) 4
56. The sum o f the squares o f the digits constituting a positive twodigit number is 13. If we subtract 9 from that number, we shall get a number written by the same digits in the reverse order. Find the number? (a) 12 (e) 23 57. The product o f a natural number by the number written by the same digits in the reverse order is 2430. Find the numbers. (a) 54 and 45 (c) 53 and 35 (e) None o f these (b) 56 and 65 (d) 85 and 58 (b) 32 (c) 42 (d) 52
65. Find the LCM and HCF of the following numbers: (54.81 I 135 and 189), (156,195) and (1950,5670 and 3900) 66. The last digit in the expansions of the three digit num ber I (34x)43 and (34.x)44 are 7 and 1 respectively. What ca nI be said about the value o f jc? (a) * = 5 (b) * = 3 (c) x = 6 (d) jc = 2
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58. Find two natural numbers whose difference is 66 and the least common multiple is 360. (a) 120 and 54 (c) 180 and 114 (e) None o f these 59. Find the pairs of natural numbers whose least common multiple is 78 and the greatest common divisor is 13. (a) 58 and 13 or 16 and 29 (b) 68 and 23 or 36 and 49 (c) 18 and 73 or 56 and 93 (d) 78 and 13 or 26 and 39 (e) None of these <i0. Find two natural numbers whose sum is 85 and the least common multiple is 102. (a) 30 and 55 (b) 17 and 68 (c) 35 and 55 (d) 51 and 34 (e) None of these 61. Find the pairs of natural numbers the difference of , whose squares is 55. (a) 28 and 27 or 8 and 3 (b) 90 and 24 (d) 130 and 64
Directions fo r Questions 6768: Amitesh buys a pen, 11 pencil and an eraser for Rs. 41.If the least cost of any oftieI three items is Rs. 12 and it is known that a pen costs less tin I a pencil and an eraser costs more than a pencil, answer (h eI following questions: 67. What is the cost of the pen? (a) 12 (b) 13 (c) 14 (d) 15 68. If it is known that the eraser’s cost is not 4, the cost of the pencil could be: (a) 12 (b) 13 (c) 14 (d) 15
divisible b yI
69. A naughty boy Amrit watches a Sachin Tendulkar1 1 1 nings and acts according to the number of runs bes e e ‘ Sachin scoring. The details of these are given bel°"' I 1 run Place a orange in the basket 2 runs Place a mango in the basket 3 runs Place a pear in the basket 4 runs Remove a pear and a mango from the I One fine day, at the start of the match, the I empty. The sequence of runs scored by S a c h in I innings are given as 1123241123423234112131^I end of the above innings, how many more orange* I there compared to mangoes inside the basketBasket was empty initially).
Chapter 1: NumberSystems
41
(#) 4
(c ) 6
(b> 5
<d > 7
70 In th e famous Bel Air Apartments in Ranchi, there are th re e w a t c h m e n meant to protect the precious fruits in the c a m p u s . However, one day a thief got in without b e in g n o tic e d and stole some precious mangoes. On the way o u t however, he was confronted by the three watchmen, the first two of whom asked him to part with l/3rf of the fruits and one more. The last asked him to part with 1/5 of the mangoes and 4 more. As a result he had no mangoes left. What was the number of man goes he had stolen? (a) 12 (b) 13 (c) 15 (d) None of these 71. A hundred and twenty digit number is formed by writing the first x natural numbers ip front of each other as 12345678910111213... Find the remainder when this number is divided by 8. (a) 6 (b) .7 (c) 2 (d) 0 72. A test has 80 questions. There is one mark for a correct answer, while there is a negative penalty o f — 1/2 for a wrong answer and — 1/4 for an unattempted question. What is the number o f questions answered correctly, if the student has scored a net total of 34.5 marks. (a) 45 (b) 48 (c) 54 (d) Cannot be determined
is the cost of one mango, one g u a v a a n d o n e w a t e r melon? (a) 120 ' ' ( b ) 40 ( c ) 150 • '!> i ; ( d ) C a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d 77. For the question above, w h a t i s t h e c o s t o f a m a n g o ? (a) 20 (b) 14
( c ) ]5 Y'.; 1, (d ) C a n n o t b e d e te rm in e d
78. T h e f o l l o w i n g i s k n o w n a b o u t t h r e e r e a l n u m b e r s , x , y
a n d z. 4 < J t < 4 ,  8 ^ y < 2 a n d  8 < z < 2 . T h e n th e ra n g e o f v a l u e s t h a t M = x z/y c a n t a k e i s b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d b y : ( a ) — oo < x < ° ° ( c )  8 < jc < 8 (b ) — 16 < x < 8 (d )  1 6 < * < 1 6
79. A m a n s o l d 3 8 p i e c e s o f c l o t h i n g ( c o m b i n e d i n t h e f o r m
o f s h i r t s , t r o u s e r s a n d t i e s ) . I f h e s o l d a t l e a s t 11 p i e c e s o f e a c h ite m a n d h e s o ld m o r e s h ir ts th a n tr o u s e r s a n d m o re tr o u s e rs th a n tie s , th e n th e n u m b e r o f t ie s th a t h e m u s t h a v e s o l d is : (a ) (c ) E x a c d y 11 A t le a s t1 2 ( b ) A t l e a s t 11 (d ) C a n n o t b e d e te rm in e d
80. F o r th e q u e s tio n h a v e s o ld ? (a ) A t le a s t 13 (c ) A t le a s t
79, f i n d t h e n u m b e r o f s h i r t s h e m u s t
(b ) A t le a s t 14 (d ) A t m o s t 16.
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15 (a ) (c ) 124 184 (b ) 364
8 1 . F in d th e le a s t n u m b e r w h ic h w h e n d iv id e d b y 1 2 ,1 5 ,1 8 o r 2 0 le a v e s in e a c h c a s e a re m a in d e r 4 . (d ) N o n e o f th e s e
73. For the question 72, if it is known that he has left 10 questions unanswered, the number of correct answers are: (a) 45 * ‘ (b) 48 (c) 54 (d) Cannot be determined 74. Three mangoes, four guavas and five watermelons cost Rs. 750. Ten watermelons, six mangoes and 9 guavas cost Rs.1580. What is the cost of six mangoes, ten watermelons and 4 guavas? (a) 1280 (b) 1180 (c) 1 0 8 0 (d) Cannot be determined 7s From a number M subtract 1. Take the reciprocal of the result to get the value of " I f . Then which of the follow ing is necessarily true? (a) Af*^2 (b) M n > 3 (c ) \ <MN < 3 (d) 1<M ^< 5 c o s t o f four mangoes, six guavas and sixteen warW te r m e l o n s i s Rs. 5 0 0 , while the cost of seven magoes, n in e g u a v a s a n d n i n e t e e n watermelons is Rs. 620. What
82. W h a t is th e le a s t n u m b e r b y w h ic h 2 8 0 0 s h o u ld b e m u ltip lie d s o th a t th e p r o d u c t m a y b e a p e r f e c t s q u a r e ?
7 None of these 83. The least number of 4 digits which is a perfect square is: (a) 1064 (b) 1040 (c) 1024 (d) 1012 84. The least multiple of 7 which leaves a remainder of 4 when divided by 6, 9,15 and 18 is (a) 94 (b) 184 (c) 364 (d) 74 85. What is the least 3 digit number that when divided by 2, 3 ,4 ,5 or 6 leaves a remainder of 1? (a) 131 (b) 161
(a ) .( b ) (c ) 14 (d ) /c y 121 (d ) N o n e o f th e s e
2
86. The highest common f a c t o r o f 70 a n d 245 i s equal to M 35 (b) 45 (a) 55 B 65
Howlo Prepare fbr Quantitative Aptitudefo rte CAT
42
lhe lcasl number, which must be subtracted from 7147 to make it  perfect square. (a) 86 > * * (b) 89 (c) 91 mM (d) 93 88. Find the least square number which is divisible by 6,8 and 15 (a) 2500 (b) 3600 (c) 4900 (d) 4500 89. Find the least number by which 30492 must be multi plied or divided so as to make it aperfect square. (a) 11 ■ (b) 7 (c) 3 t (d) 2 90. The greatest 4digit number exactly divisible by 88 is (a) 8888 (b) 9768 (c) 9944 (d) 9988 91. By how much is three fourth of 116 greater than four fifth of 45? (a) 31 (b) 41 (c) 46 (d) None of these 92. If 5625 plants are to be arranged in such a way that there are as many rows as there are plants in a row, the number of rows will be. (a) 95 (b) 85 (c) 65 (d) None o f these
WF
Level o f D iffic u lty (LOD)
1. The arithmetic mean of two numbers is smalle^y^  than the larger o f the two numbers and the GM of (j, j same numbers exceeds by 12 the smaller of the num bers Find the numbers. (a) 6 and 54 (b) 8 and 56 (c) 12 and 60 (d) 7 and * > 5 (e) None of these 2. Find the number of numbers between 200 and 300, bo • included, which are not divisible by 2 ,3 ,4 and S. (a) 27 (b) 26 (c) 25 (d) 28 (e) None of these 3. Given xand n are integers, (15n3+ 6nz + 5n+x)lni&r^ an integer for what condition? (a) n is positive (b) x is divisible by n (c) x is not divisible by n (d) (a) and (c) (e) None of these 4. The unit digit in the expression 36234*335,2*391 “5429*25123*31512 will be (a) 8 (e) 4 (b) 0 (c) 6 (d) 5
93. A boy took a seven digit number ending in 9 and raised it to an even power greater than 2000. He then took the number 17 and raised it to a power which leaves the remainder 1 when divided by 4. If he now multiples both the numbers, what will be the unit’s digit of the number he so obtains? (a) 7 (b) 9 (c) 3 (d) Cannot be determined
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5. The difference of 1025  7 and 1024 + x is divisible by3 for x = ? (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 6 (e) 7 6. Find the value of x in ijx + 2Jx + 2Jx + 2^3* = t(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 6 (d) 12 I
94. Two friends were discussing their marks in an examina tion. While doing so they realized that both the num bers had the same prime factors, although Raveesh got a score which had two more factors than Harish. If their marks are represented by one of the options as given below, which of the following options would correctly represent the number of marks they got. (a) 30,60 (b) 2 0 ,8 0 (c) 40,80 (d) 20 ,(50 95. A number is such that when divided by 4, 5, 6, or 7 it leaves the remainder 2,3,4, or 5 respectively. Which is the largest number below 4000 that satisfies this propcrty? (a) 3358 (b) 3988 (c) 3778 (d) 2938
(e) 9 7. If a number is multiplied by 22 and the same numbed added to it, then we get a number that is half the squ^ of that number. Find the number (a) 45 (b) 46 (c) 47 (d) data insufficient (e) None of these 8. 1255/3n + 848/I6 18 will give the digit at units pi*** (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 0 5 9. The mean of 1, 2, 22.... 231 lies in between
Chapter 1:
NumberSystems
4 3
I
224 t o § f
( b ) 215 t o 226
(c) 2J* t o 227
(e ) » i *4
(d) 229 t o 2 30
(X
g iv e s a r e s u l t
isa n u m b e r t h a t is divided by ab where xy < ab and Oxyxyxy... then ab equals (b) 33 (c) 99 (d) 66
(a) 1 1 (e) 88
11.
A number xy is multiplied by another number ab and the result comes as pqr, where r = 2 v, q = 2(x + y) and p = 2x where x,  p 5, q ■ £0. The value o f ab may be: (a) 11 / (b) 13 (c) 31 ' ^ (d) 22 (e) None of these
18. If the sum of the numbers (a25)2 and a is divisible by 9 , then which of the following may be a value for a ? (a) 1 (b) 7 (c) 9 (d) 8 (e) There is no value 19. If Ix  4 1+ Iy  4 I = 4, then how many integer values can the set (x, y) have? (a) Infinite (b) 5 (c) 16 (d) 9 ( e ) 25 20. [332/50] gives remainder and {.} denotes the fractional part of that. The fractional part is of the form (0 • bx). The value of * could be (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (e) None of these (d) 8
12
[jt] denotes the greatest integer value just below x and {*} its fractional value. The sum of [jc]3 and {x}2 is 7.91. Findx. (a) 2.03 (b) 1.97 (c) 2.97 <d) 1.7 (e) None of these
21. The sum of two numbers is 20 and their geometric mean is 20% lower than their arithmetic mean. Find the ratio of the numbers. (a) 4 : 1 (b) 9 :1 (c) 1 : 1 (d) 17:3
13. 165 + 2 15 is divisible by (a) 31 (b) 13 (e) 12
(c ) 2 7
(d ) 3 3
(e) 5 :1
22. The highest power on 990 that will exactly divide 1090! is (a) 101 (e) 110 (b) 100 (c) 108 (d) 109
14. IfAB +XY = \XP, where A ?^^n^^nh^ette^signify] different digits from 0 to 9, then the value of A is: (a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 9 ,A iW r" , < d> 8 (e) Any value above 6 Directionsfo r Questions number 1516: Find the possible integral values of x. 15. U3I + 2U + II = 4 (a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 3 ' ; (d) 2 (e) There are many solutions & ? + (a) 1 (c) 0 (e) 2 1 ( . (b) 1 (d) lo rO
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23. If 146! is divisible by 6 ", then find the maximum value of n. (a) 74 (b) 70 (c) 76 (d) 75 (e) 73 24. The last two digits in the multiplication of 35 ■34 • 33 •32  31 30 29  28  27  26is (a) 00 (b) 40 (c) 30 (d) 10 (e) None of these 25. The expression 333555 + 555 333 is divisible by (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 37 (d) 111 (e) All of these 26. denotes the greatest integer value just below j : and (jc) its fractional value. The sum of M 2 and {x)1is 25.16. Find .v. (a) 5.16 (b) 4 .8 4 (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) 4.84 (e) Cannot be determined
[ jc]
17. If 4*^ * I+ x and 42#l x are divisible by 5, n being an even integer, find the least value o f x. (a) 1 (b) 2 ( e  ,1 4 ) 0 (ey None o f these
How lo Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
27. If wc  l i 111 square of the digit in the tens place of a positive twodigit number to the product of the digits of that number, we shall get 52, and if we add the square of the digit in the units place to the same product of the digits, we shall get 117. Find the twodigit number. (a) 18 <b) 39 (c) 49 (d) 28 (e) 30 28. Find two numbers such that their sum, their product and the differences of their squares are equal. (a) 3+ ^ ) and 2 iw r 2 ✓ (b) 3 + V7 2
(c) 5 and 15 or 15 and 135 (d) 5 and 20 or 15 and 35 (e) None of these 32. The denominator of an irreducible fraction is j than the numerator by 2 . If we reduce the num erator* the reciprocal fraction by 3 and subtract the given tion from the resulting one, we get 1/15. Find the gjV e # fraction.
2J
n
V
2
and
§§ H
o f
(c ) 1
■
and  or
* J nhi 1 2J 2 J
iv n
and
33. A twodigit number exceeds by 19 the sum of squares of its digits and by 44 the double product of% digits. Find the number. (a) 72 (b) 62 (c) 22 (d) 12 < (e) 15 34. The sum of the squares of the digits constituting a tw o digit positive number is 2.5 times as large as the sum of its digits and is larger by unity than the trebled p ro d u ct of its digits. Find the number. (a) 13 and 31 (b) 12 and 21 (c) 22 and 33 (d) 14 and 41 (e) None of these
2
(c)
3 V 5 2 ' l + V5
and
and
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(d) All of these (e) None of these 29. The sum of the digits of a threedigit number is 17, and the sum of the squares of its digits is 109. If we subtract 495 from that number, we shall get a number consisting of the same digits written in the reverse order. Find the number. (a) 773 (c) 683 (e) 684 (b) 863 (d) 944
35. The units digit of a twodigit number is greater thanisI tens digit by 2, and the product of that number bytel sum of its digits is 144. Find the number. (a) 14 (b) 24 (c) 46 (d) 35 i f 20 36. Find the number of zeroes in the product: 5 x 10x25* 4 0 x 50 x 55 x 65 x 125 x 80 (a) 8 (e) 10 (b) 9 (c) 12 (d) 13 ,
30. Find the number of zeros in the product: 11 x 22 x 33 x 44 x ..... 98*® x 9 9 " x IOO100 (a) 1200 (b) 1300 (c) 1050 (d) 1225 (e) None of these 31. Find the pairs of a natural number whose greatest common divisor is 5 and the least common multiple is 105. (a) 5 and 105 or IS and 35
37. The power of 45 that will exactly divide 123! is (a) 28 (b) 30 (c) 31 (d) 59 g§ 29 38. Three numbers are such that the second is as J lesser than the third as the first is lesser than1^ second. If the product of the two smaller numbers 1 and the product of two larger numbers is 115 fint* ^I middle number. (a) 9 (b) 8 (c) 12 (d) 30 (e) 10 . jpi 39. Find the smallest natural number n such that h ,s I ible by 990.
Chapter 1:
NumberSystems
4 5
(C) II (e) None of these
; (d) 12
40. >/x <Jy = Jxy 's SIP only when (a) x > 0 , y > 0 (b) x > 0 and y < 0 (c) x < 0 and y > 0 (d) All o f these (e) None of these Directions fo r Questions 4160: Read the instructions be low and solve the questions based on this. In an examination situation, always solve the following type of questions by substituting the given options, to arrive at the solution. However, as you can see, there are no options given in the questions here since these are meant to be an exercise in equation writing (which I believe is a primary skill required to do well in aptitude exams testing mathematical aptitude). Indeed, if these questions had options for them, they would be rated as LOD 1 questions. But since the optionbased solution technique is removed here, I have placed these in the LOD 2 category. 41. Find the twodigit number that meets the following criteria. If the number in the units place exceeds, the number in its tens by 2 and the product of the required number with the sum o f its digits is equal to 144. 42 The product o f the digits o f a twodigit number is twice as large as the sum o f its digits. If we subtract 27 from the required number, we get a number consisting of the same digits written in the reverse order. Find the number? 43. The product o f the digits o f a twodigit number is onethird that number. If we add 18 to the required number, we get a number consisting o f the same digits written in the reverse order. Find the number? 44. The sum o f the squares o f the digits of a twodigit number is 13. If we subtract 9 from that number, we get a number consisting o f the same digits written in the reverse order. Find the number? 45. A twodigit number is thrice as large as the sum of its digits, and the square o f that sum is equal to the trebled required number. Find the number? 46. Find a twodigit number that exceeds by 12 the sum of the squares o f its digits and by 16 the doubled product o f its digits. 47. The sum o f the squares o f the digits constituting a twodigit number is 10 , and the product of the required number by the number consisting o f the same digits written in the reverse order is 403. Find the 2 numbers that satisfy these conditions?
48. If we divide a twodigit number by the sum of its digits, we get 4 as a quotient and 3 as a remainder. Now, if we divide that twodigit number by the product of its digits, we get 3 as a quotient and 5 as a remainder. Find the twodigit number. 49. There is a natural number that becomes equal to the square of a natural number when 100 is added to it, and to the square of another natural number when 169 is added to it. Find the number? 50. Find two natural numbers whose sum is 85 and whose least common multiple is 102. 51. Find twothree digit numbers whose sum is a multiple of 504 and the quotient is a multiple of 6. 52. The difference between the digits in a twodigit number is equal to 2, and the sum of the squares of the same digits is 52. Find all the possible numbers? 53. If we divide a given twodigit number by the product of its digits, we obtain 3 as a quotient and 9 as a remainder. If we subtract the product of the digits constituting the number, from the square of the sum o f its digits, we obtain the given number. Find the number. 54. Find the threedigit number if it is known that the sum of its digits is 17 and the sum of the squares o f its digits is 109. If we subtract 495 from this number, we obtain a number consisting of the same digits written in reverse order.
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55. The sum of the cubes o f the digits constituting a twodigit number is 243 and the product o f the sum o f its digits by the product o f its digits is 162. Find the two twodigit number? 56. The difference between two numbers is 16. What can be said about the total numbers divisible by 7 that can lie in between these two numbers. 57. Arrange the following in descending order: 1114, 110.109.108.107,109.110.112.113 58. If 3 < x < 5 and 4 < y < 7. Find the greatest value o f xy and the least value of xJy. 59. Which of these is greater: (a) 200300 or 300200 or 400150 (b) 5 100 and 2200 (c) 1020 and 4010 60. The sum of the two numbers is equal to 15 and their arithmetic mean is 25 per cent greater than its geometric mean. Find the numbers. 61. Define a number K such that it is the sum of the squares of the first M natural numbers.(i.e. K = l 2 + 22 +,...+ M2 )
n
B
I Howlof^Bpare torQuantitativeAptitudefbrtheCAT
where M < 55. How many values of M exist such that K is divisible by 4? (a) 10 (b) 11 (c) 12 (d) None of these 62. A/ is a two digit number which has the property that: The product of factorials of it’s digits > sum of factorials of its digits How many values of Ai exist? (a) 56 (b) 6* (c) 63 (d) None of these 63. A natural number when increased by 50% has its num ber of factors unchanged. However, when the value of the number is reduced by 75%, the number of factors is reduced by 66.66%. One such number could be: (a) 32 (b) 84 (c) 126 1 1 (d) None of these 64. Find the 28383"1teim of the series: 123456789101112.... (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 9 i  7 65. If you form a subset of integers chosen from between 1 to 3000, such that no two integers add up to a multiple of nine, what can be the maximum number of elements in the subset. (Include both 1 and 3000.) (a) 1668 (b) 1332 (c) 1333 (d) 1336 66. The series of numbers (1,1/2,1/3,1/4..................... 1/1972) is taken. Now two numbers are taken from this series (the first two) say x, y. Then the operation x + y + x.y is performed to get a consolidated number. The process is repeated. What will be the value of the set after all the numbers are consolidated into one number. (a) 1970 (b) 1971 (c) 1972 (d) None of these 67. K is a three digit number such that the ratio of the number to the sum of its digits is least? What is the difference between the hundreds and the tens digits of JC ? (a) 9 (b) 8 (c) 7 (d) None of these 68. In the question 67, what can be said about the differ ence between the tens and the units digit? (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) None of these 60 For the above question, for how many values of K will the ratio be the highest? (a) 9 o>) g (c) 7 (d) None of these
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70. A triangular number is defined as a number which h* the property of being expressed as a sum of conse^ tive natural numbers starting with 1. How many trian gy lar numbers less than 1000 , have the property that t}w are the difference of squares of two consecutive n atu ^ j, numbers? (a) 20 (b) 21 (c) 22 (d) 23 7 1 .x and y are two positive integers. Then what will betfe sum of the coefficients of the expansion of the expres. I sion (x + y)44? Answer: 2 44 ,43 (b) 2 + 1 (a) (c) 244 (d) 244 l 2  72. What is the remainder when 9 + 9 + 93 + divided by 6 ? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 73. The remainder when the number 123456789101112 ....... 484950 is divided by 16 is: (a) 3 (b) 4 (C) 5 (d) 6 7 4 What is the highest power of 3 available in the exp res sion 58! 3 8 ! (a) 17 (b) 18 , (c) 19 (d) None of these 75 Find the remainder when the number represented by I 22334 raised to the power ( l 2 + 22+ ..+ 66 2) is d ivid ed I by 5? (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 0 (d) None of these 76. What is the total number of divisors of the number m J x 3423 x 247 ? (a) 4658. (b) 9316 (c) 2744 (d) None of these eP fe I 77 For the question 76, which of the following will r sent the sum of factors of the number (such that orf I odd factors are counted)?
q ih
(a)
(3 34  1 )
( 1724 
1 )
( b ) ( 3 34 l ) x ( 1 7 2 4  i >
16
.
(3 34  1 ) (d) None of these H 33 (4 !) 78. What is the remainder when (1!) + (2!)' (3!)' + ........( 1 1 5 2 ! ) 3 is divided by 1152? (a) 125 (b) 225 (c) 32* (d) 205 0 i> e 79. A st > s formed by including some of the thousand natural numbers. S contains the ma*11 I
Chapter1: NumberSystems
4 7
number of numbers such that they satisfy the following
c o n d itio n s :
j. No number o f the set S is prime. 2. When the numbers of the set S are selected two at a time, we always see co prime numbers What is the number o f elements in the set S?
(a) 11 (b) 12
(c) 13
(d) 7
Find the lost two digits o f the following numbers ga 101x102 x 1 0 3 x 1 9 7 x 1 9 8 x 1 9 9 (a) 54 (b) 74 (c) 64 (d) 84 gl. 6 5 x 2 9 x 3 7 x 6 3 x 7 1 x 8 7 (a) 05 <b) 95 (c) 15 •• • (d) 25 82. 6 5 x 2 9 x 3 7 x 6 3 x 7 1 x 8 7 x 8 5 (a) 25 (b) 35 (c) 75 (d) 85 83. 6 5 x 2 9 x 3 7 x 6 3 x 7 1 x 8 7 x 6 2 (a) 70 (b) 30 (c) 10 (d) 90 84. 7 5 x 3 5 x 4 7 x 6 3 x 7 1 x 8 7 x 8 2 (a) 50 (b) 70 (c) 30 (d) 90 85. (201 x 202 x 203 x 204 x 246 x 247 x 248 x 2 4 9 / (a) 36 (b) 56 (c) 76 (d) 16 86. Find the remainder when 7 is divided by 2400. (a) 1 (b) 343 (c) 49 (d) 7 87. Find the remainder when ( 103 + 93)752 is divided by 123. (a) 729 (b) 1000 (c) 752 (d) 1 88. Aran, Bikas and Chetakar have a total of 80 coins among them. Arun triples the number o f coins with the others by giving them some coins from his own collection. Next, Bikas repeats the same process. After this Bikas now has 20 coins. Find the number of coins he had at the beginning? (a) 22 (b) 2 0 (c) 18 ( d ) 24 The super computer at Ram Mohan Roy Seminary takes an input of a number N and a X where X is a factor of the number N. In a particular case N is equal to 83p 796161? and X is equal to 11 where 0 < p < q, find the sum of remainders when N is divided by (p + q) and p successively.
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(a) 6 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 9 90. On March 1st 2016, Sherry saved Re.l. Everyday starting from March 2rd 2016, he saved Re. 1 more than the previous day. Find the first date after March 1st 2016 at the end of which his total savings will be a perfect square. (a) 17th March 2016 (b) 18th April 2016 (c) 26th March 2016 (d) None of these 91. What is the rightmost digit preceding the zeroes in the value of 2053? (a) 2 (b) 8 (c) 1 (d) 4 92. What is the remainder when 2(8!)  21(6!) divides 14(7!) +14(13!)? (a) 1 (b) 7! (c) 8! (d) 9! 93. How many integer values of x and y are there such that 4* + ly = 3, while IjcI < 500 and ly I < 500? (a) 144* (b) 141 (c) 143 (d) 142 94. If n = 1 + m, where m is the product of four consecutive positive integers, then which of the following is/are true? (A) n is odd ( B ) n is not a multiple of 3 (Q n is a perfect square (a) All three (b) A and B only (c) A and C only (d) None of these 95. How many twodigit numbers less than or equal to 50, have the product of the factorials of their digits less than or equal to the sum of the factorials of their digits? (a) 18 (b) 16 (c) 15 (d) None of these 96. A candidate takes a test and attempts all the 100 ques tions in it. While any correct answer fetches I mark, wrong answers are penalised as follows; onetenth of the questions carry 1/10 negative mark each, onefifth of the questions carry 1/5 negative marks each and the rest of the questions carry Yi negative mark each. Un attempted questions carry no marks. What is the differ ence between the maximum and the minimum marks that he can score? (a) 100 0>) 120 140 (d) None of these
Directions fo r Questions 97 to 99: A mock test is taken at AMS Learning Systems. The test paper comprises of
4
8
I
Howto Prepare forQuantitativeApttudefor the CAT
question^ in three levels of difficulty— LODI. LOD2 and LOD 3. The following table gives the details of the positive and negative marks attached to each question type:
Difficulty level
Positive marks fo r answering the
question correctly
. Negative marks for answering the question wrongly < 2
1.5 1
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) 15,95 and 12345 (e) None of these 2. Find the lower o f the two successive natural numjw I if the square of the sum of those numbers exceeds L I sum of their squares by 1 1 2 . (a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) 9 (e) 10 3. First we increased the denominator of a positive fra c >I tion by 3 and then we decreased it by 5. The sumoftfe I resulting fractions proves to be equal to 2/3. Find tfe I denominator o f the fraction if its numerator is 2. (a) 7 (b) 8 (c) 12 (d) 9 (e) 13 4. Find the last two digits of: 15 x 37 x 63 x 51 x 97 x 17 (a)'35 (e) 75 (b) 45 (c) 55 (d) 85
LOD j LOD 2 LOD 3
4 3
2
The test had 200 questions with 80 on LOD 1 and 60 each on LOD 2 and LOD 3. 97. If a student has solved 100 questions exactly and scored 120 marks, the maximum number of incorrect questions that he/she might have marked is: (a) 44 1 (b) 56 (c) 60 (d) None of these 98. If Amit attempted the least number of questions and got a total of 130 marks, and if it is known that he attempted at least one o f every type, then the number of questions he must have attempted is: (a) 34 Cb) 35 (c) 36 (d) None o f these 99. In the above question, what is the least number of questions he might have got incorrect? (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) None o f these 100. Amitabh has a certain number of toffees, such that if he distributes them amongst ten children he has nine left, if he distributes amongst 9 children he would have 8 left, if he distributes amongst 8 children he would have 7 left ... and so on until if he distributes amongst 5 children he should have 4 left. What is the second lowest num ber of toffees he could have with him? (a) 2519 (b) 7559 (c) 8249 <d) 5039
5. Let us consider a fraction whose denominator is sm aller I than the square o f the numerator by unity. If we ad d21 to the numerator and the denominator, the fraction w ill I exceed 1/3. If we subtract 3 from the numerator and(b eI denominator, the fraction will be positive but sm aller I than 1/10. Find the value?
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(a)  (b) ±
(c) — x } 24 (e) None o f these
6.
J
(d) — K ’ 35
Find the sum of all threedigit numbers that give» I remainder of 4 when they are divided by 5. (a) 98,270 (c) 1,02,090 (e) None o f these
(b) 99,270 (d) 90,270
7. Find the sum o f all twodigit numbers that give a rem ® 8 I der o f 3 when they are divided by 7. (a) 686 (c) 666 (e) None o f these
8.
(b) 676 (d) 656 I
Level o f D iffic u lty (LO D)
1
I. What twodigit number is less than the sum of the square of its digits by 11 and exceeds their doubled product by 5? (a) 15,95 (b) 95
Find the sum o f all odd threedigit numbers that divisible by 5. (a) 50,500 (b) 50,250 (c) 50,000 (d) 49,500
9. The product o f a twodigit number by a number c0‘  I ing o f the same digits written in the reverse 0 equal to 2430. Find the lower number. (a) 54 (b) 52 (c) 63 (d) 65
< e )
51,250
Jk
Chapter 1: NumberSystems
49
«
•') Find the lowest of t h r e e n u m b e r s as described: If the cube of the first number exceeds their product by 2, the cube of the second number is smaller than their product by 3. and the cube of the third number exceeds their product by 3. <») 3in ( b ) 9 1/3 (c) 2 (d) Any of these (e) None o f t h e s e 11 . H o w m a n y p a i r s o f natural numbers are there the differ e n c e o f w h o s e s q u a r e s is 45. (a ) 1 (b ) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5
(c) 9 9 (d) 86 (e) None of these 16. Find the twodigit number the quotient o f w h o s e d iv i sion by the product of its digits is equal t o 8 / 3 , a n d the difference between the required number a n d th e number consisting of the same digits w r i t t e n in t h e r e v e r s e order is 1 8
(a) (c ) 86 75 (b ) (d ) 42 12
(e ) N o n e o f th e s e 17. F in d th e tw o d ig it n u m b e r i f it is k n o w n th e q u o tie n t o f th e p r o d u c t o f its d ig its s u m i s 1 4 /9 . (a) 5 4 (c) 2 7 (e ) N o n e o f th e s e (b ) 7 2 (d ) 4 5
that the ratio of and that of the
th e r e q u i r e d n u m b e r a n d t h e s u m o f i t s d i g i t s is 8 as also
numbers such that the sum of the d ig its c o n s t i t u t i n g the number is not less than 7; the s u m o f t h e s q u a r e s o f the digits is not greater than 30; th e n u m b e r consisting of the same digits written in the r e v e r s e o r d e r i s not larger than half the given number, (a ) 52 ( b ) 51 (c) 49 (d) 53 (e) 50 13. In a fourdigit number, the sum of the digits in the thousands, hundreds and tens is equal to 14, and the sum of the digits in the units, tens and hundreds is equal to 15. Among all the numbers satisfying these conditions, find the number the sum of the squares of whose digits is the greatest. (a) 2572 (b) 1863 (c) 2573 (d) 1858 (e) None of these
12. F in d a l l t w o  d i g i t
18. I f w e d i v i d e th e u n k n o w n t w o  d i g i t
number by the written in the r e v e r s e o r d e r , w e g e t 4 a s a q u o t i e n t a n d 3 as a remain d e r . I f w e d i v i d e th e r e q u i r e d n u m b e r b y t h e sum of its d i g i t s , w e g e t 8 a s a q u o t i e n t a n d 7 a s a r e m a i n d e r . Find
n u m b e r c o n s is tin g o f th e s a m e d ig its (a ) 81 ( b ) 91
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( c ) 71 (d ) 72 ( e ) N o n e o f th e s e 19. T h e l a s t tw o  d i g its in th e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n 1 2 2 x 1 2 3 x 1 2 5 x 1 2 7 x 1 2 9 w ifl b e (a ) 2 0 (e ) 6 0 (b ) 5 0 (c ) 3 0
th e n u m b e r?
14. In a fourdigit number, the sum of the digits in the thousands and tens is equal to 4, the sum of the digits in the hundreds and the units is 15, and the digit of the units exceeds by 7 the digit of the thousands. Among a ll the numbers satisfying these conditions, find the number the sum o f the product of whose digit of the thousands by the digit of the units and the product of the digit of the hundreds by that of the tens assumes the least value. (a) 4708 (b) 1738 (c) 2629 (d) 1812 (e) None of these 15 If we divide a twodigit number by a number consisting of the same digits written in the reverse order, we get 4 35a quotient and 15 as a remainder. If we subtract 1 from tbegjyen number, we get the sum of the squares of the digits constituting that number. Find the number? (* 71 (b) 83
(d) 4 0
The remainder obtained when 4 3 1 0 1+ 2 3 1 0 1is divided by 66 is: (a) 2 (b) 10 (c) 5 (d) 0 (e) 3 5 2 1 . The last threedigits of the multiplication 1 2 3 4 5 x 5 4 3 2 1 will be (a) 8 6 5 (b) 7 4 5 (c) 8 4 5 (d) 945 (e) 8 7 5 2 2 . The sum of the digits of a threedigit number is 1 2 . If we subtract 4 9 5 from the number consisting of the same digits written in reverse order, we shall get the required number. Find that threedigit number if the sum of all pairwise products of the digits constituting that number is 4 1 , ( a ) 156 S $ 237
20.
rlDPrepare for Quantitatrve Aptitude forthe CAT IHOM
—i—
197 ( c ) Both ( a ) a n d ( b )
i)
159
threedigit p o s i t i v e integer abc is such that ai2 + b2 174. a is e q u a l to the doubled sum of the digits in the tens a n d u n i t s places. Find the number if it is known that the d i f f e r e n c e between that number and the number w r i t t e n b y t h e same digits in the reverse order is 495. ( a ) 813 (b) 349 ( c ) 613 E (d) 713 ( e ) None of these 24. Represent the number 1.25 as a product of three posi tive factors so that the product of the first factor by the square of the second is equal to 5 if we have to get the lowest possible sum of the three factors. (a) Xj = 2.25, x2 = 5, x3 = 0.2 (b) X] = 1.25, x2 = 4, Xj = 4.5 (c) x, = 1.25, X 2 = 2, x3 = 0.5 (d) x, = 1.25,x2 = 4 ,x 3 = 2 (e) None of these 25. Find a number x such that the sum o f that number and its square is the least. (a) 0.5 (b) 05 (c) 1.5 (d) 1.5
31. Find the remainder that the number 1989 • 1990 • 19953 gives when divided by 7; (a) 0 (b) 1 1 (c) 5 (d) 2 (e) I 32. Find the remainder of 2,0° when divided by 3. (c) 1 (d) 2 (a) 3 (b) 0 (e) None of these
.1989 33. Find the remainder when the number 3,w is divided by 7. (a) 1 (b) 5 ' (c) 6 (d)4
(e) 3 34. Find the last digit of the number I 2 + 22 +...+ 992 . (c) 2 (d) 3 (a) 0 (b) 1 (e) 5 35. Find gcd (2 1 (a) 2 20 1 (c) 2 * °  l (e) 240’  1 36. Find the gcd (1 1 1 ...11 hundred ones ; 11...11 six ty ones). (a) 111.. .forty ones(b) 111.. .twenty five on es (c) 111.. .twenty ones(d) 111... sixty ones (e) None of these (a) 0 (e) 8 38. Find the GCD of the numbers 2n + 13 and n + 7. (a) 1 (e) 5 39. 32 32
<32
1, 2120—1). (b) 2 — (d) 2 ,0 l
(e) 1 26. When 22225555 + 55552222 is divided by 7, the remainder is (a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 5
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(b) 1 . (c) 2
37. Find the last digit of the number 13 + 23+ 33 + 4 3...+ 9 9 !. (d) 5
27. If x is a number of fivedigits which when divided by 8 , 12, 15 and 20 leaves respectively 5, 9, 12 and 17 as remainders, then find x such that it is the lowest such number? (a) 10017 (b) 10057 (c) 10097 (d) 10137 (e) None of these 28. 3 > 2n~ ~ 1 is divisible by 2" + 3 for n = (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) None of these 29. 10”  (5 + <Jvf) is divisible by 2n+ 2 for what whole number value of n? (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 7 (e) None of these 32 30. 32 will leave a remainder: 9 (b) 7 (a) 4 (c) 1 (d) 8
(b)
(c) 3
(d) 4
7
(a) 4 (e) 5 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 3
1000
40. The remainder when 1010 + 10100 + 10 10ioooooooooo is ^vided by 7 is
(d) 2
(d) 5 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (e) 4 41. n is a number, such that 2n has 28 factors and 30 factors. 6n has? (a) 35 (b) 32 (c) 28 (d) None of these 42. Suppose the sum of n consecutive integef* s x+ 1) + (x + 2) + (.v + 3) + (x+(«
1
Chapter 1;
NumberSystems
51
then which of the following cannot be true about the number of terms n (a) The number of terms can be 16 (b) The number o f terms can be 5 (c) The number of terms can be 25 (d) The number of terms can be 20 43. The remainder when 22 + 222 + 2222 + 22222 + ....... (222..... 49 twos)2 is divided by 9 is: (a) 2 , (b) 5 (c) 6 V (d) 7 44. N=2Q2x 20002x 200000002x 20000000000000002x 200000000....2 (31 zeroes) The sum o f digits in this multiplication will be: (a) 112 (b) 160 (c) 144 (d) Cannot be determined 45. TWenty five sets o f problems on Data Interpretationone each for the DI sections o f 25 CATALYST tests were prepared by the AMS research team. The DI sec tion of each CATALYST contained 50 questions of which exactly 35 questions were unique, i.e. they had not been used in the DI section o f any of the other 24 CATALYSTS. What could be the maximum possible number of questions prepared for the DI sections of all the 25 CATALYSTs put together? (a) 1100 (b) 975 (c) 1070 (d) 1055 46. In the above question, what could be the minimum possible number o f questions prepared? (a) 890 (b) 875 (c) 975 (d) None o f these
48. Find the index of the largest power of 3 contained in the product W] Wi W$ W *4 W$ % Wj (a) 15 (*>) 10 (c) 21 , (d) 6 49. If the sum of the seven coefficients is 0, find the smallest number that can be obtained. (a) 1067 (b) 7 2 9 (c) 1040 (d) 1053 Directions fo r Questions 50 and 51: Answer these ques tions on the basis of the information given below. In the ancient game of Honololo the task involves solving a puzzle asked by the chief of the tribe. Anybody answering the puzzle correctly is given the hand of the most beautiful maiden of the tribe. Unfortunately, for the youth of the tribe, solving the puzzle is not a cakewalk since the chief is the greatest mathematician of the tribe. In one such competition the chief called everyone to at tention and announced openly: “A threedigit number *mnp' is a perfect square and the number of factors it has is also a perfect square. It is also known that the digits m, n and p are all distinct. Now answer my questions and win the maiden's hand.” 50. If (m + n + p) is also a perfect square, what is the number of factors of the sixdigit number mnpmnpi (a) 32 (b) 72 (c) 48 (d) Cannot be determined 51. If the fourth power of the product of the digits of the number mnp is not divisible by 5, what is the number of factors of the ninedigit number, mnpmnpmnp? (a) 32 (b) 72 (c) 48 (d) Cannot be determined 52. In a cricket tournament organised by the ICC, a total of 15 teams participated. Australia, as usual won the tour nament by scoring the maximum number of points. The tournament is organised as a single round robin tour nament—where each team plays with every other team exactly once. 3 points are awarded for a w in, 2 points are awarded for a tie/washed out match and 1 point is awarded for a loss. Zimbabwe had the lowest score (in terms of points) at the end of the tournament. Zimbabwe scored a total of 21 points. All the 15 national teams got a distinct score (in terms of points scored). It is also known that at least one match played by the Australian team was tied/washed out. Which of the following is always true for the Australian team? (a) It had at least two ties/washouts. (b) It had a maximum of 3 losses.
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Directions for Questions 47— 49: At a particular time in the twenty first century there were seven bowlers in the Indian cricket team's list of 16 players short listed to play the next world cup. Statisticians discovered that that if you looked at the number of wickets taken by any o f the 7 bowlers of the current Indian cricket team, the number of wickets taken by them had a strange property. The numbers were such that for any team selection o f 11 players (having 1 to 7 bowlers) by using the number of wickets taken by each bowler and at taching coefficients o f +1,0, or 1 to each value available and adding the resultant values, any number from 1 to 1093, both included could be formed. If we denote W,, W2, W3, W4, W5, g i and W j as the 7 values in the ascending order what could he the answer to the following questions: 47. Find die value o f W, + 2W2 + 31V3+ 4W4+ 5W5 + 6W6. (a) 2005 (b) 1995 (c) 1985 (d) None of these
■ fiHMdft«pflrefor(^ uantilativeAptitucle(brtheCAr (c) It had I maximum of 9 wins. <d) All of the above What is the remainder when 1281000 is divided by 153 (a) H M ,4s <c) 118 (d) 52
52
H K V B die r e m a i n d e r w h e n 5 0 ' 1 is d iv id ed b v U l gH 4 (c) 7 (d) 3 I : 3,34 55. Find t h e r e m a i n d e r w h e n 3 2 is divided by 11. (a) 5 (b) 4 (c) 10 (d) 1 56. Find the remainder w h e n 3 0 is divided by 11. (a) 5 (b) 9 (c) 6 (d) 3 _*S2 57. F i n d the r e m a i n d e r w h e n 5 0 ' is divided by 1 1 . (a) 7 (b) 5 (c) 9 (d) 10
35 ;. 7287
58. Find the remainder when 33' is divided by 7 . (a) 5 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 2 59. Let Sm denote the sum of the squares of the first m natural numbers. For how many values of m < 100, is Sm a multiple of 4? (a) 50 (b) 25 (c) 36 (d) 24 50. For the above question, for how many values will the sum of cubes of the first m natural numbers be a multiple of 5 (if m < 50)? (a ) 20 (b) 21 (c) 22 (d) None of these 51. How m a n y integer values of x and y satisfy the expres sion 4v + 7y = 3 where Lvl < 1000 and lyl < 1000. (a) 2 8 4 (b) 285 (c) 2 8 6 (d) None of these
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H ints and S o lu tio n s
D
3. T h e t w o numbers should be factors of 405. A factor s e a r c h will yield the factors, (look only for 2 digit f a c t o r s o f 405 with sum of digits between 1 to 19). A l s o 4 0 5 = 5 x 34. Hence: 15 x 27 45 x 9 are the only two options. F r o m t h e s e factors pairs only the second pair gives us t h e d e s i r e d result. i.e . N u m b e r x sum of digits = 405. Hence, the answer is 45. 5 . T w o m o r e than half of l/3rd of 96 = 18. Also since we a r e g i v e n that the difference between the AM and GM i s 1 8 . it m e a n s that the GM must be an integer. From a m o n g s t th e options, only option 1 gives us a GM
which is an integer. Thus, checking for option i get the GM=7 and AM=18. 96 when divided by 8, would give a remainder 0 {I Hence, the required answer would be 2. 12. The essence of this question is in the fact that theL.I digit of the number is 0. Naturally, the number is essarily divisible by 2,5 and 10. Only 4 does notn^l essarily divide it. 15. The units digit would be given by 5 + 6 + 9 (numul ending in 5 and 6 would always end in 5 and 6 nrespj tive of the power and 3 will give a units digit equivil lent to 3 which would give us a unit digit of 32 20, The number of 5’s in 146! can be got by [146/5]M [29/5] + [5/5]= 29+5+1 = 35 26. The sides of the pentagon being 1422,1737,2160,22li and 2358, the least difference between any two null bers is 54. Hence, the correct answer will be a factj of 54. Further, since there are some odd numbers in theliil the answer should be an odd factor of 54. Hence, check with 27,9 and 3 in that order. Youw illa I 9 as the HCF. 29. The LCM of the 4 numbers is 612. The highest 4dal number which would be a common multiple ofallthen 4 numbers is 9792. Hence, the correct answer is97M 40. If A is not divisible by 3, it is obvious that 2Aw oiil also not be divisible by 3, as 2 A would have noH I it 46. Any number divisible by 88, has to be necessariM divisible by 11,2,4,8,44 and 22. Thus, each of th efaj three options is correct. 50. Three consecutive natural numbers, starting wM even number would always have at least three 2j their prime factors and also would have at least multiple of 3 in them. Thus, 6, 12 and 24 would divide the product. 51. When the birds sat one on a branch, there was'J extra bird. W'hen they sat 2 to a branch one branch extra. Tt> find the number of branches, go through opllL1 Checking option (a) If three were 3 branches, there would be 4 bir&jJ would leave one bird without branch as per the4 1 Uon.) When 4 birds would sit 2 to a branch there 1 branch free (as per the question). Hence, tlie a (a) is correct.
Chapter 1:
NumberSystems
52. The number would either be (3n + 1)2 or (3n + 2) • In the expansion of each o f these the only term which would not be divisible by 3 would be the square of 1 and 2 respectively. When divided by 3, both of these give 1 as remainder. 56. FOr the sum of squares of digits to be 13, it is obvious that the digits should be 2 and 3. So the number can only be 23 or 32. Further, the number being referred to has to be 32 since the reduction of 9, reverses the digits. 60. Solve using options. Option (d) 51 and 34 satisfies the required ‘ Conditions. 62. (a) 2112=<213)4 Since 213 > 5 4 ,2112> 544. (b) 10.4)4 = (4/10)4= 1024/10000 = 0.1024. (0.8)3 = (8/10)3 = 512/1000 = 0.512 Hence, (0.8)3 > (0.4)4. Solutions fo r 67 & 68: The given condition says that Pen<Pencil<Eraser. Also, since the least cost o f the three is Rs.12, if we allocate a minimum o f 12 to each we use up 3 6 out of the 41 available. The remaining 5 can be distributed as 0,1,4 or 0,2 and 3 giving possible values of Case 1: 12,13 and 16 or Case 2:12,14 and 15. 67. In both cases, the cost o f the pen is 12. 68. If the cost o f the eraser is not divisible by 4 , it means that Case 2 holds true. For this case, the cost o f the pencil is 14. 71. The last 3 digits o f the number would determine the remainde" when it is divided by 8. The number upto the 120^ digit would be 1234567891011... 6 4 6 . 6 4 6 divided by 8 gives us a remainder o f 6. 76. (7M + 9G + 19W)  (4M + 6G + 16W) = 120. Hence, 1M + 1G + 1W = 40 77. The cost of a mango cannot be uniquely determined here because we have only 2 equations between 3 variables, and there is no way to eliminate one vari able. 82. 2800 = 2 0 x 2 0 x 7 . Thus, we need to multiply or divide with 7 in order to make it a perfect square. 92. The correct arrangement would be 75 plants in a row and 75 rows since 5625 is the square o f 75. 95 In order to solve this question you need to realize that remainders o f 2, 3 ,4 and 5 in the case o f 4 ,5 ,6 and 7 respectively, means remainders o f — 2 in each case. In order to find the number which leaves remainder 2
when divided by these numbers you need to first find the LCM o f 4, 5, 6 and 7 and subtract 2 from them. Since the LCM is 210, the first such number which satisfies this condition is 208. However, the question has asked us to find the largest such number below 4000. So you need to look at multiples o f the LCM and subtract 2. The required number is 3990  2 = 3988
H in ts a n d S o lu tio n s
II
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1. If a and b are two numbers, then their A M = (a + b)l 2 and GM= (ab )0'5. Use the options to answer the question. 2. Use the principal o f counting given in the theory of the chapter. Start with 101 numbers and reduce all the numbers which are divisible with 2, 3 and 5. Ensure that there is no double counting in this process. 4. Find the units digits individually and subtract. 5. Suppose you were to solve the same question for 10 —7 and 102 + x. 103 —7 = 9 9 3 and 102 + jc= 100 + *. Difference = 993  x For 104  7 and 103 + * The difference would be 9993  (1000 + x) = (8 9 9 3 * ) For 105  7 and 103 + * Difference: 99993  (10000 + x) = 89993  x You should realize that the difference for the given question would be 8999 ........ 9 3 —x. For this difference to be divisible by 3, x must be 2 (since that is the only option which will give you a sum o f digits divisible by 3.)
6.
The value of x should be such that the left hand side after completely removing the square root signs should be an integer. For this to happen, first of all the square root of 3* should be an integer. Only 3 and 12 from the options satisfy this requirement. I f we try to put x as 12, we get the square root o f 3* as 6 . Then the next point at which we need to remove the square root sign would be 12+2(6) = 24 whose square root would be an irrational number. This leaves us with only 1 possible value U s 3). Checking for this value of x we can see that the expression is satisfied as LHS = RHS.
7. Solve using options
£4
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
g. 1255/3111 3 .4 — > 4 as units place. Similarly. 8 ^/1 6 = 27‘ — > 6 as the units place. Hence. 0 is the answer.
32 which lies between 226 and 227. Hence the answer will be (c). 10. The denominator 99 has the property that the decimals it gives rise to are of the form Ojcyxyxy. This question is based on this property of 99. Option c is correct. 11. The value of b has to be 2 since, r = 2y. Hence, option d is the only choice. 11 For [ x f + {x}2 to give  7.91, [X]3 should give  8 (hence, [x] should be 2] Further, {x}2 should be + 0.09. Both these conditions are satisfied by 1.7. Hence option (d) is correct. 13. 165 + 2,s = 220+ 215= 215(25+ 1)  » Hence, is divisible by 33. 14. For A + X to be X , the only possible situation is that the value of a should be either 0 or 9. 15&16. Use the method of physical counting of all possible values of x. 15. Ix  31 + 2 Ix + 11 = 4 can happen under three broad conditions. (a) When 21x + II = 0, then Ix  31 should be equal to 4. Putting x =  1 , both these conditions are satisfied. (b) When 2Lx+ 11 = 2,x should be 0, then Ix 31 should also be 2. This does not happen. (c) When 2 Ix + II = 4, x should be + 1 or — 3 , in either case Ix  31 which should be zero does not give the desired value. 17. 4n+l represents an odd power of 4 (and hence would end in 4). Similarly, 42nrepresents an even power of 4 (and hence would end in 6). Thus, the least number 'xJ that would make both 4n+l + x and 42" — x divisible by 5 would be for jc = 1. IS. Check through options. 19. The two modulus values have to add up to 4 together. This can happen by (0 + 4), (1 + 3), (2 + 2), (3 + 1) or (4 + 0). Find the individual values of x and y for which these set of values are satisfied. 20. The numerator of 3M /50 would be a number that would end in 1. Consequently, the decimal of the form bx would always give us a value of x as 2.
Hence, the average will be:
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21. Use standard formulae for Am and GM. 23. For finding the highest power of 6 that divides 14*1 we need to get the number of 3's that would divj^ 146!. The same can be got by: [146/3] + [48/3] + [16/3]+ [5/3] = 70. 25. Both 333555 and 555333 are divisible by 3,37 and 1j Further, the sum of the two would be an even n u m b er and hence divisible by 2. Thus, all the four option, divide the given number. 2632. Solve through options. 30. The number of zeroes will equal the number of fiv e* To count the number of fives extract all terms h avin g 5 as a prime factor and add the number of fives th e y give you. You should get the following two A .P .S . whose sum will give you the answer 5,10,15.... 10 0 and 25,50,75,100. 33. Use trial and error to solve by going through (h eI options. 72 fits both the conditions perfectly. 3435. Solve through options. 36. The number of zeroes depends on the number of 5 ’ sI and the number of 2’s, whichever is less. H ere, th eI constraint is the number of 2’s and not 5’s (the u su al I case). 37. Check the powers of 5 and 32 contained in 123! T fe I lower value amongst these will be the answer. 38. Solve through options. 39. Find the largest prime factor contained in 990 a n dI check its factorial value for divisibility by 990. 40. Check for different positive and negative values o f*I and v according to the options. 41. Since, we are not given options here we shouldg ® J ahead by looking within the factors of 144 (especiall) I the two digit ones) The relevant factors are 72,48, 36, 24, 18 and 1^1 Thinking this way creates an option for you wM there is none available and from this list of nufflb^l you can easily identify 2 4 as the required answer I 4246. Write simple equations for each of the quesD and solve. 47. Since the sum of squares of the digits of the two rs * number is 10 , the only possibility of the num ber 31 and 13. j 48. Write simple equations for each of the questions solve. J 49. We can see from the description that the num ber X) must be such that X + 100 and X + 169 both be perfect squares. Thus we are looking for twof feet squares which are 69 apart from each other
Chapter 1: NumberSystems
5 5
would happen for 34 and 352 since their difference would be (35 — 34)(35 + 34) = 69 5056. Write simple equations for each of the questions and solve. 57. Between 1114.1 1 0 x l0 9 x 108x 107,109x 110x112 x l!3 . It can be easily seen that l l l x l l l x 111 x 111 > llO x 109x 108x 107 also 109x llO x 112x113> 109x llO x 108x 107 Further the product l l l x l l l x l l l x l l l > 109x110 x 112 x 113 ( since, the sum of the parts of the product are equal on the LHS and the RHS and the numbers on the LHS are closer to each other than the numbers on the RHS. 58. Both x and y should be highest for xy to be maximum. Similarly x should be minimum and_y should be maxi mum forx/y to be minimum. 59. 20030°= (2006)50 300200= (3004)50 400,5°=(4003)50 Hence 200300 is greater. Resolve to a common base for comparing 63. You need to solve this question using trial and error For 32 (option 1): 32 = 25. Hence 6 factors. On increasing by 50%, 48 = 24 x 31has 10 factors. Thus the number of factors is increasing when the num ber is increased by 50% which is not what the question is defining for the number. Hence, 32 is not the correct answer. Checking for option (b) 84. 84 = 22 x 3 1x 7 1 > (2 + 1) (1 + 1) (1 + 1) = 12 factors On increasing by 50% — > 126= 21x 32 x 7 1— »(1 + 1) (2 + 1) (1 + 1) = 12 factors, (no change in number of
factors).
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Second Condition: W hen the value o f the number is reduced by 75% — » 84 would become 21 (31x 71) and the number o f factors would b e 2 x 2 = 4 — a reduction of 66.66% in the num ber o f factors. 65. In order to solve this question, think o f the numbers grouped in groups o f 9 as: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 } {10, 11,12....... 18} and so on till {2989, 2990.. .2997}  A total o f 333 complete sets. From each set we can take 4 numbers giving us a total of 3 3 3 x 4 = 1332 num bers. Apart from this, we can also take exactly 1 multiple of 1 (any one) and also the last 3 numbers viz 2998,2999 and 3000. Thus, there would be a total of 1332 + 4 =
70. Basically every odd triangular number would have this property, that it is the difference of squares of two consecutive natural numbers. Thus, we need to find the number of triangular numbers that are odd. 3,15,21,45,55,91,105,153,171,231,253,325,351,435, 465,561,595,703,741,861,903  A total of 21 numbers. 73. The remainder when a number is divided by 16 is given by the remainder of the last 4 digits divided by 16 (because 10000 is a multiple of 16. This principle is very similar in logic to why we look at last 2 digits for divisibility by 4 and the last 3 digits for divisibility by 8). Thus, the required answer would be the remainder o f4950/16 which is 6. 78. 1152 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 = 27 x 32. Essentially every number starting from 4! would be divisible perfectly by 1152 sipce each number after that would have at least 7 twos and 2 threes. Thus, the required remainder is got by the first three terms: (1 + 8 + 216)/1152 = 225/1152 gives us 225 as the required remainder. 88. Bikas's movement in terms of the number of coins would be: B— > 3B (when Aran triples everyone’s coins) — »B . Think of this as: When Bikas triples everyone’s coins, and is left with 20 it means that the other 3 have 60 coins after their coins are tripled. This means that before the tripling by Bikas, the other three must have had 20 coins—meaning Bikas must have had 60 coins. But 60 = 3B > B = 20. 92. [7!(14+ 14x 13x 12x 11 x 1 0 x 9 x 8 )]/[7 !(1 6 3 )] = [(14 + 14 x 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 x 8)]/[(13)] > remainder 1. Hence, the original remainder must be 7! (because for the sake of simplification of the numbers in the ques tion we have cut the 7! From the numerator and the denominator in the first step. 96. Product of factorials < Sum of factorials would occur for any number that has either 0 or 1 in it. The required numbers uptil and including 50 are: 10 to 19, 20,21,30,31,40,41,50. Besides for the number 22, the product of factorials of the digits would be equal to the sum of factorials of the digits. Thus a total of 18 numbers. 100. The least number would be (LCM of 10 ,9 ,8 ,7 ,6 and 5 _ ) = 2519. The second least number = 2520 x 21=5039.
■
HowtoPrepare forQuantitativeAp**udeforthe CAT
H in ts and S o lu tio n s
i
9 32.32.32... 9 32.32.32... 9
» ..31 times ..30 times
15. Solve through options. 6. Use AP with first term 104 and last term 999 and com mon difference 5. 7. Find the first 2 digit number which gives a remainder of 3 when divided by 7 and then find the largest such number (10 and 94 respectively). Use Arithmetic Pro gression formulae to add the numbers. 8. Use AP with first term 105 and last term 995 and com mon difference is 10. 10. The cubes of the numbers are x  3 , * + 2 and * + 3. Use options and you will see that (a) is the answer. 11. (x * y 2) = 45. i.e. (x  y)(x +y) = 45. The factors of 45 possible are, 15, 3; 9, 5 and 45, 1. Hence, the numbers are 9 and 6, or 7 and 2 or 23 and 22. 1218. Use options to check the given conditions. 19. The answer will be 50 since, 125* 122 will give 50 as the last two digits. 20. The remainder theorem is to be used. 43 101 + 23101 = (43 + 23) (. .) Hence, when divided by 66 the remainder will be zero. 21. The unit’s digit will be 1 x 5 = 5 (no carry over.) The tens digit will be (4 * 1 + 5*2) = 4 (carry over 1). The hundreds digit will be (3* 1 + 4*2 + 5* 1) = 6 + 1 (carried over) = 7. Hence, answer is 745. 2225. Use options to solve. 26. Use the rule of indices and remainder theorem. 27. Options are not provided as it is an LOD 3 question. If they were there you should have used options. 28. Use trial and error 29. Use options. 30. Use remainder theorem and look at patterns by apply ing the rules o f indices. We get the value as:
32.32....29 times — » Looking at the pattern we will get 4 as they remainder. Use the remainder theorem and get the rem ainder 1 x 2 x 4 x 4 x 4/7 = 128/7 — > 2 is the rem ainder. 2 /3 = (2 ) /3 — > 1. Use the remainder theorem and try finding d ie terns. Find the last digit o f the number got by addingJ2 + .. .92 (you will get 5 here). Then multiply by 10to ts zero as the answer. (2 100  1) and (2120  1) will yield the GCD as2a(This has been explained in the theory of G C D sJ i TheGCDsof 100 ones and 60 ones will be tw entya because 20 is the GCD of sixty and Hundred. 32
32
31. 32. 33. 34.
35. 36.
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39.
7 7 But 4 H gives us a remainder of 1. Hence we need to convert 4 32 ’ into 43 "+' ll* why!!) Here again, we will be more interested in fin d in g ® value of x rather than /?, since the rem ainder depends on the value of x. [Concept Note: When we start to write as thePf der. 43232 in the form 4 3x 43 x 43 ....... n times x 4 ' not bothered about how many times we can since it will continuously give us 1 every tin* remainder.
Chapter 1:
Number Systems
§7
ANSW ER KEY
Number System LODI
65. L C M > 1 7 0 1 0 H C F > 2 7 L C M —> 7 8 0 H C F > 2 9 L C M > 245700 H C F > 3 0 66. b 67. __________
a___________
68. b _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 69. c ____________
70. c ___________
71.
a_____________
7 2 . d __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 73 . b _____________ 74. b _____________ 75.
a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
76 . b _____________
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78. 79.
77. d _____________
a_____________ a___________
80. b 81. c
__________ ___________
82 . b _____________ 83 . c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 84. c______________ 85. c
62. a >(21)1 2 b— >(0.8)3
86. a
87 . c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , 88. b _________
6 4 . 1.  > 0 , 2 , 4 ,
89. b ______________ 90. c 91 . d ___________ 9 2 . d __ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 3 . a __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 94 . c 95. c
6,8 2. > l . 4*7 3.  * 0 , 4 ,8
4.  > 0 , 5 5. > 4 6 . > 7 7 —» 0 __
58 ~ 1H o w to P rep a refo rO ian ttetiveA p titu d efo r th ^
Number System LOD IT
35. b
H
3. c 4. c
5. b
36. b 37. a 38. e 39. c 40. a 41. 24 42. 63 43. 24 44. 32 45. 27 46. 64 47. 13,31 48. 23 49. 1056 50. 51,34 51. 144,864 52 46,64 53. 63 54. 863
6. b 7. b
 d
9. c 10. c
11. 
12. d
13. d 14. c 15. b 16. d 17. a 18. e 19. c 20. a 21. a 22. c 23. b 24. a 25. e 26. c 27. e 28. e 29. b 30. b 31. a 32 b 33. a
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55. 36,63 56. may be 2 or 3 depending upon the numbers 57. 1114> 109.110 .112.113 > 110 .109.108.107 58. greatest — » 35 least 3/7 59. (a) 200300 (b )5 100 (c) 1020 60. 12,3 61. c 62. c 63. b 64. a
Chapter 1:
NumberSystems
59
Number System L O D n i
2. b  d
4. a
5. b 6. b 7. b 8. d 9. c 10. a 11. c 12 a a c 14. b 15. c 16. e
17. b 18. c l 19.
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b
20. d 2L b
22. e
23. a 24. c 25. a
26. a
27. d
». I
p
3L«
2 1
fh‘5 j
PROGRESSIONS
i iM ari*0 r IBtai fo?m Inc!
T k chapter on progressions essentially yields commonsense based questions in examinations. Questions in the CAT and other aptitude exams mostly appear from either Arithmetic Progressions (more common) or from Geometric Progressions. The chapter o f progressions is a logical and natural exten sion o f the chapter on Number Systems, since there is such a lot o f commonality o f logic between the problems associ ated with these two chapters. As already stated Block 1 o f the six blocks o f Chapters in QA accounts for anything between 1218 marks in the CAT This pattern has been consistently observed over the past decade.
If n be the number o f terms, a **d if L denotes the lasttem ,. + 2s or the nth term, we have ofwMc L = a + (n  1)d Let < then
To Find th e Sum of th e Given Number of Term s in an A rith m etic Progression
Hence, Let a denote the first term d, the common difference, an d i the total number o f terms. Also, let L denote the last tenn,»j and the S the required sum; then n (a + L)
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L = a + (n \)d
TiBn ■oaTH
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS
Quantities are said to be in arithmetic progression when they increase or decrease by a common difference. Thus each o f the following series forms an arithmetic progression: 3 ,7 ,1 1 ,1 5 ,... 8 ,2 , 4 , 1 0 ,... a, a + d, a + 2d , a + 3d,... The common difference is fo u n d by subtracting any term o f the series from the next term. That is, common difference o f an AP = (tN  tN _,). In the first of the above examples the common difference is 4; in the second it is  6 ; in the third it is d. If we examine the series a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d,... we notice that in any term the coefficient o f d is always less by one than the position o f that term in the series. Thus the rth term o f an arithmetic progression is given by
?fcu >©  If any two terms o f an arithm etical progression be gi' j ernat*cj) the series can be completely determined; for this data re5 ^ in two simultaneous equations, the solution of which' such Pro,
S=~
x[2a + (n
D d)
If
give the first term and the com m on difference. W hen three quantities are in arithmetic progressi middle one is said to be the arithm etic m ean of the other ^ ^ Thus a is the arithmetic mean between a  d andtf when it is required to arbitrarily consider three numbers take a  d , a and a + d as the three numbers as this one unknow n thereby making the solution easier.
1
To Find th e A rith m e tic M ean between anV Tw o G iven Q u an titie s
Let a and b be tw o quantities and A be their arithiuet,L Then since a , A, b , are in AP. We must have
ii
V
Tr = a + ( r  \ ) d .
Chapter 2:
Progressions
61
b A=A a Each being equal to the common difference; This gives us A= (a + b)
Between two given quantities it is always possible to insert any number of terms such that the whole series thus formed shall be in AP. The terms thus inserted are called the arithmetic means.
To Insert a Given Number of Arithmetic Means between Two Given Quantities
Let a and b be the given quantities and n be the number of means. Including the extremes, the number of terms will then be n + 2 so that we have to find a series of n + 2 terms in AP, of which a is the first, and b is the last term. Let d be the common difference; then b —the {n + 2 )th term = a + (n + 1)d d= Ib  a ) (n +1)
Most students would mechanically insert the values for a , n and I and get this answer. However, if you replace the above process with a thought algorithm, you will get the answer much faster. The algorithm goes like this: In order to find the 17th term of the above sequence add the common difference to the first term, sixteen times. (Note: Sixteen, since it is one less than 17). Similarly, in order to find the 37th term of the A.P. 3, 11 ..., All you need to do is add the common difference (8 in this case), 36 times. Thus, the answer is 288 + 3 = 291. (Note: You ultimately end up doing the same thing, but you are at an advantage since the entire solution process is reactionary.) 2. Average of an A.P. and Corresponding terms of the A.P. Consider the A.P., 2, 6 , 10, 14, 18, 22. If you try to find the average of these six numbers you will get: Average = 2 + 6 + 1 0 + 14+ 18 + 22 / 6 = 12 Notice that 12 is also the average of the first and the last terms of the A.P. In fact, it is also the average o f 6 and 18 (which correspond to the second and 5th terms o f the A.P.). Further, 12 is also the average of the 3rd and 4th terms o f the A.P. (Note: In this A.P. of six terms, the average was the same as the average of the 1st and 6 th terms. It was also given by the average of the 2nd and the 5th terms, as well as that o f the 3rd and 4th terms.) We can call each of these pairs as “CORRESPONDING TERMS” in an A.P.
Hence,
ice,®
(oil and the required means are
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a+ n(b —a) n+I
(b a ) 2 {b a ) a +  —, a + n l n+ l
Till now we have studied APs in their mathematical con text. This was important for you to understand the basic mathematical construct of A.Ps. However, you need to under stand that questions on A.P. are seldom solved on a math ematical basis, (Especially under the time pressure that you be! are likely to face under the CAT and other aptitude exams). In such situations the mathematical processes for solving progressions based questions are likely to fail. Hence, under standing the following logical aspects about Arithmetic Pro le#gressions is likely to help you solve questions based on APs IflP’jn the context of an aptitude exam u /r i Let us look at these issues one by one: I jJm1 Process for finding the nth term of an A.P. Suppose you have to find the 17th term of the A.P. 3,7 , 1 1 ........ The conventional mathematical process for this question a would involve using the formula. / T„ = a + ( n  l ) d Thus, for the 17th term we would do r .7 = 3 + ( 1 7  J ) x 4 = 3 + 1 6 x 4 = 67
What you need to understand is that every A.P. has an average. And for any A.P., the average of any pair o f corresponding terms will also be the average of the A.P. If you try to notice the sum of the term numbers o f the pair of corresponding terms given above: 1st and 6 th (so that 1 + 6 = 7) 2nd and 5th(hence, 2 + 5 =7) 3rd and 4th (hence, 3 + 4 = 7) Note that: In each of these cases, the sum o f the term numbers for the terms in a corresponding pair is one greater than the number of terms of the A.P. This rule will hold true for all A.P.s. For example, if an A.P. has 23 terms then for instance, you can predict that the 7th term will have the 17th term as its corresponding term, or for that matter the 9th term will
£ 2
1 0Prepare forQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Hence, d =  6. Note: Replace this algorithmic thinking in lieu of the ematical thinking of: 12 term ______ lith m term Hence, difference = 3 0 3 0 d =_#+_ 1d —a + 6d = (a + 1 Irf)  (a + 6d) =5d = 6 .
,f<*
hatfejfee 15th term as its corresponding term. (Since 24 is one more than 23 and 7 + 17 = 9 + 1 5 ^ 24.) 3. Process for finding (be sum of an A.P. Once you can find a pair o f corresponding terms for any A.P., you can easily find the sum of the A.P. by using the property or averages. i.e. Sum = Number o f terms x Average. In fact, this is the best process for finding the sum of an A.P. It is much more superior than the process of finding the sum of an A.P. using the expression —(2a+(n\)d). 4. Finding the common difference of an A.P., given 2 terms of an A.P. Suppose you were given that an A.P. had its 3rd term as 8 and its 8th term as 28. You should visualize this A.P. as From the above figure, you can easily visualize that to move from the third term to the eighth term, (8 to 28) you need to add the common difference five times. The net addition being 20. the common difference should be 4. Illustration: Find the sum of an A.P. o f 17 terms, whose 3rd term is 8 and 8 th term is 28. Solution: Since we know the third term and the eighth term, we can find the common difference as 4 by the process
> V '
tbci
(bll°*"
5. Types of APs:Increasing an d Decreasing A.P.s. Depending on w hether 'd is positive or negative, an be increasing or decreasing. Let us explore these two types o f A.P.s further: (A) Increasing A.P.s: Every term o f an increasing AP is greater than the previogj: term. Depending on the value o f the first term, we can constnw two graphs for sum of an increasing A.P. Case 1: When the first term o f the increasing A.P. is p » l tive. In such a case the sum o f the A.P. will show a continu ously increasing graph which will look like the one show nis the figure below:
jS ^ * "
•asihesumto 4 te luoA cr words the s jifliitoni term s, jgfe situations anse fc te rrais negative. But a does n ot happen for all C o n sid e rthefollowing, S e rie s2 S eries3 S eries4 & ries5 S eries6 :8.3.+21 :13.7,: 12,6.0 :15,9,
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:20.12, 
illustrated above. The total = 17 x Average of the A.P. Our objective now shifts into the finding of the average of the AP. In order to do so, we need to identify either the
Ity o ucheckthe series li 'uurrcacehappens in d p an dS eries6 while in t is not repeal ^fookatthetwose: series which 1 number zero. H , i " * l 0 notice
will be the corresponding term for the 8 th term) or the 15th term (which will be the corresponding term for die 3rd term.) Again: Since the 8 th term is 28 and d — 4, the 10th term becomes 28 + 4 ♦ 4 = 36. Thus, the average of the A.P. = Average o f 8 th and 1 0 th terms = (28 + 36)/2 = 32. Hence. the required answer is sum of the A.P. = 17 x 32
a*544. The logic that has applied here is that the difference in the term numbers will give you the number of times the common difference is used to get from one to the other term. For instance, if you know that the difference between the 7th term and 12th term of an AP is — 30, you should realize that 5 times the common difference will be equal to 30. (Since 1 2  7 a 5).
10th term (which
■ Number of terms. C ase 2: When the first term o f the increasing A.P. is n'n tive. In such a case, the Sum o f the A.P. plotted against number o f terms will give the following figure:
...
5»: I “series 5
fc
’
^
4' suchi
(where
«it Ujg
Chapter 2:
Progressions
6 3
TV specific c*se o f the sum to n, term s being equal to the sun to m 2 terms.
la such u series, there is a possibility o f the sum to ‘ii* terms being repeated for 2 values o f ‘#T. However, this will not necessarily occur.
The sum to 12 terms o f an A.P. is equal to the sum to 18 terms. What will be the sum to 30 terms for this series? Solution: If <Sj2 = S18, ^ ii = ^19... ar,<^ = ^30 But Sum to zero terms for any series will always be 0. Hence Syn = 0.
This issue will get clear through the following example: Consider the following series Series li 12, — 8, — 4 ,0 .4 , 8 , 12 As is evident the sum to 2 terms and the sum to 5 terms in this case is the same. Similarly, the sum to 3 terms is the same as the sum to 4 terms. This can be written as: S2 = «Sj and S3 = S4. In other words the sum to term s is the same as the sum to n2 terms. Such situations arise for increasing A.P.’s where the first term is negative. But as we have already stated that this does not happen for all such cases. Consider the following A.P.S. Series 2 :  8 , 3 , +2, + 7, + 12. Series 3 — 13, — 7, — 1. + 5, + 11 Series4 :  1 2 , 6 ,0 ,6 ,1 2 ... Series5 : 1 5 , 9 , 3 , + 3 ,9 ,1 5 ... Series6 :  2 0 ,— 1 2 ,^ 4 ,4 ,1 2 ,... If you check the series listed above, you Will realize that this occurrence happens in the case o f Series 1, Series 4, Series 5 and Series 6 while in the case o f Series 2 and Series 3 the same value is not repeated for the sum o f the Series. A clear look at the two series will reveal that this phenomenon occurs in series which have what can be called a balance about the number zero. Another issue to notice is that in Series 4, S2 — S 3 and S y = S4 While in series 5 Sj = S5 and
$2
[Note: The solution to this problem does not take more than 10 seconds if you know this logic]
(B) Decreasing A.P.s.
Similar to the cases of the increasing A.Ps. we can have two cases for decreasing APs Case 1 Decreasing A.P. with first term negative. Case 2  Decreasing A.P. with first term positive. I leave it to the reader to understand these cases and deduce that whatever was true for increasing A .Ps with first term negative will also be true for decreasing A Ps with first term positive. GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
Quantities are said to be in G eometric Progression when they increase or decrease by a constant factor. The constant factor is also called the common ratio and it is found by dividing any term by the term immediately
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nth term, we have
I = 111  1
preceding it. If we examine the series a , ar, a i \ a r3, ar4, . ..
we notice that in any term the index o f r is always less by one than the number o f the term in the series. If n be the number of terms and if / denote the last, or
= S4.
When three quantities are in geometrical progression, the middle one is called the geometric mean between the other two. While arbitrarily choosing three numbers in GP, we take a/r, a and aJr. This makes it easier since we come down to two variables fo r the three terms.
In the first case (where ‘0 ’ is part o f the series) the sum is equal for two term s such that one o f them is odd and the other is even. the second case on the o ther hand (when ‘0 ’ is not part
To Find th e G eom etric Mean betw een Tw o Given Quantities
Let a and b be the two quantities; G the geometric mean. Then since a ,G ,b a ic in GP , b/G = G/a Each being equal to the common ratio (j  a b Hence
T1
of the series) the sum is equal for tw o terms such that both ** odd or both are even. Also notice that the sum o f th e te rm num bers which e xhibit ^ual sums is co n stan t fo r a given A.P. Consider the following question which appeared in CAT 2004 If based on this logic:
_
G = Jab
Ho* toPrepare forQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
To Insert I given Number of Geometric Means between Two Given Quantities
I le t I and b be the given quantities and n the required number .i o f means to be inserted. In all there will be « + 2 terms so that we have to find a series of n + 2 terms in GP of which a is the first and b the last. Let r be the common ratio; b I the (n + 2 )th term  a / 1* *; I
Number of terms ‘o'
_
a n+I (1)
Hence the required number o f means are ar% a t1, where r has the value found in ( 1 ).
a /'1 ,
(2) Increasing GPs type 2: A G.P. with first term negative and common ratio less thanl I e.g:  8 ,  4 , 2 ,  1 ,  , . . . . . . As you can see in this GP all terms are greater than th e*I previous terms. [The following figure will illustrate the relationship b etw eenI the number o f terms and the sum to ‘n’ terms in this ca se) I
To Find the Sum of a Number o f Term s in a Geometric Progression
Let a be the first term, r the common ratio, n the number of terms, and Sn be the sum to n terms. If r > 1, then
( r  1) If r < 1, then
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(1) (2) (3) Decreasing G.Ps type 1: These GPs have their first term positive and common less than 1 . e.g: 1 2 ,6 ,3 ,1 .5 ,0 .7 5 ..... ^
a (lr )
(1  r )
Note: It will be convenient to remember both forms given above for S. Number (2) will be used in all cases except when r is positive and greater than one. Sum of an infinite geometric progression when r < 1 (1 r) Obviously, this formula is used only when the common ratio of the GP is less than one. Similar to APs, GPs can also be logically viewed. Based on the value of the common ratio and its first term a G.P. might have one of the following structures; (I) Increasing GPs type I: A G.P. with first term positive and common ratio greater than 1. This is the most common type of GJ* e.g; 3,6,12,24.. .( A G.P. with first tenn 3 and common ratio 9, The plot of the sum of the series with respect to the number of terms in such a case will appear us follows;
V
(4) D ecreasing GPs type 2: First* term negative and common ratio greater than e .g :  2 ,  6 ,  1 8 . . . . In this case the relationship looks like. %
Chapter *:
n u y i Oosiui ■ »
1
H ’a ~ b
J_
H b a
% H
i.e.
H=
lab (a+ b)
THEOREMS RELATED WITH PROGRESSIONS If A, G, H are the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means between a and b, we have A= a 0) (2)
harm onic p r o g r e s s i o n
Three quantities a, b, c are said to be in Harmonic Progres(a  b) sion w hen arc — — . (b  c ) In general, if a, b, c, d are in AP then 1/a, Mb, Me and Md are all in HP. Any number o f quantities are said to be in harmonic progression when every three consecutive terms are in har monic progression. The reciprocals o f quantities in harmonic progression are in arithmetic progression. This can be proved as: By definition, if a% b, c are in harmonic progression, a_ c — (a —b) (b c )
G = Jab Hla b (a+ b) 9 x 2 2ab (a + b)
(3)
Therefore, A x H a —
that is, G is the geometric mean between A and H. From these results we see that A G= a +b  Jab =
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(jyfa —4 b ) •J i
(a + b2Jab)
c) = c(a  b),
dividing every term by abc, we get ( i _ i =i _ ± \_c b b a_ which proves the proposition. There is no general form ula for the sum o f any number of quantities in harm on ic progression. Questions in HP are generally solved by inverting the terms, and making use o f the properties o f the corresponding
AP.
To Find the H a rm o n ic M ean b e tw e e n Tw o Given Q uantities
Let a, b be the tw o quantities, H their harmonic mean; then 1 1 and Mb are in A.P.;
which is positive if a and b are positive. Therefore, the arithmetic mean of any two positive quantities is greater than their geometric mean. Also from the equation G2 = AH, we see that G is interme diate in value between A and H\ and it has been proved that A > G , therefore G > H and A > G > H. The arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means between any two positive quantities are in descending order of magnitude. As we have already seen in the Back to school section of this block there are some number series which have a continuously decreasing value from one term to the next and such series have the property that they have what can be defined as the sum of infinite terms. Questions on such series are very common in most aptitude exams. Even though they cannot be strictly said to be under the domain of progressions, we choose to deal with them here.
ss
C onsider
Howto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
the following question which appeared in CAT
3003
Find the infinite s u m o f t h e series:
''
f 4 9 16 25 I+ — + + ”T + “ 3“ + .............
7
72
73
7 4
realize that the answer will not reach 1.92 and will be restrj, to 1.81. Hence the answer will be option 3. Try using this process to solve other questions of nature whenever you come across them. (There are a such questions inserted in the LOD exercises of this chap^
(a) 2 7 / 1 4
(b) 21/13
(c) 49/27
(d) 256/147
Solution: S u c h questions have two alternative widely di vergent p r o c e s s e s to solve them. The f i r s t r e l i e s o n mathematics using algebraic solving. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s process being overly mathematical re q u i r e s a l o t o f w r i t i n g and hence is not advisable to be used i n a n a p t i t u d e exam. T h e o t h e r process is one where we try to predict the a p p r o x i m a t e value of the sum by taking into account the f i r s t f e w significant terms. (This approach is possible to use b e c a u s e o f the fact that in such series we invariably reach t h e p o i n t where the value of the next term becomes insignifi c a n t a n d does not add substantially to the sum). After adding the significant terms we are in a position to guess t h e approximate value of the sum of the series. Let us look at the above question in order to understand the process. In the given series the values of the terms are: First term = 1 Second term = 4/7 = 0.57 Third term = 9/63 = 0.14 Fourth term = 16/343 = 0.04 Fifth term =25/2401 = 0.01
U SEFU L RESU LTS
1. If the same quantity be added to, or subtracted from j ! all the terms of an AP, the resulting terms will forma., I AP , but with the same common difference as I before. 2 . If all the terms of an AP be multiplied or divided byth eI same quantity, the resulting terms will form an A P, b u ti with a new common difference, which will be the m ul I tiplication/di vision of the old common difference, (as I the case may be) 3. If all the terms of a GP be multiplied or divided byth eI same quantity, the resulting terms will form a GP w ith I the same common ratio as before. 4. If a, b, c, d , .... are in GP, they are also in continued ill proportion, since, by definition, alb = b/c = cld = ... = 1/r
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a —d, a, a + d or
Conversely, a series of quantities in continued properI tion may be represented by jc, xr, x r ,... 5. If you have to assume 3 terms in AP, assume themas j 'I as a, a + d and a + 2d
Addition upto the fifth term is approximately 1.76 Options 2 and 4 are smaller than 1.76 in value and hence cannot be correct. That leaves us with options 1 and 3 Option 1 has a value of 1.92 approximately while option 3 has a value of 1.81 approximately. At this point you need to make a decision about how m u c h value the remaining terms of the series would add to 1 .7 6 ( s u m of the first 5 terms) L o o k i n g at the pattern we can predict that the sixth term
w ill b e
For assuming 4 terms of an AP we use: a  U I a  d, a + d and a + 3d For assuming 5 terms of an AP, take them as: a— Aid, a  d, a, a + d, a + 2d. These are the most convenient in terms of problem■ solving. 6. For assuming three terms of a GP assume them as E a, ar and or2 or as air , a and ar
36/75 = 36/16807 = 0.002 (approx.) A n d t h e s e v e n t h t e r m would be 49/76 = 49/117649 =
0 .0 0 0 4 ( a p p r o x .) . T h e e ig h th te rm w ill
7. To find the sum of the first n natural numbers Let the sum be denoted by S; then 5 = 1 + 2 + 3+..... + n, is given by n (n +1) 8. To find the sum of the squares of the first n o m numbers
obviously become much smaller. I t c a n b e c l e a r l y v i s u a l i z e d that the residual terms in the series are h i g h l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Based on this judgement you
Chapter?.
Progressions I
67
Let the sum be denoted by S; then S = 1* + 22 + 32 + ..... + n
■ If we are counting in steps of 2 from nx to rij including only one end, we get [(n2  n,)/ 2] num bers. ■ If we are counting in steps of 2 from n] to ri2 excluding both ends, we get [(%  /»,)/2 ]  1 num bers. Example: Number of even numbers between 20 and 100 (both included) is 100 — 20 — >(80/2) + 1=41 ■ If we are counting in steps of 3 from /ij to % including both the end points, we get [(/*2  nJ/3] + 1 numbers. ■ If we are counting in steps of 3 from /ij to n, including only one end, we get [(/I2  n,)/3] num bers. ■ If we are counting in steps of 3 from nx to n^, excluding both ends, we get [(n2  nx)B]  1 numbers. Example: Number of numbers between 100 and 200 divisible by three. Solution: The first number is 102 and the last num ber is 198. Hence, answer = (96/3) + 1 = 33 (since both 102 and 198 are included). Alternately, highest number below 100 that is divisible by 3 is 99, and the lowest number above 200 which is divisible by 3 is 201. Hence, 201  99 = 102 » 102/3 = 34 + Answer = 34  1 = 33 (Since both ends are not included.)
\
• given • k c = / w(w + l) 2n + l)l This is by : S (il 9 To find t^e sura of the cubes of the first n natural numbers. V Let the sum be denoted by S\ then
! S = l 3 + 2 3 + 33 + . . . + n 3
S=
n(n +1)
2
Thus, the sum o f the cubes o f the first n natural numbers is equal to the square o f the sum of these numbers. 10. To find the sum o f the first n odd natural numbers. 5 = 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2 n —1) — > n2 ] 1. To find the sum o f the first n even natural numbers. S = 2 + 4 + 6 + ... + 2 n —» n(n + 1) 2 =n + n 12 To find the sum of odd numbers < n where n is a natural number
Case A : Case B:
If n is odd —» [ ( n + l ) / 2 ]2 If n is even — > [ n / 2 ]2
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In General
13. To find the sum o f even numbers < n where n is a natural number:
Case A : Case B :
If n is odd 4 {( n / 2 ) [ ( n / 2 ) + 1]} If n is even — » [(n —l ) / 2 ] [ ( n + l ) / 2 ]
14. Number o f terms in a count: ■ If we are counting in steps o f 1 from nYto includ ing both the end points, we get (/ij  nx) +1 num bers. ■ If we are counting in steps o f 1 from n, to n2 includ ing only one end, we get (n2 —ny) numbers. ■ If we are counting in steps o f 1 from/ij ton 2 exclud ing both ends, we get (n2 —J*i) — 1 numbers. Example: Between 16 and 2 5 both included there are 9 + I z io numbers. Between 100 and 200 both excluded there are 1 001 = 99 numbers. R If we are counting in steps erf 2 from w tj to W j includ ing both the end points, we get [(i»2  /»jV2] +1 numbers.
■ If we are counting in steps of x from nxto n2 including both the end points, we get [(iij  n,)Zx] + 1 numbers. ■ If we are counting in steps of from /i, to n2 includ ing only one end, we get (n2  nxyx numbers. ■ If we are counting in steps of from nx to n2 ex cluding both ends, we get [(n2  n t)/x]  1 numbers. For instance, if we have to find how many terms are there in the series 107,114,121,128 ... 254, then we have (254  107)/7 + 1 1 147/7 + 1 = 21 + 1 = 22 terms in the series O f course, an appropriate adjustment will have to be made when th does 1X 01fQfl $ 0 tfie ser**s This will be done as follows: For instance, if we have to find how many terms of the series 107, 114, 121, 128 ... are below 258, then we have by the formula:
H
I prepare fbr Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
i j b s I 107V7 I 1 I 151/7 i 1 I 21.57 + 1. = 2 2 .5 7 . TOs will be adjusted by taking the lower integral ■fife I 22. S The number of terms in the series below 258. $fett»dent is advised to try a n d experiment on these principles to get a clear picture.
Problem 2.3 Find the sum of all numbers di visible  in between 100 to 400.
m
Solution Here 1st term 102 (which is the isl greater than 100 that is divisible by 6 . The last term less than 400, which is divisible byg The number of terms in the AP; 102, 108, 114 given by [(396  102)/6] +1= 50 numbers. Common difference = d = 6 So, 5 = 25(204 + 294)= 12450
J
' / j A*
WORKEDOUT PROBLEM/
Problem 2.1 Two persons Ramu Dhobi and Kalu Mochi have joined Donkeywork Associates. Ramu Dhobi and Kalu Mochi started with an initial salary of Rs. 500 and Rs. 640 respectively with annual increments of Rs. 25 and Rs. 20 each respectively. In which year will Ramu Dhobi start earn ing more salary than Kalu Mochi?
Problem 2.4
(1
If x, y, z are in GP, then 1/(1 + log,.* J + logI0y) and 1/(1 + log 10z) will be in: (b) GP (d) Cannot be said 7
(a) AP (c) HP
Solution The current difference between the salaries of
the two is Rs. 140. The annual rate of reduction of this dfference is Rs. 5 per year. At this rate, it will take Ramu Dhobi 28 years to equalise his salary with Kalu Dhobi's salary. Thus, in the 29th year he will earn more. This problem should be solved while reading and the thought process should be 140/5 = 28. Hence, answer is 29th year.
Solution Go through the options. Checking option (a), the three will be in AP if th e2 J expression is the average of the 1st and 3rd exp ression*! This can be mathematically written as 2/(1 + log10y) = [1/(1 + log10x)] + [1/(1 + log,q z )] [1 + (1 + log,0.*) +1 + (1 + logI0z) [(1 + log10*)(l + log10z)
[2
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+ logl0 *z] (c) 450 (d) 300
+ lo g io * ) (1 + lo g io z)
I Find the value of the expression 1  6 + 2  7 + 3  S +........... to 100 terms (a) 250 (b) 500
Applying our judgement, there seems to be no in d ica te* that we are going to get a solution. Checking option (b) [ 1/(1 + log 10y)]2 = [ 1/(1 + log iqx)] [ 1/(1 + log10z)l = [ 1 /( 1 + log10(* + z ) + log l0xz)]
,
Solution The series (1  6 + 2  7 + 3  8 + ........... to
100 terms) can be rewritten as: = > (1 + 2 + 3.+ ... to 50 terms)  (6 + 7 + 8 + ... to 50 terms) Both these are APs with values of a and d as — > a si I, n = 50 and d — 1 and a = 6, n = 50 and d = 1 Bcpectively. Using the formula for sum of an AP we get: 25(2 + 4 9 ) 25(12 + 49) ♦25(51 6 1 ) =250 Alternatively, we can do this faster by considering (1  6), (2  7), and so on as one unit or one term. I  6 = 2  7 = ... = 5 . Thus the above series is equivalent to a series of fifty  5 ’s added to each other. So, (I  6) + (2  7) + (3  8 ) + ... 50 terms =  5 x 5 0 * 250
Again we are trapped and any solution is not in siO T Checking option (c). 1/(1 + logQX ), 1/(1 + logI0y) and 1/(1 + log 10 ^ HP then 1 + logI0x, 1 + logI0y and 1 + logI0z will bein So, log 10x, logl0y and log10z will also be in A PHence, 2 log10y = log10x + log10z =* y 2 = xz which is given. So, (c) is the correct option. J Alternatively, you could have solved through the ing process. jc, y and z are given as logarithmic functions. P Assume jc = 1, v = 10 and z = 100 as x, y , z are in G <3 So, 1 + logl0x = 1 ,1 + logl0_ y= 2 and 1 + logio2'
Chapter 2:
Progressions
69
=» Thus we find that since 1, 2 and 3 are in AP, we can assume that 1 + logio*, 1 # \ogl0y and 1 + logl0z are in AP =* Hence, by definition of an HP we have that 1/(1 + togio*)* + l°gio.y ) *^0 + log10z) are in HP. Hence, option (c) is the required answer. Author's Note: In my experience I have always found that the toughest equations and factorisations get solved very easily when there are options, by assuming values in place of the variables in the equation. The values of the v ariab les should be taken in such a manner that the basic restrictions put on the variables should be re spected. For example, if an expression in three variables a, b and c is given and it is mentioned that a + b + c = 0 then the values that you assume for a, b and c should satisfy this restriction. Hence, you should look at values like 1,2 and 3 or 2, 1 , — 1 etc. xpnj This process is especially useful in the case where the question as well as the options both contain expressions. Factorisation and advanced techniques of maths are then not required. This process will be very beneficial for students who are weak at Mathematics.]
Problem 2.5
Problem 2.7
Is the series 1, 4 ,... to n terms an AP, or a
GP, or an HP, or a series which cannot be determined? S olution To determine any progression, we should have
at least three terms. If the series is an AP then the next term of this series will be 7 Again, if the next term is 16, then this will be a GP series (1,4,16...) So, we cannot determine the nature of the progression of this series.
Problem 2.8
Find the sum to 200 terms o f the Series (b) 29,800 (d) None o f these
I + 4 + 6 + 5 + 11 + 6 + ... (a) 30,200 (c) 30,200
Find t l0 and S10 for the following series: 1,8,15,...
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S o lu tio n Spot that the above series is a combination of two APs. The 1st AP is (1 + 6 + 11 + ...) and the 2nd AP is (4 + 5 + 6+ ...) Since the terms of the two series alternate, S = (1 + 6 + II + ... to 100 terms) + (4 + 5 + 6 + ... to 100 terms)
100[2 x 1 + 99 x 5] 100[2 x 4 + 99 x 1] =  ~2 I '— ^ •   > (Using
oinfc
Solution This is an AP with first term 1 and common
difference?. tlQ= a + ( n  1 ) ^ = 1 + 9 x 7 = 64 Sin — n [2a + (n —l)<f]
the formula for the sum of an AP) = 50[497 + 107] = 50[604] = 30200 Alternatively, we can treat every two consecutive terms as one. So we will have a total of 100 terms of the nature: (1 + 4 )+ (6+ 5)+ (11 + 6 ) ... — > 5,11,17... Now, a = 5, d  6 and n = 100 Hence the sum of the given series is S=M x [2 x 5 + 99 x 6]
10[21 + (10—1)7] = 2 Alternatively, if the number of terms is small, you can r
a F 
= 50[604] = 30200 Q Q Q How many terms of the series 12,  9 , 6 ,... must be taken that the sum may be 54? Solution Here S = 54, a = —12, d = 3, n is unknown and has to be calculated. To do so we use the formula for the sum of an AP and get. Y _ [ 2 (  12) + ( «  l)3]i> 54*
count it directly.
Problem 2.6
Find r18 and SI8 for the following senes: 2 ,8 ,3 2 ,...
Solution This is a GP with first term 2 and common
ratio 4.  2  4 17 s i8 * a Ir"  1) Spj 2 ( 4 '*  1 ) (4 1 )
Hem toH
R 9
Q uaritofae Aptitude for (he CAT
at ac
1081 24*  3n + 3* or 3ir  27«  108 = 0 # » 2—f c i3 6 « 0 , o m J  12i» + 3n —36 = 0 n(n —12) + 3(» —12) = 0 ■ (n § 3) («  12) 2 0
5075% of the questions asked in CAT in the q» section can be solved with options (at least partially)
The value of n (the number of terms) cannot be negative. Hence 3 Is rejected. So we have 1 §9 12 Alternatively, we can directly add up individual terms and keep adding manually till we get a sum of 54. We will
Level o f D iffic u lty (LOD)
II
S
m
(« )
observe that this will occur after adding 12 terms. (In this case, as also in all cases where the number of terms is mentally manageable, mentally adding the terms till we get the required sum will turn out to be much faster than the equation based process.) Problem 2.10 Find the sum of n terms of the series 1.2.4 ___________ +23.5 + 3.4.6+... (a) n(n + l)(n + 2 ) (b) (rtn +1VI 2X3n2 + 19/i + 26) (c) ((#i + 1 X * + 2X* + 3))/4 (d) (#i2(n + lX« + 2X/i + 3)y3 Solution In order to solve such problems in the examina tion, the option based approach is the best. Even if you can find out the required expression mathematically, it is advisable to solve through the options as this will end up saving a lot of time for you. Use the options as follows: If we put n = 1, we should get the sum as 1.2.4 = 8 . By substituting n = 1 in each of the four options we will get the following values for the sum to 1 term: Option (a) gives a value of: 6 Option (b) gives a value of: 8 Option (c) gives a value of: 6 Option (d) gives a value of: 8 From this check we can reject the options (a) and (c). Now put n = 2. You can see that up to 2 terms, the expression is 3.2.4 + 2.3.5 * 38 The correct option should also give 38 if we put n  2 in the expression. Since, (a) and (c) have already been re jected, we only need to check for options (b) and (d). Option (b) gives  value of 38 Option (d) gives a value of 80. Hence, we can reject option (d) and get (b) as the answer. Note; The above process is very effective for solving qpeatftons having options. The student should try to keep an eye open for the possibility of solving ques tions through options. In my opinion, approximately
l. How many terms are there in the AP 20,25,30,... 13a
(a) 22 (b) 23 (c) 21 (d) 24 (e) 25 2. Bobby was appointed to AMS Careers in the pay scale I!* ' of Rs. 700050012,500. Find how many years h e 5 B c h t^ eS will take to reach the maximum of the scale. (a )1 8 (a) 1 1 years (b) 1 0 years ^B o t h^ (c) 9 years (d) 8 years fe) N o n eo ft* (e) None of these 13. Hb least v a lu e 3. Find the 1st term of an AP whose 8 th and 12th term s are respectively 39 and 59. (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 4 (d) 3
♦l+ll...*fc
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(a ) 20 (e )1 8
(b)
(e) 7 4. A number of squares are described whose perim etres are in GP. Then their sides will be in (a) AP (b) GP (c) HP (d) Nothing can be (e) None of these
M .Am a n r e c e iv e s e a c h w e e k ^h ee a r nb y R s .1 7 7 0
said W
(e)N i ^ O fthe term s (b);
5. There is an AP 1,3,5.... Which term of this AP is 5 5 ?I l i (a) 27th (b) 26th (c) 25th (d) 28th Jty
6.
(e) 29th D .{ How many terms are identical in the two APs I. M ^ 9 5,... up to 120 terms and 3, 6 , 9,... up to 80 terms? I (a) 38 (b) 39 (c) 40 (d) 41
(e) 42 7. Find the lowest number in an AP such that the sum all the terms is 105 and greatest term is 6 tiroes least. (a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 15 (d) 2D (e) (a), (b) & (c) 8 . Find the 15th term of the sequence 20,15,10, ••• (a) 45 (b) 55 (c) 50 (d) 0 (e) 45 9. A sum of money kept in a bank amounts to Ks ' in 4 years and Rs. 1600 in 10 years at simple Find the sum.
5* "a*
%
S
X '
\ rv
Chapter*
rrrvy.
(a) 4  ■ (a) R$.8Q0 (b) R s.900 (c)R s.ll50 (d) Rs. 1000 (e) Rs. 1200 ]0t A number 15 is divided into three parts which are in AP and the sum of their squares is 83. Find the smallest number. (a) 5 ' (b) 3 .... (c) 6 (d) 8 (e) 7 11. The sum of the first 16 terms of an AP whose first term and third term are 5 and 15 respectively is (a) 600 (b) 765 (c) 640 (d) 680 (e) 690 12 The number of terms o f the series 54 + 51 + 48 +... such that the sum is 513 is (a) 18 (b) 19 (c) Both a and b (d) 15 (e) None of these 13. The least value of n for which the sum of the series 5 + 8 +11... n terms is not less than 670 is (a) 20 (b) 19 (c) 22 (d) 21 (e) 18 14. A man receives Rs. 60 for the first week and Rs. 3 more each week than the preceding week. How much does he earn by the20th week? (a) Rs. 1770 (c) Rs. 1890 (e) None of these (b) Rs. 1620 (d) Rs. 1790
(b) 3
(c )5
(d) 2
(e) 6 19. The sum of three numbers in a G P is 14 and the sum of their squares is 84. Find the largest number. (a) 8 (c) 4 (e) None o f these f t) 6 p i 12
20. The first term o f an arithmetic progression is unity and the common difference is 4. W hich o f the follow ing will be a term of this AP? (a) 4551 (b) 10091 (c) 7881 1' ' (d) 13531 (e) 13539 21. How many natural numbers between 300 to 500 are multiples of 7? (a). 29  (b) 28 (c) 27 (d) 30 (e) None of these 22. The sum of the first and the third term o f a geom etric progression is 20 and the sum o f its first three term s is 26. Find the progression. (a) 2,6,18,;.. (b) 18 ,6,2,... (c) Both o f these (d) None o f these (e) Cannot be determined
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(a) 19 years (c)/ 21years (e) 17 years (b) 20 years (d) 18 years
15. How many terms are there in the GP 5, 20, 80, 320,... 20480? (a) 6 (e) 9 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 8
23. If a man saves Rs. 4 more each year than he did the year before and if he saves Rs. 20 in the first year, after how many years will his savings be m ore than Rs, 1000 altogether?
16. A boy agrees to work at the rate of one rupee on the first day, two rupees on the second day, four rupees on the third day and so on. How much will the boy get if he starts working on the 1st o f February and finishes on the 20th of February? (a) 220 (b) 220  1 (c) 2W 1 (d) 2 19 (e) None of these 17. If the fifth term of a GP is 81 and first term is 16, what will be the 4th term of the GP? (a) 36 (b) 18 (c) 54 (d) 24 jg 27 18. The seventh term of a GP is 8 times the fourth term. W hat will be the first term when its fifth term is 48?
24. A man’s salary is Rs. 800 per month in the first year. He has joined in the scale o f 800401600. A fter how many years will his savings be Rs. 64,800? (a) 8 years (b) 7 years (c) 6 years (d) None of these (e) Cannot be determined 25. The 4th and 10th term of an GP are 1/3 and 243 respec tively. Find the 2nd term. (a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 1/27 (d) 1/9 ■(e) 9 26 The 7th and 21st terms of an AP are 6 and 2 2 respec tively. Find the 26th terra. (a) _ 3 4 (b) 32 (0) 12 (d) 1 0 (e) 16
j 2
1 How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
■
(c) 4000 (e) None o f these (d) 4100
The sum o f 5 numbers in AP is 30 and the sum of their squares is 220. Which o f the following is the l ^ d Derm? P
6
(e)
8
(d) 9
(e) K )
28. Find the sum o f all numbers in between 1050 excluding all those numbers which are divisible by 8 . (include 10 and 50 for counting.) (a) 1070 (c) 1320 (e) 1060
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
1. If a times the ath term o f an AP is equal to b timcjJ bth term, find the (a + b )th term. (a) 0 (C) a —b (e) a2 + b2 (b) a2  b2 (d) 1
(b) 1220 (d) 1160
29. The sum o f the first four terms of an AP is 28 and sum o f the first eight terms of the same AP is 88. Find the sum o f the first 16 terms o f the AP?
* (a) 346 (c) 304
(e) None o f these
(b) 340
(d) 268
2. A num ber 20 is divided into four parts that are inJ such that the product o f the first and fourth is tom product of the second and third is 2 : 3. Find the l a r j part. (a) 12 (e) 15 (b) 4 (c) 8 (d) 9
30. Find the general term of the GP with the third term 1 and
the seventh term 8 .
( a ) ( 2 3M ) '
3/4vn  3
(b) ( 23a)"3
(d) H l l
( c ) ( 2 V 4) 3  "
3. Find the value o f the expression: 1  4 + 5  8... toll terms. (a)  1 5 0 (e) 150 (b) 7 5 , (c) 5 0 (d) 75
(e) N one o f these 1/9,... 729. (a) 11 (e) 14 <b) 12
31. Find the num ber o f terms o f the series 1/81, ^1/27, (c) 10 (d) 13
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32. Four geometric means are inserted between 1/8 and 128. Find the third geom etric mean. (a) 4 (c) 32 (e) None o f these (b) 16 (d) 8
4. If a clock strikes once at one o’clock, twice at t i l o'clock and twelve times at 12 o’clock and againatffl at one o'clock and so on, how many times will be struck in the course o f 2 days? (a) 156 (b) 312 (c) 78 (d) 288 (e) 144 5. W hat will be the maximum sum of 44,42,40, ••• (a) 502 (c) 506 (e) None o f these 6. Find the sum o f the integers between 1 and 200l^a I multiples of 7. (a) 2742 (c) 2646 (b) 2842 (d) 2546 (b) 5W (d) 500
33. A and B are tw o numbers whose A M is 25 and G M is 7. Which o f the following may be a value o f A? (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 49 (d) 25
J j f l 24
34. Two numbers A and B are such that their GM is 20% lower than their AM. Find the ratio between the num bers. (a) 3 : 2 : H 5 :1 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 2 :1 (d) 3 : 1
36. A man saves Rs. 100 in January 2002 and increases his saving by Rs. SO every month over the previous month. What is the annual saving for the man in the year 2002? (a) Rs. 4200 (b) Rs. 4S00
(e) 2746 1is 7. If the rath term of an AP is 1/n and nth term • find the sum to mn terms. (a) (ran  l)/4 (b) (ra/i + 1)M (c) (ran+ l)/2 (d) (ra n l)/2 (e) None o f these 8. Find the sum of all odd numbers lying betwee1 1
200.
(a) 7500
(b) 2450
Chapter2:
Progressions
7 3
(c) 2550 . (d) 2650 (e) None of these 9. find the sum of all integers of 3 digits that are divisible by 7. (a) 69336 (b) 71,336 (c) 70336 (d) 72,336 (e) None of these
17. What will be the value of x ll2Jcw*Jcm ... to infinity*?
(a) x 2
0>) x
(c) x y l w £ (e) None of these 18. Find the sum to n terms of the series 1.2.3+ 2.3.4+ 3.4.5 +... (a) (n + l)(« + 2)(n + 3)/3 (b) n(n + 1)(2m + 2)(« + 2)/4 (c) n(n + l)(n + 2) (d) n(n + l)(/i + 2)(n + 3)/4 (e) None of these 19. Determine the first term of the geometric progression, the sum of whose first term and third term is 40 and the sum of the second term and fourth term is 80. (a) 12 (b) 16 (c) 8 (d) 4
(e) 6 20. Find the second term of an AP if the sum of its first five even terms is equal to 15 and the sura of the first three terms is equal to 3.
B ^ llO . The first and the last terms o f an AP are 107 and 253. If there are five terms in this sequence, find the sum of sequence. (a) 1080 (c) 900 (e) 1020 (b) 720 (d) 620
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11. Find the value o f 1  2  3 + 2  3  4 + ... + upto 100 terms. (a) 694 (c) 624 (e) 676 (b) (d) 626 549
12 What will be the sum to n terms of the series 8 + 88 + 888+...? 8(10"  9 r ) (a) 81 (c> 8 (1 0 "'1 10) (e) None of these 13. If a, b, c are in GP, then log a, log b, log c are in (a) AP (c) HP (e) Cannot be said (b) CP (d) None o f these 8(10" + l  1 0  9 n ) T: '8 1 (d) 8(10"+1  1 0 ) _
(a) 3 (e) 1
(b)  2
(c) 1
(d) 0
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eleventh term. (a) 19 ,(b) 17
(e) 18
21. The sum of the second and the fifth term of an AP is 8 and that of the third and the seventh term is 14. Find the
(c) 15
(d) 16
22. How many terms of an AP must be taken for their sum to be equal to 120 if its third term is 9 and the difference
14. After striking the floor, a rubber ball rebounds to 4/5th of the height from which it has fallen. Find the total distance that it travels before coming to rest if it has been gently dropped from a height o f 120 metres. (a) 540 metres (b)960 metres (c) 1080 metres (d) 1020 metres (e) 1120 metres 15. If x be the first term, y be the nth term and p be the product of n terms o f a GP, then the value of p will be
between the seventh and the second term is 2 0 ? (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 7 (d) 8 .
(e) 5 23. Four numbers are inserted between the numbers 4 and 39 such that an AP results. Find the biggest of these
four numbers. (a) 31.5 (b) 31
(e) 33
(e) 32
(d) 30
(a) 1 1 1 1
(b) (xy)n
(c) Uy)1 " (d) i x y f 12 fe) None o f these 16. The sum of an infinite G P whose common ratio is nu merically less than 1 is 32 and the sum of the first two terms is 24. W hat will be the third term? (a) I (b) 16 (£) ® W) '2
24. Find the sum of all threedigit natural numbers, which on being divided by 5, leave a remainder equal to 4. (a) 57,270 (b) 96,780 (c) 49,680 (d) 99,270 (e) 90270 25 The sum of the first three terms of the arithmetic progression is 30 and the sum of the squares of the first term and the second terra of the same progression is
* ■
I
4
r
7A
HowtoPrepare torQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
116. Find t h e seventh term of the progression if its fifth term is known to be exactly divisible by 14. (a) 36 (b) 40 (c) 43 (d) 22 ( e ) 24 26. A and B set out to meet each other from two places 165 km apart. A travels 15 km the first day, 14 km the second day, 13 km the third day and so on. B travels 10 km the first day, 12 km the second day, 14 km the third day and so on. After how many days will they meet? (a) 8 days (c) 6 days (e) 9 days (b) 5 days (d) 7 days
27. If a man saves Rs. 1000 each year and invests at the end of the year at 5% compound interest, how much will the amount be at the end of 15 years? (a) Rs. 21,478 .(b) Rs. 21,578 (c) Rs. 22,578 (d> Rs. 22,478 (e) Rs. 22,178 28. If sum to n terms of a series is given by (n + 8), then its second term will be given by (a) 10 (c) 8 (e) None of these (b) 9 (d) 1
33. Find the infinite sum of the series 1/1 +1/3 . . I + 1/15.... /6+ i (a) 2 (b) 2.25 (c) 3 (d) 4 34. The sum of the series 5 x 8 + 8x11 + 1 1 x 1 4 .^ will be: (a) (n l)[3(n + 1) + 6(n + 1) + 1]  10 (b) (n+ l)[3(n + 1) + 6(/i + 1) + 1J + I0 (c) (n + l)[3(n + 1) + 6(/z + l)2 + 1] 1 0 (d) (n + l)[3(n + 1) + 6(n + l)2 + 1] + 10 3 5 . The sum of the series: V i + 1/6 + 1/12 + 1/20 +. J + 1/182 is: (a) 12/13 (b) 13/14 (c) 14/13 (d) None of these 36. For the above question 35, what is the sum ofthe if taken to infinite terms: (a) 1.1 iV (b) 1 (ci) 14/13 (d) None of these
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29. If A is the sum of the n terms of the series 1 + 1/4 + 1/ 16 + ... and B is the sum of 2n terms of the series 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + ..., then find the value of A/B. (a) 1/3 (b) 1/2 (c) 2/3 (d) 3/4 (e) 4/5 30. A man receives a pension starting, with Rs..100 for the first year. Each year he receives 90% of what he received the previous year. Find the maximum total amount he can receive even if he lives forever. (a) Rs. 1100 (b) Rs. 1000 (c) Rs. 1200 (d) Rs. 900 (e) Rs. 1250 31. The sum of the series represented as: 1/1x5 + 1/5x9 + 1/9X13.....+ 1/221x225
is
(a) 28/221 (b) 56/221 (c) 56/225 (d) None of these 32 The sum of the series l/('/2+Vl)+ 1/(V2+V3)+...................+ l/(Vl20+Vl21) .
 is:
(a) K) (c) 12
(b) n (d) None of these
Directions fo r Questions 3739: Answer the q u estiJ based on the following information. There are 250 integers a if a2........ not all of necessarily different.. Let the greatest integer of th ese integers be referred to as Max, and the smallest integal D in referred to as Min. The integers ax through fl1 2 4 fej bast sequence A, and the rest form sequence B. Each memtai A is less than or equal to each member of B. inP 3 7 . All values in A are changed in sign, while those*! ® g remain unchanged. Which of the following statem fl ofbj b re a , is true? erl (a) Every member of A is greater than or equal IP member of B. (b) Max is in A. ^ (c) If all numbers originally in A and B had tte5 ! sign, then after the change of sign, the number of A and B is in A. (d) None of these J * 38. Elements of A are in ascending order, and those in descending order. a l24 and a12s 316 [i l l 1 Then which of the following statements tn*(a) A continues to be in ascending order. (b) B continues to be in descending order* a**! § (c) A continues to be in ascending orc* er § descending order. (d) None of the above 39. Every element of A is made greater than ^ every element of B by adding to each ele s than: integer jr. Then, x n»n«A* ^
I
Chapter2:
Progressions j
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(a) 2 (b) the smallest value of B (c) the largest value of B (d) (MaxMin) 40. Rohit drew a rectangular grid of 529 cells, arranged in 2 3 Rows and 2 3 columns, and filled each cell with a number. The numbers with which he filled each cell were such that the numbers of each row taken from left to right fonned an arithmetic series and the numbers of each cotyimn taken from top to bottom also formed an arithmetic series. The seventh and the seventeenth numbers o f the fifth row were 47 and 63 respectively, while the seventh and the seventeenth numbers of the fifteenth row were 53 and 77 respectively. What is the sum of all the numbers in the grid?
4th ,7th.....terms of P, P2has the 2nd, 5th, 8th....... terms of P and P3 has the 3rd, 6th, 9th...... terms of P. It is found that of />,, P2 and P3 two progressions have the property that their average is itself a term of the original Progression P. Which of the following can be a possible value of n? (a) 20 (b) 26 (c) 36 (d) Both1 and 2 45. For the above question, if the Common Difference be tween the terms of Pj is 6, what is the common differ ence of P? (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 6 (d) Cannotbe determined
(a) 32798 (b) 65596 (c) 52900 (d) None of these 41. How many three digit numbers have the property that their digits taken from left to right form an Arithmetic or a Geometric Progression? (a) 15 (b) 36 (c) 20 (d) 42 Directions for Questions 42 and 43: These questions are based on the following data. At Burger King—a famous fast food centre on Main Street in Pune, burgers are made only on an automatic burger mak ing machine. The machine continuously makes different sorts of burgers by adding different sorts of fillings on a common bread. The machine makes the burgers at the rate of 1 burger per half a minute. The various fillings are added to the burgers in the following manner. The 1st, 5th, 9 th ,.....burgers are filled with a chicken patty; the 2nd, 9th, 16th,....... burgers with vegetable patty; the 1st, 5th, 9th........ burgers with mushroom patty; and the rest with plain cheese and tomato fillings. The machine makes exactly 66Cf burgers per day. 42 How many burgers per day are made with cheese and tomato as fillings? (a) 424 (b) 236 (c) 237 (d) None of these 43. How m an y burgers are made with all three fillings Chicken, vegetable and mushroom? (a) 23 (b) 24 (c) 25 (d) 26 44. An arithmetic progression P consists of n terms. From the progression three different progressions Py P2 and Py are created such that P\ is obtained by the 1st,
Level o f D iffic u lty (LO D)
Ill
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1. If in any decreasing arithmetic progression, sum of all its terms, except for the first term, is equal to 3 6 , the sum of all its terms, except for the last term, is zero, and the difference of the tenth and the sixth term is equal to  16, then what will be first term of this series? (a) 16 (b) 20 (b) 16 (d) 20(e) 24 2. The sum of all terms of the arithmetic progression having ten terms except for the first term, is 99, and except for the sixth term, 89. Find the third term of the progression if the sum of the first and the fifth term is equal to 10. (a) 15 (b) 5 (c) 8 (d) 10 (e) None of these
3. Product of the fourth term and the fifth term of an arithmetic progression is 456. Division of the ninth term by the fourth term of the progression gives quotient as 11 and the remainder as 10. Find the first term of the progression. (a) 5 2 (b) 4 2 (c)  5 6 (d)  6 6 (e) 50 4. A number of saplings are lying at a place by the side of a straight road. These are to be planted in a straight line at a distance interval of 10 meters between two consecutive saplings. Mithilesh, the country's greatest forester, can carry only one sapling at a time and has to move back to the original point to get the next sapling.
f^ lo prepare tor Quantitative Apttude forthe CAT
In this manner he covers a total distance of 1.32 kms. How many saplings does he plant in die process if he ends at the starting point?
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(b) 14
(t) 10
(c) 13
(d) 12 (e) None o f these
1
12. The sum of the first term and the fifth term of anyJJ is 26 and the product o f the second term by the term is 160. Find the sum of the first seven terms of AP. (a) 110 (b) 114 (c) 112 (d) U6 (e) 120 13. The sum of the third and the ninth term of an AP ismI Find a possible sum o f the first 11 terms of this A P .[ (a) 55 (c) 66 (e) 62 (b) 44 (d) 48
5. A geometric progression consists of 500 terms. Sum of the terms occupying the odd places is P, and the sum of the terms occupying the even places is P2. Find the common ratio. (a) P2/P ] (c) P2 + Pl/P [ (e) None of these
6.
(b) P ,/P 2 (d) P2 + P,/P 2
The sum o f the first ten terms o f the geometric progres sion is 5] and the sum o f the next ten terms ( 1 1 th through 20th) is S2. Find the common ratio. (a) (Sl/S2),n(> (b)  (SySj)1 ' 10
(c)
±m yfsjs^
(d) (St/S2)1 1 5
(e) None of these
7. The first and the third terms o f an arithmetic progres
sion are equal, respectively, to the first and the third term of a geometric progression, and the second term of the arithmetic progression exceeds the second term of the geometric progression by 0.25. Calculate the sum of the first five terms o f the arithmetic progression if its first term is equal to 2 . (a) 2.25 or 25 (c) 15 (e) None o f these
8.
14. The sum o f the squares o f the fifth and the eleven* term of an A P is 3 and the product of the secondad the fourteenth term is equal it P. Find the product ofA t! first and the fifteenth term o f the AP. (a) (58 P 3 9 )/4 5 (c) (116P39)/90 (e) None o f these (b) (98P + 39)/72 (d) (98P + 39V90
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(b) 2.5 or 27.5 (d) 3.25 (a) 4/9 or 9/4 (c) 2/5 or 5/2 (e) 3/4 or 4/5
15. If the ratio o f harmonic mean o f two numbers toto geometric mean is 12: 13, find the ratio of the num b® (b) 2/3 or 3/2 (d) 3/4 or 4/3
If(2 + 4 + 6 + . . . 50terms)/(l + 3 + 5 + . . . « terms) = 51/
2,
then find the value o f n . (b) 13 (c) 9 (d) 10
16. Find the sum o f the series 1.2 + 2.22 + 3.23 + * 100.2100. (a) 100.2101 + 2 (b) 99.2l00 + 2 (c) 99.2101 + 2 (d)100.2,0° + 2 (e) None o f these
(a) 12
(c) U
9. (666 .... n digits)2 + (888 ... n digits) is equal to (a ) ( lf f ,  l ) x i (b) ( l O ^  O x i
, M 17. The sequence [ x j is a GP with x 2/x^ = 1/4 and i , = 108. What will be the value of *3?
4 (1 0 " 1 0 " '1 )
i l l — §— (e) None of these
4(10" +1)
(d) — 9—
(a) 42
(b) 48
(c) 44
(d) #
10. The interior angles of a polygon are in AP. The smallest angle is 120° and the common difference is 5°. Find the number of sides of the polygon. (a) 7 (b) 8 (C ) 9 (d) io B it 11. Find the sum to n terms of the series 11 + 103 + 1005
(C) 52 theft! 18. If y t z are in GP and cr\ by and cz are equal. I b, c are in
(a) AP
(c) HP
(b) GP (d) Noneof these
(e) Cannot be determined
J
19. Find the sum o f all possible whole number < frvlS I 720.
Chapter2: Progressions
77
(a) 2012 (b) 2624 (c) 2210 (d) 2418 (c) 2520 20l Sum to n terms of the series log m + log m2 /n + log m3 /*2 + log m % 3. .. is
(a) 4th term (b) 5th term (c) 6th term (d) 7th term (e) 8th term 26. One side of a staircase is to be closed in by r e c t a n g u l a r planks from the floor to each step. The w i d t h o f e a c h plank is 9 inches and their height a r e s u c c e s s i v e l y 6 inches, 12 inches, 18 inches and s o o n . T h e r e a r e 2 4 planks required intotal. Find the a r e a i n s q u a r e f e e t , (a) 112.5 (b) 107
( c ) 1 1 8 .5 (e ) N o n e o f th e s e 27. T h e m id d le p o in ts o f th e s id e s o f a (d ) 105
21. The sum of first 20 and first 50 terms of an AP is 420 and 2550. Find the eleventh term of a GP whose first term is the same as the AP and the common ratio of the GP is equal to the common difference of the AP. (a) 560 (e) 3072 (b) 512 (c) 1024 (d) 1120
triangle are joined third triangle is f o r m e d b y j o i n i n g t h e m i d d l e points o f this second t r i a n g l e a n d t h i s p r o c e s s i s r e p e a t e d infinitely. If the p e r i m e t r e a n d a r e a o f t h e o u t e r t r i a n g l e are P and A r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h a t w i l l b e t h e s u m o f perimetres of tri
fo rm in g a s e c o n d tr ia n g le . A g a in a a n g le s th u s fo rm e d ? (a ) (e ) 2P (b )
P2
(c ) 3P
(d )
p2 /2
22. If three positive real numbers x, y, z are in AP such that xyz = 4, then what will be the minimum value of y? (a) 21/3 (b) 22'3 (c) 2 1/4 (d) 23/4
2P2 /6
28 . In P ro b le m 2 7 , fin d th e s u m o f a r e a s o f a ll th e tr ia n g le s . 4 A D (e ) 2 A (a ) (b ) 4 A 3 (c ) 4 A 4 (d ) 4 A 4
(e) 24'3
23. If an be the wth term o f an AP and if aj = 15, then the value of the common difference that would make a^ajan greatest is (a) 3 (b) 3/2 (c) 7 ;J W (d) 0 (e) None of these
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p e rim e tre o f a ll th e s q u a r e s th u s fo rm e d . (a ) (c )
29. A s q u a r e h a s a s id e o f 4 0 c m . A n o th e r s q u a r e is f o r m e d b y jo in in g th e m id p o in ts o f th e s id e s o f th e g iv e n s q u a re a n d th is p r o c e s s is re p e a te d in fin ite ly . F in d th e
24. If a,, a2, a3. . .a„ are in AP, where at > 0, then what will be the value of the expression l/( + Jo2 ) + 1/ ( ^ ^ )
30.
160(1 + > / 2 ) 160(2 V 2 )
(b) 160(2+ V f ) (d) 160(1 V2 )
(e ) 1 6 0 ( 3  > /2 )
+ ... to n terms? (a) (1 + Ja7 )
Jal, + )
(b) (»  l)/(
(c) ( n  l) / (  ^ 7 ” (d) (1  n)/(
)
fit+ ^
(e) All of these 25 If the first two terms o f a //P are 2/5 and 12/13 respec tively, which of the following terms is the largest term?
In problem 2 9 , find the area of all the squares thus formed. ( a ) 1600 (b) 2400 ( c ) 2800 (d) 3200 (e) 3000 31. The sum of the first n terms of the arithmetic progres sion is equal to half the sum of the next n terms of the same progression. Find the ratio of the sum of the first 3 n terms of the progression to the sum of its first n terms. (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 7 (d) 8 (e) 9
for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
32 hi a certain colony of cancerous cells, each cell breaks info two new cells every hour. If there is a single productive cell at the start and this process continues f a r 9 h o u r s , h o w many cells will the colony have at the end of 9 hours? It is known that the life of an individual cell is 20 hours. (a) 29 1 (c)  <e) 21 1 1 (b) 2j° ^ (d) 210— 1
J3. Find the sum of all threedigit whole numbers less than 500 that leave a remainder of 2 when they are divided by 3. (a) 49637 (c) 49634 (e) 38770 (b) 39767 (d) 39770
12 Solve through options. 14. The first drop is 120 metres. After this the k rise by 96 metres and fall by 96 meters. Thi8 H will continue in the form of an infinite GP with ^ ratio 0.8 and first term 96. The required answer will be got by 120 + 96* 1.25*2 15. Take any GP and solve by using values. 18. Solve by using values to check options. 22. The difference between the seventh and third I M K i ' I en iii given by (a + 6d)  (a + d)
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.
W . If a be the arithmetic mean and b, c be the two geometric means between any two positive numbers, then Q? + c3) labc equals (a) {ab)m /c (b) 1 (c) <?db (d) 2a (e) None of these 35. If p, q, r are three consecutive distinct natural numbers then the expression (q + r  p){p + r  q)(p + q  r) is (a) Positive (b) Negative (c) Nonpositive (d) Nonnegative (e) Either (c) or (d)
27. The required answer will be by adding 20 tenia, the GP starting with the first term as 1000 and! common ratio as 1.05. 30. Visualise it as an infinite GP with common ratio0 .5 .
H in ts a n d S o lu tio n s
1. Difference between the tenth and the sixth te m p 16 or (a + 9d)  (a + 5d) = 16 ></ =  4 2. Sum of the first term and the fifth term = 10 or a + a + 4d =10 or a + 2d = 5 and, the sum of all terms of the AP except for® 6 term = 99 or 9a + 45d = 99 a + 5d = 11 Solve (1) and (2) to get the answer. ^ 3. The second statement gives the equation as 2(a + 3d) + 6
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H in ts and S o lu tio n s
II
2. a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + (a + 3d) = 20 and a(a + 3d) = (a + d) (a + 2d) 4. Calculate the sum of an AP with first term 1, common difference 1 and last term 12. Multiply this sum by 4 for 2 days. 5. The maximum sum will occur when the last term is either 2 or 0. 6. Visualise the AP as 7 , 14... 196. 9. The A P is 105,112...994.
0.
or
a  2d  6
*
The common difference is
= 2 9 .2 .
1. See the terms of the series in 33 blocks of 3 each. This will give the AP  4, 5,  6 .. .33. Further, the hundredth term will be 34.
Now, use the options to find the value ot Jk these values to check the equation obtained first statement. i.e. (a + 2d)(a + 5d) =406 A 4. To plant the 1st sapling, Mithilesh will c°v ^ to plant the 2nd sapling he will cover 401 1 1 ^J But for the last sapling, he will cove*
Chapter 2:
Progressions
7 9
distance from the starting point to the place where the sapling has to be planted. 5. Assume a series having a few number o f terms e.g. 1 ,2 ,4 ,8 ,1 6 ,3 2 ... Now sum of all the terms at the even places = 4 2 (P2) and sum o f all the terms at the odd places = 2 1 (P\) common ratio o f this series = ■ — =
42 2
= P2/P \ .
6. Use the same process as illustrated above. 7. Check the options by putting n = 1, 2, ... and then equate it with the original equation given in ques tion. 10. Sum of the AP for n sides = Sum o f interior angles of a polygon o f n sides. y x (2 a + ( n  l)d ) = ( 2 n  4 ) x 9 0 where a = 120° and d = 5°. 11. Solve using options to check for the correct answer. 12 a + (a + 4d) = 26 and (a + d) (a + 3d) = 160 Alternatively, you can try to look at the factors of 160 and create an AP such that it meets the criteria. Thus, 160 can be written as
2 x 8 0 4 x 4 0
21. The sum of the first 20 terms will be a + (a + d) + (a + 2d ) . . . + (a + 19d) i.e. 20a + 190rf=400 Similarly, use the sum to fifty terms. 23. For a product a x b x c to be maximum, given a + b + c = constant, the condition is a b = c. 27. The length of sides of successive triangles form a GP with common ratio 1/3. 28. The area of successive triangles form an infinite GP with a common ratio 1/4. 29. Common ration = V.J2 . 31. Ration of sum of the first 2n terms to the first n terms is equal to 3. Thus,
I
2n( g + 2~ ]
=3
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8x20
10x16
Solve to get, 2a = ( n + 1)d. Put values for a and n to get a value for d and check for the conditions given in the question. 33. Visualize the AP and solve using standard formulae. 34. Take any values for the numbers. Say, the two positive numbers are 1 and 27. Then, a  14, b = 3 and c = 9.
and so on. If we consider 8 x 2 0 , then one possibility is that d = 6 and the first and fifth terms are 2 and 26. But 2 + 26 * 28. Hence, this cannot be the correct factors. Try 10 x 16. This will give you, a = 7, d = 3 and 5th term = 1 9 and 7 + 19 = 26 satisfies the condition 13. A possible AP satisfying this condition is 0 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , . . . 14. Assume the fifth term as (a + 4 d), the eleventh term as (a 1 10d), the second term as (a + d ), the fourteenth term as (a + 13d), the first term as (a) and the fifteenth term as (a + 14d). Then, First term x Fifteenth term I a x (a + 1 4 $ = tf2 + 14flrf Also (a + d) (a + \3 d ) = P and (a + 4d)2 + (fl+ 10</)2 = 3 17. r s 2 and a 1 jjj « 108. 20 Solve by checking options and using principles of logarithms.
T h o u g h t P ro ce sse s, S o lu tio n s an d S h o rt C u ts to S e le c t Q u e s tio n s
LOD 1 5. The number of terms in a series are found by: Difference between first and last terms  . Common Difference
6.
The first common term is 3, the next will be 9 (Notice that the second common term is exactly 6 away from the first common term. 6 is also the LCM of 2 and 3 which are the respective common difference of the two series.) Thus, the common terms will be given by the A.P 3, 9, 15 ...... last term. To find the answer you need to find the last term that will be common to the two series. The first series is 3,3V7 . . . 239
Howto Prepare forQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
While the second series is 3. 6, 9 ..... 240. Hence, the last common term is 237. answer becomes — — + 1 = 40 6 7. Trying Option (a). We get least term 5 and largest term 30 (since the largest term is 6 times the least term). The average of the A.P becomes (5 + 30)/2 = 17.5 Thus. 17.5 x n = 105 gives us: to get a total of 105 we need n = 6 i.e. 6 terms in this A.P. That means the A.P. should look like: 30. 5____ _ _ It can be easily seen that the common difference should be 5. The A.P, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 fits the .situation. The same process used for option (b) gives us the A.P. 10,35,60. (10 + 35 + 60 = 105) and in the third option 15,90(15 + 90=105). Hence, all the three options are correct. 9. The difference between the amounts at the end of 4 years and 10 years will be the simple interest on the initial capital for 6 years. Hence, 360/6 = 60 =(simple interest.) Also, the Simple Interest for 4 years when added to the sum gives 1240 as the amount. Hence, the original sum must be 1000. 16. Sum of a G.P. with first term 1 and common ratio 2 and no. of terms 20 .
T hus ou r 1 x ( 2 20  1)
n
The 4th term here is 3“ 'and the tenth term i* 35 Hence 3* *x r6 = 3s Gives us: r = 3. Hence, the second term will be given by (Second %
X !/3 /i * X ' '/ i ,= . 3 * — V '27
Vie*1
1 4 +
,
4) + (5 * (1  3 + " hH , . s 2 5 * 3 = siocethisisa'
[Note: To go forward in a G.P. you multiply common ratio, to go backward in a G.P. you divite ] the common ratio.] 28. The answer will be given by: [10+ 11 + 1 2 + ......... + 50]  [16 + 24+ ... +4g j I = 4 1 x 3 0 3 2 x 5 = 1230160=1070. 29. Think like this: The average of the first 4 terms is 7, while the averaJ of the first 8 terms must be 1 1 . Now visualize th is: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8 th I average = 7 Hence, d = 4/2 = 2 average = 1 1 [Note: understand this a sJ property of anA ijl
3 d* maxi*0* progression re 44,42,40 — ' Hence, 23 tern 7 Alittle numbe 3and 3rd term the condition. TheA.P. will I 1/6,1/3,1/2,2 or indecimal tc Sumto 6 term Checktheopti gives 3.5. Her 1 1 . The first 100 (1 2 3 )+ (2 The first 33 tei the brackets) v Sum of this Answer 1 4 . The path of th
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= 220  1
(2 1 )
Hence, the average of the 6th and 7th terms = ISn the average of the 8th and 9th term = 19 But this (19) also represents the average of the 16n A.P. Hence, required answer = 16x19 = 304. 30. Go through options. The correct option should^>1 value as 1, when n =3 and as 8 when n  8. Only option (a) Satisfies both conditions.
18. In the case of a G.P. the 7th term is derived by multi plying the fourth term thrice by the common ratio. (Note: this is very similar to what we had seen in the case of an A.P.) Since, the seventh term is derived by multiplying the fourth term by 8, the relationship. r3 = 8 must be true. Hence, r = 2 If tiie fifth term is 48, the series in reverse from the fifth to the first term will look like: 48,24,12,6,3. Hence, option (b) is correct. 21. The series will be 301,308,......... 4 9 7 Hence, Answer = + 1 = 29
LOD 2 Identify an A.P. which satisfies the given condw ^ Suppose we are talking about the second an d terms of the A.P. Then an A.P. with second term 3 and third satisfies the condition, a times the ath term = b times the £th term . In this case the value of a = 2 and b = 3. J Hence, for the (a + bf* term, we have to ftndthe°n term. ^ It is clear that the fifth term of this A.P. must l*n Check the other three options to see wheth^ option gives 0 when a = 2 and b = 3. Since none of the options b, c or d gives zero particular value, the option a is correct.
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Chapter 2:
Progressions
81
3. View: 1  4 + 5  8 + 9  1 2 ..........50 terms as (1 —4) + (5 —8) + (9 —1 2 )....... 25 terms. Hence. — 3+— 3+— 3 . . . . 25 terms = 25 x —3 s= — 75. 5. Since this is a decreasing A.P. with first term positive, the maximum sum will occur upto the point where the progression rem ains non —negative. 4 4 ,4 2 ,4 0 ..... 0 Hence, 23 term s x 22 = 506. 7. A little num ber juggling would give you 2nd term is 1/ 3 and 3rd term is Vi is a possible situation that satisfies the condition. The A.P. will become: 1/6,1/3, 1/2, 2 /3 ,5 /6 , 1 or in decimal terms, 0.166,0.333,0.5,0.666,0.833,1 Sum to 6 term s = 3.5 Check the option with m = 2 and n  3. Only option (c) gives 3.5. H ence, m ust be die answer. 11. The first 100 term s o f this series can be viewed as: (1  2  3 ) + (2  3  4 ) +  +(33  34  35) + 34 The first 33 term s o f the above series (indicated inside the brackets) w ill give an A.P.: 4 , 5 ,  6 .... 3 6 Sum o f this A.P. = 33 x 2 0 = 660 A nsw er = 660 + 34 = 626 14. The path o f th e rubber ball is:
Only option d gives this value. Hence must be the answer. 24. Find sum of the series: 104.109.114.... 999 Average x n = 551.5 x 180 = 99270 28. Since, sum to n terms is given by (n + 8), Sum to 1 terms = 9 Sum to 2 terms —10 Thus, the 2nd term must be 1. 31. Questions such as these have to be solved on the basis of a reading of the pattern of the question. The sum upto the first term is: 1/5. Upto the second term it is 2/9 and upto the third term it is 3/13. It can be easily
seen that for the first term, second term and third term the numerators are 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Also, for 1/5 —the 5 is the second value in the denominator of 1/1 x 5 (the first term); for 2/9 also the same pattern is followed—as 9 comes out of the denominator of the second term of series and for 3/13 the 13 comes out of the denominator of the third term of the series and so on. The given series has 56 terms and hence the cor rect answer would be 56/225. 35. For this question too you would need to read the pattern of the values being followed. The given sum has 13 terms. It can be seen that the sum to 1 term = Vi Sum to 2 terms = 2/3 Sum to 3 terms = % Hence, the sum to 13 terms would be 13/14. 37. All members of A are smaller than all members of B. In order to visualize the effect of the change in sign in A , assume that A is {1, 2, 3...124} and B is (126, 127...250}. It can be seen that for this assumption of values neither options a, b or c is correct. 38. If elements of A are in ascending order a 124 would be the largest value in A. Also a 125 would be the largest
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In the figure above, every bounce is 4/5th of the previous drop. In the above m ovem ent, there are two infinite G.Ps (The G P representing the falling distances and the GP representing the Rising distances.) The required answer: (Using al(\~r) formula) i 2 £ + J* L =1080 1/5 1/5 18. F or n = 1, the sum should be 6 . Option (b), (c) and (d) all give 6 as the answer. For n = 2, the sum should be 30.
value in B. On interchanging a x24 and a , 25, A contin ues to be in ascending order, but B would lose its descending order arrangement since ax2Awould be the least value in B. Hence, option a is correct. 39. Since the minimum is in A and the maximum is in B, the value of x cannot be less than MaxMin. 40. It is evident that the whole question is built around Arithmetic progressions. The 5th row has an average of 55, while the 15 row has an average of 65. Since
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I Howtoftepare forQuantitative Aptihxte forthe CAT
even column wise each column is arranged in an AP we can conclude the following: if row  average 51  total = 23 x 51 2n drow  average 52  total 23 x 52. 23 row  average 73  total 23 x 73 The overall total can be got by using averages as: 23x23x62 = 32798 42 Total burgers made = 660 Burgers with chicken and mushroom patty = 165 (Num ber of terms in the series 1,5,9.. .657) Burgers with vegetable patty = 95 (Number of terms in the series 2,9,16,.. .660) Burgers with chicken, mushroom and vegetable patty = 24 (Number of terms in the series 9,37,65.. ..653) Required answer = 660 165  95 + 24 = 424 43. From the above question, we have 24 such burgers.
LOD 3 9. For 1 term, the value should be:
62 + 8 = 4 4
Only option (b) gives 44 for n = 1 16. The solution (from the options) h a s g o t s o m e th in g ! do with either 2 100 or 2 101 for 1 0 0 t e r m s . H ence, f a r terms recreate the options a n d c r o s s c h e c k with ife actual sum. For 3 terms: Sum = 2 + 8 + 2 4 = 3 4 . (a) 1 0 0 x 2 101 + 2 f o r 1 0 0 t e r m s b e c o m e s 3
f o r 3 te r m s . = 4 8 + 2 = 5 0 # 3 4 . H e n c e is n o t correct] ( b ) 9 9 x 2 100 + 2 f o r 1 0 0 t e r m s b e c o m e s 2 x 2 3+ 2 ^ 3 te rm s . B u t t h i s d o e s n o t g i v e 3 4 . H e n c e is n o t c o m  (c ) 9 9 x 2
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( d ) 1 0 0 x 2 100 + 2 3 x 2 3+ 2 * 34. H e n c e , o p tio n (c ) is c o r re c t.
lioi + 2 —> 2 x 2 + 2 = 3 4
0 ^ 2 :
Progressions j
8 3
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I Howto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
LOD II 1. a 2. c 3. b 33. a 34. a 35. b 36. b 5. c 6l b 7. c 8. a 9. c 10. c 11. b 11 b 13. a 14. c 15. b 16. e 17. b 18. d 19. c 20. c 21. a 22. d 23. c 24. d 25. b 26. c 27. b 28. d 29. c 30. b 37. d 38. a 39. d 40. a 41. d 42. a 43. b 44. d 45. a
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5. a 6. c 7. b 8. d 9.b ia c It c 12 c 13. a 14. d 15. e 16. e 17. b 18. b 19. d 20. a 21. e 22 b 23. d 24. b 25. d 26. a
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BLO C K R E V IE W TESTS
REVIEW TE/T ONE
9. Suppose one wishes to find distinct positive integer j y such that (x + y)/xy is also a positive integer. Idem * the correct alternative. (a) This is never possible (b ) This is possible and the pair (x, y) satisfying ^ I stated condition is unique. (c ) This is possible and there exist more than one I a finite number of ways of choosing the pairfjt I (d) This is possible and the pair (x, y) can be chon. I in infinite ways. 10. A young girl counted in the following way on thef® .I gers of her left hand. She started calling the thum b 1fe I index finger 2, middle finger 3, ring finger 4, littlefin g e rp 5, then reversed direction, calling the ring finger6,1 middle finger 7, index finger 8, thumb 9, then backtotit P index finger for 10, middle finger for 11, and so on. S h eI ' counted up to 1994. She ended on her (a) thumb (b) index finger (c) middle finger (d) ring finger 11. 139 persons have signed up for an elimination tou in a1 ment. All players are to be paired up for the first r o u n d , I, but because 139 is an odd number one player gets ab y e .f which promotes him to the second round, without ac1 tually playing in the first round. The pairing con tin u esI on the next round, with a bye to any player left over.I I the schedule is planned so that a minimum num bera I matches is required to determine the champion, fel number of matches which must be played is (a) 136 (b) 137 (c) 138 (d) 139 12. The product of all integers from 1 to 100 will have^ I following numbers of zeros at the end. (a) 20 (b) 2A (c) 19 (d) 21 13. There are ten 50 paise coins placed on a table. 8*J these show tails four show heads. A coin choseni j random and flipped over (not tossed). This operati^ performed seven times. One of the coins is then ■ ered. Of the remaining nine coins five show tai* I four show heads. The covered coin shows (a) a head (b) a tail (c) more likely a head (d) more likely a tail J 14. A five digit numberis formed using digits 1,3,* j 9 without repeating any one of them. What is of all such possible numbers? (a) 6666600 (b) 6666660 (c) 6666666 (d) None
1 . Lata has die same number of sisters as she has brothers, but her brother Shyam has twice as many sisters as he has brothers. How many children are there in the family? (a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 3 2 How many times does the digit 6 appear when you count from 11 to 100? (ft) 9 (b) 10 (c) 19 (d) 20 3. lfm < n, then (ft) m .m<n . n (b) m.m > n . n (c) m .n .n < n . m .m (d) m . m . m < n. n . n 4. A square is drawn by joining the midpoints of the side of ft given square. A third square is drawn in side the second square in the same way and this process is continued indefinitely. If a side of the first square is 8 cm, the sum of the areas of all the squares (in sq. cm) is (a) 128 (b) 120 (c) 95 (d) None of these 5. Find the least number which when divided by 6,15,17 leaves a remainder 1, but when divided by 7 leaves no remainder. (a) 211 (b) 511 (c) 1022 (d) 86 6. The number of positive integers not greater than 100, which are not divisible by 2, 3 or 5 is (a) 26 (b) 18 (c) 31 (d) None of these 7. The smallest number which when divided by 4 ,6 or 7 leaves a remainder of 2, is (a) 44 (b) 62 (c) 80 ' (d) 86 8. An intelligence agency decides on a code of 2 digits selected from 0,1,2,.. ..9. But the slip on which the code is handwritten allows confusion between top and bot tom, because these are indistinguishable. Thus, for example, the code 91 could be confused with 16. How many codes are there such that there is no possibility of any confusion? I 25 (b) 75 (d) None of these
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15. From each of two given numbers, half the smaller n ber is subtracted. Of the resulting numbers the large one is three times as laige as the smaller. What is ratio o f the two numbers? (a) 21 (b) 3:1 (c) 3.2 (d) None 16. If the harmonic mean between two positive numbers is to the inverse of their geometric mean as 12:13; then the numbers could be in the ratio (a) 1213 (b) 1/12:1/13 fc) 4:9 (d) 23 17. Fourth term of an arithmetic progression is 8. What is sum of the first 7 terms of the arithmetic progression? (a) 7 (b) 64 (c) 56 (d) Cannot be determined 18. It takes the pendulum of a clock 7 seconds to strike 4 o’clock. How much time will it take to strike 11 o’clock? (a) 18 seconds (b) 20 seconds (c) 19.25 seconds (d) 23.33 seconds 19. Along a road lie an odd number of stones placed at intervals o f 10 m. These stones have to be assembled around the middle stone. A person can carry only one stone at a time. A man carried out the job starting with the stone in the middle, carrying stones in succession, thereby covering a distance of 4.8 km. Then the number o f stones is (a) 35 (b) '15 (c) 29 (d) 31 20. What is the smallest number which when increased by 5 is completely divisible by 8,11 and 24? (a) 264 (b) 259 (c) 269 (d) None of these 21. Which is the least number that must be subtracted from 1856, so that the remainder when divided by 7,12 and 16 will leave the same remainder 4. (a) 137 (b) 1361 (c) 140 (d) 172 22 Two positive integers differ by 4 and sum of their recip rocals is 10/21. Then one of the numbers is (a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 5 (d) 21 23. 5* —1 is divisible by (a) 13 (b) 31 (C ) I (d) None of these 24. For the product n(n + 1) (2n + l ) . n e N. which one of the following is necessarily false? (a) It is always even (b) Divisible by 3 _ (c) Always divisible by the sum of the square o
25. The remainder obtained when a prim e num ber greater than 6 is divided by 6 is (a) 1 or 3 (b) 1 o r 5 (c) 3 Or 5 (d) 4 o r 5
REVIEW TEJT TWO
Directions fo r Questions 1 4 Four sisters Suvama, Tara, Uma and Vibha playing a gam e such that the loser doubles the m oney o f each o f the other player. They played four games and each sister lost one gam e in alphabetical order. At the end o f fourth gam e each sister hadRs. 32. 1. Who started with the lowest amount? (a) Suvama (b) Tara (c) Uma (d) Vibha 2. Who started with the highest amount? (a) Suvama (b) Tara (c) Uma (d) Vibha 3 . What was the amount with Uma at the end o f the second round? (a) 36 (b) 72 (c) 16 . (d) None o f these 4. How many rupees did Suvama start w ith? (a) 60 (b) 34 (c) 66 (d) 28 5. If n is an integer, how many values o f n w ill give an integral value of (16n2+7n+6)/n? (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) None o f these 6. A student instead of finding the value o f 7/8th o f a number found the value of 7 /18th o f the number. I f his answer differed from the actual one by 770. Find the numbers. (a) 1584 (b) 2520 (c) 1728 (d) 1656 7. P and Q are two integers such that PQ = 82. W hich o f the following cannot be the value o f P+Q1 (a) 20 (b) 65 (c) 16 (d) 35 8. If m and n are integers divisible by 5, which o f the following is not necessarily true? (a) m —n is divisible by 5 (b) m2  n2 is divisible by 25 (c) m +' n is divisible by 10 (d) None of the above 9. Which of the following is true? (a) 732 * (73)2(b) g ill (c) 73 < (73)2 (d) None o f these
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n natural numbers (d) Never divisible by 237
89
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 g f Q and R arc three consecutive odd numbers in as cending order. If the value o f three times P is three less chan two times R. find the value o f R. (a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 9 (d) 11 11 . ABC is a threedigit number in which A > 0. The value of ABC is equal to the sum o f the factorials of its three digits. What is the value o f B? (a) 9 (b) 7 (c) 4 (d) 2 IZ AI B and C are defined as follows: A = (2.000004) [(2.000004)2 + (4.000008)] B = (3.000003) + [(3.000003)2+(9.000009)] C = (4.000002)+ [(4.000002)2+ (8.000004)] Which o f the following is true about the value of the above three expressions? (a) All o f them lie between 0 . 18 and 0.20 (b) A is twice C (c) C is the smallest (d) £ is the smallest 13. Letx < 0 .5 0 ,0 < y < 1 , z > 1. Given a set o f numbers, the middle number, when they arranged in ascending order is called the median. So the median o f the numbers x, y and z would be (a) less than one (c) greater than one (b) between 0 and 1 (d) cannot say
A: n has a factor which is greater than l andle* square root n % B: n has a factor which is greater than square but less than n Then (a) Both A and B are false (b) Both A and B are true (c) A is false but B is true (d) Both A and B are true 18. What is the remainder when 496 is divided h (a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 6? 19. What is the sum of all twodigit numbers th a t remainder of 3 when they are divided by 7? ^V e‘ (a) 646 (b) 676 . (c) 683 (d) 797 4 9 16 20. The infinite sum 1+ —+ — + — +
7 ?2 ?3 ?4
.
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(d) ?56 147 21. If the product of n positive real numbers is unity, their sum is necessarily: (a) a multiple of n (b) equal to n + n (d) None of these
/X 49 (c) H
14. let a, by c d , and e be integers such that a = 6 b = 12c, contains a number that is not an integer?.
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(c) never less than n (b) a £ 36’ e
and 2b = 9d = \2e. Then which o f the following pairs
22. How many three digit positive integer, with digitsx?I and z in the hundred’s, ten’s and unit’s place respec1 tively, exist such that x < y , z < y and x * 0? (a) 245 (b) 285 (c) 240 (d) 320 23. How many even integers n, where 100 < n <200. a *I divisible neither by seven nor by nine? (a) 40 (b) 37 (c) 39 (d) 38 I
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15. If a, a + 2, and a + 4 are prime numbers, then the number o f possible solutions for a is: (a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) More than three 16. Let x and y be positive integers such that x is prime and y is composite. Then, (a) y  x cannot be an even integer (b) x y cannot be an even integer (c) (x + y) cannot be an even integer (d) N one o f the above statement is true 17. Let I (> 1 1 be a composite natural number such that the square root o f n is not an integer. Consider the following statem ents:
24. A positive whole number M less than 100 is reP r e se D[ ■ in base 2 notation, base 3 notation, and base 5 n 0ta^ It is found that in all three cases the last digit is in exactly two out of the three cases the leacun8 1. Then M equals: (a) 31 (b) 63 (c) 75 25. In a certain examinations paper, there are ; \V C who For j = 1 ,2 ... ji. there are 2/,_ students total nil" j or more questions wrongly. If thel value of «'*• wrong answers is 4095, then the (a) 12 (b) U (c) 10
(d !> J
(d) 9
(a) 8 0
68
REVIEW TEiT THREE
7.
 In 1 9 3 6 , 1 w a s as old as the number formed by th e as tw o d i g its o f my year of birth. Find the date of birth o my f a t h e r w h o is 25 years older to me. (a) 1868 (b) 1893 (c) 1902 (d) 1900 (e) Can't be determined 2. Find die total number of integral solutions of the equa tion (407)*  (ddd)y —2 5 8 9 , where ld d d is a th re e d ig it number. (a) 0 (b) 1 (c)2 (d) 3 (e) Can't be determined 3. Find the digit at the ten's place of the number N = 7281
X 3 264.
8.
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c)6 (d) 5 (e) None of these 4. Raju went to a shop to buy a certain number of pens and pencils. Raju calculated the amount payable to the shop keeper and offered that amount to him. Raju was sur prised when the shopkeeper returned him Rs. 2 4 as balance. When he came back home, he realized that the shopkeeper had actually transposed the number of pens with the number of pencils. Which of the following is certainly an invalid statement? (1) The number of pencils that Raju wanted to buy was 8 more than the number of pens. (2) The number of pens that Raju wanted to buy was 6 less than the number of pencils. (3) A pen cost R s . 4 more than a pencil. (4) A pencil cost Rs. 12 less than a pen. (5) None of the above. 5. HCF o f384 and a5b2 is 16ab. What is the correct relation between a and b!
9.
10.
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11.
12
(a) a  2 b
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(c) 7 0 ( d > 71 ( e ) None of these Volume of a cube with integral sides is the sam e as the area of a square with integral sides. W hich o f these can be the volume of the cube formed by using the square and its replicas as the 6 faces? (a) 19683 (b) 512 (c) 256 (d) Both (a) and (b) (e) Both (a) and (c) Let A be a twodigit number and B be another tw odigit number formed by reversing the digits o f A. I f A + B + (Product of digits of the number A) = 145, then w hat is the sum of the digits of A? (a) 9 (b) 10 (c) 11 (d) 12 (e) 13 When a twodigit number N is divided by the sum o f its digits, the result is Q. Find the minimum possible value of Q. (a) 10 (b) 2 (c) 5.5 (d) 1.9 (e) 7 A onedigit number, which is the ten's digit o f a tw o digit number X, is subtracted from X to give Y w hich is the quotient of the division of 999 by the cube o f a number. Find the sum of the digits o f X. (a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 6 (d) 8 (e) 9 After Yuvraj hit 6 sixes in an over, Geoffery B oycott commented that Yuvraj just made 210 runs in the over. Harsha Bhogle was shocked and he asked G eoffery which base system was he using? W hat m ust have been Geoffery's answer? (a) 9 (b) 2 (c) 5 (d) 4 (e) 7 Find the ten's digit of the number 72010. (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 (e) 4 Find the HCF o f 4 8 1 a n d t h e n u m b e r ‘a a a ’ w h e r e ‘a ’ i s
(d) a + b = 5
(e) Can't be determined 6 In ancient India, 0 to 25 years of age was called Brahmawastha and 25 to 50 was called Grahastha. I am in Grahastha and my younger brother is also in Grahastha such as the difference in our ages is 6 years 2nd both of our ages are prime numbers. Also twice my brother's age is 31 more than my age. Find the sum of our ages.
14.
15
n u m b e r b e tw e e n 1 a n d 9 ( b o th in c l u d e d ) . (a) 73 (b ) 1 (c ) 27 <d) 37 (e) C a n ’t b e d e t e r m i n e d T h e n u m b e r o f positive integer valued pairs (x , y ), s a t i s f y i n g 4x  1 7 y & 1 and x < 10 0 0 is: (a ) 5 9 (b)57 (c) 55 <d> 38 ( e ) N o n e o f these L e t a,b,c be distinct digits. Consider a two digit number "ah' and a three digit number ‘ccb’ both defined under
^ P n p a K to r ( b a n t t a t t o A f M i d e fo r t h e C A T
H usual decimal num ber sy stem . I f (abf = ccb a n d cd 1 30 0then the valu e o f b is: (a) I (b ) 0 (c ) 5 (d ) 6 (e) N one o f th ese I I The rem ainder 7 is d iv id e d b y 3 4 2 is : (a) 0 (b ) 1 (e ) 4 9 ( d ) 34] (e) N one o f these 17. Let .r, v and * b e d istin c t in te g e rs , x a n d y a re o d d a n d positive, a n d * is e v e n a n d p o s itiv e . W h ic h o n e o f th e follow ing sta te m e n ts c a n 't b e tr u e ? (a) (x z f y is e v e n (c) (x  y)y is o d d (e) N one o f th e se (b ) (x  z)y2 i s o d d (d ) ( x  y f z is e v e n
2.
Which is the highest 3digit number t h a t d iv id e ,
number 11111. 1(27 t i m e s ) p e r f e c t l y w i t h o u t leal v i& i any remainder? ( c ) 666 (a) 111 (b) 333 ( d ) 999 (e) None of these
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18. A boy starts a d d in g c o n s e c u tiv e n a tu ra l n u m b e r s s ta r t ing w ith 1. .A fter s o m e tim e h e re a c h e s a to ta l o f 1 0 0 0 w hen he realizes th at h e h a s m a d e th e m is ta k e o f d o u b le coun ting 1 n u m b e r. F in d th e n u m b e r d o u b le c o u n te d . $ 44 (b ) 4 5 (d ) 12 (C) 10 (e) N o n e o f th e se
19. In a nu m b er sy ste m th e p ro d u c t o f 4 4 a n d 11 is 1 0 3 4 . T h e num ber 3111 o f th is s y s te m , w h e n c o n v e rte d to d e c im a l n u m b e r sy ste m , b e c o m e s : (a) 406 (c) 213 (e) N o n e o f th e s e 20. A shish is g iv e n R s 158 in o n e ru p e e d e n o m in a tio n s . H e ha s b e e n a s k e d to a llo c a te th e m in to a n u m b e r o f b a g s such th at any a m o u n t re q u ire d b e tw e e n R e 1 a n d R s 15 8 ca n b e g iv e n b y h a n d in g o u t a c e r ta in n u m b e r o f b a g s w ithou t o p en in g th e m . W h a t is th e m in im u m n u m b e r o f b a g s req u ire d ? (a ) 11 (c) 13 (e) N o n e o f th e s e (b ) 12
(d) 14
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(b ) 1066 (d ) 691
REVIEW TEST FOUR
1. F in d th e n u m b e r of 6digit numbers that can be formed usin g th e d ig its 1, 2, 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 once such that the 6d ig it n u m b e r is d iv is ib le b y its unit digit. (a) 648 (b) 528 (c) 728 (d) 128 (e) N o n e o f th e s e
Wl, W2,..., W7 are 7 positive integral values suchth* by attaching the coefficients of + 1, 0 and 1 to value available and adding the resultant values, number from 1 to 1093 (both included) could be fon^ 1 3 If Wl, W2, ... , W7 are in ascending order, then v v h 3 ( is the value of W3? (a) 10 (b) 9 (c) 0 (d) 1 (e) None of these 14. 4. What is the unit digit of the number 6325 + 256 3 ? (d) 2 (a) 3 (b) 5 (c) 8 (e) None of these Find the remainder when (22225555 + 55552222) is divided I 15 by 7. (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) 5 (e) None of these What is the number of nines used in numbering a4 5 31 page book? (a) 86 (b) 87 (c) 84 (d) 83 (e) 85 16. How many four digit numbers are divisible by 5 but not. by 25? (a) 2000 (b) 8000 (c) 1440 (d) 9999 (e) None of these The sum of two integers is 10 and the sum of A e ff , reciprocals is 5/12. What is the value of larger of th e se1 integers? (a) 7 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 4 18. (e) None of these Saurabh was bom in 1989. His elder brother Siddh^ j was also bom in the 1980's such that the last two d ig ®I of his date of birth form a prime number P. F1 0 j remainder when (P + *11) is divided by 5. (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) P (e) Can’t be determined j 10. The HCF of * and y is H. Find the HCF of U3 + y3)/^*2  xy + y2) . H K l J*1  ^ J (a) H  1 (b) H2 (d) H+ (c) H (e) None of these
REVIEW TEJT FIVE
4 bells toll together at 9:00 A.M. They toll after » » and 12 seconds respectively. How many times wi toll together again in the next 3 hours? (a) I (b) 5 (e) 6 (d) 9 (e) None of these 12. What power of 210 will exactly divide 142! (a) 22 (b) 11 (c) 34 (d) 33 (e) None of these 13. Find the total numbers between 122 and 442 that are divisible by 3 but not by 9. (a) 70 (b) 71 (c) 72 (d) 73 (e) None of these 14. If 146! is divisible by 6n, then find the maximum value of n. (a) 74 (b) 75 (c) 76 (d) 73 (e) 70 15. If we add the square of the digit in the tens place of a positive twodigit number to the product of the digits of that number, we shall get 52, and if we add the square of the digit in the units place to the same product of the digits, we shall get 117. Find the twodigit number. (a) 18 (b) 39 (c) 49 (d) 28 (e) 30 16. Find the smallest natural number n such that (n + l)n[(n 1)!] is divisible by 990. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 10 (d) 11 (e) None of these 17. If x ,y and z are odd, even and odd respectively, then (x2  W + y3) and (x2 + y2 + z2) are respectively: (a) Odd & Odd (b) Even & Odd (c) Odd & Even (d) Odd & Odd (e) Can't be determined 18. A two digit number N has its digits reversed to form another two digit number M . What is the unit digit of M if product of M and N is 574? (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 6 (d). 9 (e) None of these 19. For what relation between b and c is the number abcacb divisible by 7, if b > c l (a) b + c = 7 (b) b = c + 7 (c) 26c = 7 (d) 1 1 lb («) None of these 20 What is the remainder when a6 is divided by (a + 1)(a) 1 1 1 (b) a (c) 0 8  (e) None of these
11.
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what is the last digit of 62A 43A 54A65A76A87? (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8 (e) None of these 2. N = 993 363  633, how many factors does N have? (a) 51 (b) 96 (c) 128 (d) 192 (e) None of these 3. Find the highest power o f 2 in 1! + 2! + 3 +4!............ 600! (a) 1 (b) 494 (c) 3 .0 (d) 256 (e) None of these 4. 100! is divisible by 160n...what is the max. integral value of n? (a) 19 (b) 24 (c) 26 (d) 28 (e) 20 5. What is the sum of the digits o f the decim al form o f the product 2999 * 51001? (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 7 (e) 10 6. What is the remainder when 1*1 + 11*11 + 111*111 + 1111*1111 +..... + (2001 times 1)*(2001 tim es 1) is divided by 100 ? (a) 99 (b) 22 (c) 01 (d) 21 (e) 89 7. What is the remainder when 789456123 is divided by 999? (a) 123 (b) 369 (c) 963 (d) 189 (e) 998 8. What is the total number of the factors o f 16! (a) 2016 (b) 1024 (c) 3780 (d) 4032 (e) None of these 9. Find the sum of the first 125 terms o f the sequence 1, 2 ,1 ,3 ,2 ,1 ,4 ,3 ,2 ,1 ,5 ,4 ,3 ,2 ... (a) 616 (b) 460 (c) 750 (d) 720 (e) 680 10. Umesh purchased a T a t a N a n o recently, but the faulty car o d o m e t e r o f T a t a N a n o p r o c e e d s f r o m d i g i t 4 t o digit 6, always s k i p p i n g d i e d i g i t 5, r e g a r d l e s s o f p o s i t i o n . If th e o d o m e t e r n o w r e a d s 003008 ( s t a r t i n g w i t h 000000),
h o w m an y k m h a s N a n o a c tu a lly tr a v e lle d ? ( a ) 2100 (b ) 1999 (c ) 2 1 9 4 (d ) 2195 (e ) N o n e o f th e s e
I
U. What is die remainder when 123412341234......u p to 4 0 0 digits is divided by 909?
EL
(a) 623
(b ) 650
1
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
(c ) 685
( d ) 675
(e) None of these
11 Mr. R a m lal lived his e n tire life during th e 18 0 0 s . In th e last y e a r of his life, R a m la l s ta te d : O n c e I w a s * y e a r s o ld in th e y e a r jr2. H e w a s b o m in th e y e a r (a ) 1822 (b ) 1851 (c ) 1853 ( d ) 1806 (e) 1830 13. F ind th e u n it’s d ig it o f L C M o f 13501  1 a n d 1 3 501 + 1 (a) 2 (b ) 4 (c ) 5 (d ) 8 (e) 9 14. I f yo u w e re to a d d a ll o d d n u m b e r s b e tw e e n 1 a n d 2 0 0 7 (b o th in c lu s iv e ), th e r e s u lt w o u ld b e (a) A p e rfe c t s q u a re ( b ) D iv is ib le b y 2 0 0 8 (c) M u ltip le o f 25 1 (d ) A ll o f th e a b o v e (e) N o n e o f th e s e 15. F in d th e re m a in d e r w h e n 9 7 1 ( 3 0 ^ + 6 1 10°) * ( 1 1 4 8 )56 is d iv id e d b y 31 (a) 25 (b ) 0 (c ) 11 (d ) 21 (e ) 10
16. What is the remainder when 2100 is divided b (a) 1 (b) 100 (c) 0 (d) g / I(,l? (e) None of these 17. Find the last two digits of 2 134 (a) 0 4 (b) 8 4 (c ) 24 (d ) M (e) None of these 18. Find the remainder when (103 + 9 3)1000 b y 123 (a) 01 (b) 11 ( c ) 1001 (d ) 1727 (e) None of these 19. The number o f f a c t o r s o f t h e n u m b e r 3 0 0 0 are(a ) 16 (e ) 4 0 I f N ! h a s 7 3 z e r o e s a t t h e e n d t h e n f i n d th e value ofJp (a ) 2 9 5 (b ) 300 (c ) 290 ( d ) 225 1 (e ) N o t p o s s ib le (b ) 3 2 (c > 2 4 (d ) 28
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  3. b 4 C
5. c
6. a 7. d
8. c
9. b 10.
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17. b 18. d 19. b 20. c 21. c
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22. c 23. c 24. d 25. a
R e V fe m ^ N g
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■ ■ HwBpre(MrefcrQuan«^Ap«udeformeCAT
Review Ttet Four
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5. d 6. c 7. b
8. d
9.
g
10. c
11.
12. d 13. b 14. d
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■M b
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• A verages • A llig atio n s
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• The Relevance of Averages Average is one of the most important mathematical concepts that we use in our day to day life. In fact, even the most non mathematical individuals regularly utilize the concept of averages on a day to day basis. So, we use averages in all the following and many more instances. • How a class of students fared in an exam is assessed by looking at the average score. • What is the average price of items purchased by an individual. • A person might be interested in knowing his average telephone expenditure, electricity expenditure, petrol expenditure, etc. • A manager might be interested in finding out the average sales per territory or even the average grow th rate month to month. • Clearly there can be immense application of averages that you might be able to visualize on your own.
• The Meaning of an Average The average is best seen as a representative value which can be used to represent the value o f the general term in a group of values. For instance, suppose that a cricket team had 10 partnerships as follows: 2nfl wicket 42 4th wicket 52 6 th wicket 23 8 th wicket 18 iO* wicket 13 On adding the ten values above, we get a total of 340—which gives an average o f 34 runs per wicket, i.e. the average partnership of the team was 34 runs.
1 “ wicket 28 3rd wicket 112 5* wicket 0 I I wicket 41 H wicket 9
...BACK TO SCHOOL
Contd.
7 n g ]
H o w to
PrepareforQuanttativeAptitudefortheCAT
In other words, if we were to replace the value of all the ten partnerships by 34 runs, we would get the same total score. Hence, 34 represents the average partnership value for the team. Suppose, in a cricket series of 5 matches between 2 countries, you are given that Team A had an average partnership of 58 Runs per wicket while Team B had an average partnership of 34 runs per wicket. What conclusion can you draw about the performance of the two teams, given that both the teams played 5 complete test matches? Obviously, Team B would have performed much worse than Team A: For that matter, if I tell you that the average daytime high temperature of Lucknow was 18° C for a particular month, you can easily draw some kind of conclusion in your mind about the month we could possibly be talking about. Thus, you should realize that the beauty of averages lies in the fact that it is one single number that tells yon a lot about the group of numbers  hence, it is one number that represents an entire group of numbers. But one of the key concepts that you need to understand before you move into the chapters of this block is the Concept of WEIGHTED AVERAGES. As always, the concept is best explained through a concrete example. Suppose I had to buy a shirt and a trouser and let us say that the average cost of a shirt was Rs. 1200 while that of a trouser was Rs. 900. In such a case, the average cost of a shirt and a trouser would be given by (1 2 0 0 + 9 0 0 )/2 = 1050. This can be visualized on the number line as: (midpoint) = answer
900 1050 1200
As you can easily see in the figure, the average occurs at the midpoint o f the two numbers.
Now, let us try to modify the situation: Suppose, I were to buy 2 trousers and 1 shirt. In such a case I would endup spending (900 + 900 + 1200) = Rs. 3000 in buying a total of 3 items. What would be my average in this case? Obviously, 3000/3 = Rs. 1000!! Clearly, the average has shifted!! On the number line we could visualize this as follows: (Answer) (midpoint)
900 1000 1050 1200
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It is clearly visible that the average has shifted towards 900 (which was the cost price o f the trousers—the larger purchased item.) In a way, this shift is similar to the way a two pan weighing balance shifts on weights being put on it. The balance shifts towards the pan containing the larger weight. Similarly, in this case, the correct average (1000) is closer to 900 than it is to 1200. This has happened because the number of elements in the group of average 900 is greater than the number of elements in the group having average 1200. Since, this is very similar to the system of weights, we call this as a weighted average situation. At this stage, you should realize that weighted averages are not solely restricted two groups. We can also come up with a weighted average situation for three groups] (although in such a case the representation of the weighted average on the number line might not be so easily possible.) In fact, it is the number line representation of a weighted average situation that is defined as alligation (when 2 groups are involved).
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PRE A S S E S S M E N T T E S T
 B
age is 1/10* o f Y*s p resent age. Y ’s age will be
thrice o f Z ’s ag e after 10 years. I f Z ’s eighth birthday was celebrated tw o y ears ago, then the present age of X m ost be (a) 5 years (c) 15 years
The difference in our ages is: (a) 40 years (b) 50 years (c) 60 years (d) None of these 8. The average age of three boys is 18 years. If their ages are in the ratio 4:5:9, then the age of the youngest boy is (a) 8 years (b) 9 years (c) 12 years (d) 16 years 9. “I am eight times as old as you were when I was as old as you are”, said a man to his son. Find out their present ages if the sum of their ages is 75 years. (a) 40 years and 35 years (b) 56 years and 19 years (c) 48 years and 27 years (d) None of these 10. My brother was 3 years of age when my sister was bom, while my mother was 26 years of age when I was bom. If my sister was 4 years of age when I was bom, then what was the age of my father and mother respec tively when my brother was bom? (a) 35 years, 33 years (b) 35 years, 29 years (c) 32 years, 23 years (d) Noneof these 11. Namrata’s father is now four times her age. In five years, he will be three times her age. In how many years, will he be twice her age? (a) 5 (b) 20 (c) 25 (d) 15 12. A father is twice as old as his daughter. 20 years back, he was seven times as old as the daughter. What are their present ages? (a) 24,12 (b) 44,22 (c) 48 ,24 (d) none of these 13. The present ages of three persons are in the propor tion of 5:8:7. Eight years ago, the sum of their ages was 76. Find the present age of the youngest person. (a) 20 i p 25 (c) 30 (d) None of these 14. The average age of a class is 14.8 years. The average age of the boys in the class is 15.4 years and that of girls is 14.4 years. What is the ratio of boys to girls in the class?
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 2 : 3 (0) None o f these 15. In an organization, the daily average wages o f 20 illiterate employees is decreased from Rs 25 to Rs 10, thus the average salary of all the literate (educated) and illiterate employees is decreased by Rs 10 per day.
(b) 10 years (d) 2 0 years 10 years back. How
2 Dravid was tw ice as o ld as R ahul
old is Rahul today if D rav id w ill be 45 y ears'old 15 years hence? V (a) 20 years (b) 10 years
(c) 30 years (d) N o n e o f these
A ,
3. A demographic su rv ey o f 100 fam ilies in w hich two parents w ere p resen t re v e a le d that the average age of the oldest child, is 15 y e a rs less than Vi the sum o f the ages o f the tw o paren ts. I f X represents the age o f one parent and Y th e a g e o f th e o th er parent, then which o f the fo llo w in g is eq u iv alen t to A ? (a) X ± l  l5 to X ± l + ly
(c) —
—15
4. If 10 years are su b tra c te d fro m the present age o f Randy and the re m a in d e r d iv id ed by 12, then you would get the p resen t a g e o f his gran d so n Sandy. If Sandy is 19 years y o u n g e r to S u n d y w hose ag e is 24, then what is the p re se n t a g e o f R a n d y ? (a) 80 y ears (b) 7 0 y ears (c) 60 years (d) N o n e o f these 5. Two groups o f stu d en ts, w h o se averag e ages are 15 years and 25 years, c o m b in e to fo rm a th ird group whose average ag e is 2 3 years. W h at is the ratio o f the number o f students in th e first g ro u p to th e num ber o f students in th e se c o n d g ro u p ? (a) 8 : 2 (b )
(c) 4 : 6 (d )
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(d)
X + Y  7 .5
2 :8
N o n e o f th e se
6. A year ago, M o h it was fo u r tim es his so n ’s age. In six years, his ag e w ill be 9 m o re th an tw ic e his son’s age. What is th e p re s e n t age o f th e son? B 10 y e a rs (b) 9 y ears (c) 20 y e a rs (d) N o n e o f these I In 1952, 1 was a s o ld a s the number form ed by the last two digits of my b ir th y ea r. When I mentioned this interesting coincidence to my grandfather, he sur prised m e by saying that th e s a m e a p p lie d to him also.
J q ^  HowloPrBparefbrQuantitative AptitudefortheCAT
The number of educated employees working in the organisation are: (a) 15 (b) 20 (c) 10 (d) 25 16. Mr.Akhilesh Bajpai while going from Lucknow to Jamshedpur covered half the distance by train at the speed o f 96 km/hr, half the rest o f the distance by his scooter at the speed o f 60 km /hr and the remaining distance at the speed o f 40 km /hr by car. The average speed at which he completed his journey is: (a) 64 km/hr (b) 56 km/hr (c) 60 km/hr (d) 36 km/hr 17. There are four types o f candidates in AMS Learning Systems preparing for the CAT. The number of stu dents o f Engineering, Science, Commerce and Hu manities is 400,60 0 ,5 0 0 and 300 respectively and the respective percentage o f students who qualified the CAT is 80%, 75% , 60% and 50% respectively the overall percentage o f successful candidates in our institute is: (a) 67.77% (b) 6 6 .6 6 % (c) 6&5% (d) None of these 18. M l Jagmohan calculated the average o f 10 ‘Three digit numbers’. But due to mistake he reversed the digits of a number and thus his average increased by 29.7. The difference between the unit digit and hun dreds digit of that number is: (a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) can’t be determined
20. If the storage cost is reduced to Rs. 0.9 p a per day, then on which day/days, should the hired? (a)
(c )
(b) 7th 4th and 7
r th
(d) None of these
A nsw ers (Block 2 P reassessm ent Test)
1. 6.
(a) (b) (b) (a)
2. (a) 7. (b) 12. (c) 17. (a)
3.
8.
(a) (c)
4. (b) 9. (c) 14. (c) 19. (a)
11. 16.
13. (b) 18. (b)
> ) 1 0 (d ) 5 (o 2a (fc )
SCORE INTERPRETATION ALGORITHM Block 2 Preassessm ent Test If You Scored: <12: (In Unlimited Time) Step One Go through the first chapter of the block. V izI
Averages. When you do so, concentrate on clearlyI understanding each of the concepts explained in the chattel theory. Then move onto the LOD 1 exercises. These exercisesw illI provide you with the first level of challenge. Try to so lv eI each and every question provided under LOD 1. While d o in gI so do not think about the time requirement .Once you fin ishI solving LOD 1, revise the questions and their so lu tio nI processes. Also at this stage study the concept of averages from ! your school text books (Class 8, 9 & 10) and solve all thel questions which are available to you in those books.
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D irections fo r questions 19— 20: Answer the questions
based on the following Information. Production pattern for number of units (in cubic feet) per day. Days Numbers of units
1 2
Step Two After finishing LOD 1 of Averages, moveto 1 0 11
LOD 2 and then LOD 3 of this chapter.
3
4
5
6
7
150 180 12 0 250 160 120 150
Step Three Go to the chapter of alligations and study
shortcuts provided carefully. Understand the use o I alligation process as clearly as possible. J Then move to the LOD 1 exercise of the same. (N otechapter of alligations does not have an LOD2 & exercise)
For a truck that can carry 2,000 cubic feet, hiring cost per day is Rs. 1,000. Storing cost per cubic feet is Rs. 5 per day. Any residual material left at the end of the seventh day has to be transferred. 19. If all die units should be sent to the market, then on which days should the trucks be hired to minimize the cost: (a) 2 * , 4th , 6 * , 7th (b) 7* (c) 2"d , 4* , 5* , 7* (d) None of these
Step Four Go to the practice test given at the end0 ,
block and solve it. While doing so, first look at the sc° ^ get within the time limit mentioned. Then continue
11
further without a time lim it and try to evaluate the
I f You S c o re d : > 12 (In Unlimited Time)
infiOTCinatt in your unlimited time score. f e c a t t thegrowth in score is not significant, go back 1 1 theory of each chapter and review each o f the q uestio n s you have solved for both the chapters.
Follow the same process as above. The only difference is tha the school book work is optional — do it only if you feel you need to. However, your concentration during the solving ol the two chapters has to be on developing your speed al solving questions on this chapter.
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R
AVERAGES
in t r o d u c t io n
with averages A j, A 2... Ak and having nx%n2 ... nk elements then the weighted average is given by the formula:
The concept of Averages is important since questions based on this chapter regularly appear in all aptitude exams. While most lower level MBA exams as well as Bank PO, NLS, NJLPT exams test the concept of averages through direct questions, the CAT and the XLRI examinations have used the concept to set conceptual problems that will not be found in most textbooks. Such problems have been given in this chapter in LODn and LOD III questions. While studying this chapter, make sure that you under stand the techniques o f faster illustrated computation in the text. These techniques are essentially based on certain con cepts and understanding them will, in turn, help you get a better grip on these concepts.
A j+ A ; +%A 3+... + nk Ak
* W j + n2 + n 3 + ... + nk Another Meaning of A v erag e The average [also known as arithmetic mean (AM)] of a set of numbers can also be defined as the number by which we can replace each and every number of the set without changing the total of the set of numbers. P ro p e rtie s of A verage (AM) The properties of aver ages [arithmetic mean] can be elucidated by the following examples: Example 1: The average of 4 numbers 12,13,17 and 18 is: Solution: Required average = (12 + 13 + 17 + 18)/4 = 60/4 = 15 This means that if each of the 4 numbers of the set were replaced by 15 each, there would be no change in the total. This is an important way to look at averages. In fact,
whenever you come across any situation where the average of a group of V numbers is given, you should visualise that there are V numbers, each of whose value is the average of the group. This view is a very important way to visualise averages. This can be visualised as
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THEORY The average of a number is a measure of the central tendency of a set of numbers. In other words, it is an estimate of where the center point o f a set o f numbers lies. The basic formula for the average o f n numbers jt1 #x 2, x3, M I (xj  x2 1 x3 I ... + x n)/n = (Total of set of n numbers)/* This also means A„ x n i total o f the set o f numbers. The average is always calculated for a set o f numbers.
12*+ 3» 15
Concept of Weighted Average:
W hen we have 2 or groups whose individual averages are known, then to find die combined average o f all the elem ents o f all the groups we use weighted average. Thus, if we have k groups
13>+2* 15
17 » 2 * 15 18 — 3— »15 6 0* +0~* 60
I
1 0 6
Howto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
■
Check out how this works with the following Si = 20 and S2 = 40 Step 1: Ratio of speeds = 20 : 40 = 1 :2 Step 2: Divide difference of 20 into 3 parts (r = 20/3=6.66 1+ % Required average speed = 20 + 1 x 6.66 Note: This process is essentially based on alligations and, shall see it again in the next chapter. sP ei%
Example 2: In Example 1, visualise addition of a fifth num ber. which increases the average by 1. 15 + 1 = 16 15 + 1 = 16 15 + 1 = 16 15 + 1 = 16 The +1 appearing 4 times is due to the fifth number, which is able to maintain the average of 16 first and then ‘give one’ to each of the first 4. Hence, the fifth number in this case is 20 Example 3: The average always lies above the lowest number of the set and below the highest number of the set. Example 4: The net deficit due to the numbers below the average always equals the net surplus due to the numbers above the average. Example 5: Ages and averages: If the average age of a group of persons is x years today then after n years their average age will be (x + ra). Also, n years ago their average age would have been (x  n). This happens due to the fact that for a group of people, 1 year is added to each person’s age every year.
EX ER C IS ES FOR SELFPRACTICE
Find the average speed for the above problem if (1) (2) (3) (4) Sj = 20 5, = 60 ^ = 100 Sj = 60 S2 =200 S2 = 120 S2 =50 S2 = 180 te a c "
WORKEDOUT PROBLEM/
The average of a batsman after 25 in n in g was 56 runs per innings. If after the 26th inning his av en g t increased by 2 runs, then what was his score in the 2 6 6j inning?
Problem 2.1
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Solution Normal process:
Example 6: A man travels at 60 kmph on the journey from A to B and returns at 100 kmph. Find his average speed for the joumey. Solution: Average speed = (total distance)/(total time) If we assume distance between 2 points to be d Then Average speed = 2d/[(d/60) + (d/100)] = (2 x 60 x 100)/ (60 + 100) = (2 x 60 x 100)/160 = 75 Average speed = (25j • 52)/(51+ S2) [S and S2 are speeds] of going and coming back respectively. S h o r t C u t The average speed will always come out by the following process: The ratio of speeds is 60 : 100 = 3 : 5 (say r x: r2) Then, divide the difference of speeds (40 in this case) by r, + r2 (3 + 5 = 8, in this case) to get one part. (40/8 = 5, in this case) The required answer will be three parts away (i.e. r, parts away) from the lower speed.
Runs in 26th inning = Runs total after 26 innings  R ® 5 j total after 25 innings = 2 6 x 5 8 2 5 x 5 6 For mental calculation use: (56 + 2) x 26  56 x 25 = 2 x 26 + (56 x 26  56x 25) = 52 + 56=108
Short Cut Since the average increases by 2 runs
hsc* innings it is equivalent to 2 runs being added to eac in the first 25 innings. Now, since these runs can only* flft I added by the runs scored in the 26th inning, ^1 the 26th inning must be 25 x 2 = 50 runs higher ^ I average after 26 innings (i.e. new average = 58). ^1 Hence, runs scored in 26th inning = New Averag innings x Change in average = 58 + 25 x 2 = 108
Chapter3: Averages i  ^
Visualise this as
ft
Average in first 25 innings 56 91 56
Average after 26 innings 58 58 58
S h o rt C ut The replacement has the effect of reducing the average marks for each of the 20 students by 4. Hence, the replacement must be 20 x 4 = 80 marks below the original. Hence, answer = 10 marks.
Problem 2.4 The average age o f 3 students A , B and C is
48 marks. Another student D joins the group and the new average becomes 44 marks. If another student E, who has 3
25 times...
26 times...
marks more than D, joins the group, the average of the 4 students B, C, D and E becomes 43 marks. Find how many marks A got in the exam.
Difference in total is two, 25 tim es and 58 once, that is, 58
+ 25x2.
P ro b le m 2 .2 average age o f a class o f 30 students and ________ The
Solution Solve while reading. The first sentence gives
you a total of 144 for A , B and C ’s marks. Second sentence. When D joins the group, the total becomes 44 x 4 = 176. Hence D must get 32 marks. Alternatively, you can reach this point by considering the first 2 statements together as: D’s joining the group reduces the average from 48 to 44 marks (i.e. 4 marks). This means that to maintain the average of 44 marks, D has to take 4 marks from A, 4 from B and 4 from C » A total of 12 marks. Hence, he must have got 32 marks. From here: The first part of the third sentence gives us information
a teacher reduces by 0.5 y ea rs i f w e exclude the teacher. If the initial average is 14 years, fin d the age o f the class teacher.
Solution Normal process:
Age o f teacher = T otal age o f (students + teacher) — T otal ag e o f students = 31 x 1 4  3 0 x 13.5 = 4 3 4 —405 = 29 y ea rs
u
lava
Short C ut T he te ac h er a fte r fulfilling the average of 14
(for the group to w hich h e b e lo n g e d ) is also able to give 0.5 years to the age o f ea ch o f th e 3 0 students. Hence, he has 30 x 0.5 — »15 years to g iv e o v e r a n d above maintaining his own average age o f 14 y ea rs. Age o f te ac h er = 14 + 3 0 x 0 .5 = 29 years
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Irttf V
about E getting 3 marks more than 32 > Hence, E gets 35 marks. Now, it is further stated that when A is replaced by E, the average marks of the students reduces by 1 to 43. Mathematically this can be shown as A + 1? + C +
D
(Note: This problem sh o u ld b e v ie w e d as change o f average from 13.5 to 14 w hen te a c h e r is in c lu d ed .) Problem 2.3 The average marks o f a group o f 20 students
= 4 4 x 4 = 176 while, B + C+ D + E = 43x4=172
Subtracting the two equations, we get A  E = 4 marks. Hence, A would have got 39 marks.
on a test is reduced by 4 when the topper who scored 90 marks is replaced by a new student. How many marks did the
new student have?
Solution Normal process:
\ \ \ W Let initial average be x. Then the initial total is 20* New average w ill be (* i 4) and the new total will be
Alternatively, you can think of this as: The replacement of A with E results in the reduction of 1 mark from each of the 4 people who belong to the group. Hence, the difference is 4 marks. Hence, A would get 4 marks more than E i.e. A gets 39 marks. U J S W j S J J The mean temperature of Monday to Wednesday was 27 °C and of Tuesday to Thursday was 24 °C. If the temperature on Thursday was 2/3rd of the tem perature on Monday, what was the temperature on Thursday?
20 (xr 4) 1 20br 1 80.
The reduction o f 80 is created by the replacement. Hence, the new student has 80 m arks less than the student he replaces. H ence, he m ust have scored 10 marks.
H o w toPrepare torQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
1 0 8
we get that the total while from Tuesday to Thursday was 72. The difference is arising out of the replace ment o f Monday by Thursday. This can be mathematically written as
first sentence,
Solution From the
from Monday to Wednesday was 81
Hence,
Mon + Tue + Wed =81 The + Wed + Thu = 72 Mon  Thu = 9
(1) (2)
W e have two unknown variables in the above equation. To solve for 2 unknowns, we need a new equation. Looking back at the problem we get the equation: Thu = (2/3) x Mon Solving the two equations we get: Thursday =18 °C. However, in the exam, you should avoid using equationsolving as much as possible. You should, ideally, be able to reach half way through the solution during the first reading of the question, and then meet the gap through the use of options. The answer to this problem should be got by the time you finish reading the question for the first time. Thus suppose we have the equations: M  T = 9 and T= 2M/3 or TIM = 2/3 and have the options for T as (a) 12 (b) 15 (c) 18 (d) 27
will be able to arrive at the solution to most of the Lq^ I problems (given later in this chapter) even as you f ,^ I reading the questions. And since it is the LOD I Z3 problems that appear in most examinations (IjJce qw I Maharashtra, Bank PO, MAT, Indo MAT, NMIMS, Jyjjs, I NLS and most other aptitude exams) you will gain a rfjfl nificant advantage in solving these problems. On LOD II, LOD III and CAT type problems, you w jjj I find that using solvingwhilereading and optionbase,) I approaches together would take you through anyw Wl I between 3070% of the question by the time you finjA I reading the question for the first time. This will give you a tremendous time advantage over' I the other students appearing in the examination. I A person covers half his journey by train*! 60 kmph, the remainder half by bus at 30 kmph and theieaI by cycle at 10 kmph. Find his average speed during thee n tire journey. Solution Recognise that the journey by bus and thatb y ] cycle are of equal distance. Hence, we can use the shortcut, illustrated earlier to solve this part of the problem. Using the process explained above, we get average sp e e d of the second half of the journey as 10 + 1 x 5 = 15 kmph Then we employ the same technique for the first part andg e t 15 + 1 x 9 = 24 kmph (Answer) Q Q E D 3 X Q A school has only 3 classes that contain tO j 20 and 30 students respectively. The pass percentage these classes are 20% , 30% and 40% respectively. Findth e pass percentage of the entire school.
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b e c o ri jptj o$2 (a )% ff (e)« l ie id n te m p o fe u p e i §1 is
To check which of these options is the appropriate value, we need to check one by one. Option (a) gives T = 12, then we have M = 21. But 12/21 * 2/3. Hence, this is not the correct option. Option (b) gives T = 15, then M = 24. But again 15/24 4 2/3. Hence, this is not the correct option. Option (c) gives T = 18, then M = 27. Now 18/27 = 2/3. Hence, this is the correct option. So we no longer need to check for option (d). However, if we had checked for option (d) then T= 27, so M * 36. But again 27/36 * 2/3. Hence, this is not the correct option. In the above, we used ‘solvingwhilereading’ and ‘op tionbased’ approaches. These two approaches are very important and by com bining die two, you can reach amazing speeds in solving 1 he question. You are advised to practice both these approaches while solving questions, which will surely improve your efficiency and speed. You will see that, with practice, you
Solution
Using weighted average: 10x0.2 + 2 0 x03 + 30x0.* 10 + 20 + 30
20 = — =33.33% 60 _ Alternatively, we can also use solvingwhilerea  as Recognize that the pass percentage would be giveB Passed students Total students
I ^ I you get into the second line of the question, I isacc I I first sentence and get the total number of
H students = 2 + 6 + 12 and you are through with the pfobfeot.
7 There are three fractions A, B and C. If A = — and B 4 = 1/6 and the average of A , B and C is 1/12. What is the
value of C? (a)  1/2 (b)  1/6
(c) 1/3
(d) t 1/4
Level of Difficulty (LOD)  
1 The average age of 24 students and the principal is 15 years. When the principal's age is excluded, the average age decreases by 1 year. W hat is the age of the principal? (a) 38
(0 39 (e) Data inadequate
(e) None of these
8. The marks obtained by Hare Rama in Mathematics, English and Biology are respectively 93 out o f 100, 78 out of 150 and 177 out of 200. Find his average score
in percent. (a) 87.83 (b) 86.83
(c) 76.33
(d) 75.33
(b) 40 (d) 37
2 The average weighto f 3 men A, B and C is 84 kg. Another man D joins the group and the average now becomes 80 kg. If another man E, whose weight is 3 kg more than that of D, replaces A then the average weight of B, C, D and E becomes 78 kg. The weight of A is
(a) 70 kg (c) 79 kg (c) 80 kg
(e) 77.33 9. The average monthly expenditure of a family was Rs. 2750 for the first 3 months, Rs. 3150 for the next three months and Rs. 6750 for the next three months. Find the average income of the family for the 9 months, if they save Rs. 650 per month.
(a) 4866.66 (c) 4666.66 (e) None of these
(b) 5123.33 (d) 4216.66
(b) 72 kg (d) 78 kg
3. The mean tem perature o f M onday to Wednesday was
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(a) 15 (b) 18
10. The average age of a family of 6 members is 22 years. If the age of the youngest member be 7 years, what was the average age of the family at the birth of the youngest member? (c) 21 (d) 12
(e) None o f these
37 °C and o f T uesday to Thursday w as 34 °C. If the
temperature on T hursday was 4/5 that o f Monday, the temperature on T hursday was (a) 38 °C (c) 40 °C (e) None o f these (b) (d) 36 °C 39 °C
11. The average age of 8 persons in a committee is in creased by 2 years when two men aged 35 years and 45 years are substituted by two women. Find the average
age of the two women. (a) 48 (b) 45 (c) 51 (d) 42
4. Three years ago, the average age o f A , B and C was 27 years and that o f B and C 5 years agp was 20 years. A ’s present age is (a) 30 years (c) 40 years it) None of these
 Ajit Tendulkar has a certain average for 9 innings. In the (b)
(e) 46 12. The average temperature for Wednesday, Thursday and Friday was 40 °C. The average for Thursday, Friday and Saturday was 41 °C. If the temperature on Saturday was 42 °C, what was the temperature on Wednesday? (a) 39°C (b) 4 4 °C (c) 38°G (d) 41°C (e) None of these 13. The speed of the train in going from Nagpur to Allahabad is 100 km/hr while when coming back from Allahabad to Nagpur, its speed is 150 km/hr. Find the average speed during the whole journey. IIJ2 5 (b) 75 (c) 135 (d) 140 (e) 120
(d)
35 years 48 years
tenth inning, he scores 100 runs thereby increasing his age by 8 runs. His new av erag e is
(b) 24
(C) 28
(d) 32
■ 36
I The average o f the first five m u ltip les o f 7 is
(*> 20
(b) 21
(c) 28
(<*) 30
SSj
r
H m to P n f/tn far Q uantitative Aptitude for the CAT
74. The average weight of a class o f 29 students is 40 kg. If the weight of the teacher be included, the average rises by 500 gm. What is the weight of the teacher? (a) 40.5kg (b) 50.5kg (c) 45 kg (d) 55 kg (e) 52 kg 15. The average of 3 numbers is 17 and that of the first two is 16. Find the third number.
(a) 15
23. The average o f ten numbers is 7. I f each numb* I multiplied by 1 2 , then the average o f the new Set N numbers is (a) 7 (e) 84 24. In a family o f 8 males and a few ladies, the aver&J monthly consumption o f grain p er head is 10 .8 kg. if^J average monthly consum ption per head be 15 kg ina j case o f males and 6 kg in the case o f females, fiBdtJ number o f females in the family. (a) 8 (e) 16 25. Average marks obtained by a student in 3 papers is 5?I and in the fourth paper h e obtains 60 marks. Find his I new average. (a) 54 (e) 54.5 26. The average earning o f Sham bhu N ath Pandey for the I initial three m onths o f the calendar year 2002 iffl * * * * * Rs. 1200. If his average earning fo r the second and third  > ■ month is Rs. 1300 find his earning in the first m onth? (a) 900 (e) 1300 27. In a hotel where room s are num bered from 101 to 130,1 each room gives an earning o f Rs. 3000 for the firstI fifteen days o f a m onth and fo r the latter half, Rs. 2000 per room. Find the average earning per room per day over the month. (Assum e 30 day month) (a) 2250 (b) 2500 (c) 2750 (d) 2466.66 1 (e) 2483.33 2 8 . The average weight o f 5 m en is decreased by 3 kg w henj one of them weighing 150 kg is replaced by another] person. Find, the w eight o f the new person? (a) (c) 165 kg 138 kg (b) 135 kg (d) 162 kg (b) 1100 (b) 52 (c) 55 (d) 53.5
1
(b) 19
(c) 82
(d) 83
(b) 16
(c) 17
(d) 19
(e) K
Id The average weight of 19 men in a ship is increased by 3.5 kg when one of the men, who weighs 79 kg, is replaced by a new man. Find the weight of the new man opto 2 decimal places (a) 105.75 (c) 145.50 (e) None of these 17. The age of Shaurya and Kauravki is in the ratio 2 : 6. After 5 years, the ratio of their ages will become 6 : 8. Find the average of their ages after 10 years. (a) 12 (b) 13 (c) 17 (d) 24 (e) None of these 18. Find the average of the first 97 natural numbers. (a) 47 (b) 37 (c) 48 (d) 49 (b) 107.55 (d) 140.50
(b) 7
(c) 9
(d) 15
/* Ilf A A
■
J ^ e 0 1 4 .6 0 0 ft
u
(c) 1000
(d)
1200
(e) 49.5 19. Find the average of all prime numbers between 30 and 50. (a) 39.8 (e) 40.8 (b) 38.8 (c) 37.8 (d) 41.8
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20. If we take four numbers, the average of the first three is 16 and that of the last three is 15. If the last number is 18, the first number is (a) 20 (b) 21 (c) 23 (d) 25 (e) 24 21. The average of 5 consecutive numbers is n. If the next two numbers are also included, the average will. (a) increase by 1 (c) increase by 1.4 (b) remain the same (d) increase by 2
ratni
(e) 165 kg 29. The average age o f a group o f men is increased by j years when a person aged 18 years is replaced by a ne person o f aged 38 years. How m any men are there iaM group? (a) 3 (e) 7 30. The average score o f a cricketer in three matches lSJ  runs and in two other m atches, it is 17 runs. average in all the five matches. (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 6
(e) None of these 22. The average of 50 numbers is 38. If two numbers, namely, 45 and 55 are discarded, the average of the remaining numbers is (a) 36.5 (b) 37 (c) 37.6 (d) 38
(e) 37i
Chapter 3:
Averages
111
(a) 20
(b) 19.6
(c) 21
(d) 19.5
(c) 78 kg (e) None o f these
(d) 80 kg
1 20.5 31. The average of 13 papers is 40. The average of the first 7 papers is 42 and of the last seven papers is 35. Find the marks obtained in the 7th paper? (a) 23 ' (b) 38 (c) 19 (d) 39 (e) None of these 32. The average age o f the Indian cricket team playing the Nagpur test is 30. The average age of 5 of the players is 27 and that of another set of 5 players, totally different from the first five, is 29. If it is the captain who was not included in either of these two groups, then find the age
of the captain. (a) 75 (c) 50 . <• (b) 55 <d) 58
37. The average score o f a class o f 40 students is 52. W hat
will be the average score o f the rest o f the students if the average score o f 10 o f the students is 61. (a) 50 (e) 49 (b) 47 (c) 48 (d) 51
38. The average age o f 80 students of HM, B angalore o f the 1995 batch is 22 years. W hat will be the new average if we include the 20 faculty m em bers w hose average age is 37 years? (a) 32 years (b) 24 years (c) 25 years (d) 26 years
(e) None o f these
39. Out o f three numbers, the first is tw ice th e second and
three times the third. The average o f the three num bers is 8 8 . The smallest num ber is (a) 72 (b) 36 (c) 42 (d) 48
(e) Cannot be determined 33. Siddhartha has earned an average o f 4200 dollars for the first eleven months of the year. If he justifies his staying on in the US on the basis of his ability to earn at least 5000 dollars per month for the entire year, how much should he earn (in dollars) in the last month to achieve his required average for the whole year? (a) 14,600 (b) 5,800 (e) 13,800 34. A bus goes to Ranchi from Patna at the rate of 60 km per hour. Another bus leaves Ranchi for Patna at the same time as the first bus at the rate of 70 km per hour. Find the average speed for the journeys of the two buses combined if it is known that the distance from Ranchi to Patna is 420 kilometers. ,(c) 12,800 (d) 13000
H 50 40. The sum o f three numbers is 98. If the ratio betw een the first and second is 2 : 3 and that betw een the second and the third is 5 : 8, then th e second num ber is (a) 30 (b) 20 (c) 58 (d) 48
(e) 52
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height o f the whole class is
41. The average height o f 30 girls out o f a class o f 40 is 160 cm and that of the remaining girls is 156 cm. The average (a) 158 cm (c) 159 cm
(e) 160 cm
(b) 158.5 cm (d) 157 cm
(a) 64.615 kmph (c) 63.823 kmph
(b) 64.5 kmph (d) 64.82 kmph
42. The average weight o f 6 persons is increased by 2.5 kg when one o f them whose weight is 50 kg is replaced by
a new man. The weight o f the new m an is (a) 65 kg (e) 6 6 kg (b) 75 kg (c) 76 kg (d) 60 kg
(e) None of these 35. A train travels 8 km in the first quarter of an hour, 6 km in the second quarter and 40 km in the third quarter. Find the average speed of the train per hour over the entire journey. (a) 72km/h (b) 18km/h (c) 77.33 km/h (d) 78.5 km/h (© ) 79 kg/hr 36. The average weight of 6 men is 68.5 kg. If it is known that Ram and Tram weigh 60 kg each, find the average
weight of the others.
43. The average age o f three boys is 15 years. I f their ages are in the ratio 3 : 5 : 7 , the age o f the youngest
boy is
(a) 2 1 years (c) 15 years
(b) 18 years (d) 9 years
H
72.75
kg
75H
(e) 12 years 44. The average age of A, B, C and D five years ago was 45 years. By including X, the present average age o f all the five is 49 years. The present age of X is
H k 
h o
#
g prepare forQuanWafive Aptitude for the CAT
(a) 64 years (c) 45 years
(b) 48 years (d) 40 years
54. The average o f the first ten odd numbers is (a) 11 (b) (b) 10 125 (c) 17 (c) 10 . (c) 11.2
(d)
9
(e) None of these
45. The average salary of 20 workers in an office is Rs.1900
55. The average o f the first ten prim e numbers is
(a) 15.5
(a) 129
(d) i2:g (d) 10
per month. If the manager's salary is added, the average salary becomes Rs. 2000 per month. What is the manager's annual salary? (a) Rs. 24,000 (c) Rs. 45,600 (e) None of these (b) Rs. 25,200 (d) RS. 46,000
56. The average o f the first ten composite numbers * (b) 11 57. The average o f the first ten prim e numbers, which odd, is (a) 129 (b) 13.8 (c) 17 (d) i 58 58. The average weight o f a class o f 3 0 students is If, however, the w eight o f the teacher is included^ average become 41 kg. The weight o f the teacher k (a) 3 1 k g (b) 6 2 k g (c) 7 1 k g (d) 70%
46. If a. byc, d and e are five consecutive odd numbers, then their average is (a) 5(a + b) (c) 5(fl + b + c + d + e) (e) None of these 47. The average of first five multiples of 3 is (a) 3 (b) 9 (e) None of these (c) 12 (d) 15 (b) ( a b e d , e)/5 (d) * * ■
59. Ram bought 2 toys for Rs. 5.50 each, 3 toysd Rs. 3.66 each and 6 toys for Rs. 1.833 each. The avera*
price per toy is (a) Rs. 3 (b) Rs. 10
(c) Rs. 5
(d) Rs.9 I
60 30 oranges and 75 apples were purchased for Rs. 5j If the price per apple was Rs. 2, then the average p rict
of oranges was (a) Rs. 12 (b)
48. The average weight of a class of 40 students is 40 kg. If the weight of the teacher be included, the average weight increases by 500 gm. The weight of the teacher is (a) 40.5 kg (c) 62 kg (b) 60 kg (d) 60.5 kg
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Vinay? (a) Rs. 1750 (c) 'Rs. 10 00
Rs. 14 (c) Rs. 10
(d)Rs. 1 5 I
61. The average incom e o f Sambhu and Ganesh is Rs. 3,000 and that o f Arun and Vinay is Rs. 500. W h a t is the average income o f Sambhu, Ganesh, Arun a n d
(b) Rs. 1850 (d) Rs. 25 00
(e) 64 kg 49. In a management entrance test, a student scores 2 marks for every correct answer and loses 0.5 marks for every wrong answer. A student attempts all the 100 questions and scores 120 marks. The number of questions he answered correctly was (a) 50 (b) 45 (c) 60 (d) 68 (e) None of these 50. The average age of four children is 8 years, which is increased by 4 years when the age of the father is included. Find the age of the father. (a) 32 (b) 28 (c) 16 (d) 24 (e) 30 51. The average of the first ten natural numbers is (a) 5 (b) 55 (c) 65 (d) 6 52 The average of die first ten whole numbers is (a) 45 (b) 5 (c) 55 (d) 4 53. The average of the first ten even numbers is (a) 18 (b) 22 (c) 9 (d) 11
6 2 A batsman made an average o f 4 0 runs in 4 innings, tot in the fifth inning, he w as out on zero. What is to average after fifth inning? (a)
32
(b) 22
(c) 38
(d)
49
63. The average weight o f a school o f 4 0 teachers is 804 If, however, the weight o f the principal be included.®1 average decreases by 1 kg. W hat is the weight of principal? (a) 109 kg (c) 39 kg (b) 29 kg (d) None of these
64. The average temperature o f 1st, 2nd and 3rd Decei^ was 24.4 °C. The average temperature of the fi® . days was 24 °C. The temperature on the 3rd of ^ ber was (a). 20®C (b) 25 °C
N o n e o f
(c)
65.
25 .2
°C
(d)
these
i
The average age of Ram and Shyam is 20 yeafsaverage age 5 years hence will be
Chapter 3:
Averages ( 1 1 3
(a) 25 years (c) 2 1 years
(b)
(d)
22 years 2 0 years
76.
The average income o f Ram and Shyam is Rs. 200. The average income o f Rahul and Rohit is Rs. 250. T he average income o f Ram , Shyam , Rahul and R ohit is (a) i s . 27 5 (c) Rs. 450 (b) R s.2 2 5 (d) Rs. 250
66 . The average o f 20 results is 30 and that o f 30 more
results is 20. For all the results taken together, the average is (a) 25 (b) 5 0
(c) 12
(d) 24
77.
The average weight o f 35 students is 35 kg. If the teacher is also included, the average w eight increases to 36 kg. The weight o f the teacher is (a) 36 kg (b) 7 1 k g (c) 70 kg (d) 45 kg
67. The average o f 5 consecutive numbers is 18. The high est of these num bers w ill be (a) 24 (b) 18
(c) 20
(d) 22
68 . The average o f 6 students is
11 years. If 2 more students of age 14 and 16 years jo in , their average will become (a) 12 years (b) 13 years (c) 21 years (d) 19 years
78. The average o f x, y and z is 45. x is as m uch m ore than the average a sy is less than the average. Find the value of Z(a) 45 (b) 25 (c) 35 (d) 15
69. The average o f 8 numbers is 12. If each number is increased by 2 , the new average will be (a) 12 (b) 14 (c) 13 (d) 15 70. Three years ago, the average age o f a family o f 5 mem bers was 17 years. A baby having been bom , the aver age of the fam ily is the same today. What is the age of
die baby? (a) 1 year (c) 6 months
79. Find the average of four num bers 2 —, 5^, 4^, 8 — . 6 4 3 6 2
(a) ' &
(c )
16j
(d ) 3
16
5
71. Sambhu’s average daily expenditure is Rs. 10 during May, Rs. 14 during June and Rs. 15 during July. His approximate daily expenditure for the 3 months is (a) Rs. 13 approxim ately (b) Rs. 12 (c) Rs. 12 approxim ately (d) Rs. 10
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(a) 35 years (c) 32 years
(b) 2 years (d) 9 months
80. The average salary per head o f all the workers in a company is Rs. 95. The average salary of 15 officers is Rs. 525 and the average salary per head of the rest is Rs. 85. Find the total number of workers in the workshop, (a) 660 (b) 580 (c) 650 (d) 460 81. The average age of 8 men is increased by 2 years when one of them whose age is 24 years is replaced by a woman. What is the age of the woman? (b) 28 years (d) 40 years
72. A ship sails out to a mark at the rate o f 15 km per hour and sails back at the rate o f 20 km/h. What is its average
rate o f sailing? (a) 16.85 km (c) 17.85 km
(b) 17.14 km (d) 18 km
73. The average tem perature on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday w as 41 °C and on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday it w as 4 0 °C. If on Thursday it was exactly 39 °C, then on M onday, the temperature was (a) 4 2 °C (b) 4 6 °C
82. The average monthly expenditure o f Ravi was Rs. 1 1 0 0 during the first 3 months, Rs. 2200 during the next 4 months and Rs. 4620 during the subsequent five months of the year. If the total saving during the year was Rs. 2 1 0 0 , find Ravi’s average monthly income. (a) Rs. 1858 (b) Rs. 3 1 0 8 .3 3 (c) Rs. 3 1 0 0 (d) None o f these
83 .
(c) 23°C
(d) 26°C
74. The average o f 2 0 results is 3 0 o u t o f w hich the first 1 0 results are having an average o f 10. T he average o f the rest 1 0 results is (a) 50 (b) 40 (c) 2 0 (d) 25
Shyam bought 2 articles for Rs. 5 .5 0 each, and 3 articles for Rs. 3.50 each, and 3 articles for Rs. 5 .5 0 each and 5 articles for Rs. 1.50 each. The average price for one article is (a) Rs. 3 (b) Rs. 3.10 (c) Rs. 3.50 (d) Rs. 2 denominations. If the total value o f coins is Rs. 150, then find how many rupees can be constituted by 5 0 1 coins. (a) 16 I (b) 2rf> 28 (d) None of these
84. In a bag, there are 150 coins of Re. 1, 50 p and 25 p
75. A man had seven children. W hen their average age was 12 years a child aged 6 years died. The average age o f the remaining 6 children is (a) B years I 17 y ears (b) 13 years (<*) 15 years
f 1 4 / Hdw to Ptepwe for Quantitative Aptitude forIhe CAT
(c) 655/93
(d) 530/33
Level o f Difficulty
(LOD)
I. With an average speed o f 40 km/h, a train reaches its destination in time. If it goes with an average speed of 35 km/h. it is late by 15 minutes. The length of the total journey is: (a) 40km (b) 70km (c) 30km (d) 80km
(e) 60km 2 In the month of July o f a certain year, the average daily expenditure o f an organisation was Rs. 6 8 . For the first 15 days o f the month, the average daily expenditure was Rs. 85 and for the last 17 days, Rs. 51. Find the amount spent by the organisation on the 15th of the month.
(e) None of these 7. Find the average increase rate if increase in the POfc lation in the first year is 30% and that in the second V is 40%. (c) 40 (b) 56 (a) 41 (d) 38 (e) 39 8. The average income of a person for the first 6 day, • I Rs. 29, for the next 6 days it is Rs. 24, for the next lO d J it is Rs. 32 and for the remaining days of the month1 is Rs. 30. Find the average income per day. (a) Rs. 31.64 (b) Rs. 30.64 (c) Rs. 29.26 (d) Rs. 31.22 (e) Cannot be determined 9. In hotel Jaysarmin, the rooms are numbered from 10]^ I 130 on the first floor, 221 to 260 on the second floora n dI 306 to 345 on the third floor. In the month of June 20011 the room occupancy was 60% on the first floor, 40%o sI the second floor and 75% on the third floor. If it is a lsoI known that the room charges are Rs. 200, Rs. 100a n dI Rs. 150 on each of the floors, then find the averageI income per room for the month of June 2002. (a) Rs. 151.5 (c) Rs. 78.3 (b) Rs. 88.18 (d) Rs. 65.7
(a) Rs.42 (c) Rs. 34
(e) Rs. 40
(b) Rs. 36 (d) Rs. 52
3. In 1919, W. Rhodes, the Yorkshire cricketer, scored 891 runs for his county at an average of 34.27; in 1920, he scored 949 runs at an average of 28.75; in 1921, 1329 runs at an average o f 42.87 and in 1922,1101 runs at an average o f 36.70. What was his county batting average
for the four years?
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(c) 35.58 (d) 28.72 (e) None of these
(a) 3623
(b) 37.81
(e) None o f these 4. A train travels with a speed of 20 m/s in the first 10 minutes, goes 8.5 km in the next 10 minutes, 11 km in the next 10 , 8 .5 km in the next 10 and 6 km in the next 10 minutes. What is the average speed o f the train in kilometer per hour for the journey described?
(a) 42kmph
(c) 55.2 kmph (e) 52 kmph
(b) 35.8 kmph (d) 46 kmph
10. A salesman gets a bonus according to the followiigI structure: If he sells articles worth Rs. x then he getsa I bonus of Rs. (x/100  1). In the month of January, hi I sales value was Rs. 100, in February it was Rs. 200, fa®I March to November it was Rs. 300 for every month*I in December it was Rs. 1200. Apart from this, he a lsoI receives a basic salary of Rs. 30 per month from» I employer. Find his average income per month during^ I year. (a) Rs. 31.25 (c) Rs. 32.5 (b) Rs. 30.34 (d) Rs. 34.5
5. Onefourth of a certain journey is covered at the rate of 25 km/h, onethird at the rate of 30 km/h and the rest at 50 km/h. Find the average speed for the whole journey.
(a) 600/53 km/h (c) 1800/53 km/h
((e) None of these
6.
(b) 1200/53 km/h
(d) 1600/53
(e) Rs. 33.5 11. A man covers half of his journey by train at 60 k n A i of the remainder by bus at 30 km/h and the test byflj at 10 km/h. Find his average speed during thee l1 journey. (a) 36 kmph (c) 24 kmph (b) (d) 30 kmph 18 kmph
Typist A can type a sheet in 6 minutes, typist B in 7 minutes and typist C in 9 minutes. The average number of sheets typed per hour per typist for all three typists 11 U) 265/33 (b ) 530/63
(e) 42 km/h
12. The average weight o f 5 men is decreased by 3 kg when one of them weighing 150 kg is replaced by another person. This new person is again replaced by another person whose w eight is 30 kg lower than the person he replaced. W hat is the overall change in the average due io this dual change. (a) 6kg (4 18kg
13. Find the average weight of four containers, if it is known
18. There were 42 students in a hostel. Due to the admis sion of 13 new students, the expenses of the mess increase by Rs. 31 per day while the average expendi ture per head diminished by Rs. 3. What was the original expenditure of the mess? (a) Rs. 633.23 (c) Rs. 623.3 (e) None of these 19. The average price of 3 precious diamond studded plati num thrones is Rs. 97610498312 if their prices are in the ratio 4:7:9. The price of the cheapest is: (a) 5,65,66,298.972 (c) 58,56,62,889.72 (e) None of these 20. The average weight of 47 balls is 4 gm. If the weight of the bag (in which the balls are kept) be included, the calculated average weight per ball increases by 0.3 gm. What is the weight of the bag? (a) 14.8 gm (c) 18.6 gm (e) None of these 21. The average of 71 results is 48. If the average of the first 59 results is 46 and that of the last 11 is 52. Find the 60th result (a) 132 (e) 136 22 A man covers l/3rd of his journey by cycle at 50 km/h, the next 1/3 by car at 30 km/h, and the rest by walking at 7 km/h. Find his average speed during the whole journey. (a) 14.2 kmph (c) 18.2 kmph (e) 16.2 kmph (b) 153 kmph (d) 12.8 kmph (b) 122 (c)
134
(b) 9 k g
(c) 12kg
(d) 15kg
(b) Rs. 583.3 (d) Rs.632
that the weight o f the first container is 100 kg and the total of die second, third and fourth containers' weight is defined by f(x)= x 1  3/4 (r2) where x = 100 (a) 650kg (c) 750kg (e) 600kg 14. There are five boxes in a cargo hold. The weight of the first box is 200 kg and the weight o f the second box is 20% higher than the weight o f the third box, whose weight is 25% higher than the first box’s weight. The fourth box at 350 kg is 30% lighter than the fifth box. Find the difference in the average weight of the four heaviest boxes and the four lightest boxes. (a) 515 kg (c) 375kg (e) None of these (b) 75 kg (d) 112.5 kg (b) 900kg (d) 450kg
(b) (d)
5 ,8 5 ,6 6 ,2 9 ,8 9 7 .2 5 8 57 62 98 17 2
(b) (d)
1 5 .0
gm
18 gm
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(b) 125 kg (d) 112.5 kg
15. For question 14, find the difference in the average weight of the heaviest three and the lightest three. (a) 13333 kg (c) 150kg (e) None of these 16. A batsman makes a score o f 270 runs in the 87th inning and thus increases his average by a certain number of runs that is a whole number. Find the possible values of the new average. (a) 98 (b) 184 (d) All o f these
(d)
128
17. 19 persons went to a hotel for a combined dinner party. 13 of them spent Rs. 79 each on their dinner and the rest spent Rs. 4 m ore than the average expenditure of all the 19. W hat w as the total money spent by
them.
9 16284
9 9 B None I these
#>) 1534
H 1496
23. The average age of a group of 14 persons is 27 years and 9 months. Two persons, each 42 years old, left the group. What will be the average age of the remaining persons in the group? (a) 26.875 years (b) 26.25 years (c) 25.375 years (d) 25 years (e) 27 years 24. In an exam, the average was found to be* marks. After deducting computational error, the average marks of 94 candidates got reduced from 84 to 64. The average thus came down by 18.8 marks. The numbers of candidates who took the exam were:
1 1 6
howto Prepare torQuantitative Aptitudeforthe CAT
(a) 100
(b) 90
(c) 110
(d) 105
(e) 120 25. The average salary of the entire staff in an office is Rs. 3200 per month. The average salary of officers is Rs. 6800 and that of nonofficers is Rs. 2000. If the number o f officers is 5, then find the number of nonofficers in
the office?
31. The average age of a group of persons going f0r, picnic is 16.75 years. 20 new persons with anaw*1 age of 13.25 years join the group on the spot ^ ^ which the average of the group becomes 15 years kM the number of persons initially going for the j»ci2 3 (a) 24 (b) 20 (c) 15 (d) ]g C ? 32. A school has only four classes that contain 10,2ft J and 40 students respectively. The pass percental J these classes are 20%, 30%, 60% and 100% resp ec. tively. Find the pass % of the entire school. (a) 56% (b) 76% (c) 34% (d) 66% 33. Find the average of f(x), g(x), h(x), d(x) at * = iq ^ ,j is equal to x2 + 2, g(x) = 5.x2  3, h{x) = log x2 = (4/5)^ (a) 170 (b) 170.25 (c) 70.25 (d) 70 34. Find the average oif{x)  g{x), g{x)  h(x), h(x) ~d[X ) d(x)f(x) (a) 0 (b) 2.25 (c) 45 (d) 2.25
(a) 8 (e) 10
(b) 12
(c) 15
(d) 5
26. A person travels three equal distances at a speed of x km/h, v km/h and z km/h respectively. What will be the average speed during the whole journey? (a) xyzJ(xy + yz + zx) (b) (xy + yz + zx)!xyz (c) 3.xyz/(xy+y z + xz) (d) None of these Directionsfo r Questions 2730: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. In a family of five persons A, B, C, D and E, each and everyone loves one another very much. Their birthdays are in different months and on different dates. A remembers that his birthday is between 25th and 30th, of B it is between 20th and 25th, of C it is between 10th and 20th, of D it is between 5th and 10th and o f E it is between 1st to 5th of the month. The sum of the date of birth is defined as the addition of the date and the month, for example 12th January will be written as 12/1 and will add to a sum of the date of 13. (Between 25th and 30th includes both 25 and 30). . 27. What may be the maximum average o f their sum of the dates of birth? (a) 24.6 (c) 28 (b) 15.2 (d) 32
35. s £ n + l) r where r  n . t1
(a)
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(b)
(c)
(n  l)(«)(w +1)
n(n +1)'
(d) I ~ ; \ im 36. The average of n numbers is z. If the number .v is replaced by the number then the average becom esI Z . Find the relation between n, z, zl, x and x .
(a)
n (n l)
zl  2 = r n V z 1J L JC— jc1 n
(b)
IV * 1 . z1 " hJ ’x  x ' 1,
28. What may be the minimum average of their sum of the dates of births?
(c)
(d)
(a) 24.6 (c) 28
(b) 152 (d) 32
zz1 . n
29. If it is known that the dates of birth of three of them are even numbers then find maximum average of their sum of the dales of birth. (a) 24.6 (c) 27.6 (b) 15.2 (d) 28
37. The average salary of workers in AMS careers®! Rs. 2,000, the average salary of faculty being R & ifl and the management trainees being Rs. 1,250. The o I (< *) 500 c njw jl Directions fo r Questions 3841: Read the following answer the questions that follows. During a criket match, India playing against NZ i the following manner: Partnership 1st wicket Runs scored
112
number of workers could be (a) 450 (b) 300 (c) 110
30. If the date of birth of four of them are prime numbers, then find the maximum average of the sum of their dates of biith.
P
27a
(b) 26.4
(d)
None of these
Chapter 3 :
Averages
1 1 7
2nd wicket 3rd wicket 4th wicket 5th wicket 6th w icket
58 72
92
45. One collective farm got an average harvest of 21 tons of wheat and another collective farm that had ) 2 acres o f land less given to wheat, got 25 tons from a hectare. As a result, the second farm harvested 300 tons of wheat more than the first. How many tons of wheat did each farm harvest? (a) 3150,3450 (c) 2150,2450
46
23
the average runs sc o re d by th e first four batsm en.
39.
(b) 60.5 (d) C annot be determined The maximum average runs scored by the first five
835 66.8 batsmen could be (a) 80.6 (c) 76 (b) 66.8 (d) Cannot be determined.
(b) 3250,3550 (d) None of these
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
III
40. The minimum average runs scored by the last five bats men to get out could be (a) 53.6 <b) 44.4 (c) 66.8 (d) 0 41. If the fifth down batsman g ets out for a duck, then find die average runs scored by th e first six batsmen. (a) 67.1 (b) 6 3 3 (c) 4&5 (d) C annot be determined 42 The weight of a body as calculated by the average of 7 different experiments is 53.735 gm. The average of the first three experiments is 54.005 gm , o f the fourth is 0.004 gm greater than the fifth, w hile th e average of the sixth and seventh experiment w as 0.010 gm less than the average of the first three. F in d th e weight of the body obtained by the fourth experim ent.
(a) 49353 gm (c) 53.072 gm (b) 51.712 gm (d) 54.512 gm
Directions fo r Questions 128: Read the following: There are 3 classes having 20,25 and 30 students respec tively having average marks in an examination as 20,25 and 30 respectively. If the three classes are represented by A, B and C and you have the following information about the three classes, answer the questions that follow: A— > Highest score 22, Lowest score 18 B— > Highest score 31, Lowest score 23 C— » Highest score 33, Lowest score 26
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If five students are transferred from A to B. 1. What will happen to the average score of B1 (a) Definitely increase (b) Definitely decrease (c) Remain constant (d) Cannot say
2. What will happen to the average score of A?
41 A man's average expenditure for the first 4 months of the year was Rs. 251.25. For the next 5 .months the average monthly expenditure was Rs. 26.27 more than what it was during the first 4 months. If the person spent Rs. 760 in all during the remaining 3 months of the year, find what percentage o f his annual income of Rs. 3000 (b) 5.0866% (d) None of these » A certain num ber o f tru ck s were required to transport 60 tons o f steel w ire fro m the TISCO factory in Jamshedpur. H ow ever, it was found that since each truck could 0.5 tons o f carg o less, another 4 trucks wete needed. How m any trucks were initially planned to
be used?
H I (b) 15 (c) 2 0 H 25
(a) Definitely increase (b) Definitely decrease (c) Remain constant (d) Cannot say In a transfer of 5 students from A to C
3. What will happen to the average score of C?
(a) Definitely increase (b) Definitely decrease (c) Remain constant (d) Cannot say
4.
he saved in the year. (a) 14% (c) 125%
What will happen to the average score o f A? (a) Definitely increase (b) Definitely decrease (c) Remain constant (d) Cannot say
In a transfer of 5 students from B to C (Questions 56) 5. What will happen to the average score of C? (a) Definitely increase, (b) Definitely decrease (c) Remain constant (d) Cannot say 5 Which of these can be said about the average score of B1 (a) Increases if C decreases
How to Prepare forQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT u s
H
Decreases if C increases
(c) Increases if C decreases (d) Decreases if C decreases
(b) Will always increase if B ’s average changes (c) May increase or decrease (d ) Will increase only if B 's average decreases (e) Will decrease only if B 's average increases
14. At the end o f the 2 steps mentioned above (jn *
(e) Cannot say 7. In a transfer of 5 students from A to B, the maximum possible average achievable for group B is (a) 25 (c) 25.5
(e) Cannot be determined
8 . For the above case, the maximum
(b) 24.5 (d) 24
direction) what could be the maximum value of ^ average o f class B1 (a) 25.4 (e) 25.2 (b) 25 (c) 24.8 (d) 24.6
possible average
achieved for group A will be (a) 20.66 (c) 20.75 (b) 21.5 (d) 20.5
15. For question 14, what could be the minimum valueQ f the average o f class B ? (a) 22.4 (b) 24.2 (c) 25 (d) 23
(e) 22
16. What could be the maximum possible average achieved I by class A at the end o f the operation? (a) 25.2 (b) 26 (c) 23.25 (d) .23.75 (e) None of these 17. What could be the minimum possible average of class I A at the end of the operation? (a) 21.4 (b) 19.2 (c) 28.5 (d) 20.25 (e) 20.4
(e) Cannot be determined 9. What will be the minimum possible average of Group A if 5 students are transferred from A to B1
4
i I t 0 (9 0 2 fa
ttej
(a) 1955
(c) 1933 (e) Cannot be determined
(b) 21 .5 (d) 20.5
10. If 5 students are transferred from B io A , what will be the minimum possible average of A? (a) 20.69 (c) 20.75 (e) 2 12 11. For question 10, what will be the maximum average ofA? (a) 232
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(b) 21 (d) 20.6
(b) 222
Directions fo r Questions 1823: Read the following an dI §! answer the questions that follow. If 5 people are transferred from C to B , further, 5 m ore I people are transferred from 5 to A, then 5 are transferred from I , A to B and finally, 5 more are transferred from B■ (d fl to C. 18. What is the maximum possible average achieved byjj I class C? (a) 30.833 (c) 29.66 (b) 30 (d) 30.66 P R ilj N in m
(c) 18.75 (d) 19 (e) Cannot be determined
Directions for Questions 1217: Read the following and answer the questions that follow. If 5 people are transferred from A to B and another inde pendent set of 5 people are transferred back from B to A, then after this operation (Assume that the set transferred from B to A contains none from the set of students that came to B fromA) 12 What will happen to B ' s average? (a) Increase if A*s average decreases (b) Decrease always (c) Cannot be said (d) Decrease if A*s average decreases (e) Increase if A's average increases 13. What can be said about A’s average? (a) Will decrease
(e) Cannot say 19. What is the maximum possible average of class # (a) 26 (b) 27 (c) 25 (d) 28 (e) Cannot say 20. What is the maximum possible average value attsi* by class A? (a) 22.75 (b) 23.75 (c) 23.5 (d) 24 (e) Cannot say * 21. The minimum possible value of the average of ff™
I
s
is:
(a) 26.3
(b) 27.5
i
■
9
Chapter3: Averages
1119
(c) 29.6 (e) Carnot say
(d ) 28
22 The minimum possible average o f group B
after this set
(b) Will have a maximum possible value of 2 2 .2 5 (c) Will have a minimum possible value of 22 .2 5 (d) Will be determined automatically at 22.5 (e) None of these 29. A team of miners planned to mine 1800 tons of ore during a certainnumber of days. Dueto technical difficulties in onethird of the planned number of days, the team was able to achieve an output of 20 tons of ore less than the planned output. To make up for this, the team overachieved for the rest of the days by 2 0 tons. The end result was that the team completed the task one day ahead of time. How many tons of ore did the team initially plan to ore per day? (a) 5 0 tons (b) 100 tons (c) 150 tons (d) 200 tons (e) 250 tons 30. According to a plan, a team of woodcutters decided to harvest 216 m3of wheat in several days. In the first three days, the team fulfilled the daily assignment, and then it harvested 8 m3 of wheat over and above the plan everyday. Therefore, a day before the planned date, they had already harvested 232 m3 of wheat How many cubic metres of wheat a day did the team have to cut according to the plan? (a) 12 (b) 13 (c) 24 (d) 25
(e ) 26 31.
of operation is (a) 2 1 1
(c) 21.8 (e) Cannot say
(b) 2 1 A (d) 2 1 2
23. The minimum possible average o f groups after the set of 3 operation is
(a) 20 (c) 2(14
(e) Cannot say
(b) 203
(d) 19.8
24. Which of these will definitely not constitute an operation for getting the minimum possible average value for group A:
(a) Transfer o f five (b) Transfer of five (c) Transfer of five (d) Transfer o f five
(e) None o f these
31s from B to A 26s from C to B 22s from A to B 33s from C to B
25. For getting the lowest possible value o f C ’s average, the sequence o f operations could be
(a) Transfer five 33s from C to B% five 23s from B to A, five 18s from A to B. five 18s from B to C (b) Transfer five 33s from C to B, 31s from B to A, (c) Both a and b (d) None o f the above
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(e) Cannot say 26. If we set the highest possible average o f class C as the primary objective and want to achieve the highest possible value for class B as the secondary objective, what is the maximum value of class B's average that is attainable? (a) 27 (b) 26 (c) 25 (d) 24
( 4 23
On an average, two liters of milk and one liter of water are needed to be mixed to make 1 kg of sudha shrikhand of type A, and 3 liters of milk and 2 liters of water are needed to be mixed to make 1 kg of sudha shrikhand of type B. How many kilograms of each type of shrikhand was manufactured if it is known that 130 liters of milk and 80 liters of water were used? (a) 20 of type A and 30 of type B (b) 30 of type A and 20 of type B (c) 15 of type A and 30 of type B (d) 30 of type A and 15 of type B
27. For question 26, if the secondary objective is changed to achieving the minimum possible average value of class 1 1 average, the lowest value o f class B ' s average that could be attained is
(a) 222
(b) 23
(c) 22.6
(d) 22
I
I 24 For question 27, what can be said about class A’s
average?
I Will be determined automatically at 22.25
(e) None of these 32 There are 500 seats in Minerva Cinema. Mumbai, placed in similar rows. After the reconstruction of the hall, the total number of seats became 10% less. The number of rows was reduced by 5 but each row contained 5 seats more than before. How many rows and how many seats in a row were there initially in the hall? (a) 20 rows and 25 seats (b) 20 rows and 20 seats
1201Howto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
(c) 10 rows and 50 seats (d) 50 rows and 10 seats
the average m onthly exp end iture w as to be calculated basis o f 9 m onths p er year. T h is w o u ld lead to people ha
°nth e
(e) 40 rowsand 20 seats 33. One fashion house has to make 8 10 dresses and another one 900 dresses during the same period o f tim e, in the first house, the order was ready 3 days ahead o f time and in the second bouse, 6 days ahead o f time. How
many dresses did each fashion house make a day i f the second house made 21 dresses more a day than the
an underestim ation o f th e ir sa v in g s sin ce there would be
underestimation of the income and expenditure per month.
36.
an overestim ation
If the m in iste r fo r eco n o m ic
a ffa irs decided to revej^ I
J
m
the p ro cess o f c a lcu la tio n o f ave rag e incom e and av^ age exp end iture, w h at w ill happen to the estimated say I in g s o f a person liv in g isla n d ? (a )  It w ill in cre ase (b ) It w ill decrease (c ) It w ill rem ain co n stan t (d ) on H o o la B o o la Moofe I
4!
^
first? (a) 54 and 75
(c) 44 and 68 (e) None o f these
(b ) 24 and 48 (d ) 04 and
25
! g j jVt
34. A shop sold 64 kettles o f two different capacities. The
smaller kettle cost a rupee less than the larger one. The shop made 100 rupees from the sale o f large kettles and 36 rupees from the sale o f sm all ones. H ow m any kettles o f either capacity did the shop se ll and w hat w as the price o f each kettle? (a)
Will
depend on the v a lu e
37. I f i t is know n that M r. M agoo H o o la B o o la estimates I® I vol saving s at 10 M o o lah s and if it is further known thathis I stri
20 kettles for 2.5 rupees each and 14 kettles fo r 1.5
rupees each
Moolahs in an year (M oolahs, I $ not aware, is the official currencyof I baC H o o la B o o la M o o la ), then what will happen to his es I bail tim ated sa vin g s i f he suddenly calculates on the basis I S o f a 12 m onth calendar year? I any
actual exp end iture is 2 8 8 fo r those w ho are (a ) W ill in cre a se b y 5 b a tsi (b ) (c ) W ill in cre a se b y 15
(b)
40 kettles for 4.5 rupees each and 24 kettles fo r 2.5
rupees each
(c)
40 kettles for 2.5 rupees each and 24 ketdes fo r 1.5
rupees each
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W ill in cre a se b y 10 W ill trip le (d ) 38. M r. B o o g ie W oogie co m es b a c k fro m the USA to p risin g 5 4 6 fa m ilie s to sta rt c a lc u la tin g the average in com e and a ve ra g e e xp e n d itu re on the basis of H i m onths p e r c a le n d a r y e a r. N o w i f it is know n that th e averag e estim ated in co m e on the isla n d is (according to I the o ld sy ste m ) 8 7 M o o la h s p e r m o n th , then what will I
n u m i
W g h t
(d) either a o rb (e) None o f these 35. An enterprise got a bonus and decided to share it in equal parts between the exem plary w orkers. It turned out, however, that there were 3 more exem plary w orkers than it had been assumed. In that case, each o f them would have got 4 rupees less. The adm inistration had found the possibility to increase the total sum of the bonus by 90 rupees and as a result each exem plary worker got 25 rupees. How m any people got die bonus?
h
P & oi H o o la B o o la M o o la and c o n v in c e s h is com m unity com 1
%
be the chang e in the ave rag e e stim ate d savings for® 61 ji g isla n d o f H o o la B o o la M o o la . (A ssu m e that there is n 0I f y j oth er ch an g e ). (a ) 2 5 1 .6 0 M o o lah s (b ) 5 6 5 .5 M oolahs (d ) C an n o t be determine 9 (c ) 6 2 5 .5 M o o lah s
(a) 9 (e) 20
(b) 18
(c )
8
(d ) 16
^


39. M r. B o o g ie W o o g ie co m es b a ck fro m the U S S R 3 11 co n vin ce s h is co m m u n ity co m p risin g 273 fa m ily start c a lcu la tin g the ave rag e in co m e on the basis of m onths p er ca le n d a r y e a r. N o w i f it is known ^
A ll
3 g
Directions for Questions 3639: Read the fo llow ing and
answer die questions that follow s.
In die island of Hoola Boola Moola, die inhabitants have a strange process of calculating their average incom es and expenditures. According to an old legend prevalent on that island, the average monthly income had to be calculated on the basis of 14 months in a calendar year w hile
the averag e estim ated in co m e in h is community j Q (acco rd in g to the o ld sy ste m ) 87 M o o lah s per m°fl J  m then w hat w ill be the chang e in the averag e estin^ savin g s fo r the isla n d o f H o o la B o o la M o o la. that there is no * J  j
Chapter 3:
Averages
121
^I
l(lll
(a) 251.60 M oolahs (C) 312.75 M oolahs
(b ) 282.75 M oolahs (d ) Cannot be determ ined
Assume no
stated. 40.
e xtra s u n le ss o th e rw ise stated .
Assum e that the strik e is e q u a lly sh ared u n le ss o th e rw ise
Directions f o r Q uestions 4 0 4 4 : Read the fo llo w in g and
answer the questions that fo llo w s. The Ind ian c ric k e t team has to score 360 runs on the last day o f a test m atch in 9 0 o ve rs, to w in the test m atch. T h is is the target set b y the opposing captain B ria n L a ra after he declared h is in n in g s clo sed a t the overnight score o f 411 fo r 7. The Ind ian team coach has the fo llo w in g inform ation about the batting rates (in term s o f runs per o ver) o f the different batsm en: Assum e that the ru n rate o f a partnership is the weighted average o f the in d iv id u a l battin g rates o f the batsm en in volved in the p artn ersh ip (on the b asis o f the ra tio o f the strike each batsm an g ets, i.e . the ru n rate o f a partnership is defined as the w eig hted averag e o f the run rates o f the tw o batsmen in vo lve d w eig hted b y the ra tio o f the num ber o f balls faced by each b atsm an ). Since d ecim al fra c tio n s o f ru n s are not p o ssib le fo r any batsm an, assum e that the estim ated runs scored b y a batsman in an in n in g (o n the b a sis o f h is run rate and the number o f o vers faced b y h im ) is rounded o ff to the next the runs scored d u rin g the in n in g s. Fo r exam p le, i f a batsm an sco res at an average o f 3 runs per over fo r 2 .1 6 6 6 o v e rs, then he w ill be estim ated to have scored 2.1666 x 3 = 6 .5 ru n s in h is in n in g s, but since this is not p o ssib le , the actu a l num ber o f runs scored by the batsman w ill be taken as 7 (th e n ext hig her integer above 6.5X A lso , th is round ing o ff can take p lace o n ly once fo r one innings o f a batsm an.
If the firs t w icke t p a ir o f D a s
overs and during th is p artn ersh ip
Dasgupta bats for 22 Das has started bat ting norm ally and turned ag g ressive after 15 overs while Dasgupta started o ff d e fe n siv e ly but shifted gears to bat norm ally after batting for 20 overs, find the expected
and score afte r (a )
22 o ve rs.
(b )
41. O f
(d) 58 between Das and D asgupta as per the p re vio u s question, the ratio of the num ber o f runs sco red b y Das to those scored by
the firs tw ic k e t p a rtn e rsh ip
65
71
(c) 82
y
D asgupta is :
higher integer im m e d iate ly ab ove the estim ated value o f
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(a) 46 : 25 (b) 96:46 (c) 41:32 (d) Cannot be determined 42. The latest time by which Tendulkar can come to bat and still win the game, assuming that the run rate at the time of his walking the wicket is into 2.5 runs per over, is (assuming he shares strike equally with his partner and that he gets the maximum possible support at the oilier end from his batting partner and both play till the last ball). (a) After 50 overs (b) After 55 overs (c ) After 60 overs (d) Cannot be determined 43. F o r question 4 2 , w here T e n d u lkar batted aggressively and assum ing that it is the T e n d u lk ar Laxman pair that w in s the game fo r In d ia (a fte r T e n d u lk a r w a lk s into bat w ith the current run rate at 2 .5 p e r o ve r, and a t the latest possible tim e fo r him to w in the gam e w ith maximum possible support fro m the opposite e n d ), w h at will be
Tendulkar’s score fo r the in n in g s (assu m e eq ual stn l*e )? (a) 105 (c ) 135 (b ) 120 (d ) N one o f these I
Runs scored per over in different batting styles
Name o f Batsman
Das Dasgupta Dravid Tendulkar Laxman Sehwqg Ganguly
44. Fo r questions 42 and 4 3 , i f it w as L a xm a n w h o batted w ith Tendulkar fo r h is entire in n in g s, then ho w m an y runs w ould Laxm an sco re in the in n in g s? (a ) 105 (c ) 9 0 (b ) (d ) 75 C anno t be determ ined R ead the fo llo w in g and
Defensive
N o rm a l
Aggressive
Directions for Questions 454 9 :
answ er the questions that fo llo w . I f Sachin Tendulkar w alk s in to bat afte r the fa ll o f the fifth w icket and hasto share partnerships w ith G a n g u ly , Kum ble, Harbhajan, Srinath and Yohannan, w ho have batted norm ally, defensively, d e fe n sively, d e fe n sive ly and d efen sive ly resp ectively w h ile Tfendulkar has batted n o rm a lly.
B
H a ff a h a ja n
I H
122
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
aggressively, aggressively, aggressively and aggressively in each of the five partnerships that lasted for 12,10,8,5 and 10 overs respectively, sharing strike equally mth Ganguly and keeping twothirds of die strike in his other four partnerships, then answer the following questions:
respectively
45. How many runs did Sachin score during his innings? (a) 128 (b) 212 (c) 176 (d) None of these 46. The highest partnership that Tendulkar shared in was worth: (a) 60 (b) 61 (c) 62 ' (d) 58 47. The above partnership was shared with: (a) Ganguly (b) Yohannan (c) KumW e (d) All three (e) Only b and c 48. If India proceeded to win the match based on the runs scored by these last five partnerships (assuming die last wicket pair remained unbeaten), what could be the maximum score at which Tendulkar could have come into bat: (a) 103 for 5 (c) 100 for 5 M 97 for 5 (d) 104 for 5
average is reducing by 34 due to the double countj of the 15th day. This can only mean that the 15th d*? expenditure is Rs. 68  34 = 34. (Lengthy calculations would have yielded the f0j lowing calculations: 85*15 + 51*1768*31=34) Find out the number of innings in each year. Then tfe answer will be given by: Total runs in 4 years (4270/119 = 35. Total innings in 4 years 4. Find the total distance covered in each segment of jq minutes. You will get total distance = 46 kilometersq 50 mins. 5. Assume that the distance is 120 km. Hence, 30 fanjj covered @ 25 kmph, 40 @ 30 kmph and so on. Then average speed is 120/total time 6. In three hours the total number of sheets typed will be 60/6 + 60/7 + 60/9 = 10 + 8.57 + 6.66. Hence the number of sheets/hour is 25.23/3 = 8.41is equivalent to 530/63. 7. 100 > 130 > 182. Hence, 82/2 = 41. 8. You do not know the number of days in the m onth. Hence, the question cannot be answered. 9. The number of rooms is 18 + 16 + 30 on the three floas I respectively. Total revenues are: 18*2 + 16*1 + 30*1.5 = 97/64= 1.515625— > 151.5625. Note here that if you could visualize here that sin ce the number of rooms is 64 the decimal values cannot be .3 or .7 which effectively means that options 3a n d 4 are rejected. 10. Replace x with the sales value to calculate the b o n u s in a month. 11. Use the same process as Q. No. 5 above. 12. The weight of the second man is 135 and that of $ third is 105. Hence, net result is a drop of 45 f»'i people. Hence, 9 kg is the drop. 13. Put x = 100 to get the weight of the containers. these weights to find average weight as 2600/4 14. The weight of the boxes are 1st box — »200,3rd bo* I 250 kg, 2nd box — » 300 kg, 4th box — >350 and — >500 kg. Hence difference between the heavier the lighter 4 is 300. Hence, difference in the avej is 75. tN * * 15. Difference between heaviest three and light®8 1 totals is: (350 + 500)  (300 + 200) = 350 Difference in average weights is 350/3 = 1
49. For question 48, what could be the minimum score at which Tendulkar could have come to bat: (a) 103 for 5 (b) 97 for 3 (c) 104 for 5 (d) 98 for 5
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Hints and Solutions
1. The train needs to travel 15 minutes extra @35 kmph. Hence, it is behind by 8.75 kms. The rate of losing distance is 5 kmph. Hence, the train must have trav elledfor 8.75/5=1 hour45 minutes. @40 kmph— >70 km. Alternatively, you can also see that 12.5% drop in speed results in 14.28% increase in time. Hence, total time required is 105 minutes @40 kmph — >70 kilome ters. Alternatively, solve through options. 2. Standard question requiring good calculation speed. Obviously, the 15th day is being double counted. Calculations can be reduced by thinking as: Surplus in first 15 days  Deficit in last 17 days = 255  289 4 Net deficit of 34. This means that the
Chapter 3: Averages 11 2 3
E
16. Part o f the runs scored in the 87th innings will go towards increasing the average o f the first 86 innings to the new average and the remaining part of the runs will go towards maintaining the new average for the 87th innings. The only constraint in this problem is that there is an increase in the average by a whole number o f runs. This is possible for all three options. 17. Assume .r is the average expenditure of 19 people. Then. I9x = 13*79 + 6(x + 4). 20. The average weight per ball is asked. Hence, the bag does not have to be counted as the 48th item.
21. 71*48 = 5 9 * 4 6 + x + 11*52— > *=72. Alternately, this can be solved by using the concepts of surpluses and deficits as: 2*59 (deficit) — 4 * 11 (surplus) + 48 (average to be maintained by the 60th number) = 11844 + 48 = 122. 22 Solve through the same process as the Q. No. 5 of this chapter. 23. (14* 3 3 3  2 *504)/12.
( 8 4  6 4 ) x 94 18.8 25. Use alligation to solve. 2 0  32 68. Thus, 5 corresponds to 12, hence for 36 the answer will be 15. 26. Let the equal distances be ‘< a P each. Then 3d!(cUx + dl y + d/z) = 3xyz/(x + y + z). 2730. You have to take betw een 25th and 30th to mean that both these dates are also included. 27. The maximum average will occur when the maximum possible values are used. Thus: A should have been bom on 30th, B on 25th, C on 20th, D on 10th and E on 5th. Further, the months of births in random order will have to be between August to December to m axim ize the average. Hence the total will be 30 + 25 + 20 + 10 + 5 + 1 2 + 1 1 1 1 0 1 9 + 8 1 1 4 0 . Hence average is 28. 28. The m inim um average w ill be when we have 1+5 + 10 + 20 + 2 5 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 76. Hence, average is
152.
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32 The number of pass candidates are2 + 6 + 18 + 40 = 66 out of a total of 100. Hence, 66%. 33A34. Put x  10 in the given equations and find the average of the resultant values. 35. Solve through options. 36. nzx + x1= nz] — » Simplify to get Option ( c ) correct. 37. By alligation the ratio is 3:8. Hence, only 110 is pos sible. Q3841: 38. You don’t know who got out when. Hence, cannot be determined. 39. Since possibilities are asked about, you will have to consider all possibilities. Assume, the sixth and sev enth batsmen have scored zero. Only then will the possibility of the first 5 batsmen scoring the highest possible average arise. In this case the maximum pos sible average for the first 5 batsmen could be 403/5 = 80.6. 40. Again it is possible that only the first batsman has scored runs. 41. We cannot find out the number of runs scored by the 7th batsman. Hence answer is (d). 4 2 You can take 53 as the base to reduce your calcula tions. Otherwise the question will become highly cal culation intensive. 43. 251.25*4 + 277.52 * 5 + 760 = 44. Solve using options. 20 is the only possible value. 45. Check through options to solve.
Hints and Solutions
1. Definitely decrease, since the highest marks in Class A is less than the lowest marks in Class B. 2. Cannot say since there is no indication of the values of the numbers which are transferred. 3. It will d e fin ite ly decrease sin ce the hig h est p o ssib le transfer is lower than the lo w est va lu e in C .
4 . Th e effect on A w ill depend on the p ro file o f the people w ho are tran sferred . H en ce, anyth in g can happen.
29. This does not change anything. Hence the answer is the same as Q . 27. 30 The prime dates m ust be 29th, 23rd, 19th and 5th. Hence, the m axim um possible average will reduce by 4/5 = 0.8. Hence, answ er will be 27.2. B Solve using alligation. Since 15 is the midpoint of 13.25 and 16.75, the ratio is 1:1 and hence there are 20 people who were going for the picnic initially.
is a possibility that the num such that the average can either in cre ase , decrease o r remain constant. 6 I f C in creases, then the average of C goes up from 30. F o r th is to happen it is definite that the average of B
C annot sa y sin ce there bers tran sferred are sho uld drop.
5.
1
2
4
!
HowtoPrepareforQuantitative Aptitude forthe CAT
7. The maximum possible average for B will occur if all the 5 transferees from A have 22 marks. 8. The average of Groups after the transfer in Q. 7 above is: (40018*5/15 = 310/15 = 20.66 ft <40022*5/15 = 19.33 10. 400 + 23*5 = 515. Average = 515/25 = 20.6 11. 400 + 31*5 = 555. Average = 555/25 = 22.2 12 Will always decrease since the net value transferred from B to A will be higher than the net value transferred from A to B. 13 Since the lowest score in Class B is 23 which is more than the highest score of any student in Class A. Hence. A's average will always increase. 14. The maximum possible value for B will happen when the A to B transfer has the maximum possible value and the reverse transfer has the minimum possible value. 15. For the minimum possible value of B we will need the A lo B transfer to be the lowest possible value while the £ to A transfer must have the highest possible value. Thus, A to B transfer 18* 5 while B to A transfer will be 31 *5. Hence answer is 22.4. 16. The maximum value forA will happen in the case of Q. 15. Then the increment for group A is: 31*518*5 = 5*(31 1 8 ) = 65. Thus maximum possible value is 465/20 = 23.25. 17. Minimum possible average will happen for the transfer we saw in Q. 14. Thus the answer will be 405/20 = 20.25. 18. The maximum possible value for C will be achieved when the transfer from C is of five 26’s and the transfer back from B is of five 31’s. Hence, difference is totals will be +25. Hence, max. average = (900 + 25)/30 = 30833. . [Note here that 900 has come by 30*30] 19. For the maximum possible value of Class B the follow ing set of operations will have to hold: Five 33’s are transferred from C to B, whatever goes from B to A comes back from A to B, then five 23’s are transferred from B to C. This leaves us
with:
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2123. Will be solved by the same pattern as the above tions. 24. Only option A will give us the required situation sin C e the transfer of five 31’s increases the value of ^ I average of group A. 2528. Will be solved by the same pattern as above tions. 2935. These are standard questions using the concept of averages. Hence, analyse each and every sentenceby 1 itself and link the interpretations. If you are getting ' stuck, the only reason is that you have not used th e information in the questions fully. 36. Monthly estimates of income is reduced as the de. ' nominator is increased from 12 to 14 at the same tim e the monthly estimate of expenditure is increased ai the denominator is reduced from 12 to 9. Hence, th e savings will be underestu ated. 3739. Use the averages formulae and common sense to answer. 4049. The questions are commonsensical with a lot of cal culations and assumptions involved. You have to solve these using all the information provided. 40. Das’s score = 15*2 + 7*2.5 = 47.5 — >48. Dasgupta’s score = 20*1 + 2*1.5 = 23 41. From the above the answer is 48:23 = 96:46. 4244. By maximum possible support from the other end, y o u have to assume that he has Laxman or Sehwag batting aggressively for the entire tenure at the crease. S trike has to be shared equally. 42. Through options, After 60 overs, score would be 1 5 0 . Then Tendulkar can score @ 4 runs per over (sharing the strike and batting aggressively) and get m axim um , support @ 3 runs per over. Thus in 30 overs left t»j target will be achieved. 43. Tendulkar’s score for the innings will be 30*4 = 44. We do not know when Laxman would have come m bat. Hence this cannot be determined. 4549. Build in each of the conditions in the problem to fan a table like: Partnership Partner Overs faced Tendulkar’s score Partner’s score 6th wicket Ganguly 12 6 overs x 6 6 overs 7th wicket and so on 8th wicket 9th wicket 10th wicket
Increase of 50 marks + average increases by 2 to 27. 20. A will attain maximum value if five 33’s come to A from C through B and five 18’s leave A. In such a case the net result is going to be a change of +75. Thus the average will go up by 75/20 = 3.75 to 23,75.
3;
1 1 I c 1 b A .c lc d b s i — _________________________ &e i i 10. b 1L a 12. a E e 14. d 15. d Id £ 17. a j 18. d 19. a 2a  21. a 22. e I e 24. b 0 a 1% c 27. b 1 b n u U Ua
31. c
e 34. a
h
_ _ _—
" ____ — gg____—
35. a 36. a 37. d 38. c 39. d 40. a 41. c 42. a 43. d
. 8
72. b 73. a
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44. c 74. a 45. e 46. e 47. b 48. d 49. d 50. b 51. b 52. a 53. d 54. b 55. d 56. c 57. d 58. c 59. a 60. a 75. b 76. b 77. b 78.
■
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ALLIGATIONS
INTRODUCTION
T b c chapter o f alligation is nothing but a faster technique
If the average of the measured quantity was
of solving problems based on the weighted average situa tion as applied to the case o f two groups being mixed to gether. I have often seen students having a lot o f difficulty in solving questions on alligation. Please remember that all problems on alligation can be solved through the weighted average method. Hence, the student is advised to revert to the weighted average formula in case o f any confusion. The use of the techniques of this chapter for solving weighted average problems will help you in saving valu able time wherever a direct question based on the mixing of two groups is asked. Besides, in the case o f questions that use the concept of the weighted average as a part o f the problem, you will gain a significant edge if you are able to use the techniques illustrated here. The relevance of this chapter for the CAT is the use of the alligation technique for solving problems where the concept is used to solve a part of the whole question. Be sides, questions of this chapter are directly relevant for the exams like CET (Maharashtra), NMIMS, NIFT, Symbiosis, MAT and all other B level management entrance exams as well as for the bank PO exams and the MCA exams, which are based on the pattern of an aptitude test.
A j for group A2 for group
A3 for group
Ak for group
containing containing containing containing
■— elementi I 1 , (elem ents 1 ^ ^ '
'h element! \*
We saythat the weighted average, Aw is
given by:
uw
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That is, the weighted average
Aw = (HiA] + n2 A2 + n3 A3 + .+ nkA^I (nj + n, + n 3 ... + nk) SilfclSepre!
[iiu ii illustrat
__________ Sum total of allgroups________ / J Total number of elements in all groups together In the case of the situation where just two groups an being mixed, we can write this as: Aw = (fljAj + n2 A2 )/(«! + n2) Rewriting this equation we get: (wj + n2) Aw = 1 njA.2
nt(Aw  At) = ^2 (A2  Aw)
or n,/n2 = (A2 j Aw)l(Aw  A,) » The alligation equal*
The Alligation Situation
Two groups o f elem ents are mixed together to fonna
l V i
THEORY
In the chapter on Averages, we bad seen the use of the weighted average formula. To recollect, the weighted
group containing the elem ents o f both the groupsj If the average o f the first group is Al and the elem ents is n, and the average o f the second g r o u p J the num ber of elem ents is n2, then to find the averag® j new group formed, w e can use either the weighted aveIT equation or the alligation equation.
lisA ’f S
I
average is used when a number of smaller groups are mixed together to form one larger group.
Chapter 4 :
Alligations
129
As I convenient convention, we take A x < A2. Then, by
the principal o f averages, we get A, < Aw < A 2.
Based on the problem situation, one o f the follow ing cases may occur with respect to the know ns and the unknown, in the problem.
Illustration 1
Case
Known
Unknown
(a) n, : n2 (b) n2 and /if : n2 Aw
r!
Two varieties of rice at Rs. 10 per kg and Rs. 12 per kg are mixed together in the ratio 1 : 2. Find the average price of the resulting mixture. SolutionI 1/2 = (12A w )/(A w  10) > A w  10 = 242Aw
=* 3Aw= 34 Aw = 11.33 Rs./kg.
(a) A„ A2, Aw (b) Ai, A2, Aw,
Ah A2, n ,, n2 A, Aw, Hj, n2
^2
Now, let us try to evaluate the effectiveness o f the cross method for each of the three cases illustrated above: Case 1: A], A2, Aw are known; may be one o f n l or : n2 and if /ij is known
is
niustratiotti2
On combining twot .groups o f students having 30 and 40 N marks respectively' in an exam, the resultant group has an average score of 34. Find the ratio o f the number of stue '^ dents in the first ;group to the number o f students in the second group. ;>
U J
Solution: n l/n2 = (40  34)/(34  30) = 6/4 = 3/2
known. To find: is known.
OR
n x if n2
Let us illustrate through an example:
Illustratio n 3
On mixing two classes of students having average marks 25 and 40 respectively, the overall average obtained is 3 0 marks. Find (a) The ratio of students in the classes (b) The number of students in the first class if the second class had 30 students.
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Graphical Representation of Alligation
The formula illustrated above can be represented by the [upstopl following cross diagram:
I
: tw os?
Solution:
25 40
*z) j
30
I t *3
:
av g ases the two weights
Aw  A 10 [Note that the cross method yields nothing but the alligaH equation. Hence, the cross method is nothing but a graphical representation o f the alligation equation.] I ■ have seen, there are Jive variables embedded inH H alligation equation* These being: A., A 2 and Aw n. and n 2
(a) Hence, solution is 2 : 1. If the ratio is 2 : 1 and the second class has 30 stu dents, then the fhst class has 60 students.
(b)
N ote: The cross g&gj&l becomes pretty effective in Uis situation when ail the three averages are known and the ratio is to bo found put.
Case 2: A,, A z. m and n2 are known. A w is unknown.
130
to * io ftepare f o r Quantitative Aptitude far the CAT U isk fo r student:
at
Illustration 4
4 kg o f rice at Rs. 5 per kg is mixed with 8 kg o f rice Rs. 6 per kg. Find the average price of the m ixture. Solution:
Solve through the alligation f0rn)l
approach and through the w eighted averag e the so lu tio n . N o tice the am ount o f
approach to time required in doi
the same. The cross method becomes quite cumbersome in this case since this method results in the formula bejing written. Hence, there seems to be no logic in using the cross method in this case. The above problems are quite effectively dealt by usin. the straight line approach, which is explained below.
Note:
Aw
6 = (6  Aw) : (Aw  5) Aw)/(Aw  5) m 4/8 >12  2 Aw = Aw 3 Aw = 17
The Straight Line Approach
As we have seen, the cross method becomes quite cumber some in Case 2 and Case 3. We will now proceed to m odify the cross method so that the question can be solved graphi cally in all the three cases. Consider the following diagram, which results from closing the cross like a pair o f scissors. Then the positions I of A i, A 2, A w , 72( and n2 are as shown.
Aw
=*
(6
5
Aw = 5.66 Rs./kg. (Answer) ‘ Risk for student: Solve through the alligation formula approach and through the weighted average approach to get the solution. Notice, the amount of time required in doing the same.
Note: The cross method becomes quite cumbersome in
this case, as this method results in the formula being written. Hence, there seems to be no logic in using the cross method in this case. Case 3: Ax, Aw, n, and n2 are known; A2 is unknown.
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Visualise this as a fragment o f the number line w ith points Aj, Aw and A 2 in that order from left to right. Then, (a)
n 2is responsible for the distance between A,and A w
Illustration 5
5 kg of rice at Rs. 6 per kg is mixed with 4 kg of rice to get a mixture costing Rs. 7 per kg. Find the price of the costlier lice.
Solution:
or (b)
n2 corresponds to A w  A x is responsible for the distance between A w and A yj
or corresponds to A 2 —Aw (c) (n, + n2) is responsible for the distance between AJ and A 2. or (n, + n 2) corresponds to A 2  A j. The processes for the 3 cases illustrated above can then be illustrated below:
Using the cross method:
6
M
Illu stratio n 6
On mixing two classes o f students having average 25 and 40 respectively, the overall average obtained lS marks. Find
:\
E g~ *5/4 4*  28 * 5 * * Ri. 8.25.
(a ) the ra tio in w h ic h the (b ) the num ber
classes were mixed. of stud ents in the first class if the sec
c la s s had 3 0 stu d en ts.
ip
Chapter 4: Alligations
* o f ,,V N .
S o la tia * :
fm
Using straight line method:
6
7
A l
lia j
Is exPlai
4 corresponds to 7 —6 and 5 corresponds to x —7. The thought process should go like: Hence, ratio is 2 : 1, and the second class has 60 students. C*9e 2 : A,. A 2, /i] and n 2 are known; Aw is unknown. Hence, and 4 » 1 5 » 1.25 x —7 = 1.25 x  8.25
ich
Illustration 7
od becom es^ '^ T r riD now proceed^. 4 kg of rice at Rs. 5 per kg is mixed with 8 kg of rice at tion can be sohrij Rs 6 per kg. Find the average price of the mixture. Solution:
SOME TYPICAL SITUATIONS WHERE ALLIGATIONS CAN BE USED
Given below are typical alligation situations, which students should be able to recognize. This will help them improve upon the time required in solving questions. Although in this chapter we have illustrated problems based on alliga tion at level 1 only, alligation is used in more complex problems where the weighted average is an intermediate step in the solution process. The following situations should help the student identify alligation problems better as well as spot the way A ,, A 2, n x and n2 and Aw are mentioned in a problem. In each of the following problems the following magni tudes represent these variables:
ram. which itgfcj
ssors. Then tb ep sj hown. is the same as 5 1
o f the Dumber it :r from left to rijfc
Aw
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Aw
Then, by unitary method: n, + n2 corresponds to A2  A, — ♦ 1 + 2 corresponds to 6  5 That is, 3 corresponds to 1
*2 will correspond to
A i = 20,
A2 = 30,
/i = 40,
n2 = 60
kance between^* h Luce between
t
J
CA2 —^ ) x n2 (*1 + *2>
Each of these problems will yield an answer of 26 as the value of A w .
lb e d is ta l ^ h ***casc (1/3) x 2 = 0.66. A _A  I Hence, the required answer is S.66. on d sw * * ■ ______ NoU: I H case, the problem associated with the cross illustrate method is overcome and the solution becomes graphical.
Case 3: H
Aw, n{ and n2 are known; A2 is unknown.
Illustration 8
u,vi«* J < £ _ I at Rs. 6 per kg i* mixed with 4 kg of rice to a mixture costing Rs. 7 per kg. Find the price of the rmriiw riot. cocdier
1. A man buys 40 kg of rice at Rs. 20/kg and 60 kg of rice at Rs. 30/kg. Find his average price. (26/kg) 2. Pradeep mixes two mixtures of milk and water. He mixes 40 litres of the first containing 20% water and 60 litres of the second containing 30% water. Find the percentage of water in the final mixture. (26%) 3. Two classes are combined to form a larger class. The first class having 40 students scored an average of 20 marks on a test while the second having 60 students scored an average of 30 marks on the same teat. What was the average score of the combined class on the test. (26 marks) \ A trader earns a profit of 20% oo 40% of H goods while he earns a profit of 30% on 60% of his
932 I N tM Vto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
goods sold. Find his percentage profit on the whole. (26%) . A car travels at 20 km/h for 40 minutes and at 30 km/ h for 60 minutes. Find the average speed of the car for the journey. (26 km/hr) 40% of the revenues of a school came from thejunior classes while 609b of the revenues of the school came from the senior classes. If the school raises its fees by 20% for thejunior classes and by 30% for the senior classes, find the percentage increase in the revenues of the school. (26%)
A closer look at the process will y ie ld that we can Set ( amount of wine left by:
4 0 x 3 6 /4 0 x 3 6 /4 0 x 3 6 /4 0 =
40 x (36/40)3 =>40 x (I  4/40/3
This yields the formula: Wine left : Capacity x (1  fraction of wine withdrawn/ for n operations. Thus, you could have multiplied: 40 x (0.9)3 to get the answer That is, reduce 40 by 10% successively thrice tog e t( f t p j required answer. Thus, the thought process could be: 40  10% 36  10% > 32.4  10% > 29.16
Som e Keys to spot A v A 2 and A w and differentiate these from n 1 and n 2
1. Normally, there are 3 av erag es m en tio n ed in the problem, while there are o nly 2 quantities. T his isn't foolproof though, since at tim es th e question m ight confuse the student by giving 3 values fo r quantities representing n ,, n2 and n ] + n2 respectively. 2. A,, A2 and Aw are alw ays rate units, w hile n , and ib are quantity units. 3. The denom inator o f the average unit corresponds to the quantity unit (i.e. unit for n x and n2).
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
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D
Ik s o l
L O D II and LOD HI in tin sJ
4. All percentage values represent the average values.
A Typical Problem
A
chapter since the questions are based on only certain basic] situations that cannot be extended.) 1. If 5 kg of salt costing Rs. 5 /k g and 3 kg of salt costing] Rs. 4/kg are mixed, find the average cost o f the m ix ture p er kilogram. (a) Rs. 4.5 (b) Rs. 4.625 (c) Rs. 4.75 (d) Rs. 4.125 (e) Rs. 4.25 2. Two types o f oils having the rates o f Rs. 4/kg H
% flj
typical problem related to the topic o f alligation goes as follows: 4 litres of wine are drawn from a cask containing 40
litres of wine. It is replaced by water. The process is re peated 3 times (a) What is the final quantity o f wine left in the cask.
(b) What is the ratio of wine to water finally.
If we try to chart out the process, we get: Out o f 40 litres of wine, 4 are drawn out. This leaves 36 litres wine and 4 litres water. (Ratio of f : l> Now, when 4 litres are drawn out of this mixture, we will get 3.6 litres of wine and 0.4 litres of water (as the ratio is 9 : 1). Thus at the end of the second step we get: 32.4 litres of wine and 7.6 litres of water. Further, the process is repeated, drawing out 3.24 litres wine and 0.76 litres water leaving 29.16 litres of wine and 10.84 litres of water. This gives the final values and the ratio required.
Rs. 5/kg respectively are m ixed in order to producea j m ixture having the rate o f Rs. 4.60/kg. What sltfj < 1 be the am ount o f the second type o f oil if the I o f the first type o f oil in the mixture is 40 kgIf); (a) 75 kg (b) 50 kg (c) 60 kg (d) 40 kg 5 (e) None o f these 3. How many kilograms o f sugar worth Rs. 3.60 p * j should be mixed with 8 kg o f sugar worth Rs. L kg, such that by selling the mixture at Rs. 4.40 P ^ j there may be a gain o f 10%? (a) 6 kg (b) 3kg (c) 2 kg (d) 5 (e) 4 kg
u
I I
I
Chapter 4: Alligations 1 1 3 3
I H mixture of 125 gallons of wine and water contains 20% water. How much water must be added to the mixture in order to increase the percentage of water to 25% of the new mixture? (a) 10 gals (b) 8.5 gals (c) 8 gals (d) 6.66 gals (e) 8.33 gals 5. Ravi lends Rs. 3600 on simple interest to Harsh for a period of 5 years. He lends a part of the amount at 4% interest and the rest at 6% and receives Rs. 960 as the amount of interest. How much money did he lend on 4% interest rate? (a) Rs. 2800 (b) Rs. 2100 (c) Rs. 2400 (d) Rs. 1200 (e) Rs. 1000 6. 400 students took the AMS Mock C a t in Lu ckn o w . 60% of the boys and 80% of the g irls cleared the cut off in the examination. If the total percentage o f stu dents qualifying is 65%, how many g irls appeared in the examination? (a) 100 (b ) 120 (c ) 150 (d ) 300 (e) 175 7. A man purchased a cow and a c a lf fo r R s . 1300. He sold the calf at a profit of 20% and the co w at a p ro fit of 25%. In this way, his total profit w as 23jj%. F in d the cost price of the cow. (a) Rs. 1100 (b) Rs. 600 (c) Rs. 500 (d) Rs. 400 (e) Rs. 800 8. The average salary per head of all employees of a company is Rs. 600. The average salary of 120 offic ers is Rs. 4000. If the average salary per head of the rest of the employees is Rs. 560, find the total number of workers in the company? (a) 10200 (b) 10320 (c) 10500 (d) 10680 (e) 10800 9 A dishonest milkman purchased milk at Rs. 10 per litre and mixed 5 litres of water in it. By selling the mixture at the rate of Rs. 10 per litre he earns a profit of 25%. The quantity of the amount of the mixture that he had was? (a) 15 litres (b) 20 litres (c) 25 litres (d) 30 litres U None of these
10. A cistern contains 50 litres of water. 5 litres o f water is taken out of it and replaced by wine. The process is repeated again. Find the proportion of wine and water in the resulting mixture. (a) 1 : 4 (b) 41 : 50 (c) 19 : 81 (d) 81 : 19 (e) 50 : 41 11. A container has a capacity of 20 gallons and is full of spirit. 4 gallons of spirit is drawn out and the container is again filled with water. This process is repeated 5 times. Find out how much spirit is left in the resulting mixture finally? (a) 6: f i  gallons
52 5
(b) i  §  gallons
OZ5
(c) 6.5 gallons
(d) 6.25 gallons
(e) None of these 12. A vessel is full of refined oil. 1/4 of the refined oil is taken out and the vessel is filled with mustard oil. If the process is repeated 4 times and 10 litres of refined oil is finally left in the vessel, what is the capacity of , the vessel? (a) 33 litres (b) — ^7— litres 81
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(°) ^tres (e) None of these
(d) 30 litres
13. In what ratio should two qualities of coffee powder having the rates of Rs. 47 per kg and Rs. 32 per kg be mixed in order to get a mixture that would have a rate of Rs. 37 per kg? (a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 1 : 3 (d) 3 : 1 (e) 4 : 1 14. A thief steals four gallons of liquid soap kept in a train compartment’s bathroom from a container that is full of liquid soap. He then fills it with water to avoid detection. Unable to resist the temptation he steals 4 gallons of the mixture again, and fills it with water. When the liquid soap is checked at a station it is found that the ratio of the liquid soap now left in the container to that of the water in it is 36 : 13. What was the initial amount of the liquid soap in thecontainer if it is known that the liquid soap is neither used nor augmented by anybody else during the entire period? (a) 7 litres (b) 14 litres
r iy iiu «m wu><
RU M W W wv
I (c) 21 fines (e) 49 btres 15. In what redo should water be mixed with soda costing Rs. 12 per litie so as to make a profit of 25% by selling the diluted liquid at Rs. 13.75 per litre? (a) 10 : I (c) 1 :11 (b) II : 1 (d) 12 : 1 (d) 28 litres
(a) 0 . 111 litres (c) 0.1 litre
(W 0.909 litres W) 0.125 litres
22. T here are tw o mixtures o f honey and water, the
tity o f honey in them being 25% and 75% of the ture. If 2 gallons o f the first are mixed with ^ gallons o f the second, what will be the ratio of hoto water in the new mixture? (a) I t : 2 (b ) 11 : 9
( c ) 9 : 11
(e)
1 :12
(d) 2 : jj
16. A sum of Rs. 36.90 is made up of 90 coins that are either 20 paise coins or 50 paise coins. Find out how many 20 paise coins are there in the total amount? (a) 47 (b) 43 (c) 27 (d) 63 (e) 70 17. A dishonest grocer professes to sell pure butter at cost price, but he mixes it with adulterated fat and thereby gains 25%. Find the percentage of adulterated fat in the mixture assuming that adulterated fat is freely available. (a) 20% (b) 25% (c) 33.33% (d) 40% (e) 35% 18. A mixture of 70 litres of alcohol and water contains 10% of water. How much water must be added to the above mixture to make the water 12.5% of the result ing mixture? (a) 1 litre (c) 2 litres (e) 3 litres 19. A mixture of 20 litres of brandy and water contains 10% water. How much water should be added to it to increase the percentage of water to 25%? (a) 2 litres (b) 3 litres (c) 2.5 litres (d) 4 litres (e) 5 litres
20. A merchant purchased two qualities of pulses at the rate of Rs. 200 per quintal and Rs. 260 per quintal. In 52 quintals of the second quality, how much pulse of H first quality should be mixed so that by selling the resulting mixture at Rs. 300 per quintal, he gains a profit of 25%? I I H 100 quintals 26 quintals (b) 104 quintals (d) None of these
23. There are two kinds o f alloys o f tin and copper "jv I first alloy contains tin and copper such that 93.33$ ^ it is tin. In the second alloy there is 86.66% tin. weight o f the first alloy should be mixed with soj^ weight of the second alloy so as to make a 50 kg containing 90% o f tin? (a) 15 kg (b) 30 kg (c) 20 kg (d) 25 kg 24. Two containers of equal capacity are full of a i of oil and water In the firs t the ratio o f oil to wafe I is 4 : 7 and in the second it is 7 : 11. Now both tfe mixtures are mixed in a bigger container. What is & resulting ratio o f oil to water. (a) 149 . 247 (c) 143 : 241 (b) 247 : (d) 241 : 149 143
www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/ www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/ 25. Two vessels contain spirit and water mixed respec
(b) 1.5 litre (d) 2.5 litres tively in the ratio of 1 : 3 and 3 : 5. Find the ratios  which these are to be mixed to get a new mixture ■ which the ratio o f spirit to water is 1 : 2. (a) 2 : 1 (b) 3 : 1 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 1 :3 26. The price of a pen and a pencil is Rs. 35. The pen w# sold at a 20% profit and the pencil at a 10% loss. If the transaction a man gains Rs. 4, how much is cost price of the pen? (a) Rs. 10 (b) Rs. 25 (c) Rs. 20 (d) None of these
27. A person purchased a cupboard and a cot *1
Rs. 18,000. He sold the cupboard at a profit of and the cot at a profit of 3 0 % . If his total profit **i 2 5 .8 3 3 % , find the cost price of the cupboard. (a) R s. 1 0 ,5 0 0 (b) Rs. 12,000 (c) R s. 7 5 0 0 (d ) Rs. 10,000
28.
A
vessel is fu ll o f a m ix tu re o f k ero sen e and pe**®
A m i buys milk at Rs. 8 5 per litre and dilutes it with water. He sells the mixture at the same rate and thus guns 11.11%. Find the quantity of water mixed by him in every litre of milk.
w hich there is 18% k ero sen e. E ig h t litres are o ff and then the v essel is fille d w ith petrol ® kerosene is now 15% , how m u c h d o es the vessel (a) 4 0 litres CO 36 litres (b ) (d ) 32 litres 4 8 litres
C h a p ter4 : A llig a tio n s 113S
29. Two solutions o f 90% and 97% purity are m ixed re sulting in 21 litres o f m ixture o f 94% purity. How much is the quantity o f the first solution in the result
ing m ixture? (a) 15 litres (c) 9 litres
(a) 1 : 4
(b) I : 5
(d ) 1 :
(c) I
: 6
12
(b)
12 litres (d ) 6 litres
36. A bartender stole champagne from a bottle that con tained 50% o f spirit and he replaced what he had stolen with champagne having 20% spirit. The bottle then contained only 25% spirit. How much o f the bottle did he steal? (a) 80% (c) 85.71% (b) 83.33% (d) 88.88%
30. In the Singapore zoo, there are deers and there are ducks. I f the beads are counted, there are 180, while the legs are 448. W hat will be the num ber o f deers in the *oo?
(a) 136
(b) 68
(c) 4 4
<d) 22
31. A bonus o f Rs. 9 ,8 5 ,0 0 0 w as divided am ong 300 workers o f a factory. E ach m ale w orker gets 5000 rupees and each fem ale w o rk er gets 2500 rupees. Find the number o f m ale w orkers in the factory. (a) 253 47 (c) 94 (d) 206 31 What will be the ratio o f petrol and kerosene in the final solution form ed b y m ixing petrol and kerosene that are present in three v essels in the ratio 4 : 1 , 5 : 2 and 6 : 1 respectively? (a) 166 : 22 (c) 83 : 44 (b ) 83 : 22 (d ) N one o f these
37. A bag contains a total of 105 coins o f Rs. 1, 50 p and 25 p denominations. Find the total number o f coins o f Re 1 if there are a total of 50.5 rupees in the bag and it is known that the number o f 25 paise coins are 133.33% more thanthe number o f 1 rupee coins. (a) 56 (c) 24 (b) 25 (d) None o f these
I
38. A man possessing Rs.6800, lent a part o f it at 10% simple interest and the remaining at 7.5% simple in terest. His total income after 3 — years was Rs. 1904. Find the sum lent at 10% rates. (a) Rs. 1260 (c) Rs. 1360
I I
33. A mixture worth Rs. 3.25 a k g is form ed by mixing two types o f flour, o n e co stin g Rs. 3.10 per kg while the other Rs. 3.60 p e r kg. In w h at proportion must they have been m ixed? (a) 3 : 7 (c) 10 : 3 (b ) 7 : (d ) 7 : 10 3
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(b) Rs. 1700 (d) None of these
39. If a man decides to travel 80 kilometres in 8 hours partly by foot and partly on a bicycle, his speed on foot being 8 km/h and that on bicycle being 16 km/h, what distance would he travel on foot? (a) 20 km (c) 48 km (b) 30 km (d) 60 km
34. A gain percent o f 2 0 is m ade b y selling the mixture o f two types o f ghee at R s. 4 8 0 p e r kg. If the type costing 610 per kg was m ix ed w ith 126 k g o f the other, how many kilograms o f d ie fo rm er w as m ixed? (a) 138 kg
(c) 69 kg
(b ) 34.5 kg (d ) C an n o t b e determined
35. In what proportion m u st w ater b e m ixed with milk so as to gain 2 0 % b y sellin g th e m ixture at the cost price
40. Two vessels contain a mixture of spirit and w ater In the first vessel the ratio of spirit to water is 8 : 3 and in the second vessel the ratio is 5 : 1. A 35 litre cask is filled from these vessels so as to contain a mixture of spirit and water in the ratio of 4 : 1. How many litres are taken from the first vessel? (a) 11 litres (c) 16.5 litres fl>) 22 litres (d) 17.5 litres
of the milk? (A ssum e th at w ater is freely available)
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REVIEW TETT ONE
1. Rakshit bought 19 erasers for Rs. 10. He paid 20 paise
all 130 students is to be as sm all as p o ssib le , th e n th e school should be built at (a) 33 km from Town A. (b) 33 kip from Town B (c) Towii A (d) Town B 9. A person who has a certain am ount w ith h im g o e s to the market. He can buy 50 oranges o r 4 0 m a n g o e s. H e retains 10% o f the am ount for taxi fare a n d b u y s 2 0 mangoes and o f the balance h e p u rc h a se s o ra n g e s. Number of oranges he can purchase is (a) 36 (b) 40 (c) 15 (d ) 20 10. 72 hens costs Rs._96.7_. T hen w h a t d o e s e a c h h e n cost, where numbers at are n o t v is ib le o r a re written in illegible hand? (a) Rs.3.43 (b) R s.5.31 (c) Rs.5.51 (d) R s.6.22
more for each white eraser than for each brown eraser. What could be the price of a white eraser and how many white erasers could he have bought? (a) 60 paise, 8 (b) 60 paise, 1 2 (c) 50 paise, 8 (d) 50 paise, 10 2. After paying all your bills, you find that you have Rs. 7.20 in your pocket. You have equal number of 50 paise and 1 0 paise coins; but no other coins nor any other currency notes. How many coins do you have? (a) 8 (b) 24 (c) 27 . (d) 30 3. Suresh Kumar went to the market with Rs. 100. If he buys three pens and six pencils he uses up all his money. On the other hand if he buys three pencils and six pens he would fall short by 20%. If he wants to buy equal number o f pens & pencils, how many
Directions fo r Questions 10— 12: pencils can he buy? There are 60 students in a class. T hese stu d en ts a re d iv id e d (a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 7 into three groups A, B and C o f '15, 20 a n d 25 stu d e n ts 4. For the above question, what is the amount of money each. The groups A and C are com bined to fo rm g ro u p D he would save if he were to buy 3 pens and 3 pencils? 11. What is the average w eight o f the stu d en ts in g ro u p (a) Rs. 50 (b) Rs.25 D ? (c) Rs.75 (d) Rs.4Q (a) more than the average w eight o f A . 5. Abdul goes to the market to buy bananas. If hecan (b) more than the average w eight o f C. baigain and reducethe price per dozen by Rs.2,he (c) less than the average w eight o f C . can buy 3 dozen bananas instead of 2 dozen with the (d) Cannot be determined. money he has. How much money does he have? 12. If one student from Group A is sh ifted to g ro u p B , (a) Rs. 6 (b) Rs. 12 (c) Rs. 18 . (d) Rs. 24 which o f the following w ill be true? 6. Two oranges, three bananas and four apples cost (a) The average weight o f both groups in c re a se s Rs.15. Three oranges, two bananas and one apple cost (b) The average weight o f both g roups d e c re a ses Rs.10. I bought 3 oranges, 3 bananas and 3 apples. (c) The average weight o f the class rem ain s th e sa m e. How much did I pay? (d) Cannot be determined. (a) Rs.10 (b) Rs .8 13. If all the students o f the class have the sam e w e ig h t (c) Rs.15 (d) cannot be determined then which o f the following is false? (a) The average weight o f all the fo u r g ro u p s is th e 7 John bought five mangoes and ten oranges together same. for forty rupees. Subsequently, he returned one mango (b) The total weight o f A and C is tw ic e th e to ta l and got two oranges in exchange. The price of an weight of B. orange would be (c) The average w eight o f D is g re a te r th a n th e (a) Rs. 1 (b) Rs. 2 (c) Rs. 3 ; (d) Rs. 4 average weight o f A. Two towns A and B are 100 km apart A school is to (d) The average weight o f all the groups re m a in s the be built for 100 students of Town B and 30 students of same even if a num ber o f students a re sh ifted Town A. The Expenditure on transport is Rs.1.20 per from one group to another. I per person. If the total expenditure ion transport by
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13 8
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
14. The average marks o f a student in ten papers are 80. If the highest and the lowest score are not considered the average is 81. If his highest score is 92 find the
lowest.
(a) 55 (b) 60 (c) 62 (d) cannot be determined. 15. A shipping clerk has five boxes o f different but unknown weights each weighing less than 100 kg. The clerk weighs the boxes in pairs. The weights obtained are 110,112,113, 114, 115, 116, 117,118, 120 and 121 kg. What is the weight of the heaviest box? (a) 60 kg (b) 62 kg (c) 64 kg (d) Cannot be determined (c) 83 (d) Cannot be determined 16. The total expenses o f a boarding house are partly fixed 20. Prabhat ordered 4 Arrow shirts and some additional and partly varying linearly with the number of Park Avenue shirts. The price of one Arrow shirt w as boarders. The average expense per boarder is Rs. 700 twice that of one Park Avenue shirt. When the order when there are 25 boarders and Rs. 600 when there are was executed it Was found that the number of the tw o 50 boarders. What is the average expense per boarder brands had been interchanged. This increased the b iU by 40%. The ratio of the number of Arrow shirts toth e when there are 100 boarders? number of Park Avenue shirts in the original order (a) 550 (b) 580 was: (c) 540 ' (d) 570 (a) I>3 (b) 1:4 17. A yearly payment to a servant is Rs. 90 plus one (c) 1:2 (d) 1:5 turban. The servant leaves the job after 9 months and 21. Three groups of companies: Tata, Birla and Reliance receives Rs.65 and a turban, Then find the price o f the announce the average of the annual profit for all years I turban: since their establishment. (a) Rs.10 (b) Rs.15 The average profit of Tata is Rs. 75,000 lakh (c) Rs.7.50 (d) Cannot be determined The average profit of Birla is Rs. 64000 lakh 18. A leather factory produces two kinds of bags, ‘Standard The average profit of Reliance is Rs. 73000 lakh and deluxe. The profit margin is Rs.20 on a standard The average profit of all results of Tata and B irla bag and Rs.30 on a deluxe bag. Every bag must be together is Rs. 70000 lakh. processed on machine A and on Machine 6 . The The average profit of all results of Birla and Reliance processing times per bag on the two machines are as together is Rs. 69000 lakh. follows: Approximately what is the average profit for all j Time required (Hours/bag) three group of companies? Machine A Machine B (a) Rs. 70800 lakh Standard Bag 4 6 (b) Rs. 71086 lakh Deluxe Bag 5 10 (c) Rs. 70666 lakh The total time available on machine A is 700 hours and (d) Can’t be determined on machine B is 1250 hours. Among the following
production plans, which one meets the machine a v a ilabji constraints and maximizes the profit? (a) Standard 75 bags, Deluxe 80 bags (b) Standard 100 bags, Deluxe 60 bags (c) Standard 50 bags, Deluxe 100 bags (d) Standard 60 bags, Deluxe 90 bags 19. Three math classes: X, Y, and Z, take an algebra test. The average score o f class X is 83. The average score o f class Y is 76. The average score of class Z is 85. What is the average score of classes X, Y, Z ? (a) 81.5 (b) 80.5
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11. d
12. c 13. c
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B LO CK a
9 Percentages 9 Profit and Loss 9 Interest 9 Ratio, Proportion and Variation 9 Time and Work 9 Time, Speed and Distance
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...B A C K T O S C H O O L
As you are already aware, this block consists of the following chapters: Percentages, Profit & Loss, Ratio & Proportion, Interests, Time and Work, Time, Speed and Distance To put it very simply, the reason for these seemingly diverse chapters to be under one block of chapters are: Linear Equations ^I" Yes. the solving of linear equations is the common thread that binds all the chapters\ \ in this block.  But before we start going through what a linear equation is, let us first understand \ I the concept of a variable and it’s need in the context of solving mathematical I '
expressions.  J
f
Let 11 start off with a small exercise first: Think of a number.
142 I
How to Prepare forQuantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Add 2 lo it. Double the number to get a new number. Add half o f this new number to itself. Divide the no. by 3. Take away the original number from it. The number you now have is......... 2!i How do I know this result? The answer is pretty simple. Take a look. I am assuming that you had taken the initial number as 5 to sho*
you what has happened in this entire process.
Instruction
Think of a number. Add 2 to i t Double the number to get a new number. Add half o f this new number to itself. Divide the result b y 3. Take away the original number from it. The number you now have
You 5+ 2=7 7 x 2 = 14 14 + 7 = 21 21/3 = 7 7 5 = 2 The number you now have is..... 21
Me X X +2 2X + 4 3X + 6 X + 2 X +2 X = 2 The number you now have is ..... 2!
is.... 2 !
The above is a perfect illustration of what a variable is and how it operates.
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In this entire process, it did not matter to me as to what number you have assumed. All I set up is a kind of a parallel world wherein the number in your mind is represented by the variable X in my mind. By ensuring that the final value does not have an X in it, I have ensured that the answer is independent of the value you would have assumed. Thus, even if someone had assumed 7 as the original value, his values would go as: 7, 9, 18, 27, 9, 2. What you need to understand is that in Mathematics, whenever we have to solve for the value of an unknown we represent that unknown by using some letter (like x, y,a etc.) These letters are then called as the variable representations of the unknown quantity. Thus, for instance, if you come across a situation where a question says: The temperature of a city increases by 1°C on Tuesday from its value on Monday, you assume that if Monday’s temperature was t, then Tuesday’s temperature will be t + 1. The opposite of a variable is a constant. Thus if it is said in the same problem that the temperature on Wednesday is 34° C, then 34 becomes a constant value in the context of the problem. Thus although you do not have the actual value in your mind, you can still mo' ahead in the question by assuming a variable to represent the value of the unknown! All problems in Mathematics ultimately take you to a point which will give the value\ of the unknown—which then becomes the answer to the question. Hence, in case you are stuck in a problem in this block of chapters it could be due to only one of three reasons: I Reason 1: You are stuck because you have either not used all the information given ' in the problem or have used them in the incorrect order.
Block 3
143
■ statement and see w h eth er you have utilized r such a case go b ack into die problem and try to id en tify eac _ : 0hf Hp interested in k n o w in g whether yo u have used it or not. I f you have alread y used a ll the inform ation, you m ight oe , „ pj „ r f hnth o f these have been done, you might want to I the info rm atio n g ive n m the problem in the correct order, it d o in o i « « e
In
explore the next reason
fo r
getting stuck.
because even though you might have used all the information given m the problem, you have not u tiliz e d some of the information completely. In such a ca se , yo u need to review each of the parts of the information given in the question and look a ti w hether a n y ad d itio n al details can be derived out of the same information. Very often, in Quan situatio ns w h e rein one sentence might have more than one connotation. If you have used that sentence o n ly in I one p e rsp ective, then using it in the other perspective will solve the question.
R easo n 2 : You are stu ck
Reason 3:
Yo u
In such a ca se , lie there. so lve q u estions concentrate on
are stuck because the problem does not have a solution. check the question once and if it is correct go back to Reasons I and 2. Your
so lu tio n
has to j
M y exp erien ce in
training students tells me that the 1st case is the most common reason for not b e in g able to j correctly, (more than 90% of the times) Hence, if you consider yourself to be w eak a t Maths, the following process in this block of chapters.
THE LOGIC OF THE STANDARD STATEMENT
W hat I have been
not ab le to in terp re t in these ch ap te rs). C o ncentrate on
trying to tell you is that most of the times, you will get stuck in a problem only w hen yo u are i a statement in the problem. Hence, my advise to students (especially those w ho are weak
developing your ability to decode the mathematical meaning of a sentence in a problem. in problems that you are able to solve (easily or with difficulty) go back into the language j o f the question and work out the mathematical reaction that you should have with each statement. It m ig ht not be a bad idea to make a list of standard statements along with their mathematical reactions for I each chap ter in this block of chapters. You will realise that in almost no time, you will come to a situation where you w ill o n ly rarely encounter new language. C o m ing b a ck to the issue of linear equations: L in e a r eq uatio n s are expressions about variables that might help us get the value of the variable if we can solve I
To do th is , even the eq uatio n .
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Depending upon the number of variables in a problem, a linear equation might have one variable, two variables' or even three o r m ore variables. The only thing you should know is that in order to get the value of a variable, I the number of eq u atio n s needed is always equal to the number of variables. In other w o rd s, i f you have more variables in a syste m o f equations than the number of equations, you cannot solve fo r the individual values of j die variables. The basic m ath e m atical p rin cip le goes like this: _____ For I system of equations to be solvable, the number of equations should \ ■ be equal to the number of variables in the equations. T h u s fo r instance, if you have two variables, you need two equations to get th e \ values o f die tw o variables, while if you have three variables you will need three equations.  T h is situ a tio n is best exemplified by the situation where you might have the fo llo w in g eq u atio n , jc + y = 7 . If it is known that both x and y are natural numbers. y ie ld s E set o f possibilities for the values of x & y as follows: (1, 6), (2, 5), (3, 4), f l I (5 , 21 ( 6 , 1 ). One of these possibilities has to be the answer.
I
Contd.
1
4
4
How t o
P r o p e r * fo r
Quantitative Aptitude for ffw CAT
In fact, it might be a good idea to think of all linear equation situations in this fashion. Hence, before y0u ahead to read about the next equation, you should set up this set of possibilities based on the first equation ° Consider the following situation where a question yields a set of possibilities:
Four enemies A, B, C and D gather together for a picnic in a park with their wives. A*s wife consumes 5 times as many glasses of juice as A. B's wife consumes 4 times as many glasses o f juice as B. C’s wife consumes 3 times as many glasses o f juice as C and D 's wife consumes 2 times as many glasses o f juice as D. In total, the wives o f the four enemies consume a total o f 44 glasses o f juice. If 4 consumes at least 5 glasses o f juice while each o f the other men have at least one glass, find the least num ber o f drinks that could have been consumed by the 4 enemies together.
(I ) 9
(2)
12
(3) 11
(4) 10
In the question above, we have 8 variables —A, B, C & D and a, b, c, d  the number of glasses consumed by the four men and the number o f glasses consumed by the four wives. Also, the question gives us five informations which can be summarized into 5 equations as follows,
a = 5A
b = 4B c = 3C
d = 2D and a + b + c + d  44 Also, A>5.
U nder this condition, you do not have enough inform ation to get all values and hence you will get a set of possibilities. Since the m inim al value o f A is 5, a can take the values 25, 30, 35 and 40 when A takes the values 5,6.7 and 8 respectively. Based on these, and on the realization that b has to be a multiple of 4, c a multiple of 3 and
d a m ultiple o f 2 , the follow ing possibilities emerge:
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25
12 3 4 44 25 8 9 2 44 25 8 3 8 44 A=8, a= 40 No solution 25 4 3 12 44 25 4 9 6 44
At A = 5
a b c d
(multiple o f 5) (multiple o f 4) (multiple o f 3) (multiple o f 2)
a+b+c+d
a b c d (multiple o f 4) (multiple o f 3) (multiple of 2) a+b+c+d
A=6, <2=30
4 6 4 44
A=7, a= 35
4 3 2 44
In this case the answer will be 10, since in the case of a  35, b=4, c=3 & d=2, the values for A,B,C and D w ill be respectively 7 ,1 ,1 and 1 . This solution is the least number of drinks consumed b y th e 4 enemies together as in all the other possibilities the number of glasses is greater than 10. Such utilizations of linear equations are very com m on in C A T an d top leveTl aptitude examinations. The relationship between the decimal value and the percentage value o f a ratio:  Every ratio has a percentage value and a decimal value and the difference between the two is just in the positioning of the decimal point. Thus 2/4 can be represented as 0.5 in terms of its decimal value and can be represented by 50% in terms of its percentage value.
^ASSESSMENT T E S T
I
Three runners A, Band C ru n a race, with runner A 24 metres ahead o f runner B and 36 metres ahead of runner C. w h ile runner B finishes 16 metres ahead of runner C. E a c h runner travels the entire distance at a constant sp eed . .What was the length o f
finishing the race?
6. Fifty per cent of the employees of a certain company are men, and 80% of the men earn more than Rs. 2.5 lacs per year. If 60 % of the company’s employees earn more than Rs. 2.5 lacs per year, then what fraction of the women employed by the company earn more than Rs. 2.5 lacs per year?
(a) 2/5 (b) 1/4 (c) 1/3 (d) 3/4 7. A piece o f string is 80 centimeters long. It is cut into three pieces. The longest piece is 3 times as long as the middlesized and the shortest piece is 46 centimeters shorter than the longest piece. Find the length of the shortest piece (in cm). ' (a) 14 (b) 10 (c) 8 (d) 18 8 . Three members of a family A, B, and C, work together to get all household chores done. The time it takes them to do the work together is six hours less than A would have taken working alone, one hour less than B would have taken alone, and half the time C would have taken working alone. How long did it take them to do these chores working together? (a) 20 minutes (b) 30 minutes (c) 40 minutes (d) 50 minutes 9. Fresh grapes contain 90% water by weight while dried grapes contain 20% water by weight. What is the weight of dry grapes available from 2 0 kg of fresh grapes? (a) 2kg (b) 2.4kg (c) 2.5kg (d) None of these 10. A t the end of the year 2008, a shepherd bought twelve dozen goats. Henceforth, every year he added p% o f the goats at the beginning o f the year and sold q% o f the goats at the end of the year where p> 0 and q >0. If the shepherd had twelve dozen goats at the end o f the year 2 0 1 2 , (after making the sales for that year), which o f the following is true?
(a) 72 metres (b) 96 metres (c) 120 metres (d) 144 metres 1 a dealer buys dry fruits at Rs.100, Rs. 80 and Rs. 60 per kilogram. He mixes them in the ratio 4:5:6 by weight, and sells at a profit of 50%. At what price per kilogram does he sell the dry fruit? (a) Rs.116 (b) Rs.106 (c) Rs.115 (d) None of these 3. There are two containers: the first contains 500 ml o f alcohol, while the second contains 500 ml o f water. Five cups of alcohol from the first container is taken out and is mixed well in the second container. Then, five cups of this mixture is taken out from the second container and put back into the first container. Let X and 1 denote the proportion of alcohol in the first and the proportion o f water in the second container. Then what is the relationship betw een X & Y ? (Assume the size of the cups to be identical) (a) X>Y I H R (b ) X<Y
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(d) Cannot be determined 4. Akhilesh took five papers in an exam ination, where each paper was of 200 marks. His m arks in these’ papers were in the proportion o f 7: 8: 9 :10 : 11. In all papers together, the candidate obtained 60% o f the total marks. Then, the number o f papers in which he got more than 50% m arks is:
(a) I
^ ■ B j S . (b) 1
(d) 5  I and B walk up an escalator (moving stairway). The escalator moves at a constant speed, A takes six steps for every four of B’s steps. A gets to the top of the escalator after having taken 50 steps, while B (because his slower pace lets the escalator do a little more of the work) takes only 40 steps to reach the top* If the escalator were turned off, how many steps woulcf they have to take to w alk up? (*) 80 I ( b ) 100 B 120 (d) 160
1 I
(a) p = q (c) p>q
(b) p<q (d) p = q/2
Directions fo r Questions 1112: Answer the questions based on the following information. An Indian company purchases components X and Y from UK and Germany, respectively. X and Y form 40% and 30% of the total production cost. Current gain is 25%. Due to change in the international exchange rate scenario, the cost of the German mark increased by 50% and that of
1 4 6 1 How to Prepare for Quantitative A p t i t u d e for Ihe CAT
U K
pound increased
m arket co n d itio n s, beyond
by 25%. Due to tough competitive the selling price cannot be increased
10% .
11. What is the maximum current gain possible? (a) 10% (b) 12.5% (c) 0% (d) 7.5% 12. If the UK pound becomes cheap by 15% over its original cost and the cost of German mark increased by 20%. what will be the gain if the selling price is not altered. (a) 10% (b) 20% (c) 25% (d) 7.5% 13. A college has raised 80% of the amount it needs for a new building by receiving an average donation of Rs. 800 from the people already solicited. The people already solicited represent 50% of the people, the college will ask for donations. If the college is to raise exactly the amount needed for the new building, what should be the average donation from the remaining people to be solicited? (a) 300 (b) 200 (c) 400 (d) 500 14. A student gets an aggregate of 60%marks in five subjects in the ratio 10: 9: 8: 7: 6. If the passing marks are 45% of the maximum marks and each subject has the same maximum marks, in how many subjects did he pass the examination? (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 15. After allowing a discount of 12.5 % a trader still makes a gain of 40%. At what per cent above the cost price does he mark on his goods? (a) 45% (b) 60% (c) 25% (d) None of these 16. The owner of an art shop conducts his business in the following manner. Every once in a while he raises his prices by X%, then a while later he reduces all the new prices by X% . After one such updown cycle, the price of a painting decreased by Rs. 441. After a second updown cycle, the painting was sold for Rs. 1944.81. What was the original price of the painting (in Rs.)? (a) 2756.25 (b) 2256.25 (c ) 2500 (d) 2000 17. Manas, Mirza, Shorty and Jaipal bought a motorbike fo r $60,000. Manas, paid 50% of the amounts paid by the other three boys, Mirza paid one third of the sum
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proposals? (a) 10% (c) 9% (b) 12% (d) 14%
of the amounts paid by the other boys; and $ paid one fourth of the sum of the amounts H Paid  idL the other boys. How much did Jaipal have to Pay? (a) $15000 (b) $13000 % (c) $17000 (d) None of these 18. A train X departs from station A at 11.00 a. fo r station B , which is 180 km away. Another Nn y departs from station B at 11.00 a.m. for station a Train X travels at an average speed of 70 kms/hr^i does not stop anywhere until it arrives at station I S t Train Y travels at an average speed of 50 km/hj; ^ k i ? W , has to stop for 10 minutes at station C, which jg« kms away from station B enroute to station a ] W m Ignoring the lengths of the trains, what is u ,. distance, to the nearest km, from station A to th ei j i point where the trains cross each other? (a) 110 (b) 112,, (c) 116 (d) None of these 19. In a survey of political preferences, 81% of those X J * * * asked were in favour o f at least one of the th ree L i * * * ' budgetary proposals A, B and C. 50% of those asked a iB jih e sta tio n .W b favoured proposal A,30% favoured proposal B an d ^ hicl 20% favoured proposal C. If 5% of those asked j x sequence in w eorigin. If i favoured all the three proposals, what percentage of a toth those asked favoured more than one of the three a r i a it returns
S
\w
I■
fo k it remains i ^i)is (a re )recen
fopeonacerfc Directions fo r Questions 2021: The petrol consumption wife first two rate of a new model car ‘Palto’ depends on its speed an d f c ig o fth e fi may be described by the graph below: "kfcginiiingofi ^seco nd a * * * * *
Is
9
Manasa makes the 240 km trip from Mumbai to at a steady speed of 60 km per hour. What » s amount of petrol consumed for the journey? (a) 12.5 litres(b) 16 litres (c) 15 litres(d) 19.75 litres
Btoek3 j 1 4 7 g i
L i bh M
B
Manasa w ould lik e to minimize the fuel consumption for the trip by d rivin g at the appropriate speed. How should she change the speed? (a) Increase the speed (b) Decrease the speed (c) Maintain the speed at 60km/hour (d ) Cannot be determined
■ II
filth ki
m
pirtctions for Questions 22— 23: A n sw e r the questions based on the following information: There are fiv e m achines  A , B, C , D , and E  situated on
i straight lin e at d istan ces o f 10m, 2 0 m , 30 m , 40 m and 50m resp ectively fro m the origin o f the lin e . A robot is
stationed at the o rig in o f the line. T h e robot serves the machines w ith raw m a te ria l whenever a m achine becomes
are lo cated at the o rig in . Th e at the o rig in at the beginning o f a day. A s soon as one o r more m ach ines becom e id le , they send messages to the robotstation and the robot starts and serves a ll the m ach ines from w h ic h it received messages. I f a message is received at the statio n w h ile the robot is away from it, the robot takes notice o f th e m essage o n ly when it returns to the statio n . While m o vin g , it serves the machines in the sequence in w h ic h they are encountered, and then returns to the o rig in . I f any m essag es are pending at the station when it re tu rn s , it re p e a ts the p ro cess again. Otherwise, it re m a in s idle at th e o rig in t ill the next
idle. A ll the raw m a te ria ls robot is in an id le state message(s) is (a re ) re c e iv e d .
(a) 120 0 » 160 (c) 140 (d) 170 24. One bacteria splits into eight bacteria of the next generation. But due to environment, only 50% of a generation survive. If the eighth generation number is 8192 million, what is the number in the first generation? (a) I million (b) 2 million (c) 4 million (d) 8 million 25. I bought 10 pens, 14 pencils and 4 erasers. Ravi bought 12 pens, 8 erasers and 28 p e n cils for an amount which was half more what I had paid. What percent o f the total amount paid b y m e was paid for the pens? (a) 37.5% (b) 62 .5 % (c ) 50% (d ) N one o f these
A n sw ers (B lo c k 3 P reassessm ent T e st)
1. 6. 11. 16. 21.
(b) (a) (a) (a)
(b )
2. 7. 12. 17. 22.
(a) (c)
(c )
(b) (a)
3. 8. 13. 18. 23.
(c) (c) (b) (a) (a)
4. (c ) 9. (c) 14. (d ) 19. (d ) 24. (b )
5 . (b )
10. 20.
(c ) (b )
15. (b ) 2 5 . (b )
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Block 3 Preassessment Test
SCORE INTERPRETATION ALGORITHM
22. Suppose on a certain day, m ach in es A and D have sent the first two messages to the o rig in at the beginning of the first second, C has sent a m essage at the beginning o f the 7th second, B at the beginning of the 8th second and E at the b eg in n in g o f the 10th second. How much distance h a s the robot traveled since the beginning o f die day, w hen it n o tices the message of E? Assume that the speed of m ovem ent of the robot is lOm/s. (a) 140 m (b) 80 m (c) 340 I (d) 360 m 23 Suppose there is 1 second station with raw material for the robot at the other extreme of the line which B 60 I from the origin, i.e., 10m from E. After finntthf the services in a trip, the robot returns to H nearest station If both stations are equidistant, it chooses the origin as the station to return to. A&sumiqg (hat both stations receive the messages I by the m achines and that all the other data remains the <anwt what would be the answer to the ^ nu—timi?
If You Scored: <7: (In Unlimited Time) Step One: Go through the block three Back to School
Section carefully. Grasp each of the concepts explained in that part carefully. I would recommend that you go back to your Mathematics school books (ICSE/ CBSE) Class 8,9 & 10 if you feel you need it.
Step Two: Move into each o f the chapters o f the block
three by one. When you do so, concentrate on clearly understanding each of the concepts explained in the chapter theory.
Step Three: Then move onto the LOD 1 exercises. These exercises will provide you with the first level of challenge. Try to solve each and every question provided under LOD 1. While doing so do not think about the time requirement; Once you finish solving LOD 1, revise the questions and their solution processes.
Step Four: Go to the first review test given at the end
of the block and solve it While doing so, first look at the score you get within the time limit mentioned. Then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement in your unlimited time score. far, In case the growth in your score is not significant, go back to the theory of each chapter and review each of the
% Section carefully. Revise each of the concepts expjaj ^ that part. Going through your 8th, 9th and 10th books will be an optional exercise for you. It recommended in case you scored in single digits, w fjji your score is in two digits, I leave the choice to y ^ 1
• lbI
Step One:
Go through the block three Back t0$
Step Two:
three by one.
Move into each o f the chapters of the b
LOD 1 questions for all the chapters. Step Five: Move to LOD 2 and repeat the process that
you followed in LOD 1 in each of the chapters. Concentrate on understanding each and every question and it’s underlying concept.
When you do so, concentrate on clearly understand I each of the concepts explained in the chapter theory j
Step Three:
Then move onto the LOD 1 & LODil
exercises. These exercises will provide you with the fin I level of challenge. Try to solve each and every questi® .I provided under LOD 1 & 2. While doing so do not tbMI about the time requirement. Once you finish solving L0q I 1, revise the questions and their solution,processes. R epeg I the same process for LOD 2. Go to the first review test given at the e n dI of the block and solve it. While doing so, first look at th eI score you get within the time limit mentioned. Then continue I to solve the test further without a tim e limit and try toI evaluate the improvement in your unlimited time score. I
Step Six: Go to the second review test given at the end of the block and solve it. Again, while doing so measure
your score within the provided time limit first and then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement that you have had in your score.
Step Four:
Step Seven:
Move to LOD 3 only after you have
solved and understood each of the questions in LOD 1 & LOD 2. Repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1 going into each chapter one by one.
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Step Five:
Step Eight: Go to the remaining review tests given at
the end of the block and solve them. Again, while doing so measure your score within the provided time limit first and then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement that you have had in your score. In case the growth in your score is not significant, go back to the theory of each chapter and review each of the LOD 1,2 & 3 questions for all the chapters.
Go to the second review test given at the e n dI of the block and solve it. Again, while doing so m easure I your score within the provided tim e limit first and then I continue to solve the test further w ithout a time limit an dI try to evaluate the improvement that you have had in y o u r I ffflQcht score. In case the growth in your score is not significant,®! back to the theory of each chapter and review each of tl* I LOD 1& LOD 2 questions for all the chapters.
Step Six: If You Scored:715 (In Unlimited Time)
Although you are better than the person following the instructions above, obviously there is a lot of scope for the development of your score. You will need to work both on your concepts as well as speed. Initially emphasize more on the concept development aspect of your preparations, then move your emphasis onto speed development. The following process is recommended for you:
Move to LOD 3 only after you have sq 1 v I and understood each of the questions in LOD 1 & LO DI Repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1  goingU 1P each chapter one by one.
Step Seven:
 .paM Go to the remaining review tests givc the end of the block and solve them. Again, while doii^T measure your score within the provided time limit first then continue to solve the test further without a time 1 ,1 and try to evaluate the improvement that you have ^ I your score.
\
In case the growth in your score is not significant, go back to the theory o f both the chapters and re solve all L O D s of all the chapters. While doing so concentrate more on the LOD 2 & LOD 3 questions.
If
Step Three: Go to the first review test given at the end of the block and solve it. While doing so, first look at the score you get within the time limit mentioned. Then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement in your unlimited time
You Scored 15+ (In Unlimited Time) Step Four: Go to the second review test given at the end of the block and solve it. Again, while doing so measure your score within the provided time limit first and then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement that you have had in your score. Step Five: In case the growth in your score is not
significant (esp. under time limits), review each of the LOD 1 & LOD 2 questions for all the chapters.
Obviously you are much better than the first two category
of students. Hence unlike them, your focus should be on developing your speed by picking up the shorter processes explained in this book. B esid es, you might also need to pick up concepts that might be hazy in your mind. The following '■ Q lk l process of developm ent is recomm ended for you: < 4
Step One: Q uickly review the concepts given in the block three Back to S ch ool Section. Only go deeper into a
concept in case ybu find it new. G oing back to school level bodes is not required for ybu.
Step Two:
Move into each o f the chapters o f the block
Step Six: Move to LOD 3 only after you have solved
and understood each of the questions in LOD 1 & LOD 2. Repeat the process that you followed in LOD 1  going into each chapter one by one.
three one by one. When you do so, concentrate on clearly understanding each of the concepts explained in the chapter theory.
Then move onto the LOD 1 & LOD 2 exercises. These exercises will provide you w ith the first level o f challenge.
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Step Seven: Go to the remaining review tests given at
to solve each and every question provided under LOD ITry 1 & 2. While doing so try to work on faster processes for
ng5°l solving the same questions. Concentrate on how you could
have solved the sam e question faster. A lso try to think o f how much time you took over the calculations.
the end of the block and solve them. Again, while doing so measure your score within the provided time limit first and then continue to solve the test further without a time limit and try to evaluate the improvement that you have had in your score.
PERCENTAGES
in t r o d u c t io n
In m y opinion, the chapter on Percentages forms the most im portant chapter (apart from Number Systems) in the sylla bus of the CAT and the XLRI examination. The importance of ‘percentages’ is accentuated by the fact that there are a lot of questions related to the use of percentage in all chapters of commercial arithmetic (especially Profit and Loss, Ratio and Proportion, Time and Work, Time, Speed and Distance). Besides, the calculation skills that you can develop w hile going through the chapter on percentages will help you in handling Data Interpretation ( D I ) calculations. A closer look at that topic will yield that at least 80% of the total calculations in any DI paper is constituted of calcu lations on additions and percentage.
For example, a student scores 20 marks out of a maxi mum possible 30 marks. His marks can then be denoted as 20 out of 30 = (20/30) or (20/30) x 100% = 66.66%. The process for getting this is perfectly illustrated through the unitary method: Marks got then, 20
out of out of
Out of >30 >100
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Then the value of x x 30 = 20 x 100 x = (20/30) x 100 — » the percentage equivalent of a ratio. Now, let us consider a classic example of the application of percentage: Example: Student A scores 20 marks in an examination out of 30 while another student B scores 40 marks out of 70. Who has performed better? Solution: Just by considering the marks as 20 and 40, we do not a get clear picture of the actual performance of the two students. In order to get a clearer picture, we consider the percentage of marks. Thus, A gets (20/30) x 100 = 66.66% While B gets (40/70) x 100 = 57.14% Now, it is clear that the performance of A is better. Consider another example: Example; Company A increases its sales by 1 crore rupees while company B increases its sales by 10 crore rupees. Which company has grown more? Solution: Apparently, the answer to the question seems to be company B. The question cannot be answered since we
BASIC DEFINITION AND U T ILIT Y OF PERCENTAGE
literally, means ‘for every 100’ and is derived from French word ‘cent’, which is French for 1 0 0 . The basic utility of Percentage arises from the fact that j I jmj °f the most powerful tools for comparison of nulggn and information. It is also one of the simplest ^ comparison of data. I H context of business and economic performance, it ^Pacifically useful for comparing data such as profits, r«ues, performance, magnitudes and so on. Definition of Percentage The concept of applies to ratios, and the percentage arrived at by multiplying by 100 the
152 H o wtoBBSS I
Quantitative Aptitude
for the CAT
As seen earlier, this often gives us a better picture * effect of the change. Note: The base used for the sake of percentage cU, calculations is always the original quantity unless wise stated. Example: The population of a city grew from 20 feu 22 lakh. Find the (a) percentage change (b) percentage change based on the final value of P ° p u lation
don't know the previous year's sales figure (although on the face of it Company B seems to have grown more). If we had further information saying that company A had a sales turnover of Rs. I crore in the previous year and company B had a sales turnover o f Rs. 100 crore in the previous year, we can compare growth rates and say that it is company R that has grown by 100%. Hence, company A has a higher growth rate, even though in terms of abso lute value increase of sales, company B has grown much
mote.
IMPORTANCE OF BASE/ DENOMINATOR FOR PERCENTAGE CALCULATIONS
Mathematically, the percentage value can only be calcu lated for ratios that, by definition, must have a denominator. Hence, one of the most critical aspects of the percentage is the denominator, which in other words is also called the base value of the percentage. No percentage calculation is possible without knowing the base to which the percentage is to be calculated. Hence, whenever faced with the question ‘What is the percentage ...?’ always try first to find out the answer to the question ‘Percentage to what base?’
Solution: (a) percentage change = (2/20) x 100 = ]q»J (b) percentage change on the final value = (J 22) x 100 = 9.09%
Difference between the Percentage Point Change and the Percentage Change
The difference between the percentage point change an d the percentage change is best illustrated through an ex pi ample. Consider this: The savings rate as a percentage of the GDP was 25%a I the first year and 30% in the second year." Assume that th ere I is no change in the GDP between the two years. Then: J Percentage point change in savings rate = 30% 25% = 5 percentage points. i 30  25 ,J Percentage change in savings rate = ——— x 1 0 0
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CONCEPT OF PERCENTAGE CHANGE
Whenever the value of a measured quantity changes, the change can be captured through
= 25%.
(a) Absolute value change or
(b) Percentage change.
I
PERCENTAGE RULE FOR CALCULATING PERCENTAGE VALUES THROUGH A D D IT IO N S ]
Illustrated below is a powerful method of calculating P er centages. In my opinion, the ability to calculate percentalj through this method depends on your ability to handle'j digit additions. Unless you develop the skill to add 2 additions in your mind, you are always likely to face P lems in calculating percentage through the method trated below. In fact, trying this method without b e* strong at 2digit additions/subtractions (including 2 dW after decimal point) would prove to be a disadvantage! your attempt at calculating percentages fast. This process, essentially being a commonsense pro*] is best illustrated through a few examples:
Both these measurements have their own advantages and disadvantages. Absolute value change: It is the actual change in the measured quantity. For instance, if sales in year 1 is Rs. 2500 crore and the sales in year 2 is R s. 2600 crore, then the absolute value o f the change is R s. 100 crore. Percentage change: the formula
Percentage change * It is the percentage
change got by
Absolute value change O riginal quantity
x 100
100
2500
X 100 3 4%
Chapters:
Percentages
153
Example: What is the percentage valu e o f the ratio : 53/81 ? Solution: The process in v o lv e s rem o vin g a ll the 100% , 50ft. 10% * 1%. 0.1% and so fo rth o f the denom inator from
the numerator.
To illustrate another example: What is the percentage value of the ratio 223
Thus, 53/81 can be rew ritten as: (40.5 + 12.5)/81 = 40.5/
81 + 12.5/81 = 50% + 12.5/81
= 50ft 1 (8.1 1 4.4)/81 1 50% 1 10% + 4.4/81 = 60% + 4.4/81
At this stage you kno w that the answ er to the question between 60  70% (S in c e 4.4 is le ss than 10% o f 81) % j At this stage, you kn o w that the an sw er to the c a lcu la b J tion will be in the fo rm : 6a.bcde ....
lies
223/72 wl 300  310% Remainder 7 700/72 i t 9. Hence 309  310%. Remainder 52 520/72 7. Hence, 309.7, Remainder 16 160/72 4 2. Hence, 309.72 Remainder 16 Hence, 309.7222 (2 recurs since we enter an infinite loop of 160/72 calculations). In my view, percentage rule (as I call it) is one of the best ways to calculate percentages since it gives you the flexibility to calculate the percentage value up to as many digits after decimals as you are required to and at the same time allows you to stop the moment you attain the required accuracy range.
All you need to do is find out the valu e o f the m issing digits. In order to do this, calculate the percentage valu e o f 4 .4 / 81 through the normal process o f m u ltip ly in g the num erator by 100. •m . a a. value i of * — 4.4 4.4x100 440 Thus the % — = — = — 81 81 81
O U gbJ
Effect of a Percent Change in the Numerator on a Ratio's Value
The numerator has a direct relationship with the ratio, that is, if the numerator increases the ratio increases. The per centage increase in the ratio is the same as the percentage increase in the numerator, if the denominator is constant. (in terms of per
with a remainder of 35 81 Our answer is now refined to 65 .bcde. (1% R ang e) Next, in order to find the next d ig it (fir s t one afte r the decimal add a zero to the remainder; Hence, the value of will be the q u o tien t o f b» 350/81 = 4 Remainder 26 Answer: 65.4cde (0.1% R ang e) c » 260/81 = 3 Remainder 17 Answer: 65.43 (0.01% R an g e) and so forth. ppi'l The advantages of this process are two fold: Thus ars.lJ : 30II
}w a s 2 » m edn
[Note: Use the multiplication by 100, once you h ave the 10% range. This step reduces the d e cim a l ca lcu la tio n s.]
440
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Thus, — is exactly 10% more than — 40  40 centage change)
Percentage Change Graphic and its Applications
In mathematics there are many situations where one is r quired to work with percentage changes. In such situations the following thought structure (Something I call Percent age Change Graphic) is a very useful tool: What I call Percentage Change Graphic (PCG) is best illustrated through an example: Suppose you have to increase the number 20 by 20%. Visualise this as follows: 20
20% T
■ +4
A 'A
(I) You only calculate as long as you need to in order to elim inate the options. Thus, in case there was only a single option between 60  70% in the above ques tion, you co u ld have stopped your calculations right
there.
IB This process allows you to go through with the cal culations as long as you need to. However, remember w h a t I had advised you right at the slan Strong Addition s k ills are a primary requirement for method properly,
» 24
The PCG has 6 major applications listed and explained below: PCG applied to: 1. Successive changes 2. Product change application
A
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HowId Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
3. Product constancy application *4. A — »B»A application 5. Denominator change to Ratio Change application 6. Use of PCG to calculate Ratio Changes Application 1; PCG Applied to Successive Changes This is a vwy common situation in most questions. Suppose you have to solve a question in which a number 30 has two successive percentage increases (2 0 % and 10 % festively). The situation is handled in the following way using PCG:
ask 20% increase . 30>36 +6 I 10% increase ■
Hence, the percentage profit is 8 %. Application 2: PCG applied to Product Change
Suppose you have a product of two variables say If the first variable changes to 11 and the second * * ^ changes to 1 2 , what will be the percentage chanJ2 S gejn product? [Note there is a 10% increase in one pan ^ ^ % product and a 2 0 % increase in the other part.l ■ //A The formula given for this situation goes as: (a + m m 100) Hence, Required change = 10 + 2 0 +
m ;fS mi
m
265
10x 20 ~ToiT
+ 3.6
*39.6
Ilu stra tion
’s salary increases by 20 % and then decreases by 2 0 %. fhat is the net percentage change in A's salary?
(Where 10 and 20 are the respective percentage chan / in the two parts of the product) (This is being taught *1 m shortcut at most institutes across the country currently)  However, a much easier solution for this case can w visualized as:
100
20% T
+ 20
*120
io%T
+12
> 132. Hence, the final product E M w ill IP J3#
+B
dution: 100 —2°fe ng' >120
+ 20
20% decrease
>96
shows a 32% increase. Similarly suppose 10 x 10 x 10 becomes 11 x 12 x u l 1 ^ In such a case the following PCG will be used:
2 4
:nce, A 's salary has gone down by 4%
100
30% T
+ 30
>130
20%T
+ 26
*156
io%T
+15.6
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for calculating successive percentage change.
*1716
E,& 76% i
lustration
trader gives successive discounts of 1 0 %, 2 0 % and 1 0 % spectively. The percentage of the original cost price he ill recover is:
Hence, the final product sees a 71.6 percent increase Lfenfeonthe (Since, the product changes from 100 to 171.6) I
N ote: You will get the same result irrespective of the ordctfl
in which you use the respective percentage changes.
D t e x t r c m e l [ p j l j Q o o g h t o s o lv t
pWjjifp!
Also note that this process is very similar to the one u sed
ilution:
qq 10%decrease ^ qq 10 20% decrease ^ ^ . 18 10% decrease ^ ^ g 7.2
Application for DI:
Suppose you have two pie charts as follows:
Scooters: 23.47%
lence the overall discount is 35.2% and the answer is
Scooters: 26.55%
' E o n e
>4.8% .
Illustration
A trader marks up the price of his goods by 20%, but to a particularly haggling customer he ends up giving a discount of 10% on the marked price. What is the percentage profit he makes?
Solution:
Total sales year 1: 17342.34 crores
©
Total sales Year 2 19443.56 crores
If you are asked to calculate the percentage chW the sales revenue of scooters for the company froin one to year two, what would you do? The formula for percentage change would give
3
m _m\mrnc >12p
10% (fccre— c
*12
* 108
(0.2655 x 1944356)  (02347 x 1734234) xJjS (02347 x 17342.34)
Chapter 5:
Percentages 1 1 5 5
Sales Revenue —Original Sales Revenue 100 O rig in al S a le s Revenue i>W _ O bviously th is calculation is easier said than done. However, the Product change application of PCG allows us to execute this calculation with a lot of ease compara 1 tively. Consider the following solution: product fo r year one is: 0.2347 x 17342.34 product fo r year two is: 0.2655 x 19443.56 These can be approximated into: 234 x 173 and 265 x 194 respectively (Note that by moving into three digits we do not end up losing any accuracy. We have elaborated this point in the chapter on Ratio and Pro 3 portions.) The overall percentage change depends on two indi vidual percentage changes: 234 increases to 265: A % change of 31/234 = 13.2 % approx. This calculation has to be done using the percent age rule for calculating the percentage value of the ratio 173 increases to 194 A percentage change of approxi lies II k , mately 12%. Thus PCG will give the answer as follows: beh i4 „ 1 2 %T 100 132% T _ 113.2 > 126.76
New
Table 5.1 gives you some standard values a situation. Application 4 of PCG: A>B>A.
fo r th is k in d o f
\\ LNN k
%
ml
s
Very often we are faced with a situation where we compare two numbers say A and B. In such cases, if we are given a relationship from A to B, then the reverse relationship can be determined by using PCG in much the same way as the product constancy use shown above.
Illustration
B's salary is 25% more than A's salary. By what percent is B's salary less than B's salary? 100(A) 100(A) 25% T »125(5)
_____________ J2 5
^5
A drop of 25 on 125 gives a 20% drop. Hence A’s salary is 20% less than B's. Note: The values which applied for Product Constancy also apply here. Hence Table 4.1 is useful for this situation also. Application 5 of PCG — > Effect of change in D enom ina tor on the Value of the Ratio
1 5 * 1
132
■ er c e n tiJ Hence, 26.76 % increase in the product’s value. (Note that the value on the calculator for the full calculation sans to1 7 1 iIany approximations is 26.82 %, and given the fact that we
livea: have come extremely close to the answer—the method is edial, good enough to solve the question with a reasonable degree of accuracy.) hit Application 3 of PCG: Product Constancy Application (Inverse proportionality) Suppose you have a situation wherein the price of a com modity has gone up by 25%. In case you are required to keep the total expenditure on the commodity constant, you would obviously need to cut down on the consumption. By what percentage? Well, PCG gives you the answer as fol lows: . I 100
25% T 1 125 + 25
M et effect
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13:56
The denominator has an inverse relationship with the value of a ratio. Hence the process used for product constancy (and ex plained above) can be used for calculating percentage change in the denominator. For instance, suppose you have to evaluate the differ ence between two ratios: Ratio 1 : 10/20 Ratio 2 : 10/25 As is evident the denominator is increasing from 20 to 25 by 25%. If we calculate the value of the two ratios we will get: Ratio 1 = 0.5, Ratio 2 = 0.4. % change between the two ratios =
x 100 = 20% Drop
25
Consumption Effect
This value can be got through PCG as:
n
Hence, the percentage drop in consumption to offset the price increase is 20%.  leave it to the student to discover the percentage drop Binvp required in the second p art of the product if one part creases by 50 percent. Note: Product constancy just another name for Inverse
100 >125 >100 Hence, 20% drop.
Note: This is exactly the same as Product constancy and works here because the numerator is constant.
Hence, R\ = NIDXand R2 I N/D2 i e. /?, x D, = N and R2 1 D2 a N, which is the product constancy situation.
J56
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude
for the CAT
The answer in this case is 0.5 — > 0 .6 (20% increa However, in m ost cases calculating the values of tfce ^
r
will not be easy. The following PCG process can be
get the answer: When 10/20 changes to 15/25, the change occurs rily due to two reasons: (A) Change in the n um erator (N um erator effect) (B) Change in the d en om inator (D enom inator effect) By segregating the tw o effects an d calculating the eft*. due to each separately, w e can g et the answer easily * follows:
Direct process for calculation To find out the percentage change in the ratio due to a change in the denominator follow the following process: In order ro find the percentage change from 10/20 to 10/ 25. calculate the percentage change in the denominator in the reverse fashion. i.e. The required percentage change from /?, to R2 will be given by calculating the percentage change in the denomi nators from 25 to 20 (i.e. in a reverse fashion) & not from 20 to 25.
Table 5.1 Product Constancy Table, Inverse Pro* portionality Table, A » B » A table, Ratio Change to Denominator table
Product XY is ConstantX increases (%)
N u m era to r E ffect T he n u m erato r effect on the value of fl,e H ratio is the sam e as the ch an g e in the numerator. Hence, m B calculate the num erator effect, ju s t calculate the percent^ change in the num erator: In this case the num erator i clearly changing from lOto 15 (i.e. a 50% increase.) T his signifies that the numerator effect is also 50%. D en o m in ato r E ffect A s w e have ju s t seen above, the effect o f a percentage change in the denom inator on the value o f the ratio is seen by calculating the denom inator’s percent, age change in the reverse order.
A z
/ j •iff
I
I
y*
vm l 'T M
>
(P %
Y Decreases ( %) Y decreases ( %) (Ratio decreases(%) As Denominator decreases (%) 8.33 9.09 10 11.11 12.5 14.28 16.66 20 25 33.33 37.5 40 42.85 50
A— tB— > < 4
X is inversely proportional to Y
A— >B % increase B » A% decrease X increases (%)
I J
\i#
Ratio change effect o f Denominator Denominator change increases (%) Denominator change Ratio increases effect of Ratio change (%)
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the R atio is seen by:
dttafcre
In this case, the denom inator is changing from 20 to 2 5 .
9.09 Standard Value 1 10 Standard Value 2 11.11 Standard Value 3 12.5 Standard Value 4 14.28 Standard Value 5 16.66 Standard Value 6 20 Standard Value 7 25 1Standard Value 8 1Standard Value 9 3333 1Standard Value 10 50 60 (Standard Value 1 1 66.66 (Standard Value 12 1Standard Value 13 75 \Standard Value 14 100
iii>only in
Hence the denom inator effect w ill b e seen by going reverse WsjiecliveG from 25 to 20 i.e. 20% drop. With these tw o values, the overall percentage change in
\ m
P e
100
50% T + 50
Numerator Effect
>150
20% 4
3 0
»
120
Denominator Effect
This m eans that the ratio has increased by 20%. I leave it to the student to practice such calculations w itM more com plicated values for the ratios.
Im plications for Data Interpretation
Percentage is perhaps one o f the m ost critical links betw eeW QA and Data Interpretation. In the chapter theory m entioned above, the Percents Rule for Percentage Calculations and the PCG appti^l product change and ratio change are the most critical' As already shown, the use o f PCG to calculate the centage change in a product (as exhibited through chart example above) as well as the use of PCG to calc^ ratio changes are two extremely useful applications o*
Application 6: Use of PCG to Calculate Ratio Changes: Under normal situations, you will be faced with ratios where both numerator and denominator change. The pro cess to handle and calculate such changes is also quite convenient if you go through PCG.
Illustration
Calculate the percentage change between the Ratios. Ratio 1 « 10/20 Ratio 2 « 15125
concepts of percentages into DI.
Chapter 5:
Percentages
157
\pplving Percentages fo r the sp ecial case o f com par ing ratios to fin d the la rg e r one. Suppose you have two ratios to compare.
p, Mid
Say R\
 N\!
The first step is to find the ten percent ranges for each o r these ratios. In case, they belong to different ranges of I0 ‘* (say R I lies between 5060 while R2 lies between 70 180). it becomes pretty simple to say which one will be higher In case, both o f these
hd w b ■ following process
I \l 5 8 1 si hefl 'V e,^ ftev i
belong to the same ten
values for percentage of the ratios percent range, then we can use the
Case 3 : N um erator and denom in ator a re b o th increasing Calculate the percentage value of the respective in c re a se s. If the numerator is increasing more than the d e n o m in ato r the ratio will go up. On the other hand, i f the d e n o m in ato r is increasing more than the numerator, R a tio 2 will be smaller than Ratio,. (Note: Compare in p ercentag e values) Case 4 : Numerator and denominator a re both d ecreasin g —> Calculate the percentage value of the respective decreases. If the numerator is decreasing more than the denominator the ratio will go down. On the other hand, if the denomina tor is decreasing more than the numerator, Ratio2 will be greater than Ratio,.
Step 1: Calculate the percentage change in the numerator rsl Step 2: Calculate the percentage change in the denominator. There could be fo ur cases move from Ratio, to R ado2: Case 1: Num erator is in c re a sin g decreasing — * obviously
FRACTION TO PERCENTAGE CO N VER SIO N T A B L E
in this situation, when we
while denominator Is the net effect of the two changes will be an increase in the ratio. Hence, R2 will be greater. Case 2: Num erator is d e cre a sin g while denominator is oft increasing > obviously the net effect of the two changes will be a decrease in the ratio. Hence, R l will be greater. M li is only in the following cases that we need to look at [o iB g n th erespective changes in the Numerator and denominator
gecbi
Table 5.2 Percentage C o n v e rsio n Table
The following percentage values appear repeatedly over the entire area where questions can be framed on the topic of percentage. Further, it would be of great help to you if you are able to recognize these values separately from values that do not appear in the Table 5.2.
S o m e U tilis a tio n s o f t h e T a b le
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10
11
• The values that appear in the table are all percentage values. These can be converted into decimals by just
12
100
so
3333 25
100 66.66
50 40 33.33 28.57 25
100
75 60 50 42.85 37.5 33.33 30
m
100
80
20
u la tH *
100
83.33
71.42 62.5 55.55 50 45.45 41.66 33.33 25 20.83 25 24 28 17.5 32 20 26
40
1646
66.66
57.14 50 44.44 40 36.36 33.33 26.66 25
100
ill
Mi
85.71
75
100
87.5 77.77 70 63.63 58.33
100
88.88 80 72.72 100 90 81.81 75
JM1
22.22
20
18.18 16,66 13.33 hJZ 5
66.66
60 54.54 50 40
r
10
9.09
100
90.09 83.33
27.27
25
m
66.66
100
91.66
u yJ
y ,
20
18.75 15 12.5
100
•am
6.25
•A
4.166
.10
^ 8.33 . fi
20
16.66 16
n
10
7.5 H 5
20
16.66 12.5 8.33
jy k Ja
H
. 6.66
' 5
1?'33‘
10
20
15
y
L
3 .3 3
6.66
10
C olum n value
x 100/Row value
 g g / How io P np an for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
shifting the decim al point by two pJaces to the left. T hus. 83.33%s=0.8333 in decimal value. • A second learning from this table is in the process of division by any of the numbers such as 2,3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11; 12, 15, 16, 24 and so on, students nor mally face problems in calculating the decimal val ues o f these divisions. However, if one gets used to the decimal values that appear in the Table 5.2, cal culation of decimals in divisions will become very simple. For instance, when an integer is divided by 7, the decim al values can only be .14, .28, .42, .57, .71, .85 or .00. (There are approximate values) This also means that the difference between two
(Answer can be got by subtracting 13% of the number fr itself and this calculation can again be done by percent*© rule.) Hence, the student is advised to become thorough "'ith the percentage rules. Percentage calculation & addit,0n s« 2 & 3 digit numbers. W O R K E D O U T P R O B L E M /
Problem 5.1 A se lls h is goods 30 % cheaper than B
30% dearer than C. By what percentage is the cost of c goods cheaper than B’s goods.
a n d
ratios like can be integral if and only if * is 6 7 divisible by both 6 and 7. This principle is very useful as an advanced short cut for option based solution of some questions. I leave it to the student to discover applications of this principle.
Calculation of M ultiplication by N u m b ers like 1.21, 0.83 and so on
Solution There are two alternative processes for so lv ing this question: 1. Assume the price of C’s goods as p.: Then A’s good, are at 1.3 p and B 's goods are such that A’s goods are 3 0 % cheaper than B's goods, i.e. A’s goods are priced at 70%o fI B's goods. Hence, 1.3 p — » 70 B's price — > 100 B's price = 130 p!70 = 1.8571 p
In m yopinion, thecalculation ofmultiplication of any num
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ber by a number of the form 0.ry or of the form l.ab should be viewed as a subtraction/addition situation and not as a m ultiplication situation. This can be explained as
follows.
Example: Calculate 1.23 x 473. Solution: If w e try to calculate this by multiplying, we
Then, the percentage by which C’s price is cheaper thaI B's price = (1.8571 p  p) x 100/(1.8571 p) = 600/13= 46.15% J Learning task for student Could you answer the q u esj tion: Why did we assume C’s price as a variable p and th en ! work out the problem on its basis. What would happen! if we assumed B’s price as p or if we assumed A’s pntf as p i 2. Instead of assuming the price of one of the three asPj assume the price as 100. Let B = 100. Then A = 70, which is 30% more than Hence C = 23.07% less than A (from Table 4.1) = aP P * °^ 53.84. Hence answer is 46.15% approximately. (This calculation can be done mentally if you are able' work through the calculations by the use of percentage’ The students are advised to try to assume the value of for each of the variables A, B and C and see what hapfj to the calculations involved in the problem. Since the vi of 100 is assumed for a variable to minimise the reff> ments of calculations to solve the problems, we sW ensure that the variable assumed as 100 should ha** maximum calculations associated with it.)
will end up going through a very time taking process, which will yield the final value at the end but nothing before that (M s. you will have no clue about the answer’s range till you reach the end of the calculation). Instead, one should view this multiplication as an addi tion of 23%to the original number. This means, the answer can be got by adding 23% of the number to itself. Thus 473 x 1.23 * 473 +23% of 473 = 473 + 94.6 + 3% of 473 = 567.6 + 14.19 * 581.79 (The percentage rule can be used to calculate the addi tion and get the answer.) The similar process can be utilised for the calculation of multiplication by a number such as 0.87
Chapter 5:
Percentages
I
%
y
k N
c o n s u m p tio n b y 2 0 k g . T h u s ,
In fact th is q u estio n and the o n es that fo llo w conn in some o f the m ost b a sic o p e ratio n s in the chapter o f
X '
for,
;o° d s J
level o f d iffic u lty like CET M aharashtra* In d o MAT, NMIMS, N1FT, NLS and most other aptitude e xa m s. Hence, if you are able to do [Ik operations illu stra te d here mentally, you would be jble to so lve L O D 1 q u e stio n s easily and gain a signifi cant time advantage o v e r y o u r competitors. However, for the serious CAT aspirant, the logic used for LOD I questions would normally be used as a part of the entire logic.. You would be able to see this in the questions of the second and the third level of difficulties in the exercises later in the chapter. Hence, developing the process for solving questions of the LOD 1 level mentally would help you gain an improved speed for the CAT level questions. Also remember that since percentages are the basis for m ost of the commercial mathematics as well as for calcula tion and the Data Interpretation section, developing skills for cakulation and problem solving illustrated here would go a long way towards helping you clear aptitude exams.
percentages. Th e q u estio n s at the firs t e xa m in a tio n s
would appear in Bank P .O ., M A T.
20% decrease in consumption is e q u a l to a 20 leg drop in consumption. Hence, original consumption is: 100 kg of rice. Money spent being Rs. 400, the original price of rice is
Rs. 5 per kg. (There, you see the benefit of internalising the product constancy table! It is left to the student to analyze why and how the product constancy table applies here.) A's salary is 20% lower than B's is C’s salary more than A’s salary?
sa la ry ,
which is 15% lower than Cs salary. By how much percent
Solution The equation approach here would be
A = 0.8 B B  0.85 C A = 0.8 x 0.85 C
Then
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68 = (3200/68)%
A = 0.68 C (Use percentage change graphic to calculate the value of 0.68) Thus, A’s salary is 68 % of Cs salary. If A’s salary is 68, B’s salary is 100. Using percentage change graphic + 100 +32 Students are advised to refrain from using equations to solve questions of this nature. In fact, you can adopt the following process, which can be used while you are read ing the problem, to get the result faster. Assume one of the values as 100. (Remember, selec tion of the right variable that has to take the value of 100 may make a major difference to your solving time and effort required. The thumb rule for selecting the variable whose value is to be taken as 100 is based on three prin cipal considerations: Select as 100, the variable 1. With the maximum number of percentage calcula tions associated with it. 2. Select as 100 the variable with the m ost difficult calculation associated with it. 3. Select as 100 the variable at the start o f the problem solving; chain. The student will have to applying these principles
develop in
The length and the breadth of a rectangle are changed by +20% and by — 10% respectively. What is th e percentage change in the area of the rectangle. = 46.15J I Solution The area of a rectangle is given by: length hver thea x breadth. If we represent these by: le p aM *l A rea = L x B = LB — > then we will get the changed .vould M R area as ned A s f l Atc^new) = 1*2 L x 0.9 B = 1.08 LB
Problem 5.2
. l )
fly*
H ence, the change in area is 8% increase. k e tb ^ V N ot*: You can solve (and in fact, finish the problem) tp during your first reading by using percentage change gf graphic as follows:
■
100 ch a rv a *
20ft —♦120
10%
+ 108. Hence, the percentage
D ue to a to
25% p ric e p u rch ase 20 kg
h ik e in le s s o f
the price o f rice, ric e fo r Rs. 400.
his own judgment in specific cases.
ice is
ris in g
by 25%, co n su m p tio n
has
t th e re is a n a c tu a l re d u ctio n in the
Here I w ould take C as 100, getting I as 85 and A — ' Hence, the answer is (32 x 100/68'
160
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for (he CAT
T h ro u g h o p tio n s S u p p o se the o p tio n s w ere:
article is m ade up of four components A, B, C a n d D which have a ratio o f 3 : 4 : 5 : 6 respectively. I f t h e r e a r e respective changes in the cost o f+10% , 2 0 % , 30% and +40%, then what would b e th e p e r c e n ta g e c h a n g e in the cost.
Problem 5.5
The cost o f m anufacture o f a n
(a) 25 lakh (c) 2 0 lakh
(b ) 2 2 .5 la k h (d ) 18 la k h
S ta rt w ith a n y o f the m id d le o p tio n s. Then keep fo rm in g the m ath e m a tical o p e ratio n in the order gjVcj). I the p ro b lem . T h e fin a l v a lu e th a t h e is le ft w ith should^ I R s . 2 .5 la k h . T h e o p tio n th at g iv e s th is , w ill be the answ* I I f the fin a l v a lu e y ie ld e d is h ig h e r th an R s . 2 .5 lakh in ^ I ca se , sta rt w ith a v a lu e lo w e r th an th e option checked. 11 case it is the o p p o site , sta rt w ith the o p tio n higher thank,I one used. A s a thum b ru le , sta rt w ith th e m o st co n ven ien t option h ere.
Solution A s s u m e the c o s t c o m p o n e n ts t o b e valued at
3 0 , 4 0 . 5 0 a n d 6 0 a s y o u r e a d th e q u e s ti o n . T h e n c h a n g e d c o s ts b y e f f e c tin g th e a p p r o p r ia te o f th e f o u r c o m p o n e n ts . T h u s w e g e t th e tiv e ly .
we can get changes i n each
new cost as 33, 32, 35 and 84 respec
The original total cost was 180 the new one is 184. The percent change is 4/180 = 2.22%.
I
the m id d le o n e. T h is w o u ld le a d u s to sta rt w ith R s. 20la*
H o w e v e r, i f w e h ad sta rte d w ith R s . 2 5 la k h the folio*. I I Harsh receives an inheritance of a certain in g w o u ld h a v e o c cu rre d . amount from his grandfather. Of this he loses 32.5% in h is 25 la k h  3 2 .5 % > 1 6 .8 7 5 la k h  1 la k h  * 15.875 la f t .l effort to produce a film. From the balance, a ta x i d rive r 20% 7 .5 la k h , sh o u ld eq u al 2 .5 la k h —> (P rio r to doing daI stole the sum of Rs. 1,00,000 that he used to keep in h is c a lc u la tio n , yo u sh o u ld see th a t th e re is no w ay the ans«s pocket. Of the rest, he donated 20% to a ch a rity. Fu rth e r he w ill y ie ld a n ic e w h o le n u m b e r lik e 2^5 la k h . Hence, yn purchases a flat in Ganga Apartment for R s . 7 .5 la k h . H e can abandon th e p ro c e ss h e re an d m o ve to the next option) then realises that he is left with only R s . 2 .5 la k h cash o f T ry in g w ith 2 0 la k h , 2 0  3 2 .5 % —» 13 .5 la k h la c. + his inheritance. What was the value of h is in h e ritan ce?
Solution
T h e se s o r t o f p ro b le m s s h o u ld
s o lv e d t h r o u g h t h e r e v e r s e p r o c e s s o r R ev erse p ro c e s s fo r th is p r o b le m R s.
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either be through options.
H e is le ft w ith q u ire d a n sw e r.
12.5 la k h 2 0 %
> 10 la k h  7 .5 la k h = 2 .5 la k h + k \
spending Rs. 7.5 lakh on the apartm ent. T h e re f o re , before the apartment purchase he has R s . 10 lakh. B u t th is is a f t e r the 20% reduction in his net value due t o h i s d o n a tio n t o charity. Hence, he must have given R s. 2 .5 la k h to c h a r ity ( 2 0 % decrease corresponds to a 25% increase). A s s u c h , h e had 12.5 lakh before the charity. Further, he must h a v e had Rs. 13.5 lakh before the taxi driver s to le th e s u m . F r o m 13.5 lakh you can reach the answer b y trial and error tr y in g whole number values. You w ill get that if he had 2 0 la k h a n d lost 32.5% of it he would
a fte r
be left with the required 1 3 .5 la k h . Hence, the answer is R s . 2 0 la k h Th is process can be d o n e m e n ta lly b y : 2 .5 + 7 .5 = 10 lakh > + 2 5 %  + 12 .5 la k h  » + 1 la k h  > 13.5 la k h . From this point m o v e by tria l a n d e r r o r . Y o u s h o u l d tr y to find the value o f the inheritance, w h i c h o n r e d u c t i o n b y 32.5% , would leave 1 3 .5 lakh. A little e x p e r i e n c e w i t h numbers leaves you w ith R s. 2 0 lakh as th » a n s w e r . T h i s process should be started as soon as y o u fin ish r e a d i n g th e first tune.
2.5 la k h
Level o f D iffic u lty (LOD)
H
1. W h ic h o f th e fo llo w in g is th e la rg e st number? (a ) 2 0 % o f 2 0 0 (c ) 1 3 0 0 % o f 3 (e ) 7 0 0 % o f 9 2 . I f 2 5 % o f a n u m b e r is 7 5 , th en 4 5 % o f that number£ (a ) 145 (b ) 125 (? ) 15 0 (d ) P $ (b ) .7 % o f 500 (d ) 6 0 0 % o f 7
(e ) N o ne o f th ese 3 . W h at is 2 0 % o f 5 0 % o f 7 5 % o f 7 0 ? (a ) 5 .2 5 (e ) 6 .2 5 4 . I f w § e xp re ss 4 1 (3 /1 7 )% a s a frevption, then it to (b ) 6 .7 5 (e ) 7 .2 5 (4 ) 55
(a)
17
(b) S
17
< c >\I
® I
, v 27 (e)
E Mr. Abhim anya Banerjcc is w o rried about the balance o f fits m onthly budget. Th e p rice o f petrol has in creased by 40%. B y w hat percent should he reduce the consumption o f petrol so that he is ab le to balance h is
(a) 96% (c) 2400%
(d)
95% 200%
——
(e) None of these
12. Hursh wanted to subtract 5 from a number. Unfortu nately, he added 5 instead of subtracting. Find die percentage change in the result. (a) 300% (b) 6 6 .6 6 % (c) 50% (A) 33.33% (e) Cannot be determined 13. If 65% of x st 13% of y, then find the value of x if y
badget?
(a) 33.33
(c ) 25 4<!. (b ) 2 8 .5 6 (d ) 14.28
(e) None o f these
6.
In question 5 , i f
Mr.
B a n e ije e w anted to lim it the in
crease in his exp en d itu re to 5% on h is b asic expendicure on petrol then w hat sh o uld be the corresponding decrease in consum ption so th at exp end iture exceeds only by 5%?
= 2000.
(a) 200 (b) 300 (c) 4 0 0 (d) 500 (e) None of these 14. In a mixture of 80 litres of milk and water, 25% of the mixture is milk. How much water should be added to the mixture so that milk becomes 20% of the mixture? (a) 20 litres (b) 15 litres (c) 25 litres (d) 2 4 litres (e) None of these 15. 50% of a% of b is 75% of b% of e. Which of the following is c? (a) 1.5a (b) 0.667 a (c) 0 .5 a (d) 1.25a (e) 1,66a
16.
(a) 33J 3 . (b ) 2 8 .5 6 (c) 25 (d ) 2 0 (e) None of these 7. Ram sells h is goods 2 5 % ch eap er than Shyam and 25% dearer than B ra m . H o w m uch percentage is Brain's. goods ch eap er than S b ya m ’s ? (a) 33.33% (b ) 5 0 %
(c) 6 6 6 6 %
(d ) 4 0 %
(e) None of these g. In an election betw een 2 candidates, Bhiku gets 65% o f the total v a lid vo te s. I f th e total votes were 6 0 0 0 , what is the num ber o f v a lid vo te s that the other can didate Mhatre g e ts i f 2 5 % o f the total votes were de clared invalid? (a) 1625 (b ) 1575 ( c ) 1675 (d ) 1525 (e) None of these 9. In a medical c e rtific a te , b y m ista k e a cand id ate gave bis height as 2 5 % m o re th an n o rm a l. In the in te rv ie w panel, he clarified th at h is h e ig h t w as 5 feet 5 in ch es. Find the percentage c o rre c tio n m ade b y the cand id ate from his stated h e ig h t to h is a ctu a l h e ig h t.
(a) 20 (b ) 2 8 .5 6 (d ) 1 6 .6 6
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17.
A landowner increased the length and the breadth of a rectangular plot by 10% and 2 0 % respectively. Find the percentage change in the cost of the plot assuming land prices are uniform throughout his plot. (a) 33% (b) 3 5 % (c) 22.22% (d) 2 8 .5 6 % (e) None of these
The height of a triangle is increased by 4 0 % . What can be the maximum percentage increase in length o f the base so that the increase in area is restricted to a maxi mum of 6 0 % ? (a) 50% (b) 20% (e) 33.33% . (c) 14.28% (d) 25%
(e) None of these 18. •0 Arjit Sharma generally w e a rs h is fa th e r’ s co at. U n fo r tunately, his cousin S h a u ry a po ked h im one d ay that he was wearing a coat o f len g th m ore than h is heig ht by 15%. If the length o f A i j i t ’s fa th e r’ s co at is 120 cm theo fin d the actual length o f h is co a t. < ■ ) 105 (b ) 108(c) 104.34 (d) 102.72
to 11
10J.J J
is mistakenly divided by 5 in stead o f being by 5 . Find the percentage chang e in the remit due to this mistake.
A number
T h e len g th , breadth and height of a room in the shape of a cuboid are increased by 10%, 20% and 50% re spectively. Find the percentage change in the volume of the cuboid. (a) 77% (b) 75% (c) 8 8 % (d) 98% (e) 99% I 1 9 . The salary of Amit is 30% more than that of Varun. Find by what percentage is the salary of Varun less than that of Amit? (a) 26.12% (b) 23.07%
162
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
(c) 21.23% (e) None of these
(d) 27.27%
(c) 1,27,540 (e) 13,240 27. A
(d )
12 ,3 40
20. The price of sugar is reduced by 25% but inspite of the decrease, Aayush ends up increasing his expenditure on sugar by 20%. What is the percentage change in his monthly consumption of sugar ? (a) +60% (b) 10% (c) +33.33% (d) 50% (e) None of these 21. The price of rice falls by 20%. How much rice can be bought now with the money that was sufficient to buy 20 kg o f rice previously? (a) 5 kg (e) 20 kg (b) 15 kg (c) 25 kg (d) 30 kg
m an in v e s ts R s . 1 0 ,0 0 0 in w h ic h
some shares
of 10 %, 25% „ , : • ’ an d (o n h is in v e stm e n t) for that year respectively Pin dividend income. (a) 1900 (b) 2000 (C) 2050 (d) 1950 (e ) 1850
d iv id e n d s
2:3:5
pay
V
I
28.
22. 30% o f a number when subtracted from 91, gives the number itself. Find the number. (a) 60 (c) 70 (e) None o f these (b) 65 (d) 75
In an examination, Mohit obtained 20% more tj,  Sushant but 10% less than Rajesh. If the m arks tained by Sushant is 1080, find the percentage n J j obtained by Rajesh if the full marks is 2000. (a) 8 6 .6 6 % (b) 72% (c) 78.33% (d) 77.77% (e) None of these
23. When 60% of a number A is added to another number B. B becomes 175% of its previousvalue. Then which o f the following is true regarding thevalues o f A and B? (a) A > B (b) B > A (c) I > A (d) Either (a) or (b) can be true depending upon the values o f A and B (e) Nothing can be said 24. At an election, the candidate who got 56% o f the votes cast won by 144 votes. Find the total number o f voters on the voting list if 80% people cast their vote and there were no invalid votes. (a) 360 (e) 1600 25. The population of a village is 1,00,000. The rate of increase is 10% per annum. Find the population at the start of the third year? (a) 1,33,100 (c) 1,18,800 (e) None of these (b) 1,21,000 (d) 1,20,000 (b) 720 (c) 1800 (d) 1500
29. In a class, 25% of the students were absent for a * exam. 30% failed by 20 marks and 10% just p assed because of grace marks of 5. Find the average scoreo f the class if the remaining students scored an average of 60 marks and the pass marks are 33 (counting th e final scores of the candidates). (a) 37.266 (b) 37.6 (c) 37.8 37.5 (d) 36.93
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30. Ram spends 20% of his monthly income on his house hold expenditure, 15% of the rest on books, 30%cf the rest on clothes and saves the rest. On counting, h e comes to know that he has finally saved Rs. 9 5 2 0 . Find his monthly income. (a) 10000 ' (c) 2 0 0 0 0 (e) None of these (b) 15000 (d) 1 2 0 0 0
31. Hans and Bhaskar have salaries that jointly am ount® Rs. 10,000 per month. They spend the same am ount monthly and then it is found that the ratio of th e i savings is 6 : 1. Which of the following can be H ans salary? (a) Rs. 6000 (b)Rs. 5000 (c) Rs. 4000 (d) Rs. 3000 32. The population of a villageis 5500. If the number o f males increases by 1 1 %and the number of
'increases by 20%, then the population becomes 633ft Find the population o f females in the town. (a) 2500 (b) 3000 (c) 2000 (d) 3500
26. The population of the village of Gavas is 10,000 at this moment. U increases by 10% in the first year. However, in the second year, due to immigration, the population drops by 5%. Find the population at the end of the third year if in the third year the population increases by 20%. (a) 12340 (b) 12,540
Vicky's salary is 75% more than Ashu’s. Vicky got a raise of 40% on his salary while Ashu got a raise of 25% on his salary. By what percent is Vicky’s salary move than Ashu’s? (t)9 6 % (b) 51.1%
40. Ram sells his goods 20% cheaper than Bobby and 20% dearer than Chandilya. How much percentage is Chandilya’s goods cheaper/dearer than B obby’s (a) 33.33% (b) 50% (c) 42.85% (d) None o f these 41 . During winters, an athlete can run x' metres on one bottle of Glucose. But in the summer, he can only run 0 .5 x metres on one bottle of Glucose. How many bottles o f Glucose are required to run 400 meters during summer? (a) 800/x (c) 96 (b) 890/* (d) 454/.*
(c) 90%
(d) 52.1%
*4
first row contains 25% more books row and the third row contains 25% less books th an the second row. If the total number of books co n ta in ed in all the rows is 600, then find the num ber o f books in the first row.
O n a sh e lf, th e than the se co n d
(a) 250
(c) 300
(b) 225 (d) None o f these.
3 5 . An ore contains
25% o f an alloy that has 90% iron. Other than this, in the rem aining 75% o f the ore, there is no iron. How many kilogram s o f the ore are needed to obtain 60 kg o f pure iron? (a) 250 kg (c) 300 kg (b) 275 kg (d) 266.66 kg
42. Out of the total production o f iron from hematite, an ore of iron, 20% o f the ore gets wasted, and out o f the remaining iron, only 25% is pure iron. If the pure iron obtained in a year from a mine of hematite was 8 0 ,0 0 0 kg, then the quantity of hematite mined from that mine in the year is (a) 5,00,000 kg (c) 4,50,000, kg (b) 4,00,000 kg (d) None o f these
36. Last y6 ar, the Indian cricket team played 40 oneday cricket matches out o f which they managed to win only 40%. This year, so far it has played some matches, which has made it mandatory for it to win 80% of the remaining m atches to maintain its existing winning percentage. Find the num ber o f matches played by India so far this year? (a) 30 (c) 28 37.
The p o p ulatio n per annum is
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(a) Rs. 3350 (c) Rs. 4000 (b) 25 (d) Insufficient Information
43. A man buys a truck for Rs. 2,50,000. The annual re pair cost comes to 2.0% o f the price o f purchase. Besides, he has to pay an annual tax o f Rs. 2000. At what monthly rent must he rent out the truck to get a return of 15% on his net investment o f the first year? (b) Rs. 2500 (d) Rs. 3212.50 I I I I  J
o f a village is 1,00,000. Increase rate 10%. Find the population at the starting o f die fo u rth year. (a) 1,33,100 (b) 1,21,000 (c) 1,33,000 (d) None o f these
38. lb the recent, climate conference in New York, out of ?00 men, 500 women, 800 children present inside the building premises, 20% o f the men, 40% o f the women and 10% of the children were Indians. Find the per centage of people who w ere not Indian? < a) 73% (b) 77% . (c) 79% (d) 83%
44. Recently, while shopping in Patna Market in Bihar, I came across two new shirts selling at a discount. I decided to buy one of them for my little boy Sherry. The shopkeeper offered me the first shirt for Rs. 4 2 and said that it usually sold for 8/7 o f that price. He then offered me the other shirt for Rs. 36 and said that it usually sold for 7/6th of that price. O f the two shirts which one do you think is a better bargain and w hat is the percentage discount on it? (a) first shirt, 12.5% (b) second shirt, 14.28% (c) Both are same (d) None o f these
4 5 . 4 /5 th o f th e vo te rs in S o n ia G a n d h i an d
& A cow and a calf cost Rs. 2000 and Rs. 1400 respec tively. If the price o f the cow and that o f the calf is increased by 20% and 30% respectively then the price °f 1 dozen cows and 2 dozens calves is: (b) 71,360 fc) 74340 (d) None o f these
Bellary promised to vote for the rest promised to vote for Su sh m a S w a ra j. Of these voters, 10% o f the voters w h o had promised to vote for Sonia Gandhi, did not vo te on the election day, while 20 % o f the voters who had promised to vote for Sushma S w a ra j did n o t vole on the election day. What is th e to ta l n o . o f v o te s polled if Sonia Gandhi g o t 2 1 6 v o te s? (a) 2 0 0 (b ) 3 0 0 (c) 2 6 4 (d ) 1 0 0
I
How lo Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
T
tion. The same course was followed in the 2nd uA ndi years also. If at the end of three years, he is jej rd * Rs. 16,875, then find the amount donated by fc ^ the end of the 2 nd year. (a) Rs. 45,000 (c) Rs. 22,500 (e) None of these (b) Rs. 12,500 • (d) Rs. 20,000
46. In an examination. 80% students passed in Physics, H P in C h e m i s t r y w h i l e 15% failed in both the sub jects. If 3 2 5 s t u d e n t s passed in both the subjects. Find the total n u m b e r of students who appeared in the ex
a m in a tio n . (a ) 5 0 0 47. R avana
m
(b) 400
(c) 300
(d) 600
spends 30% of his salary on house rent, 30% of the test he spends on his children's education and 24% of the total salary he spends on clothes. After his expendi ture, he is left with Rs. 2500. What is Ravana's salary? (b) Rs. 20,000 (d) Rs. 15,000
(a) Rs. 11,494.25 (c) Rs. 10,000
48. The entrance ticket at the Minerva theatre in Mumbai is worth Rs. 250. When the price of the ticket was lowered, the sale of tickets increased by 50% while the collections recorded a decrease of 17.5%. Find the deduction in the ticket price. (a) Rs. 150 (c) Rs. 105 (b) Rs. 112 5 (d) Rs. 120
2. In an examination, 48% students failed in H in d i a n d 32% students in History, 20% students failed j b og, the subjects. If the number of students who passed^ I examination was 880, how many students appear^ • I the examination if the examination consisted only 3 these two subjects? (a) 2 0 0 0 (c) 2500 (e) None of these (b) 2 2 0 0 (d) 1800
y
hi
if) ^jvifl!
w f J ifi “ 
AI
rti
49. Ravi’s monthly salary is A rupees. Of this, he spends X rupees. The next month he has an increase of C% in his salary and D% in his expenditure. The new amount saved is: (a) A(1 + C/100) X(1 + D/100) (b) (A/100XC  (D)X (1 + D/100) (c) X(C  (D)/100 (d) X(C+ Z))/100 50. In the year 2000, the luxury car industry had two car manufacturers—Maruti and Honda with market shares of 25% and 75% respectively. In 2001, the overall market for the product increased by 50% and a new player BMW also entered the market and captured 15% of the market share. If we know that the market share of Maruti increased to 50% in the second year, the share of Honda in that year was:
(a )
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(a) 360 (e) 350 (b) 280
(c) 320
3. At IIM, Bangalore, 60% of the students are boys an d the rest are girls. Further 15% o f the boys and 7.5%^ the girls are getting a fee waiver. If the number of those getting a fee waiver is 90, find the total num ber of students getting 50% concession if it is given that 50% of those not getting a fee waiver are eligible to get half fee concession?
(d) 330
#l5 V
M
4. A machine depreciates in value each year at the rateof 10% of its previous value. However, every second year there is some maintenance work so that in that particu lar year, depreciation is only 5% of its previous value; If at the end of the fourth year, the value of th e machine stands at Rs. 1,46,205, then find the valueof machine at the start of the first year. (a) Rs. 1,90,000 (c) Rs. 1,95,000 (e) Rs. 2,20,000 (b) Rs. 2,00,000 (d) Rs. 2,10,000
'i a*
I
5. Arushi’s project report consists of 25 pages each of I lines with 75 characters on each line. In case the n j ber of lines is reduced to 55 but the number of c J acters is increased to 90 per lines, what is the percen Level o f D iffic u lty (LOD) age change in the number of pages. (Assume the1,1111 j ber pf pages to be a whole number.) • I p A m bani. a ve ry clever businessman, started off a (a) +10% (b) +5% (c)  8 % (d) business w ith very little capital. In the first year, he (e)  12% earned a prom o f 50% and donated 50% of the total 6 . The price of soap is collectively decided by f*v®\j capital (in itia l cap ital + p ro fit) to a charitable organisa tors: research, raw materials, labour, advertise®*]
50%
(b) 45%
(c) 40%
(d) 35%
in
C h ap ters:
Percet
and transportation. A ssum e that the functional rela tionship is
percent will the expenditure on the article rise in the Indian economy?
Price of soap = (A r x R esearch costs x Raw material costs x Labour costs x A dvertising cost x Transporta tion cost). If there are respective changes o f 10% , 20%, 20% , 25% and 50% in the five factors, then find the change in the price o f soap. (b ) 95% (c) 98% (d ) 96% (e) Cannot b e determ ined
7.
(a) 97%
(W 22.5% (c) 23.75% (d) 26.75% (e) None of these 12. In the university examination last year, Rajesh scored 65% in English and 82% in History. What is the mini mum percent he should score in Sociology, which is out of 50 marks (if English and History were for 100 marks each), if he aims at getting 78% overall?
(a) 24.25%
After receiving tw o successive ra ise s, H u rsh’s salary became equal to 15/8 tim es o f h is initial salary. By how much percent w as the s a la ry ra ise d the first time if the second raise w as tw ice a s h ig h (in percent) as the first?
(a) 15% (b ) 2 0 %
(a) 94% (e) 99%
(b) 92%
(c) 98%
(d) 96%
(c) 2 5 %
s (d) 30%
(e) 33.33%
g. The ratio o f Jim ’s salary fo r O c to b e r to his salary for N ovem ber w as 1.5 : 1.333 a n d th e ratio o f the salary for N ovem ber to that fo r D e c e m b er w as 2 : 2.6666. T he w orker g o t 4 0 ru p e e s m o re for D ecem ber than for O c to b e r and receiv ed a b o n u s constituting 40 per cent o f the salary fo r th ree m o n th s. F in d the bonus. (Assume that th e n u m b er o f w o rk d a y s is th e sam e in every m onth.) (a) 368.888 ru pees
13. King Dashratha, at his eleventh hour, called his three queens and distributed his gold in the following way : He gave 50% of his wealth to his first wife, 50% of the rest to his second wife and again 50% of the rest to his third wife. If their combined share is worth 1,30,900 kilograms of gold, find the quantity of gold King Dashratha was having initially? (a) 1,50,000 kg (c) 1,51,600 kg (e) None of these
(b) 1,49,600 kg (d) 1,52,600 kg
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(b ) 1 5 2 .5 5 5 5 ru p ees (d ) 2 6 5 .6 ru p ees
(c) 222.22 rupees
(e) None o f these
14. The population of New Foundland increases with a uniform rate of 8 % per annum, but due to immigra tion, there is a further increase of population by 1 % (however, this 1 % increase in population is to be cal culated on the population after the 8 % increase and not on the previous years population). Find what will be the percentage increase in population after 2 years? (a) 18.984 (b) 18.081 (c) 18.24 (e) 18.62 (d) 17.91
9. After three su ccessive eq u a l p e rc e n ta g e rise in the salary the sum o f 100 ru p e es turned in to 140 rupees and 49 paise. F in d th e p e rc e n ta g e rise in the salary,
(a) 12% (b ) 2 2 %
(c) 6 6 %
(d) 82%
(e) 77% 10. Prema goes to a sh o p to bu y a so fa set costing Rs. 13,080. The rate o f sales tax is 9% . She tells the shop keeper to reduce th e p ric e o f th e sofa set to such an extern that she h as to p a y R s. 13080 inclusive o f sales tax. Find the p e rcen tag e re d u ctio n needed in the price of the sofa set to ju s t satisfy h e r requirem ent. <a) 8 . 3 3 %
<c) 9 %
(b ) (d ) 8 .2 6 % 8 .5 %
15. 10% of Mexico’s population migrated to South Asia, 10% of the remaining migrated to America and 10% of the rest migrated to Australia. If the female popu lation, which was left in Mexico, remained only 3,64,500, find the population of Mexico City before the migration and its effects if it is given that before the migration thefemale population was half themale population and this ratio did not change after the mi gration? (a) 10,00,000 (c) 15,00,000 (e) 12,50,000
(b) 12,00,000
(d) 16,00,000
9.09%
!J. The price o f a certain artic le w as raised by 1 0 % in India. The co n su m p tio n o f th e sam e article was increascd from 2 0 0 to n s to 2 2 5 tons. B y how much
■ 16 A c c o r d in g to a recent survey report issued by the Commerce Ministry, Government of India, 30% of die total FDI goes to Gujarat and 20% of this goes to
jgg H o w tof^epere< b rQ u an titativ eA p M u d efo rtheC A T
rural areas. If the FDI in Gujarat, which goes to urban areas, is $72 m. then find the size o f FDI in rural Andhra Pradesh, which attracts 50% o f the FDI that comes to Andhra Pradesh, which accounts for 20% of the total FDI? (a) $30 m
<c) $60 m
f
j
22. A person saves 6 % o f his income. Two years income shoots up by 15% but his savings m m . Ci«w 1 »Ka hilrp in in his hie expenditure. exnenditiire_ _ same. Find the hike (a) 15.95% (c) 14.8% (e) None of these 23. A is 50% more than B, C is 2/3 of A and D is 6q% than C. Now, each of A, B, C and D is increase 10%. Find what per cent of B is D (after the increa ^ (a) 150% (c) 175% (e) None o f these 24. A and B have, between them, Rs. 1200. A spends 1* o f his money while B spends 20% of his money. i y are then left with a sum that constitutes 85% 0f^ whole sum. Find what amount is left with A. (a) Rs. 750 (c) Rs. 700 (e) Rs. 880 (b) (d) Rs. 800 Rs. 660 (b) (d) 160% 176%
nU i
(b) 15% (d) 15.5%
I
o
(b) $9 m (d) $40 m
(e) None of these 17. If in question 16, the growth in the size o f FDI for the next year with respect to the previous year is 2 0 %, then find the share of urban Maharashtra next year if 12% of the total FDI going to Maharashtra went to urban areas (provided Maharashtra attracted only 10% of the total share for both years). (a) $36 m (c) $3 m (e) None of these (b) $4.32 m (d) $5 m
j'"
* 4
3 (c)j5
18. The cost of food accounted for 25% of the income of a particular family. If the income gets raised by 20%, then what should be the percentage point decrease in the food expenditure as a percentage of the total in come to keep the food expenditure unchanged between the two years? (a) 3:5 (e) 6.25 (b) 8.33 (c) 4.16 . (d) 5
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19. If the length, breadth and height of a cube are de creased, decreased and increased by 5%, 5% and 20% respectively, then what will be the impact on the sur face area of the cube (in percentage terms)? (a) 7.25% (b) 5% (e) 8.5% (c) 8.33% (d> 6.0833%
25. Maya has Rs. M with her and her friend Chanda 1* I (6SS*6) Rs. C with her. Maya spends 12% of her money anj III Chanda also spends the same amount as Maya d id What percentage o f her money did Chanda spend? I 3 1 .T h eh o u ri 18M 18C pji.tri (a) (b) C M b y81F 12M 12C w a g e sif ) (d) (c) C M b o a rsprei (e) None of these
W +359
20. A’s salary is first increased by 25% and then decreased by 20%.The result is the same as S ’s salary increased by 20% and then reduced by 25%. Find the ratio of B’s salary to that of A's?
26. In a village consisting of p persons, x% can read a n d1 write. O f the males alone y % , and of the fem ales■ alone z% can read and write. Find the number oil males in the village in terms of p, x , y and z if
(a)
p (x z) ( y + x —z)
p (yx)
(b) (d)
p(xz)
^ffess
(y + x  2 z )
p{xz)
'■^efa
(a) 4 3
(c) 10 : 9
(b) 1 1 : 1 0 (d) 12 : 11
(c)
(■ x  z)
(y  z )
(e) None of these
21. The minimum quantity o f milk in litres (in whole number) that should be mixed in a mixture of 60 litres in whichthe initial ratio of milk towater is 1 : 4 so that the resultingmixture has 15% milk is  I (b) 4 M  (d) 6 (e) This is not possible
27. In order to maximise his gain, a theatre owner decide to reduce the price of tickets by 2 0 % and as a ies* of this, the sales of tickets increase by 40% 35 result of these changes, he is able to increase i weekly collection by Rs. 1,68,000, find by what' I did the gross collection increase per day? (a) 14,000 (b) 18.000 (c) 24,000 (d) 20,000
S
vS
I
9
o f three localities A . B and C , the p o p u latio n o f th e three localities A, B and C a re in the ra tio 9 : 8 : 3 . In locality A , 80% o f the people are lite ra te , in lo c a lit y B, 30% o f the people are illiterate. If 90°* people in locality C are literate, find the per centage literacy in th at tow n. (a ) 61.5% (b) 78% (c) 75% (d ) N one o f these
In * to w n c o n s is tin g
(c) Rs. 28,000 35. Reena goes to
a shop to buy a
(d) None of these
radio costing Rs. 2568. T h e rate o f sa les ta x is 7% and the final value is rounded o ff to the n ext higher integer. She tells the shopkeeper to reduce the price of the radio so th a t she has to pay R s . 2568 inclusive of sales tax. Find the reduction needed in the price of the radio. (a) Rs. 180 (c) Rs. 168 (h) Rs. 210 (d) None of these
h) a fraction is such that if the double o f the numerator and the triple o f the denominator is changed by + 10% and 30% respectively then w e get 11 % o f 16/21 . Find the fraction. (*) 25 
3
Directions fo r Questions 3638: Read the fo llo w in g pas
(b )
2
25
sage and answer the questions. In a recent youth fete organised by AMS Careers, the entry tickets were sold out according to the fo llo w in g scheme: Tickets bought in one lot Percentage discount Original price per ticket: Rs. 6
10% 40
25
(d) N one o f these
12 20%
18 25%
30. To pass an examination, 40% marks are essential. A obtains 10% marks less than the pass marks and B obtains 11.11% marks less than A . What percent less than the sum o f A 's and B 's m arks should C obtain to
pass die exam ? (a) 40% (c) 28%
This offer could have been availed only When tickets were bought in a fixed lot according to th e schem e and any additional ticket was available at its original p ric e . 36. If a person has to buy 25 tickets, then w h a t w minimum price per ticket? (a) Equal to Rs. 32 (c) 31.84 (b) 32.32 (d) Cannot be
ill
(b) 41(3/17)% (d) A ny o f these
be the
31. The hourly wages o f a fem ale labour are increased by 12.5%, whereas the w eekly w orking hours are reduced by 8 %. Find the percentage change in the weekly wages if she was getting Rs. 1200 per week for 50
hours previously. (a) +3.5% (c) 4.5% (b ) 4 % (d ) None o f these
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(a) Rs. 30 (c) Rs. 36
d e te rm in e d .
37. In the above question, what will be the a p p ro xim a te possible maximum price per ticket (if discounts h ave been availed for 24 tickets)? (b) Rs. 32 (d) Rs. 36.16
32. Two numbers X and Y are 20% and 28% less than a third number Z. F in d b y w h a t percentage is the num ber Y less than the n u m b e r X .
(b) 12%
(c) 10%
(d) 9%
33. Price of a commodity is first increased by x% and then decreased by x% . I f the new price is Kl 100, find the original price.
(a) ( x  1 0 0 )1 0 0 /* M00 jr>100/AT (b ) (d ) (jc2  lOO^lOO/tf lOOtf/OOO2  x2)
38. On the last day of the fete, with the objective of maximising participation, the number of tickets sold in a lot was halved with the same discount offer. Mr. X is in a fix regarding the number of tickets he can buy with Rs. 532. The maximum number of tickets he can purchase with this money is (a) 14 (b ) 15 (c) 16 (d) 17 39. 800 people w ere supposed to vote on a re so lu tio n , but l/3rd o f the people w ho had decid ed to vote fo r the
m o tio n w ere abducted. H o w ever, the opponents o f the m o tio n , through som e m eans m anaged to in c re a se th e ir strength b y 100% . T h e m otion w as th en re je cte d b y a m a jo rity , w h ich w as 50% o f that b y w h ic h it w o u ld h ave been p a ssed if none o f these ch an g es w o u ld h ave o ccu rred . H ow m any people fin a lly voted fo r the m otion and ag ainst the
^ The salary o f a person is increased by Rs. 4800 and ihcQlB of tax is decreased by 2 % from 1 2 % to 1 0 %. is su ch that he is now paying the same If in both the cases, the standard tax I at2 0 % o f the total income, find the
motion.
(a) 200 (for), 400
(ag ain st)
168
B
to Prepare tor Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
(b) 1 0 0 (for) and 200 (against) (c) 150 (for). 300 (against) (d) 200 (for) and 300 (against)
(a)  10% (c) 25%
(b) 16% (d) 20% I I I ■ I I
40. Of the adult population in Nagpur, 45% o f men and 25% o f women are married. What percentage o f the total populationo f adults is married (assume that no man marries more than one woman and vice versa)?
(a) 33.33% (c) 31.1%
(b) 32.14% (d) None of these
41. The weight of an iron bucket increases by 33.33% when filled with water to 50% of its capacity. Which o f these may be 50% of the weight of the bucket when it is filled with water (assume the weight of bucket and its capacity in kg to be integers)? (a) 7 kg (b) 6 kg (c) 5 kg (d) 8 kg 42. Australia scored a total o f x runs in 50 overs. India tied the scores in 20% less overs. If India’s average run rate had been 33.33% higher the scores would have been tied 10 overs earlier. Find how many runs were scored by Australia? (a) 250 (c) 200
(b) 240 (d) Cannot be determined
47. In an assembly election at Surat, the total turn 80% out o f which 16% of the total voters on ^ ing list were declared invalid. Find which of lowing can be the percentage votes got by the of the election if the candidate who came second 20% o f the total voters on the voting list. (There only three contestants, only one winner and the number of voters on the voters’ list was 20000 (a) 44.8% (c) 48% (b) 46.6% (d) None of these
48. A watch gains by 2% per hour when the temperas I is in the range o f 40°C50°C and it loses at the sabl rate when the temperature is in the range of 20°r I 30°C. However, the watch owner is fortunate sincej[ I runs on time in all other temperature ranges. O n I sunny day, the temperature started soaring up from11 a.m. in the morning at the uniform rate of 2°Cp J hour and sometime during the afternoon it started I coming down at the same rate. Find what time w illi I be by the watch at 7 p.m. if at 8 a.m. the tem perature I was 32°C and at 4 p.m., it was 40°C. (a) 6 : 55 p.m. (b) 6 : 55 : 12 p.m. (c) 6 : 55 : 24 p.m. (d) None of these
43. Due to a 25% hike in the price o f rice p er kilogram, a person is able to purchase 20 kg less for Rs. 400.
Find the increased price o f rice p er kilogram ?
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(c) Rs. 10 (d) Rs. 4 questions that follow.
Beverages % of Vitamin % of Minerals
(a) Rs. 5
(b) Rs. 6
Questions 4950: Study the following table and answerthe I
44. A salesman is appointed on the basic salary o f Rs. 1200 per month and the condition that for every sales o f Rs. 10,000 above Rs. 10,000, he will get 50% o f basic salary and 10% of the sales as a reward. This incentive scheme does not operate for the first Rs. 10000 o f sales. What should bethe value of sales earn Rs. 7600 in a particular month? (a) Rs. 60,000 (c) Rs. 40,000 (b) Rs.50,000 (d) None of these
if he w ants to
% of Micronutrients
Cost per ftI
gram(ln Ril
Pepsi Coke Sprite
12 15 20
18 20 10
30 10 40
8
10
7
i
49. Which of the following beverages contains the ma»* mum amount of vitamins?
(a ) P e p s i w o r th R s .
45. In question 44, which of the following income cannot be achieved in a month? (a) (b) (c) (d) Rs. 6000 Rs. 9000 Both a and b Any incomc can be achieved
16 15 12.5 (125 grams o f eaC I
(b)
C o k e w o r th R s .
(c ) S p r it e w o r t h R s . 8
(d) All 50.
(a )
th e th re e w o r th R s .
W h i c h o f th e se is th e ch e a p e st?
46. In question 44 despite a 5 percentage point increment on the commission from 2 0 %, the total commission remained unaltered. Find the change in the volume of the transaction?
200 g ra m s o f P e p s i + 200 g ra m s o f Coke 300 g ra m s o f C o k e +100 g ra m s o f Peps 100 grams o f C o k e + 100 g ra m s o f Pepsi + ^ j grams of Sprite (d) 300 grams of Coke + 100 g ra m s of Sprite (b) (c)
Level o f D iffic u lty (LO D)
III
I T h e p r ic e o f r a w materials has gone up by 15%, labour H h a s a l s o increased from 25% of the cost of raw material t o 30% of the cost o f raw material. By how much p e r c e n t a g e should there be a reduction in the u s a g e o f r a w materials so as to keep the cost same? (a) 17% 0>) 24% (c) 28% T ■ ; (d) 25% (e) Cannot be determined 2. Mr. I is a computer programmer. He is assigned three jobs for which time allotted is in the ratio of 5 : 4 : 2 (jobs are needed to be done individually). But due to some technical snag, 10% of the time allotted for each job gets wasted. Thereafter, owing to the lack of interest, he invests only 40%, 30%, 20% of the hours of what was actually allotted to do the three jobs individually. Find how much percentage of the total time allotted is the time invested by A1 (b) 39.4545% (d) 36.66% (e) Cannot be determined (a) 38.33% (c) 32.72%
5. 10% of salty sea water contained in a flask w as poured" out into a beaker. After this, a part o f the w ater co n tained in the beaker was vapourised by heating and due to this, the percentage o f salt in the beaker in creased M times. If it is known that after the content of the beaker was poured into the flask, the percentage of salt in the flask increased by x% , find the original quantity o f sea water in the flask. (a)
9M + 1%
M 1
9 M \x%
(b) (d)
(9 M + \ ) x % M 1 9M + x% M + 1
(c)
(e) None o f these
6.
In an election o f 3 candidates A, B and C, A gets 50% more votes than B. A also beats C by 1 ,8 0 ,0 0 votes. I f it is known that B gets 5 percentage point m ore votes than C, find the number o f voters on the voting list (given 90% of the voters on the voting list voted and no votes were illegal) (a) 72,000 (c) 90,000 (b) 81,000 (d) 1,00,000
(e) 1,10,000
7. A clock is set right at 12 noon on Monday. It loses 1 /2 % on the correct time in the first w eek but gains 1/4% on the true time during the second w eek. T he time shown on Monday after two w eeks w ill be (a) 12 : 25 : 12 (c) 12 : 50 : 24 (e) None o f these (b) 11 : 34 : 48 (d) 12 : 24 : 16
3. In the MOCK CAT paper at AMS, questions were
afked in five sections. Out o f the total students, 5% candidates cleared the cutoff in all the sections and 5% cleared none. O f the rest, 25% cleared only one section and 20% cleared four sections. If 24.5% of the entire candidates cleared two sections and 300'candi dates cleared three sections, find out how many can didates appeared at the MOCK CAT at AMS? (a) 1000 (e) 1800 (b) 1200
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(c) 1500
(d) 2000
4 There are three galleries in a coal mine. On the first day. two galleries are operative and after some time, the third gallery is made operative. With this, the out put of the mine became half as large again. What is the capacity of the second gallery as a percentage of the if it js given that a fourmonth output of the first and dig third galleries was the same as the annual
8. The petrol prices shot up by 7% as a result o f the hike in the price of crudes. The price o f petrol before the hike was Rs. 28 per litre. Vawal travels 2 4 0 0 kilometres every month and his car gives a m ileage o f 18 kilometres to a litre.Find the increase in the exp en diture that Vawal has to incur due to the increase in the price of petrol (to the nearest rupee)? (a) Rs. 270 (c) Rs. 276 (e) Rs. 280 (b) Rs. 262
(d) Rs. 272
°®P* of the second gallery? < c> 60% ^ None of these (b) 64% (d) 65%
9. For question 8, by how many kilometres should Vawal reduce his travel if he wants to maintain his expendi ture at the previous level (prior to the price increase)? (a) 157 km (b) 137 km (c) 168 km (d) 180 km (e) None of these .I
I JQ
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
7
15; For question 14, the ratio of the cost per foi Shayam’s travel to Kailash’s travel is (a) 3 : 1  (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 1 : 1.92 (d) 2 : 1 (e) Cannot be determined 16. If diesel costs Rs. 12.5 per litre, then the diffe. the cost of travel per kilometre between K ailg JIj Shayam’s is (assume an average of 20 km per jj *** Shayam’s car and also assume that petrol is 50& ^ own price higher than diesel) (a) Rs. 1.75 (c) Rs. 1.25 (e) None of these (b) Rs. 0.875 (d). Rs. 1.125
10. In question 8 , if Vawal wants to limit the increase in expenditure to Rs. 2 0 0 , what strategy should he adopt with respect to his travel? (a) Reduce travel to (b) Reduce travel to (c) Reduce travel to (d) Reduce travel to (e) None of these 23SO kilometres 2340 kilometres 2360 kilometres 2370 kilometres
J
11. A shopkeeper announces a discount scheme as fol lows: for every purchase of Rs. 3000 to Rs. 6000, the customer gets a 15% discount or a ticket that entitles him to get a 7% discount on a further purchase of goods costing more than Rs. 6000. The customer, however, would have the option of reselling his right to the shopkeeper at 4% o f his initial purchase value (as per the right refers to the 7% discount ticket). In an enthusiastic response to the scheme, 10 people pur chase goods worth Rs. 4000 each. Find the maximum. Possible revenue for the shopkeeper. (a) Rs. 38,400 (c) Rs. 39,400 (e) Rs. 40,000 (b) Rs. 38.000 (d) Rs. 39,000
Directions fo r Questions 1723: Read the follow!
answer the questions that follow.
in 8a o d
12. For question 11, find the maximum possible discount that the shopkeeper would have to offer to the customer, (a) Rs. 1600 (c) Rs. 6000 (e) None of these (b) Rs. 2000 (d) Rs. 4000
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In the island of Hoola Boola Moola, the inhabitants ha» I a strange process of calculating their average incomes a n d expenditures. According to an old legend prevalent ontin island, the average monthly income had to be calculateda I the basis of 14 months in a calendar year while the averaa monthly expenditure was to be calculated on the basis of91 months per year, This would lead to people having anu n derestimation of their savings since there would be an u n derestimation of the income and an overestimation of th e expenditure per month. 17. Mr. Boogie Woogle comes back from the USSR a n d convinces his community comprising 273 fam iliesid start calculating the average income and the av erag e expenditure on the basis of 12 months per calendars year. Now if it is known that the average estim ated income in his community is (according to the o ld system) 87 moolahs per month, then what will beth e percentage change in the savings of the community® Mr. Boogie Woogle (assume that there is no otW change)? 1 (a) 12.33% (b ) 22.22% (c) 31.31% (d) 33.33%
(e ) C a n n o t be d eterm in ed
Directions fo r Questions 13— 16: Read the following and answer the questions that follow. Two friends Shayam and Kailash own two versions of a car. Shayam owns the diesel version of the car, while Kailash owns the petrol version. Kailash’s car gives an average that is 20% higher than Shayam’s (in terms of litres per kilometre). It is known that petrol costs 60% of its price higher than diesel. 13. The ratio of the cost per kilometre of Kailash’s car to Shayam’s car is U) 3 : 1 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1.92 : 1 (d) 2 : 1 (e) Cannot be determined
1 4 . If S h ayam ’s
18.
F o r q u e stio n
17,
i f it is k n o w n that the average e*
car gives an average of 20 km per litre, then the d iffe re n ce in the cost of travel per kilometre betw een the tw o cars is (a) Rs. 4.3 (b ) Rs. 3.5 Cc) Rs. 2,5 (d) R s . 3
(e ) C annot be determ ined
mated m o n th ly e xp e n d itu re is 19 m oolahs per in °n fo r the island o f H o o la B o o la M o o la , then what wil* _ the percentage chang e in the estim ated savings of** community? (a ) 32.42% (b ) 38.05% (e) 25.23% (d) 26.66% (e) Cannot be determined
Sgteteg
19. Fo r question 18, i f it is k n o w n th a t th e av erage, esti mated m onthly exp end iture w a s 22 m o o lah s p e r m onth for the co m m unity o f B o o g ie W oogie (h avin g 273 fam ilie s), then w hat w ill b e the percentage change in the estim ated sa vin g s o f the com m unity? (a) 30.77% (c ) 25.23% (e) Cannot jj (b ) (d ) 25 .7 3% 28 .1 8%
be determined
20. Fo r question 19, w hat w ill be the percentage change in the estim ated averag e inco m e o f the com m unity (c a l culated on the b a sis o f the new estim ated averag e)? (a) 14.28% in cre ase (c ) 16.66% in cre ase (e) None o f these (b ) (d ) 14.28% decrease 16 .6 6% decrease
21.
I f the fin an ce m in iste r o f the isla n d M r. B h o la R am declares that h en cefo rth the averag e m onthly incom e has to be estim ated on th e b a sis o f mated on the b a sis o f M oola? (a) Increase (c ) R em ain co n stan t (b ) D ecrease (d ) E ith e r (b ) o r (c )
12 m onths per year
w hile the averag e m o n th ly exp en d itu re is to be e sti
11
m onths to the y e a r, w hat w ill
happen to the sa v in g s in the econom y o f H o o la B o o la
centage profit of 30.05% on the C.P. Find the value of the percentage profit that the shopkeeper would have earned if he had given discounts of 10% and 15% only, (a) 53% (b) 62.5% (c) 72.5% (d) 68.6% (e) 69.2% 26. If the third discount in question 25 was Rs. 2,29,50, then find the original marked price of the item. (a) R s . 1,00,000 (b) R s . 1,25,000 (c) R s . 2,00,000 (d) R s . 2,50,000 (e) R s . 2,25,000 27. Krishna Iyer, a motorist uses 24% of his fuel in cov ering the first 20% of his total journey (in city driving conditions). If he knows that he has to cover another 25% of his total journey in city driving conditions, what should be the minimum percentage increase in the fuel efficiency for noncity driving over the city driving fuel efficiency, so that he is just able to cover his entire journey without having to refuel? (Approxi mately) (a) 39.2% (b) 43.5% (c) 45.6% (d) 41.2% Directions for Questions 2830: Read the following and answer the questions that follow the BSNL announced a cut in the STD rates on 27 December 2001. The new rates and slabs are given in the table below and are to be imple mented from the 14 January 2002.
Slab Details
Rates (RsJmin) Distance Peak Rates Old
50200 200— 500vi 5001000 4.8
(e) Cannot be d e term in ed 22. Fo r question 2 1 , w h a t w ill be the percentage change in savings?
(a ) 3 .1 %
(c ) 2 .5 %
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(b ) 1,.52% . (d ) ,3 ,2 %
(e) C annot b e d e term in ed 23. Fo r question 2 2 , w h a t w ill b e th e percentage change in the estim ated m o n th ly e xp e n d itu re ? (a)
O ff P eak O ld
. N ew
22.22%
d e cre ase
(b )
22. 22%
in cre ase
New
2 .4 4.8 9.00 9.00
(c) 18.18% d e cre a se (e) None o f th ese
(d ) 1 8 .1 8 % in cre ase
1.2
3 4 .5
1.2
2 .4 4 .5 4 .5
11.6
17.56 17.56
24. Abhim anyu B a n e rje e h a s 7 2 % v is io n in h is le ft eye and 68% v is io n in h is rig h t e y e . O n c o rre c tiv e therapy, he starts w e a rin g c o n ta c t le n s e s, w h ic h augm ent h is vision by 15% in th e le ft e y e an d 11% in the rig h t eye. Find out the p e rce n tag e o f n o rm a l v is io n that he pos sesses a fte r c o rre c tiv e th e ra p y . (A ssu m e that a
1000+
6
person’s e y e sig h t is a m u ltip lic a tiv e co n stru ct o f the ey*s*ghr*s o f h is le ft an d rig h t e y e s) 52 .5 %
(b) 6 2 .5 %
( c ) 7 2 .5 %
(d )
68.6%
o f 10%* at a per
(*) None of these
^ shopkeeper g iv e s
3 consecutive d isco u n ts H and 15% after w h ic h he sells h is goods
28. The maximum percentage reduction in costs will be experienced for calls over which of the following distances? (a) 50200 (b) 5001000 (c) 1000+ (d) 200500 29. The percentage difference in the cost o f a set o f tele phone calls made on the 13th and 14th January having durations of 4 minutes over a distance of 350 km. 3 minutes for a distance of 700 km and 3 minutes for a
1 7 2 ! How to Prepare fix Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
distance of 1050 km is (if all the three c a lls are made in peak times) (a) 51.2% (b ) 5 1 .7 6 % (c) 59.8 % (d ) C annot be determined 30. If one of the three c a lls in question 29 were made in an off peak time on both d a ys, then the percentage reduction in the to tal co st o f the calls between 13th and 14th Jan u ary w ill
(a ) D e fin ite ly reduce (b ) D e fin ite ly increase (c ) W ill depend on w h ich p a rticu la r c a ll an o ff peak tim e (d ) C annot be determ ined
(a) 95.83% (c) 97.28% 34.
(b )
99.46%
(d ) C annot be determ
B ased on the data in the p revio u s question
*4J
m,ncd
ad d itio n al' in fo rm atio n that the space availability.
In d ia 's Times is 1000 c c and that in the
7»«.
0 (
*
H in d u sta n is 1100 c c , fin d the percentage point d fltj
en ce in the p ercen tag e o f ad ve rtisin g space to J u tilise d in
I n d ia ’ s Times and that w hich must J
u tilis e d in T im es o f H in d u sta n so that both newspapJ ju s t b reak e ve n .
was made in
(a )
4.5
Directions for Questions 3135: Read the following caselet
questions that follow. circulation of the Deccan Emerald newspaper is 3,73,000 copies, while its closest competitors are The Times of Hindustan and India’ s Tunes, which sell 2,47,000 and 2 0 % more than that respectively (rounded off to the higher thousand). All the newspapers cost Rs. 2 each. The hawker’s commissions offered by the three papers are 20%, 25% and 30% respectively (these commissions are calculated on the sale price of the newspaper). Also, it is known that news papers earn primarily through sales and advertising.
and an sw er the Th e
(c) 1 0 C a n n o t b e determined 35. For the data ih questions 3 3 a n d 3 4 i f i t is know n u the advertising rate in Times o f Hindustan is R s. igg per cc and t h a t in t h e In d ia ’s Times i s R s . 2 1 0 0 per * then w h a t is t h e p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t d iffe r e n c e in tfe percentage of a d v e r t i s i n g s p a c e t o b e u t ilis e d by Tuna
o f H industan a n d In d ia ’ s Times s o t h a t b o th o f then
(b) (d)
5 .2
are just
(a)
(c ) 36.
a b le to b re a k e v e n ? * (b ) 5 .6
4 .1 8 4 .0 9
( d ) C a n n o t b e determined
On a
t r a i n j o u r n e y , t h e r e a r e 5 k i n d s o f tic k e ts
A C lJ
A C I I , A C I I I , 3  t i e r , a n d g e n e r a l . T h e relationship] b e t w e e n t h e r a t e s o f t h e t i c k e t s f o r t h e E u ra il is A C II
31. Taking the base as the net revenue of Deccan Emer ald, the percentage difference of the net revenue (rev enues  commission disbursed to hawkers) b etw een Deccan Emerald and India’ s Times is (a) 24.62% (b) 30.32%
(c ) 2 6 .2 8 % 3 2 . T h e ra tio o f the
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is
(d) None of these
2 0 % h i g h e r t h a n A C I I I a n d A C I is 70%
A C f f l ’s v a l u e h i g h e r t h a n t h e A C I I tic k e t’s value,
percentage difference in the total net revenue betw een D eccan Emerald and India’s Times to the percentage difference in the total revenue be tw een D eccan E m e ra ld and India’s Times is
The 3  t i e r t i c k e t i s 2 5 % o f t h e A C I ’s ti c k e t cost andl the g e n e r a l t i c k e t i s 1 / 3 t h e p r i c e o f t h e A C II ticket The A C I I t i c k e t c o s t s 7 8 0 e u r o s b e t w e e n L ondon ami Paris. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t e s o f 3 t i e r a n d general] ticket is euros (b) 5 5 . 8 euros euros (d) 5 2 . 7 5 euros f 37. For th e above question, the total cost of one ticket o e a c h c la s s w ill be
4 1 .2 5
(c ) 4 8 .7 5
(a)
(a)
33.
1.488
(c ) 0 .6 7 2 0
(b) 0.3727 (d) Cannot be determined
If the cost o f p rin tin g the newspaper is Rs. 8 , 7.5 and 7 respectively per day fo r Deccan Emerald, Times of Hindustan and India's Times respectively and on any day the available a d ve rtisin g space in the Deccan Emerald newspaper is 800 c c (column centimetres) and the advertising rate fo r Deccan Emerald is Rs. 3000 per cc then the percentage of the advertising space that must be utilised to ensure the full recovery of the day’s cost for Deccan Emerald is
(a) 3233.75 (c) 4233.75
(b ) 3 5 3 3 . 7 5
(d) 3733.75
Directions for Question 38— 40: Read the following answer the questions that follow. a v in S A Eurailexpress train has 2 AC I bogeys h iA ( 24 berths each, 3 AC II bogeys having 45 berths each. Ill bogeys having 64 berths each and 12 3tier bogeys I * 3] ing 64 berths each. There are no general bogeys in the If 200 euros is the cost of an AC 3tier berth from L o ® to Glasgow, answer the following questions:
Chapter 5:
Parcenu*,
revenues possible from the K urailexptess b e tw e e n G lasgow to London and back is ,a) 3 .1 5 .6 0 0 (b) 2 ,4 4 ,8 0 0 <c) 2.98,400 (d) 2,96.760 B F o ra E u rai le x p r e s s jo u rn e y from London to Glasgow, 80% I th e tr a in w a s uniform ly booked across classes. W hat p e rc e n ta g e o f the total revenues came out of the
v a lv e m a x im u m
I
of (h e
having the highest savings to the sum of the savings for the two months having the lowest savings is (a) 2.6666 g
44.
<& ) 5i3333 (d) None of these
o f 3  tie r tickets. <a) 44.23% <c) 39.23%
sales
40.
(b) 52.18% (d) 48.9%
If bookings for the above q u estio n w as 40% in AC I, 70% in AC 11. 60% in A C III and 55% in 3tier, then what will happen to th e percentage contribution of 3 tier to the total revenues, on th e train journey (a) Decrease ( b ) In crease id Remain constant (d ) C an n o t be determ ined A 14.4 kg gas cylinder ru n s fo r 104 hours when the smaller burner on the g a s sto v e is fu lly opened while ii runs for 80 hours when the la rg e r burner on the gas stove is fully opened. W h ic h o f these values are the closest to the percentage d ifferen ce in th e usage o f gas per hour, between the s m a lle r an d the larger burner, (a) 26.23% (b ) 3 0% (c) 32.23% (d ) 23 .0 7 %
41
42. For question 41,assum e th a t th e rate o f gas dispersal is directly proportional to th e d e g re e o f opening o f the aperture of the gas. If w e are g iv en that th e smaller burner is open to 6 0 % o f its m a x im u m and the larger burner is open to 5 0 % o f its m a x im u m , th e percentage decrease in the p e rcen tag e d iffe re n c e betw een the smaller burner and the larger b u rn e r (in term s o f hours per kg) is (a) 72.22%
(b ) 7 3 .3 3 %
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In an economy, the rate of savings has a relation to the investment in industry for that year and the following three years. The relation is such that a percentage point change in investment in industry for that year has a relation to the total production output in the next 4 years. A 2 percentage point increase in the savings rate in a year, increases the investment in the industry of the economy by 1%. Further, the rate of investment also goes up by 0.5% in the next year, by 0.25% i n t h e second year and again by 0.25% in the third year. A l s o assume that the investment in an economy i s o n l y dependent on the patterns of savings in the p r e v i o u s 3 years in the economy. Also, the percentage c h a n g e i n the investment in a particular year is got by a d d i n g t h e effect of the previous three years savings p a t t e r n . In fiscal 200405, the rate of savings in t h e I n d i a n economy is 25% while that in the Pakistani e c o n o m y , is 20%. This has remained constant since 1999. I n 200506 the savings rate in the Indian economy sud denly rises by 5 percentage points to 30% while that in the Pakistani economy rises by 2 percentage points to 22%. It is further known that the value of the in vestment in the industry in the 2 countries was 2 mil lion dollars and 1.8 million dollars respectively (for the previous year). The percentage difference between the investment in the Pakistani economy to the invest ment in the Indian economy in 200607 will be (if it is known that there is no change in the savings rate in 200607): (a) 13.6% (b) 15.12%
N one o f these (c) 11.18% (d) 12.2% Hursh Sarma has a salary o f Rs. 10,800 per month. In Directions fo r Questions 4548: In an economy the rate of the first month o f the year, he spends 40% of his insavings has a relation to the investment in industry for that cone on food, 50% on clothing and saves 11.11% of year and for the following three years and the investment in wtat jae has sp en t. In th e n ext tw o months, he saves industry for that year has a relation to the total production 9.09% of w h at he h as spent (spending 38.33% of his output in the next 4 years. food). In th e fourth m onth, he gets an in45. For question 4 4 , if there is no additional change in the 1 1 % on his salary and spends every savings rate until 200708, then the percentage differ leb ratin g his raise. B ut from the fifth ence in the value of the investment in India to the J good sense prevails on him and he investment in Pakistan in 200708 (as a percentage of , 2 0% , 10% , 8.33% , 12.5% , 15% the investment in India) is n e w in co m e p er month. The ratio (a) 11.28% B 14.18% o f th e savings few the two months
B
(d )
f 7 * 4 j !g p p Prepare lor Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
fl R
46. If the change in production is directly related to the change in investment in the previous year, and if the data of the savings rate change for the previous 2 questions are to be assumed true, then for vyhich year did the difference between the production in the Indian economy and the production in the Pakistani economy show the maximum percentage change? (a) 200607 (b) 200708 (c) 200809 (d) Cannot be determined 47. For question 44, it is known that the percentage change in investment in a year leads to a correspond ing equal percentage increase in the m anufacturing production in the next year. Fu rther, if the growth rate of manufacturing production is 27% of the GDP growth rate o f the country, then w hat is the G D P growth rate of India in 200607? (a) 8.52% (c) 9.26%
48.
If Dr. Iyer has 100 liras, 100 Deutsche Marks aju Francs on 31st December 2001, the maximum ^ centage change he can achieve in his net hold1 terms of dollars due to the arbitrage created by* Euro conversion could be (a) 17.23% (b) 7.33% (c) 11.2% (d) Cannot be determine j 50. For question 48, which one of the following • ] allow the calculation of all possibilities of percents change in terms of moolah value of Dr. IyTI portfolio. That is possible through currency conv sions. (a) Dr. Iyer’s money holding in all three currencies (b) Dr. Iyer’s monthly earnings in all three currencies (c) The intercurrency conversion rates betw een Liras, Deutsche Mark and Francs (d) Both a and c
(b) 7.28%
(d) None o f these
The Euro was ushered in on the 1st Januaty 2002 and the old currencies o f the European economies were exchanged into Euros. In France, 4 Francs were ex, changed for I Euro while in Germany 5 Deutsche Marks were exchanged for 1 Euro and in Italy 3 Liras were exchanged for 1 Euro. The exchange rate for Moolahs, the official currency of Hoola Boola Moola, was set at 185 Moolahs per Euro. Dr. Krishna Iyer, an NR1 doctor based in Europe, had a practice across each of these three countries and he sends back money orders to his native island of Hoola Boola Moola. The existing exchange rate of Moolahs with the abovementioned currencies was 51 moolahs per Franc, 36 Moolahs per Deutsche Mark and 70 moolahs per Lira. If Dr. Iyer has this information, then what should he do with his currency holdings in these three currencies on the 3 1st December 2001 so that he maximises his moolah value on the 1st of January 2002. (Assume no arbitrage possibilities between the three currencies) (a) Change to Francs (b) Change to Deutsche Marks (c) Change to Liras (d) Remain indifferent
H in ts a n d S o lu tio n s
100 www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/ www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/
1. Assume the initial value to be and solve. 3. Total number of students = Full fee waver + 5 0 % concession + No concession. 6 . Assume initial value of price =100. Since, the price is a mutiplicative function, we h av e 100 x 1.1 x 1.2 x 0.8 x 1.25 x 1.5 Solve using percentage change graphic. 8 . Salary ratio is 2.25 : 2.2.6666. Hence 0.41666 = Rs. 40. Then, 6.9166 = Rs. 664
9. Solve using options 13. Assume initial amount of gold to be 100. Then he gives away: 50 + 25 + 12.5 = 87.5 But 87.5 = 1309000 kg Hence, 1 0 0 = 149600 18. If initial income = 100, initial food expenditure
J
49. For the above questions, the exchange rales for the three currencies with respect to a dollar was: 2$ per Lira, 1.5$ per Franc and 1A dollar per Deutshce Mark.
New income = 120 f. Since, food expenditure is constant at 25, centage of the new income = 20.833. Percentage point change = 25  20.833 4.16 6 24. Solve using options. 25. Use standard formulae of percentage.
C hapter5 : Percentages  #w

A lternatively, th is problem can also be solved b y as suming values fo r
p,
x , _v and z. Th en com pare the
options to see w h ich one fits . 29. Solve using optio ns.
31. 100 x
1.125 x 0 .9 2 =
103.5
34. Solve using o ptions. 35. Reduction required =
x 2568
638. To m axim ise the d isco u n t, tic k e ts, need to be bought in two groups o f 18 and ets are bought in sets o f 39. Solve through optio ns. Checking fo r option (a ) —» F in a l vo tin g is 20 0 fo r and 400 ag ainst. Hence, the m otion is re je cte d b y 20 0 vo tes. T h is means that i f none o f the th ing s had occurred then the motion would have been passed b y 4 0 0 vo tes, i.e . 600 (for) and 200 (ag ain st) 1/3 o f 60 0 w ere abducted and the opponents doubled th e ir voted fro m 200 to 40 0. Since a ll the valu e s f it ; the an sw er is (a ). 40. Take 45% m en =
_ i 5 B , A  C  180000 and B = 1.05 C. S olve to get A, B and C. Also, A + B + C = 90% o f total voters on voting list. This will give you the answer. Ideally solve this question through options. 7 . C lo ck lo ses 0.5% o f 168 h o u rs in th e f ir s t week and gains 0.25% o f 168 h o u rs in th e se c o n d week. Hence, net lo ss is 0.25% o f 168 h o u rs . 8. V aw al uses 133.33 litre s o f p e tro l every m o n th , w h ile the p rice o f p etro l h a s g o n e u p by R s . 1.96. H e n c e ,
4
6 6.
re sp e ctive ly . T h e m axi
the increase in exp en d itu re = approxim ately.
133.33
*
1.96
= R s.
261
mum possible p rice per tic k e t w ill o ccu r w hen tic k
11.
M axim um reven u e fo r th e s h o p k e e p e r w i l l o c c u r when the m inim um d isco u n t o ffe r is u s e d b y th e custom er. T h is le v e l is
12.
T h is is the case
4%. of maximum discounts. Hints for questions 1316 Diesel Petrol Shy am Kail ash Average (in litre per km) x 1 2x Cost of Fuel (in Rs./litre) 0.4 p p
42. Since, runs scored = o v e rs x ru n rate . I f o vers reduce
by 25% , run rate w ill go up b y 3 3 .3 3 % . H e n ce, Australia co uld h ave sco red an y num ber o f ru n s. 47. Valid votes = 6 4 % The second p laced can d id ate gets 20% vo tes. Then the w in n er can get betw een 2 0 .0 1 % to 44% votes.
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25%
w om en.
Hints and S o lu tio n s
I Assume initial raw material price to be 100. This means that the initial labour cost is 25. Hence the net cost is 125. Now, since there is a 15% increment in raw materia] cost and the labour cost has gone up to 30%of the raw material cost, it is clear that the new ,0U tJ expenditure is 115* 1.3 ** 149.5. Reduce the ^ t to 125 by reducing the usage of raw materials
13. Average in liter per kilometre multiplied by the C o st of fuel in Rs./litre will give the required co st p er kilometre. 14. Shyam’s car gives 20 km/litre means. 0.05 litres p e r kilometre then Kailash’s car gives 0.06 litre/km . However, since we do not know the price o f petrol o r diesel we cannot find out the difference in the cost o f travel. 15. This question is the opposite o f question 13. 16. Cost of petrol is Rs. 25 per liter. Cost per kilom etre for Shyam = 12.5 x 0.05 Also, cost per kilometre for Kailash = 25 x 0.06
Estim ated average sa vin g s _ A n n u al Inco m e _ 14 V • A n n u a l E x p e n d itu re 9
Hints for Questions 1723
17. The value will 18.
depend on th e v a lu e s o f a n n u a l
exp end iture w h ich is not a v a ila b le . A verage estim ated m o n th ly e xp e n d itu re is g iv e n fo r the isla n d o f H o o la B o o la M o o la a n d not fo r M r. Bo o g ie W o o g le's co m m u n ity.
u s e d .
I that 50,40 and 20 hours are available. There 1 no need to use 10% waste of time in this question. Half as large again means 1.5 times (or an addition
Assume * 5 0 % ).
1 9 . O rig in a l estim ated sav in g s = 8 7  2 2  6 5 M o o la h s . N ew estim ated savings 1 1218/12  198/12 = 8 5 .
24 25 0.72
x
1.15
x
0.68
x
1.11.
Solve through options: A 15% reduction on rect an sw er w ill give a profit of 3 0 .0 5 % .
O ption (a ) is co rre ct,
the c o r 
I AssBm e values for M and  and solve through options.
f
176 How 10 ^r8Pef®ft* Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
2ft. The Iasi discount b e in g 2 2 ,9 5 0 . it m eans that the value prior t o t h i s T h u s, the sm a lle r g as la sts — 17333 * IOq
15% d iscou nt
fe 'to U
m ust have been
1.53.000 c h e c k i n g w i t h options:
8.33% more than the larger gas.
10% i I
200.000
27. F o r 4 5 %
15* I .
17,000
1,53,000. 44.
H e n c e option (c ) is co rrect.
in city driving conditions, is consumed. Hence, for the remaining 55% joumey, 46% fuel is left. Required increase in fuel efficiency
the jo u m e y
of
5 4 % o f the fu e l
55 46 45 54
45 54 x 100.
45. 46. 47.
28. The maximum percentage reduction in peak rates is for the 200  500 category.
„ (4x 11.6+3x17,56+3x17.56) (4 x 4.8 +3x9+3 x 9)
4 x 1 1 .6 + 3 x 1 7 .5 6 + 3 x 1 7 .5 6
30  8.33 X 30 ~ 100: The 5% point increase in savings rate will for a 2.5% increase in investment in 2005^ j ^°8 ^ further 1.25% increase in investment inH 1 1 200607 I Thus, Indian investment is 2006071 1 billon 1.025 x 1.0125 similarly, calculate for Pakistan Use the same process as for the previous questjJ Cannot be determined since we do not knowTj initial values of the production output. Since there is a 2.5% increase in investment in200$. 06, there will be a 2.5% increase in m anufactui in n g production is 200607. Then, required answer = Then, GDP growth rate = 2.5 = 9.26%. 0.27
$
Sii
1 0
33. Loss to be made up everyday = 373000(8  1.60) = 6.4 x 373000. No. of cc required to be sold =
34. Advertising rates have not been mentioned. Hence, we cannot solve the question. 3640. The ticket cost are: AC El * 100 (assume), AC  II » 120, AC I > 190, 3 Tier + 47.5, General » 40. Also, AC  II = 780 Euros for a London  Paris
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1 373000 x 6.4 3000
D e ta ile d S o lu tio n s & S h o rt Cuts
journey 36. (47.5  40) x 6.5 = 48.75 37. (100 + 120 + 190 '+ 47.5 + 40) x 6.5. 38. Maximum revenues on a return joumey means 100% bookings both ways.
Revenues from 3Tier 39. — ~—— x 100 Total Revenues
14.4 14.4
3. 20% of 50% of 75% o f 70% = 20/100 x 50/100 x751 100 x 70 = 0.2 x 0.5 x 0.75 x 70 = 5.25. A quicker way to think here would be: 20% of 70= 14 > 50% of 14 = 7 > 75% of 7 = 5.25 5. The following PCG will give the answer: 100
40% T
Price effect
»140
Consumption effect
> 105
Hence, the percentage reduction required is 25%#
140)
Assume Ram as
100.
Shy am will be 133.33 ^
40%
Bram will be 8 0 Thus, Bram’s goods are 104  80 s30% 80
(5 3 .3 3 / 1 3 3 .3 3 ) 9.
cheaper than Shy8®
41.
go T4X 104
42. Original percentage difference = 30% At 60% aperture opening the smaller gas will last 104 = 173.33 hours. 0.6 Similarly, the larger gas will last 80 a 160 hours.
If the candidate has inadvertently increased height by 2 5 % the correction he would need to®*** to go back to his original height would be tore^'
the stated height by 20%. 12. The percentage difference would be g*vC tv /° thinking of the percentage change between numbers: {x  5 ) to (x + 5 ) [‘What he wanted10 * to 'what he pnt »•••
The value o f the percentage d ifferen ce in this ease depends on the value o f jr. H en ce, this cannot be answered. O p tion (e ) is c o rre c t. 14. From the first s ta te m e n t w e g e t th at out o f 80 litres o f the m ixture. 2 0 litr e s m u s t b e m ilk. Since, we are adding w ater to th is a n d k e e p in g the m ilk constant, it is q u ite e v i d e n t th a t 2 0 litre s o f m ilk should correspond to 20% o f th e to tal m ixture. Thus, the am ount in th e to ta l m ix tu r e m u st be 1 0 0 , which m eans w e n e e d to a d d 2 0 litre s o f w ater to make 1 0 0
litre s o f th e m ix tu r e .
16 . 100 ' ^ T > 1 1 0  * > » T > 132
Hence, option (D) is correct.
25. 100000 lw H l0* ■> UOOOO 9 p p 133100. 121000
29. 30% students got a final score of 13. 10% students got a final score of 33 (inclusive of grace marks.) 35% students got a final score of 60 Hence, average score of the class
0.35x60 + 0 .1 x 3 3 0.75 = = 37.6
+ 03 x1 3
H e n c e , th e r e q u ir e d a n s w e r is 32% 17. T h e a re a o f a tr ia n g le d e p e n d s on the product base x heig h t. S in ce, th e h e ig h t in c re a s e s b y 4 0 % and the area has to in c re a s e b y 6 0 % o v e ra ll, th e follow ing PCG will g iv e th e a n s w e r.
1 0 0 ■ ■ <0%T
base
31. Since the ratio of their savings shows that Hans saves more after spending the same amount, we can conclude that he earns more. Hence, Hans’ income should be over 5000. Only option (a) satisfies this. 32. By using options, you can easily see that option (a) satisfies. 2500 females means 3000 males. Increase = 2500 x 0.2 + 3000 x
0 .1 1
> 1 4 0 — 2  > 160
= 830
height
T h e re q u ire d a n s w e r w ill b e 20/140 = 14.28% 18. T h e v o lu m e g o e s u p b y :
100 T > 1 5 0 i1 — — > 180
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b re a d th
H eig h t
l0% T > 198
length
H en ce, 9 8 % 19. 1 0 0  » 1 3 0 » 1 0 0
J, ?
(A — »B— >A use o f PCG)
A n s w e r = 3 0 /1 3 0 = 2 3 .0 7 % 20. 100 — 7 5  > 120 We h av e a s s u m e d in itia l ex p en d itu re to be 100, in the ab o v e fig u re . T h e n th e final expenditure is 120. The p e rc e n ta g e c h a n g e in consum ption can be seen to b e 45/75 x 100 = 60% 21. If the price o f ric e h a s fa lle n by 20% the quantity would b e in c r e a s e d b y 2 5 % ( if we keep the expenditure c o n s ta n t.) This means that 2 0 k g s w o u ld increase by 25% to 25 kgs. 23. B + 60% o f A — 175% o f B  »
35. Since the only iron contained in the ore is 90% of 25%, the net iron percentage would be 22.5%. Thus, 60 kg should be 22.5% of the ore — » 60/0.225 = 266.66 36. The data is insufficient since the number of matches to be played by India this year is not given. (You cannot assume that they will play 40 matches.) 38. Total people present = 700 + 500 + 800 = 2000. Indians = 0.2 x 700 + 0.4 x 500 + 0.1 x 800 = 420 = 21% of the population. Thus, 79% of the people
were not Indians.
41. 1 Bottle + 0.5* metres ? Bottles — » 400 meters
Using unitary method, we get no. of bottles = 400/ 0.5* = 800/* Bottles. 43. The total cost for a year = 2,50,000 + 2% of2,50,000 + 2000 = 2,55,000 + 2000 1 2,57,000 To get a return o f 15% he must earn: 2,57,000 x 0.15 = 38,550 in tw elve matches. H e n ce , the monthly rent should be 38550/12 a 3212.5. 44 The sales p rice o f the first sh irt is 8 /7 x 4 2 *Rs. 48. H e n ce, I am being offered a discount o f R s. 6 on a
p ric e o f H 48 i a 12.5% discount. price o f the second
60% o f A = 75% o f B . i jc. 0 .6 A * 0.75 B A 1 B * 5/4 A pparently it seem s that A is bigger, but if consider A a n d B to be negative the opposite wou
I** t f lK w
The sales
shirt is 7/6 x 36
I
Rs. 42.
I
178
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Hence. I am being offered H discount of Rs. 6 on Rs. 42  a 14.28** discount. Hence, the second shirt is a better bargain. 45. 72% must have voted for Sonia Gandhi and 16% for Sushma Swaraj. Hence, 88 x 3 = 264. 48. 100
50% T
S r iv in w
7. The total raise of salary is 8 7 .5 % (That is M i, j. 8 means here). ""*t Using the options and P C G , yo u get opti0n (% correct answer.
8.
150
Price drop
>825 (final sales figure)
December = 9! 40 more in December than bad __ ____ 1 dIe v. th at 1.666 1 we can co n clu 40 * 1 =
O cto b er : N o vem b er : s in c e , he got R s T h u s , to ta l B o n u s fo r the th re e m onths is
Hence, the required price drop is 67.5/150 = 45% drop 50. In 2001. BMW = 15%. Maruti = 50% and hence H onda = 35%
0.4
10 . 9%
x 2 7 .6 6 6 x 2 4 = 2 6 5 .6
in c re a se is o ffs e t b y 8 .2 6 %
decrease,
j*
option (b) is correct. 11. The expenditure increase can be calculated PCG as: “S 100 > 112.5 > 123.75. A 23.75% increase. 14. Population at the start = 100. Population after 2 years = 100 x 1.08 x 1.01 x i . 1 x 1.01 = 108.984 Thus, the required percentage increase = 18.984% 16. 24% of the total goes to urban Gujarat $72 m 1 1% = $ 3 mn. The required value for Rural A P = 50% of 20% = 10% Hence, required answer = $ 30 mn 17. In the previous question, the total FDI was $ 300m A growth of 20% this year means a total FD Io f $360 mn. The required answer is 12% of 10% of 360 m n = 1.2% o f 360 = $4.32 mn. 18. The income goes to 120. Food expenditure has tob e maintained at 25. (i.e. 20.833%) Hence, percentage point drop from 25 to 20.833& 4.16% 25. Chanda would have spent 12% of Maya Thus, her percentage of expenditure would be 0 .1 M x 100/C = 12 M/C 27. The weekly change is equal to Rs. 1,68,000 Hence, the daily collection will go up by 1 = 24,000. 29. Solve using options. 2/25 fits the requirement ^ 32. If Z = 100, X = 80 and Y = 72. Thus, Y is less then X by 10% 34. The correct answer should satisfy the to 0 j condition: If \x’ is the increased salary
x x 0.8 x 0.1 = (x  4800) x 0.8 x
LOO II
1. 100
150
(year 1)
75
112.5 > 5 6 .2 5
(year 2)
>84375 >42.1875 Now, 42.1875 = Rs. 16,875 Hence 1>400 Also, year 2 donation is 56.25 x 400 = 22500 3. The thought process would go like: If we assume 100 students Total : 60 boys and 40 girls. Fee waiver : 9 boys and 3 girls.
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This means that a total of 12 people are getting a fee waiver. (But this figure is given as 90.) Hence, 1 corresponds to 7.5. Now, number of students not getting a fee waiver = 51 boys and 37 girls 50% concession > 25.5 boys and 18.5 girls (i.e. a total of 44.) Hence, the required answer = 44 x 7.5 = 330 4 . Solve using options. Checking for option (b), gives
ti
200000 * 180000 > 171000 > 153900 > 146205
(by consecutively decreasing 200000 by 10% and 5% alternately) 5. Total characters in her report = 25 x 60 x 75. Let the new no. of pages be n. Then:
n x 55 x 90 = 25 x 60 x 75 n » 22.72
T h is m e a n s
that her report would require 23 pages. A drop of %% in terms of the pages.
j
None of the first 3 options satisfies this.
Chapter 5:
P ercen tag es j
, t
In facu solving for x we get x = 25800. Option (d) is correct. 35 The minimum price occurs at: 18 x 30 + 6 x 3 6 + 1 x 40 Hence, 796/25 = 31.84 37. 36 x 24 + 40 x 1 = 904 R equired a n s w e r = 904/25 = 36.16. 38. if the ticket lots are halved, the maximum discount will be available for 9 tickets (25%). A maximum number of 16 tickets can be bought in Rs. 532 as: 9 tickets for Rs. 30 each. 6 tickets for Rs. 32 each and 1 ticket for Rs. 40 39. Solve using options. Checking for option (A) w ill g o a s : A c c o rd in g to th is option 400 people have v o te d a g a in st th e m o tio n . Hence, originally 200 p e o p le m u st h a v e fa v o u re d the motion. (Since, there is a 100% in c re a s e in th e oppo nents) This means that 200 people w h o w e re fo r th e m o tio n initially went against it. This leaves us with 400 p e o p le w h o w e re fo r the motion initially (after th e a b d u c tio n .) l/3rt of the original h a v in g b e e n a b d u c te d , th e y should amount to half w h a t is le ft . This means that 600 (for) a n d 200 (a g a in s t) w e re the original distribution o f 800. This option fits perfectly (g iv e n a ll th e c o n stra in ts) and hence is the correct a n s w e r. 40. 1 man is married to 1 woman. Hence, 45% o f men = 25% o f w o m e n . Le. 0.45 M = 0.25 W 0.25 W Women to men ratio o f 9:5 Using alligation, the required answer is 32.14 The required weight o f the bucket to the water when full is 3:2. If both the w e ig h ts (bucket and water) are integers, then the total w e ig h t must be a multiple o f 5. Only option (c) s h o w s this characteristic. *2. W e do not have sufficient information to solve the question. koome of the salesman = 1200 + (1600 x x) ^hne x i§ the number o f Rs. 10000 sales he ach*eve* over the initial Rs. 10000. 1200 + 1600 x x = 7600 1 1 x » 4. Hence
= K
This means that the sales value must be Rs. 5 0000.
45. A sales value of Rs. 9000 cannot be achieved. 4 7 . Out of a total of 100% votes; 80% voted. 16% were
invalid and 20% went to the second placed candidate. This means that the maximum the winner can get is 4 4 % . Options a, b and c are greater them 44% and hence cannot be correct. Hence, none o f these. 4 8 . At 12 noon, the watch would show the correct time (since till then the temperature range was below 4 0 ° C ). The watch would gain 2% every hour between 12 and 4 . An hour having 3600 seconds, it would gain 72 seconds in each of these hours. Thus, at 7 pm it would be 72 x 4 = 288 seconds ahead. The time exhibited would be 7: 04: 48. 49. Pepsi worth Rs. 16 would be containing 60 grams o f vitamins. 50. Option (a) would cost: 6 + 7.5 = 13.5 Option (b) would cost: 12 + 3.2 = 15.2 Option (c) would cost: 4 + 3.2 + 2.8 = 10 Option (d) would cost: 12 + 2.8 = 14.8 Option (c) is the cheapest.
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1. Let the initial price of raw materials be 100. The new cost of the same raw material would be 115. The initial cost of labour would be 25 and the new cost would be 3 0 % of 115 = 3 4 .5 The total cost initially would be Rs.125. The total cost for the same usage o f raw material would now be: 115+ 34.5= 1 4 9 .5 This cost has to be reduced to 1 2 5 . The percentage reduction will be given by 2 4 .5 /1 4 9 .5 = 17 % approx. 2. Let the initial times allotted be: 5 0 ,4 0 and 2 0 hours. Then, the time used in each activity is: 2 0 ,1 2 and 4 hours. Thus, 3 6 hours out o f 1 1 0 are used in all. Hence, the answer is 36/110 = 32.72 % 3 . The following structure would follow:
Passed a il. 5% Passed 4 : P asse d Passed
20% of 90% =18% 1: 25% of 90% I 22.5% 2: 24.5%
Passed None: 59(f passed 3: R e s t ( 1 0 0  5 1 8 2 2 ,5 2 4 .5 5 B 2 5 % ) But it is g ive n that 300 p eople p a sse d 3. Hence, 2 5 %
s 300.
How 10fa p flre for Quantitative Aptitude for the CA T
■
Now, try to use the given options in order the fact that originally the flask contained J00 o f sea water. Use M = 5, x = 400/46, Only option (b) matches the situation. ( 9 x 5 + 1) 400/46^ (5 1 )
6.
Hence. 1200 students must have appeared in the test. 4. The third gallery making the capacity ‘half as large again' means: an increase bf 50%. Further, it is given th a t : 4(first + third) * 12 (second) In order to get to the correct answer, try to fit in the options into this situation. (Note here that the question is asking you to find the capacity of the second gallery asa percentage of the first) If we assume option (a) as correct  70% the follow ing solution follows: If second is 70, then first is 100 and first + second is 170. Then third will be 85 (50% of first + second). Then the equation: 4 x (100 + 85) should be equal to 12 x 70 But this is not true. Through trial and error, you can see that the third option fits correctly. 4 x (100 + 80) = 12 x 60. Hence, it is the correct answer. Let the initial percentage of salt be 10% in 100 liters of sea water in the flask. 1 0 % of this is poured out (i.e. 1 0 liters are poured out) and the water heated so as to increase the per centage of salt in the beaker 5 times (we have as sumed M as 5 here. ) This means that there will be 30% salt in the beaker. Since, the salt concentration is increased by only evaporating water, the amount of salt remains the same. Initially the salt was 1 0 % of 1 0 liters (= worth 1 liter). Hence, the water must have been worth 9 liters.
Now, since this amount of salt becomes worth 50%
100
'
The only values that fit this situation are c 25» 30%, and A 45%. These are the percentage of v J polled. ( N o te : these values can be got either fa  trial and error or through solving c + c + 5 +
(c + 5) = 100%
j
I
Then, 20% is 18000 (the difference between A
Hence, 90000 people must have voted and 1O O O o aI people must have been on the voter’s list. 7. The net time lost over two weeks would be 0.25$J a week’s time (since in the first week the clock lo*. I Vi% and in the second week the clock gains the true time.) A week contains 168 hours. Hence, the clock loss 0.42 hours.i.e. 25.2 minutes or 25 minutes 12 se c
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8.
onds. Hence, the correct time would be 12:25:12. Traveling for 2400 kms at 18 kmph, Vawal will u s e
of the total solution, the amount of water left after evaporation would have been 1 liter and the total would be 2 liters. When the 2 liters are mixed back again: The new concemraiion of salt in sea water would go up. In this specific case by alligation we would get the following alligation situation: Mix 90 liters of 10% salted sea water with 2 liters of
50% salted sea water. The result using alligation will be: [1 0 + 4 0 /4 6 ] % concenuauon ot sailed sea water. The value of the increase percentage wiU be 400/46. (this will be the
_____ value ot
11 ________________________________
133.33 liters o f petrol every month. The increase! expenditure for Vawal will be 133.33 x 0.7 x 28= Rs. 262 (approx). 9. The required answer will be given by: (7/107) x 2 4 0 0 = 157 km 10. The original expenditure is 28* 133.333 = R s . 3733.333 The new expenditure will be given by 28 x 1.07 xi 18 where n = the no. o f kilometers to travel. Since the new expenditure should increase II Rs. 200, its value has to be equal to Rs. 3933.333 This gives us n = 2363.15 Hence, the answer is e. 11. The shopkeeper would g e t th e m a xim u m rcven when everybody opts for a 4 % re s a le o f the right* I® Hi such a case, the revenue for th e shopkeeper fr°® each customer would be: 96% of 4000 = 4000 ^ = 3840. hence, total revenue is 38400. 12. Similarly, the highest discount would be if e ■ body opts for the 15% discount. In such a case* total discount would be: 600 x 1 0 = 6000. 1316. Detailed solutions for 1316 is given in the hint>an solutions for I o n T T T
Chapter o.
V
s . v kI Net revenues from newspaper sales is 3,95,200
1 7_23.
y Of,I K
I 4J> 1
kJ
M
lust
[^ o J
h c io ^ J gains J cfok J puies p i
The average incom e estim ated would be: Annual Income/14 (U nderestim ated savings). The average m onthly expenditure would be: Annual expenditure/9 (O verestim ated expenditure) 1719 are explained in the hints and solutions section of LO D m . 2 0 . xl \ 4 = 87. H ence, annual incom e = 1218. New incom e = 1218/12 = 101.5 Change in estim ated in co m e due to the change in process o f average calcu latio n = 14.5/87 —> 16.66% increase. 21. Estimated m onthly in co m e w ould go up, while the estim ated m o n th ly e x p e n d itu re w ould go down. Hence, Savings (e stim ated ) w ould increase. 22. Cannot be d eterm in ed since the percentage change would depend on th e actu al values which are not available fo r th is question.
Cost to be covered through advertising = 18,52,500  3,95,200 s 14,57,300. At an ad rate of Rs.1800 per cc, they would have to sell 809.61 cc i.e.73.6% Similar calculations for India’s Times will give 79.2%. Hence, the percentage point difference = 5.6 36. If Ac 3rd costs 100, Ac 2nd would cost 120 and AC Is' would cost 190. 3 Tier ticket would cost : 47.5 and general ticket would cost 40. AC 2nd > 780 = 120 Then the difference between 3 Tier and general ticket would be: 7.5 x 780 = 48.75 37. Total cost i f 100 + 120 + 190 + 47.5 + 40 = 497.5 This gives (497.5/120) x 780 = 3233.75. 43. Hursh Surma’s savings: Month
1 2
23. The estim ated m o n th ly expenditure would change from: x/9 to x / l \ . H en ce, percentage drop in the ratio will be 2 / 1 1  > 18.18% 24 to 29 are ex p lain e d in the hints and solutions to
Salary 10800 10800 10800 10800
12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0
Savings 1080 900 900
0
e l J
iwal wflljj
LOD in.
3134. The follow ing tab le w ill g iv e a clearer picture o f the situation:
Newspaper C irculation R e v e n u e s Com m ission ( in 000)
ie increa
x 0.7 xl P/107)xl 3.333 \ K xW [travel
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6
3 4 5
Net Revenues
5 9 6 .8
7
8
12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 120 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0
1500 1800 2400
12 0 0 10 00
Deccan Emerald Times o f Hindustan India's Times 31. Reduction o f
373 247 297
746 494 594
20% 25%
30%
9
10 11 12
3 9 5 .2
1500 1800 2400
4 1 5 .8
Required Ratio = 4800/900 = 5.333 48. Assume he has 1200 francs, 1200 DM and 1200 Liras. If he converts everything to francs, the result will be: 1200 DM will convert to 240 Euros which will con vert to 960 francs. But 51 Moolas = 1 franc. Thus the value o f 1200 DM in terms of Moolas goes up from 1200 x 36 = 43200 to 960 x 51 = 48960. This in crease in value has occurred only because o f the change of currency. Hence, he should convert all his DM into Francs. However, before concluding on this you also will need to consider the effect of Liras. It is evident that 1200 DM will yield 240 Euros, which would yield 720 Liras (since 1 euro is 3 lira), which in turn would yield 720 x 70 3 5040 Moolas.
[fW ] ftfce'*!
gH
f f l * 1
181 * 1 0 0 = 30.32% 596.8 32. The percentage d ifferen ce betw een the revenues is: (746594) x 100/746 = 20 .3 7 Hence, the re q u ire d v alu e is 30.32/20.37 = 1.488 33. The day’s c o st o f p rin tin g 373 0 0 0 copies o f Deccan Emerald is: 3 7 3 0 0 0 x 8 = 2984000 Out o f this, the p a p e r re co v ers 596800. The remain ing cost to be re c o v e re d w ould be: 2387200. At Rs. 3 0 0 0 p e r c c , 7 9 5 .7 3 3 c c w ill have to be booked on an y g iv en d a y in o rd e r to obtain the cost. Thii represents 9 9 .4 6 % o f the total value. ^ Times o f H in d u stan : Total cost = 2 ,4 7 ,0 0 0 x 7.5 m 18,52,500
1 8 2 ! How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Th u s, it is evident that by co nverting D M in to L ira s the increase in value is hig her than that ach ieve d b y converting DM into Fran cs. S im ila rly , converting Fran cs to L ira s also the value o f the Fran cs. 1200 x 51 becomes eq uivalent to
3 0 0 E u ro s e q u a ls 9 0 0 lir a s w h ic h equal 900 x % M o o J a s. 4 9 . C a n n o t be d e te rm in e d s in c e th e conversion fr0 j)1
increases
d o lla r to E u ro is n o t g iv e n , n e ith e r is the inter cm , re n c y e xch a n g e ra te b e tw e e n L ir a , F ra n cs and DM*
900 x 70.
5 0 . O b v io u s ly , b o th a an d c a re re q u ire d in order to an s w e r th is q u e stio n .
N ote: Th e thought process goes lik e th is : 1200
Francs = 300 Eu ro s (sin ce 1 euro = 4 fra n c s). F u rth e r
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H
H owto Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the GAT
Percentages LOD II
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P R O F IT A N D
LO S S
r
Pill
INTRODUCTION Traditionally, Profit & Loss has always been an important chapter for CAT. Besides, all other Management entrance exams like SNAP. CET. MAT. ATMA as well as Bank P.O. exams extensively use questions from this chapter. From the point of view of CAT, the relevance of this chapter has been gradually reducing and infact there have been no ques tions from this chapter for the past 3 years. However, CAT being a highly unpredictable exam, my advice to students and readers would be to go through this chapter and solve it at least up to LOD 2, so that they are ready for any changes in patterns.. Further, the Level o f Difficulties at which questions are set in the various exams can be set as under: LOD I: CAT, XLRI, IRMA, IIFT, CET, Bank PO aspir ants. MAT, NIFT, NMIMS, and FMS, Symbiosis and all other management exams. LOD II: CAT, XLRI, FMS, IRMA (partially), etc. LOD ID: CAT, XLRI and FMS (students aiming for 60% plus in Maths in CAT).
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THEORY
Profit and Loss are part and parcel of every commercial taDttction. In fact, the entire economy and the concept of capitalism is based on the so called “Profit Motive”.
The price at which a person buys a product is theC r \\r price of the product for that person. In other w ords J A amount paid or expended in either purchasing or i ducing an object is known as its Cost Price (also wr% as CP). The price at which a person sells a product is the s^ jfloS price of the product for that person. In other w j 5C P the amount got when an object is sold is called as fc Selling Price (SP) of the object from the seller’s point view. i(?=SP+ When a person is able to sell a product at a price h ig h e r than its cost price, we say that he has earned a profit i.laA=Lc That is, If SP > CP, the difference, SP  CP is known as th e ftaotage Loss profit or gain. stated. Similarly, if a person sells an item for a price low ertfei its cost price, we say that a loss has been incurred The basic concept of profit and loss is as simple as41 If, however, SP < CP, then the difference, CP  S P* 1 N aodl called the loss. It must be noted here that the Selling Price of the *11 T N is the Cost Price of the buyer. Thus we can say that in the case of profit the foDoJ C S formulae hold true: 1. Profit = SP  CP 2. SP = Profit + CP 3. CP = SP  Profit 4. Percentage Profit = Profit x 100 CP
Profit and Loss in Case of Individual Transactions
We will first investigate the concept of Profit and Loss in Ac case of individual transactions. Certain concepts are important in such transaction. They are:
S,
cv Percentage Profit is always calculated on ^ otherwise stated.
SS*
S .?
N otice** SP  CP + Gain = CP + (Gain on Re 1) x CP * CP 1 (Gain%/100) x CP
Example: A man purchases an item for Rs. 120. If sells it at a 20 per cent profit find his selling price.
Solution:
in this type of problem c a n b e basic principle is a d o p te d : Profit or Loss in term s o f m oney ca n o n ly b e calculated when the number o f item s bought and so ld a re equal. That is, Profit or Lo ss in m oney term s cannot be calcu lated unless we equate the num ber of products bought and
However, a common m istake avoided if the follow ing sold. Th is is norm ally achieved b y eq uatin g th e n u m b e r o f items bought and sold at
The selling price is given by 120 + 120 X 0.2 =
144 ___________________
= CP + (Gain%/100) x CP = CP f l +
1 or 100 o r som e o th e r c o n v e n ie n t
100 J ( ,.
figure as per the problem asked. Overlooking o f this basic fact is one o f th e m o st c o m mon mistakes that students are prone to m a k in g in th e s o lv ing o f profit and loss problem s. T y p e s o f C o s ts In any business d e a lin g , th e re is a s itu
Hi
For the above problem, the selling price is given by this method as: Selling Price = 1.2 x 120 = 144. Hence, we also have the following: 1. SP= 1 %Gain x C.P = (100 + Gain%) x CP
ation o f selling and buying o f products and s e rv ic e s . F ro m the sellers point o f view , h is p rin cip le in te re st, a p a rt fro m m axim ising the sales p rice o f a p ro d u c t/s e rv ic e , is to m inim ise the costs associated w ith the se llin g o f th a t p ro d uct/service. The costs that a businessm an/trader fa c e s in th e process o f daytoday business tran sactio n can b e s u b d i vided into three basic categories: 1. D ire ct C osts o r V a ria b le C o sts T h is is th e c o s t
100
100 I
100 x S P 2. CP = (100xGain%) In case of loss 1. Loss = CP  SP 8 SP  CP I Loss 3. CP = SP + Loss Loss x 100 CP
4. Loss% 1 Loss on Rs. 100 =
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units o f the same pen is 10 x 5 = R s . 5 0 .
associated w ith direct sellin g o f p ro d u ct/se rvice . In o th e r words, this is the cost that varies w ith e v e ry u n it o f th e product sold. Hence, if the variab le co st in s e llin g a p e n fo r R s. 20 is R s. 5, then the variab le co st fo r s e llin g 10 A s is clear from the above exam p le, th at p a rt o f th e
Precentage Loss is alw ays calculated on C P unless otherwise stated.
.m ‘
The above situation (although it is the basic building block of Profit and Loss) is not the normal situation where we face Profit and Loss problems. In fact, there is a wide application of profit and loss in daytoday business and economic transactions. It is in these situations that we nor mally have to work o ut p ro fit and loss problems.
cost that varies directly fo r every a d d itio n al u n it o f th e product sold is called as d irect o r va ria b le c o st.
m
Typical examples o f direct costs are: R a w m a te ria l u se d
in producing one unit o f the product, w ages to la b o u r in producing one unit o f the product w hen the w a g e s are given on a piece rate b a sis, and so on. In the c a se o f traders, the cost price per unit bought is also a d ire c t c o st (i.e . every such expense that can be tie d do w n to e v e ry additional unit o f the product sold is a d ire c t c o s t). 2 . In d ire ct C osts (O verh ead C o sts) o r F ix e d C o s ts T h e re are some types o f costs that h ave to be in c u rre d irrespective o f the number o f item s so ld and a re c a lle d as fixed or ind irect costs. F o r exam p le, irre s p e c tiv e o f the number o f units o f a product so ld , the re n t o f th e corporate o ffice is fixe d . N ow , w hether th e c o m p a n y se lls 10 units or 100 u n its, this rent is fixed an d is h e n ce a fixed cost.
Having investigated the basic concept of profit and loss for an individual transaction o f selling and buying one unit of a product, let us now look at the concept of profit and loss applied to daytoday business and commercial transactions.
P r«fit and Loss as Applied to B usiness and Commercial Transactions
'’ttfitand Loss w h e n Multiple Units o f a Product ar* Being B o u g h t a n d S o ld The basic concept of loss remains unchanged for this situation.
^
133
How to Prepare b r Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Other examples o f indirect or fixed co sts: S a la ry to executives and m anagers, rent fo r o ffic e , o ffice te le phone charges, o ffice e le c tric ity charges.
Apportionment of indirect (or fixed) costs: F ix e d Costs are apportioned eq ually among each unit o f the product sold. Th us, if n units o f a product is sold , then the fixe d cost to be apportioned to each unit sold is g ive n by
Fixed costs
n 3. Semi*V a ria b le Some costs are such that they costs under normal circumstances but have to be increased when a certain level of sales figure is reached. For instance, if the sales increase to such an extent that the company needs to take up additional o ffice space to accommodate the increase in work due to the increase in sales then the rent for the office space becom es a part o f the semivariable cost.
C o sts behave as fixe d
given by costs/Margin per unit a 5*. 2 .5 = 20 0 0 paans. )(,/ H e n ce, the paan shop breakseven on a monthly basj se llin g 2000 paans. Selling every additional paan after the 2000th paan to w ard s in c re a sin g the p ro fit of th e shop. Also, in the c a * e I of the shop incurring a loss, the number of paans th at H >rl< left to be sold to breakeven will determine the quantum the loss. r«ssn * enV Note the following formulae: ■ /> « *
N ow , breakeven sa le s w ill be B re ak e ve n sale s = F ix e d
Profit = (Actual sales  Breakeven sales) x Contribution per unit Also in the case o f a loss Loss = (Breakeven sales  / :tual sales) x Contribution per unit Also, if the breakeven sales equals the actual sales, th e n we reach the point of no profit no loss, which is also th e technical definition of the breakeven point. Note that the breakeven point can be calculated on th e basis of any time period (but is normally done annuallyo r monthly).
fa * * , f mproduct I
0 1
C P+ ! M ark uj
The Concept o f Margin or Contribution Per Unit The difference between the value of the selling price and the variable cost for a product is known as the margin or the contribution of the product. This margin goes towards the recovery of the fixed costs incurred in selling the product/ service. The Concept o f th e B reakeven P oint The break even point is defined as the volume of sale at which there is no profit or no loss. In other words, the sales value in lerms of the number of units sold at which the company breaks even is called the breakeven point. This point is also called the breakeven sales. Since for every unit of the product the contribution goes towards recovering the fixed costs, as soon as a company se lls more than the breakeven sales, the company starts earning a profit. Conversely, when the sales value in terms of the number o f units is below the breakeven sales, the company makes losses. The entire scenario is best described through the follow ing example. E#t
of Ip us 1000
l * K product is norm ^ase th em arked  ffrm der/shopkeep ggtalp riceand aft jafoontedprice, fas, d iefollow ing up (C ali
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P r o fit C a lc u la tio n o n t h e B a s is o f Equating t h e A m o u n t S p e n t a n d t h e A m o u n t Earned We have already seen that profit can only be calculated in the case of the number of items being bought and so ld being equal. In such a case, we take the difference of tb c money got and the money given to get the calculation of&
totedprice  %
^■ProG t ai ^ "'M ionship t
J f e a
:«ea
earlier
suppose that per month
a paan shop
and sa la rie s o f
has to pay a rent Rs. 4000 to the
assistants. A lso suppose
8
paan for
cost) in
that this paan shop s e lls only one variety Rs. 5 each. Fu rther, the d irect co st (variable m aking one paan is Rs. 2 .5 0 per paan, then the
margin is k s 1  2 .5 0 ) j g l 2 .5 0 per paan.
profit or the loss in the transaction. There is another possibility, however, of calculating W j C 'N fiji, profit. This is done by equating the money got and 0 * W ? '* money spent. In such a case, the profit can be represent § § § ; by the amount o f goods left. This is so because in term ^>be money the person going through the transaction back all the money that he has spent, but has ended up C j> ' some amount o f goods left over after the transaction* * left over items can then be viewed as the profit or . the individual in consideration. i f p > ijj Hence, profit when money is equated is given by J left. Also, cost in this case is represented by Goods so “ 23. Goods left hence percentage profit = x 100. Goods sold
£
A fruit vendor recovers the cost o f 25 mangoes filing 20 mangoes. Find his percentage profit.
With this information, you cun e a s ily c a lc u la te th e cost price by reducing the sa le s p ric e b y 2 0 % . T h u s , the CP is
.
)litrion' U S I S monev sPc ” t is equal to the money e4rned the percentage profit is given by
a.
1 6 0 0  —
mk
30* A
1 28 0
II
profit g
Goods left x 100 = 5 x 100/20 m 25% Goods sold
V
Concept of Mark Up
jraders/businessmen. while selling goods, add a certain
W O R K E D O U T P R O B L E M /
Before we go into problem s b a s e d o n p ro fit an d lo s s , th e reader should realize that ihere are e s s e n tia lly fo u r p h a se s o f a profit and loss problcn, T h e se are co n n ecte d to g e th e r to get higher degrees o f Jitlicu lty . T hese are clues for <a> C o s t c a lc u la tio n s (b ) M a rk e d price calculations (c) S etl.ug p rice c a lc u la tio n s (d ) O v e r heads/fixed costs calculations. It is left to the reader to u n d erstan d th e in te rre la tio n s h ip s between a, b, c and d above. (T hese h a v e a lre a d y been sta te d in the earlier part o f this chapter.) Problem 6.1
'%L
ftfventaee on the cost price. Th is addition is called perlYntage n»ark up (if it is in money term s), and the price thus chained is called as the marked price (th is is also the price printed on the product in the shop). TV operative relationship is C P + M ark up = M arked price CP + % M ark up on C P = M arked Price
or
%
The product is norm ally sold at the marked price in ■ which case the marked price = the sellin g price If the irader/shopkeeper gives a discount, he does so on
A shopkeeper sold goods fo r R s . 2 0 0 0 a t a
k
the marked price and after the discount the product is sold at its discounted price. Hence, the following relationship operates:
profit o f 50.%;. Find the cost p rice fo r the sh o p k e e p e r.
CP + % Mark up (C alculated on C P ) = M arked Price
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Solution
(Since C P + % Pro fit = S P )
The shopkeeper se lls h is item s a t a p r o fit o f
50% . T h is means that the sellin g p rice is 150% o f c o st p ric e Fo r short you should view th is as S P = 1 .5 C P . The problem w ith th is c alculatio n is th at w e k n o w w h a t 150% o f the cost price is but we do not kn o w w h a t th e c o s t price itse lf is. Hence, we have d iffic u lty in d ire c tly w o rk in g out this problem . The calcu latio n w ill becom e e a s ie r i f w e know the percentage calcu latio n to be done on the b a s is o f the sellin g price o f the goods. Hence look at the equation from the angle —» C P = S P /1 .5 . Considering the S P as SP /1 , w e have to fin d C P a s SP/1.5. T h is means that the denom inator is in c re a sin g b y 50% . B u t from the table o f denom inator chang e to ra tio change o f the chapter o f percentages, w e can see th a t w h e n the denom inator increases by 50% the ra tio d e cre a se s by
atnf
Marked price  % D iscount = Se llin g price U* of PCG in P ro fit a n d Lo ss
im e il il4
1. The relationship between C P and S P is typ ically defined through a percentage relationship. A s we have seen earlier, th is percentage value is called as the percentage m ark up. (A n d is also equal to the percentage profit i f there is no discount). Consider the fo llow ing situation — Suppose the SP is 25% greater than the C P. T h is relationship can be seen in the fo llo w in g diagram .
CP
25% t
SP
B such a case the reverse relatio n sh ip w ill b e g ot by
3 3 .3 3 % .
Interpret th is as the C P  an be got fro m the S P b y re d u c ing the S P by 33.33% . H ence, the answ er is 2 0 0 0  (1 / 3 ) x 2000 = R s. 1333.33 A lso , this question can a lso b e so lv e d th ro u g h o p tio n s b y
foe A*B>A application o f P C G an d w ill b e seen as
follow s:
1 1 profit is 25% : 25% f
Exam ple: CP
*SP
20% i
Suppo^ you know that by selling an item at 25
, price o f a bottle o f wine is Rs. 1600.
going from C P (assum ed from th e v a lu e oj the S P by increasing the assu m ed C P by whether the SP com es out to 2000. I f a 50%
190
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
assum ed C P does not m ake the S P eq ual 20 0 0 it m eans that the assum ed C P is in co rre ct. H e n ce, you should m ove to the next option. U se lo g ic to understand w hether you go fo r the hig her options o r the lo w e r o ptio ns based on y o u r rejectio n o f the assum ed option.
Note:
Th e above question w ill n ever appear as a fu ll
Solution When there is a loss of 10% 9°% , CPi CP, = 177.77 When there is a profit of 1601110% C /> 1 CP2 = 145.45 ifJ r Hence total cost price = 177.77 + 145.45 323.23 % m the net realisation is Rs. 320. Hence loss is Rs. 3.23. Short cut for calculation: Since by selling the two * ^ 7 / for Rs. 320 the shopkeeper gets a loss of 1 % (fof® previous problem), we can say that Rs. 320 is 99% m the value of the cost price of the two items. H ence J total cost is given by 320/0.99 (solution of this calculate / j can be approximately done on the percentage chan* graphic). If by selling 2 items for Rs. 180 eachtfe shopkeeper gains 2 0 % on one and loses 20 % on the ofo find the value of the loss.
Solution The percentage loss in this case will a lw a y s fJ P .
question in the exam inatio n but m ig ht appear as a part o f a m ore co m p lex q u estio n. I f yo u are ab le to interp ret th is statem ent through the denom inator change to ratio change ta b le , the tim e requirem ent w ill reduce s ig n ifi ca n tly and you w ill g ain a sig n ifica n t tim e advantage o ve r th is statem ent.
JK Q
A m an b u ys a sh irt and a tro u ser fo r
R s . 3 7 1 . I f the tro u ser co sts 12% m ore than the sh irt, fin d the co st o f the sh irt.
si
pp
Solution
H e re , w e can w rite the eq uatio n :
s + 1.125 = 371 —>s = 3 7 1 /2 .1 2 (h o w e ve r, th is c a lcu la tio n
is not v e ry e a s ily done) A n altern ate approach w ill be to go through o p tio n s. Suppose the o p tio ns are (a ) R s . 125 (b ) R s . 150 (c ) R s . 175 (d ) R s . 20 0
J4 I
W.f&
be (20/10)2 1 4% loss.
C h e ckin g fo r, sa y, R s . 1 5 0 , the thought p ro cess sh o uld go lik e : Le t
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percentage.
5=
co st o f a sh irt
I f s = 1 5 0 ,1.12s w ill be got b y in cre a sin g s b y 12% i.e . 12% o f 150 = 18. H ence the va lu e o f 1 .1 2 s = 150 + 18 = 168 and s + 1.12s = = 318 is not eq u al to 3 7 1 . H ence ch e ck the next hig her option.
We can see this directly as 36 0 — » 96% o f the CP ,,(197800 = = 360/0.96. Hence, by percentage change graphic 360b I to be increased by 4.166 per cent = 360 + 4.166% of 360 = 360 + 14.4 + 0.6 = Rs. 3 7 5 . c t jd is c o u n ts Hence, the loss is Rs. 15. Ifsin  By selling 15 mangoes, a fruit vendorre covers the cost price of 20 mangoes. Find the p ro ®
If s = 175,1.12s = s + 2.12 s J 371.
12% o f s
=
175
+ 21 =
19 6 . i.e .
H ence, the option is co rrect. Q A shopkeeper se lls tw o item s at the sam e
Solution Here since the expenditure and the revenue« equated, we can use percentage profit = goods left x 1 goods sold = 5 x 100/15 = 33.33%.
900£*fl i— Problem 6.7 A dishonest shopkeeper uses a
price. If he se lls one o f them at a p ro fit o f 10% and the other at a lo ss o f
10% , fin d
the percentage p ro fit/lo ss.
Generic question:
other at a loss o f
A shopkeeper se lls tw o item s at the
weight instead of 1 kilogram weight. Find his P ch eb 4 percent if he sells per kilogram at the same price as« a kilogram. Solution Here again the money spent and the • * Uy flfl got are equal. Hence, the percentage profit is go* J l left x 100 /goods sold. This gives us 11.11%.
l5d
same p rice. If he se lls one o f them at a p ro fit o f x% and the
x%, fin d
the percentage p ro fit/lo ss.
Solution
Th e resu lt w ill alw ays be a lo ss o f [*/1 0 ]2% .
Hence, the answer here is 110/10]2% w 1% lo ss.
Problem 6.4
For the P roblem
lots incurred by the item it Rt. 160.
shopkeeper if
6.3. find the value of the the price of selling each
UB32SBE3 A manufacturer makes a profit of L selling a colour TV for Rs. 6900. If the cost of j ing increases by 30% and the price paid by the
V
\
to by 2 0 * . find the profit pen*** tC * ent made by the B inC wrer I
< a ) R S ' 890
(b)R, 1000 ( C ) *  780
< « * ••* ■
I ,„h options using percentage rule Solution Solve *f° 1 1 ^ j g  Try t 0 M s h the reading the question for    always start with the i. This way you are likely to
X
kM hM kS I <5
, , , « ••' * > n ‘ — '« ■ » is i, /,.tfsiion stem analysis you shouw shnniH shnnin be u w. 1 M H R • t. _ ° u,d be .. part of the problem in m the first readi £ fS < o f 6000 .s c o s ,, before you read ^ ^
gs H H H p iB ilR I
„m _ Rs. 6000. . t0 . able ■ able to solve ° s° lvc l■ ■ ; I * * * at ^ sDong Hencej o r k on , , The better you can get it the noore « W f i l you. In fact, one of
and keep checking oPuo
first firstoptioncheck optioncne*.*be — o»
11
. *ko as a the first time. Also,
___s H f r i
middle most conVeme"‘ ^ f options, on an average, be required lesser nu ^ ^ A   g  questions wiM id
Also note ways e s ^ y u q~ L O D H and
«
1
^
sentences as used in LOD I en. g g need t0 have to
> «s^ pmciH reaSOnS 1 ge' T " * the C AT every year is the
length in percen,a8e calculation. Besides, percentage cak.0l,tion will also go a long way in improving your ^ in data Interpretation.)
questions is the ability to string
together a set of statements and interconnect them. rB lfflE S lS B l A dishonest businessman professes to sell his articles at cost price but he uses false weights with which he cheats by 10% while buying and by 10% while selling. Find his percentage profit. Solution Assume that the businessman buys and sells 1
Further, if you have got to the 6000 figure by the end rf the first line, reading further you can increase this 00 fcl ^vantage by calculating w hile reading as follows: Manufacturing cost increase by 30% > New manufacse riog cost and new selling price is 6900 + 20% of gC U M= —7800 ' ” "M innMOT* 1380 = 8 2 8 0 . 6900I 6900 + 8280. Hence, profit = 8280 p? 7800 = 480 and profit percent =
the C P^ 480x 100/7800 = 6.15%. raphic
4.166%i
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Find a single discount to equal three con secutive discounts o f 10%, 12% and 5%.
Solution Using percentage change graphic starting Fruit v end# from100: we get 100 » 8 8 > 83.6 » 75.24 (Note we can rind the p change percentages in any order). Hence, the single discount is 24.76%.
theievH
A reduction in the price of petrol by 10% original price of petrol.
L jsirf*1 enables a motorist to buy 5 gallons m ore for $ 180. Find the
kg of items. While buying he cheats by 10%, which means that when he buys 1 kg he actually takes 1100 grams. Simi larly, he cheats by 1 0 % while selling, that is, he gives only 900 grams when he sells a kilogram. Also, it must be un derstood that since he purportedly buys and sells the same amount of goods and he is trading at the same price while buying and selling, money is already equated in this case. Hence, we can directly use: % Profit = (Goods left x 100/ Goods sold) = 200 x 100/900  22.22% (Note that you should not need to do this calculation since this value comes from the fraction to percentage conversion table). If you are looking at 70% plus net score in quantitativeability you should be able to come to the solution in about 25 seconds inclusive of problem reading time. And the calculation should go like this: Money is equated > % profit = 2/9 = 22.22%
es a ^ J o l u t i o n
io% reduction in price ■*. U M % W
in
:0d p C Q ,U u m ptio!L is equal to 5 galas^l H.11% increase in consumption^ 45 gallons for ■ Hence, original consumption is equal to H ^ence, original price = 4$ per gallon.
&
m ____ Ashok bought an article and sp
3 rtPt*irs. He then sold it to Bhushan at a p r o i ^ B it to Charan a ^ o s s
^q% .
The longer process of c a lcu la tio n in th is case w o u ld be involving the use of equating the am ount o f goods b o u eh t and sold and the m oney valu e o f the p ro fit. H o w e ve r i f I try to do this y 6u w ill e a s ily see that it H I K higher degree ' » c a lcu la tio n s and the p ro cess w ill tend to get messy.
T h e o p tio n s fo r doing w o u ld p o in t to b o u g h t and so ld
this problem by eq uatin comparing the price per H H
so ld . A lte rn a tiv e ly , w e co u ld use the p rice per
l i W M M M U88 at a lprofit o f 1 0 *1 1 the aricle.
a
per gram
(which w ould be preferab le to basis for this problem ). ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ I
■ SB
81 ° ° ds
./J
•J9 2 I
to
f r Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Here the thought buys 1100 grams while selling. To equate the tw o,
process would be:
Assume price per
kilogram = Rs. 1000. Th erefo re, he while purchasing and se lls 900 gram s use the following process:
Amount o f goods
Solution Since money spent and got are e q .,^ formula for profit calculation in terms of eoo(js  goods sold. % This will give you percentage profit = 2/10 a 20% Alternatively, you can also equate the goods am ) late the percentage profit on the basis of money as
the
Money paid Buying
After reduction Rs. 1000 R s. 900
1100
grains (Reduce this by 10%)
CP of 1 orange = 8.33 paise SP of 1 orange = 10 paise 8.33 paise 10 paise (corresponds to a percental crease of 20% on CP)
Problem 6.16
990 grams 900 grams (Increase this by 10%)
Selling
After increase
R s, 1000 R s. 1100
990
In order to maximise its profits, AM SQ Jj
porate defines a function. Its unit sales price is Rs. 700a n d ' Problem 6.13 RFO Tripathi bought some oranges in Nagpur for Rs. 32. He has to sell it off in Yeotmal. He is able to sell off all the oranges in YeotmaJ and on reflection finds that he has made a profit equal to the cost price of 40 oranges. How many oranges did RFO Tripathi buy? the function representing the cost of production = 3q q 2p2, where p is the total units produced or sold. F indij most profitable production level. Assume that everyth in produced is necessarily sold. Solution The function for profit is a combination o f
Solution Suppose we take the number of oranges bought
as x. Then, the cost price per orange would be Rs. 32/a:, and his profit would by 40 x 32/r = 1280/jr. To solve for x, we need to equate this value with some value on the other side of the equation. But, we have no information provided here to find out the value of the vari able x. Hence, we cannot solve this equation. I By selling 5 articles for Rs. 15, a man makes a profit of 20%. Find his gain or loss percentage if he sells 8 articles for Rs. 18.4? Questions of this type normally appear as part of a more complex problem in an exam like the CAT. Remember, such a question should be solved by you as soon as you finish reading the question by solvingwhilereading process, as follows. By selling 5 articles for Rs. 15, a man makes a profit of 20%  » SP = 3. Hence, CP = 2.5, if he sells 8 articles for Rs. 18.4 m SP = 2.3. Hence percentage loss = 8%. For solving this question through this method with speed you need to develop the skill and ability to calculate percentage changes through the percentage change graphic. For this purpose, you should not be required to use a pencil and a
p a p e r.
revenue and costs. It is given by Profit = Revenue  C o s ts = 700 p  (300 + Ip1) =  I p 1 + 70Qp  300. In order to find the maxima or minima of any q u a d r a tic function, we differentiate it and equate the d ifferen tiated equation to zero. Thus, the differentiated profit function is 4 p + 7 0 0 =0 — > p  175. This value of production will yield& maximum profits in this case. Note: Whether a quadratic function is maximumO fj minimum is decided by redifferentiating the d ifferen t),^ ated equation. We then look at the sign of the con stan t term to determine whether the value got by equatingW differentiated equation to zero corresponds to the mil milm or the minimum. In the case of the constant left being negative, we say that the function is a function and hence the solution point got would t* maximum point. In the event that the final constan is positive, it is a minimum function.
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Short cut
Just look at the coefficient of * J jjP function. If it is positive, equating the first difterenH 6 to zero would yield the minimum point, and if t® ® ficient of xl is negative, the function is a max1 function. For problem 6.16, what is the value
B M l l f l Oranges are bought at 12 for a rupee and W a t 10 for a rupee. Find the percentage profit or loss.
Problem 6.17
maximum profits for AMS Corporate ?
Chapter
6:
Profit and Lo ss
i 193
\
Solution For th is, continuing fro m the previous question s elution, we ju st put the value of p ss 175 in the equation fo r profit Ttws. substitute p  175 in the equation. Profit = 2p: I 700p 1 300 and get the an sw er. shopkeeper a llo w s a rebate of 25% to only sm ug gled goods and as a b rib e, he pgys 10% o f the cost of the a rtic le . I f h is co st p rice is fe 2500. then find w h at sh o uld be the marked p rice i f he desires to make a profit o f 9 .0 9 % .
A die buyer. He se lls
t s j j
f l
S ■
%
Solution Use , . H o j
 ibtal cost to the
so lvin g w h ile re a d in g
as follows: Cost
price (= 2500) + Bribe (= 10% o f co st o f a rtic le = 250)
He wants a p ro fit
shopkeeper (2500 + 250 = 2750). of 9.09 p e rcen t o n th is va lu e  » U sin g
faction to percentage chang e ta b le w e g et 2750 = 2750 + 250 =
2750 + 9.09% o f
25%.
S in ce w e
Rs.
3000.
But this R s. 30 00 is got a fte r a reb ate o f
cases. Since are associated with the SP, we assum e it to be 100. T h is g iv e s us an a v e ra g e SP o f 100 fo r the three a rtic le s. T h e n , the first article will b e sold at 1 1 1 . 1 1 , the second at 83.33 and the third a t 1 3 3 .3 3 . (T h e student is advised to be fluent at these c a lc u la tio n s ) Fu rth er, the C P o f the three articles is 11 1.11 + 8 3 .3 3 + 133.33 = 327.77. The average C P o f the three a r tic le s is 327.77/3 = 109.2566. Hence, (average C P  a ve ra g e S P )/ a v e ra g e S P = 9.2566%. higher Any other process adopted for th is p ro b le m is lik e ly to require much more effort and time. Note: This process will be feasible if you have worked well with the percentage calculation techniques of the pre vious chapter.
H ere, the se llin g p rice is eq ual in a ll th re e the m axim um num ber o f c a lc u la tio n s
do not have the valu e o f th e m arked p ric e on w h ich
25%
c°nibiiuJ rebate is evenue.l 0.
f 30V
to be c a lcu la te d , it w o u ld be a good id ea to w o rk
reverse through the p e rcen tag e ch an g e g ra p h ic: Going from the marked p ric e to R s . rebate. Hence the Rs. 3000 by
3000 re q u ire s a 25%
in cre asin g
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
reverse p ro c e ss w ill be got b y 3 3 .3 3 % and g e ttin g R s . 4000.
[Notice the use o f p e rcen tag e ch an g e g ra p h ic in general and the product co n sta n cy ta b le in p a rtic u la r in the so lvin g of this question]
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lo ss o f 10% . F in d the co st p ric e o f th e shopkeeper. (a ) R s . 545 (c ) R s . 555 (e ) N one o f these (b ) R s . 5 5 0
D
1. B y se llin g a w atch fo r R s . 4 9 5 , a sh o p k e e p e r
incurs a
fo r th e
watch
Problem 6.19 A man sells three articles, one at a loss of 10%, a n o th e r a t a profit o f 20 % and the third one at a loss o f 25% . If th e selling price of all the three is the same, find by how much percent is their average C P lower than or higher than t h e i r SP. Solution is always convenient to solve questions in percentages by using the number 100. The reathis is that it reduces the amount of effort re•pred in calculating the solution. Hence, it goes without the variable to be fixed at 1 0 0 should be the * with the highest number of calculations associated I thumb rule for this is that the variable to ___ 10 0 should be the one with which the most diffic«* e o l a t i o n set is associated.
It
(d)
R s . 565
2.
B y se llin g a cap fo r R s . R s . 32.80 R s .32.40
34.40,
a m an g a in s
7.5% .
W hat w ill be the C P o f the cap ? (a ) (c )
(b) Rs. 32 (d) Rs. 28.80
3.
(e ) R s . 31.40 A c e llu la r phone when sold for Rs 4600 fetches a profit of 15%. Find the cost price of the cellular phone, (a ) Rs. 4300 (b) Rs. 4150 (c ) Rs. 4000 (d) Rs. 4500 (e ) Rs. 4400 4. A machine costs Rs. 375. I f it is so ld a t a lo s s o f 20%, what will be its cost p ric e as a p ercen tag e o f its s e llin g price? (a) 80% <b) 120% (c) 110% (d) 125% (e ) N one o f these
have to calculate: (average CP  average SP)/aver
A
194 I M
to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
' m
13. A pet sh o p o w n e r s e lls tw o p u p p ie s a t the san^ O n one h e m a ke s a p ro fit o f 2 0 % and on the s u ffe rs a lo s s o f 2 0 % . F in d b is lo s s o r gain per th e w h o le tra n sa c tio n . (a ) G a in o f 4 % (c ) L o s s o f 1 0 % (e ) N o n e o f th e se 14. T h e m a rk e d p ric e o f a ta b le
5. A shopkeeper sold goods fo r R s . 24 0 0 profit o f 25% in the process.
Find h is
and made a profit per cent
if he had sold h is goods fo r R s . 2040.
(a) 6.25%
(c ) 6.20% (e ) 6.75%
(b) 7%
°% C e*t«
/J 4 m m
< s ,j
, tm iimr v** S*'
I
(d) 6.5%
(b ) N o p ro fit no loss (d ) L o s s o f 4%
6.
sold for Rs. 935 at a profit of 10%. W hat would have been the actual profit or loss on it, if it had been sold for Rs. 810?
A d ig ital d iary is
is Rs. 1200, which is
ab o ve th e c o st p ric e . It is so ld a t a d isco u n t o f iq % th e m ark e d p ric e . F in d th e p ro fit p e r cent. (a ) 10 % (b )
(a) Rs. 45 (b) Rs. 40 (c) Rs. 48 (e) Rs. 56
7.
(d) Rs. 50
8%
( c ) 7 .5 %
(d )
6%
A music system when sold for Rs. 4500 gives a loss of 16.66% to the merchant who sells it. Calculate his loss or gain per cent, if he sells it for Rs. 5703.75. Loss of 5.625% (c) Loss of 7% (e) Profit of 7%
(a )
(e ) 8 .3 3 % 15. 125 to ffe e s c o st R s . 7 5 . F in d th e c o st o f one to ffe e s i f th e re is a d is c o u n t o f 4 0 % on the seiw I
e*
" p r ic e to theHstl
(b) Profit of 8.33% (d) Profit of 5.625%
p ric e fo r th is q u a n tity . (a ) (c ) R s . 3 ,0 0 ,0 0 0 R s . 3 ,6 0 ,0 0 0 (b ) R s . 3 ,2 0 ,0 0 0 (d ) R s . 4 ,0 0 ,0 0 0
8. By selling bouquets for Rs. 63, a florist gains 5%. At what price should he sell the bouquets to gain 10% on the cost price? (a) Rs. 66 , (b) Rs. 69 (c) Rs. 72 (d) Rs. 72.50 (e) Rs. 75
(e ) R s . 4 ,5 G ,0 0 0 1 6 . A sh o p k e e p e r m a rk s th e p ric e o f an a rtic le at Rs. 80 I F in d th e c o st p ric e i f a fte r a llo w in g a discount of 10 %I h e s t ill g a in s (a) &
20 %
o n th e c o st p ric e . (b ) R s . 7 0
(c) Rs(e) Not
l\. Inquesti
9. A shopkeeper bought 240 chocolates at Rs. 9 per dozen. If he sold all of them at Re. 1 each, what was his profit per cent? (a) 66(176)% (b) 33(1/3)% (c) 24% (d) 27% (e ) None of these
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(c ) R s . 75 (e ) R s . (d ) R s . 6 0 1 7 . In th e q u e stio n 1 6 , w h a t w ill b e th e s e llin g price of th eI a rtic le i f h e a llo w s tw o s u c c e s s iv e discounts of 5$ ft each . (a ) R s . 7 2 (c ) R s . 7 5 (e ) R s . 7 1 .2 1 8 . A d o zen p a irs o f g lo v e s q u o te d a t R s . 8 0 are available I a t a d isco u n t o f 1 0 % . F in d h o w m an y p a irs of gloves I c a n b e b o u g h t fo r R s . 2 4 . (a ) 4 (b ) 5 (c ) (b ) R s . 7 2 .2 0 (d ) R s . 7 1 .6 6
(a ) R s . 5 3 .3 3
on bis ci places.
tylZj
(e)25fl ^H iecost
0 v e » iica t
10. A feeding bottle is sold for Rs. 120. Sales tax accounts for onefifth of this and profit onethird of the remain der. Find the cost price of the feeding bottle.
(a )
Rs. 64 (b) Rs. 72 (c) Rs. 68 <e) R s . 78
(d) Rs. 76 selling coal at Rs. 22.50 on th e whole (d) 8%
*®!*k
6
(d )
8
U . A coal m erchant m akes a p ro fit of 20% by at R s. 25 per qu intal. I f he se lls the co al per quintal, what is h is p ro fit per cent investment?
(e) 7
19. F in d a sin g le d is c o u n t e q u iv a le n t to th e discount sen® o f 20% , 10% , 5% . (a ) 3 0 % (b ) 3 1 .6 % ( c ) 6 8 .4 % (d ) 35% ,
H i , H i
s
(a) 6% O e) 9%
(b) 6.66% (c) 7.5%
(e ) 3 2 .6 % 2 0 . T h e p rin te d p ric e o f a c a lc u la to r is R s . 180. A retail^ p a ys R s . 1 3 7 .7 fo r it b y g e ttin g su cce ssive seco n d d isco u n t ra te ? (a ) (e )
12. The cost price o f a sh irt and a p air o f tro u sers is R s. 371. If the sh irt costs 12% m ore than the tro u sers, find the cost price of the trouser. H f e '25 (c )  H 175 iU . 225 (b ) R s . 150 £$) R*. 200
Vs discot# 1 i v y ;
V
o f 10 % and an o th er ra te w h ic h is ille g ib le . What is W
12% (b ) 16.66%
1 2 .5 %
(c ) 1 5 %
(d ) 20%
Chapter b
hi
SI
28.
21. How m u ch p e rc e n t more than the cost price should a shopkeeper m a rk his goods, so that after allowing # discount of 12.5% he should have a gain of 5% Q fi his outlay? (a) 9.375 <b) 16.66% (c) 20% (d) 25%
By s e l l i n g I casserole for Rs. 960, a man incurs a lo ss of 4%. At what price should he sell the casserole to
gain 16%? (a) Rs. 1160 (c) Rs. 1120 (b) Rs. 1080 (d) None o f these
(e) 33.33%
22. In order to maintain the price line, a trader allows a discount of 1 0 % on the marked price of goods in his shop. However, he still makes a gross profit of 17% on the cost price. Find the profit per cent he would have made on the selling price had he sold at the marked
29. A man sells 5 articles forRs. 15 and makes a profit o f 20%. Find his gain or loss percent if he sells 8 such articles for Rs. 18.40. (a) 2.22% profit (c) 8% loss (b) 2.22% loss (d) 8% profit
price.
k , (a) 23.07% (b) 30%
30. The cost price of 50 mangoes is equal to the selling price of 40 mangoes. Find the percentage profit? (a) 20% (c) 30% (b) 25% (d) None o f these
(c) 21.21% (d) 25%
(e) 40%
23. A wholeseller allows a discount of 20% on the list price to a retailer. The retailer sells at 5% discount on the list price. If the customer paid Rs. 38 for an article, what profit is made by the retailer? P Q In (a) Rs. 10 (c) Rs. 6 (e) None o f these
31. A owns a house worth Rs. 10,000. He sells it to B at a profit of 15%. After some time, B sells it back to A at 15% loss. Find A’s loss or gain percent. (a) 2.25% gain (c) 17.64% gain (b) 6.25% gain (d) 17.25% gain
(b) (d)
Rs. 8 Rs. 12
24. In question 23, find also the retailer’s percentage profit on his cost giving your answer correct to two decimal
places.
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(a) 12.5% (e) 25%
(b) 16.66% (c) 18.75% (d) 20%
32. A shopkeeper bought locks at the rate o f 8 locks for Rs. 34 and sold them at the rate of 12 locks for Rs. 57. Calculate his gain percent. (a) 9.33% (b) 12.5% (c) 11.11% (d) 11.76%
25. The cost of production o f a cordless phone set in 2006 is Rs. 900, divided betw een material, labour and overheads in the ratio 3 : 4 : 2. If the cordless phone set is marked at a price that gives a 2 0 % profit on the component of price accounted for by labour, what is the marked price o f the set? (a) Rs. 980 (c) Rs. 960 (b) Rs. 1080 (d) Rs. 1020
33. Anil bought an article at Rs. 200 and sold it at a profit of 10%. What would have been the increase in the profit percent if it was sold for Rs. 230? (a) 5% (b) 10% (c) 15% (d) None o f these 34. A makes an article for Rs. 120 and sells it to B at a profit of 25%. B sells it to C who sells it for Rs. 198, making a profit of 10%. What profit percent did B make? (a) 25% (b) 20% 35. A reduction of 10% in the price o f sugar enables a housewife to buy 6.2 kg more for Rs. 279. Find the reduced price per kilogram (a) Rs. 5. (b) Rs. 4.5 (c) Rs. 4.05 (d) None o f these 36. A man buys 50 kg of oil at Rs. 10 per kilogram and another 40 kg of oil at Rs. 12 kilogram and mixes them. He sells the mixture at the rate o f Rs. 11 per kilogram What will be his gain percent if he is able to sell the whole lot?
98 (C) 1 0 (1 /4 9 )%
(c) 16
(e) None of these 26 If subsequently in 2007, the cost of material, labour Ufi'l 2nd overheads increased by 20% , 30% and 10% respectively, calculate the cost o f manufacturing in
2007, fm m m
'7
.
.
B Rs. 1150 (b) Rs. 1050 (c) Rs. 1080 (d) Rs 1100 Whai should be the new marked price if the criteria for profit is to remain the same as for question 25
above?
I I Rs. 1320 I 1244
(b) Rs. 1204
(d) None o f these
(a)
100 %
(h) 100(10/49)%
(d) None o f these
196 I H o w toftapaefa rQ u a n S a & V EA p S B u d efa rtieC A T
37. If ike cost price o f 30 articles is equal to the selling price o f 20 articles, find the profit percent. (a) 3X33% fc) 50*
46.
A m an se lls an a rtic le at 5% above its cost price if t
had bought it at 5% le ss than w hat he paid for jr
sold it fo r R s . 2 le s s , he w o u ld h ave gained 10% a j j the co st p rice o f the a rtic le . (a ) R s . 50 0 (c ) R s . 42 5 (b ) R s . 36 0 (d ) R s . 4 0 0
(b) 40% (d ) 60%
3SL A shopkeeper sefts sugar in such a way that the selling
price of 950 gm is the same as the cost price o f one
kilogram. Find his gain percent. (a) 100117% (c j 5(5/19)% (b ) 150/17% (d ) 1/19%
4 7 . A b riefcase w as so ld a t a p ro fit o f 10% . I f its gain w o uld h ave been 2 0 % . F in d the co st price of b riefcase. (a ) R s . 175 (c ) R s . 22 5 (b ) R s . 200 (d ) R s . 160
1
1
p rice w as 5 % le ss and it w a s so ld fo r R s . 7 more ^ j
39. A dealer boys eggs at R s. 36 per gross. He se lls the eggs at a profit o f 12(1/2)% on die cost price. W hat is the selling price per egg (approxim ately)? i.a) 33 paise < c ) 29 paise 40. (b ) 30 paise (d ) 28 paise
4 8 . A m an s e lls a p lo t o f la n d a t
6%
p r o fit I f be had sob 1
it at 10% p ro fit, he w o u ld h a v e re c e iv e d R s . 200 qxm. W hat is the se llin g p ric e o f th e lan d ? (a ) R s . 5 0 0 0 (c ) R s . 4 8 0 0 (b ) R s . 5 3 0 0 (d ) R s . 5 5 0 0
A sold a table to B at aprofit o f 20% . B sold the same
table to C for R s. 75thereby making a profit o f 25% . Fmd the price at which <a) R s. 30 (b ) R s. 40
A bought the table from X if
(c ) R s . 50 (d ) R s . 60
it is known that X gained 25% in the transaction.
4 9 . A sh o k bought an a rtic le and sp en t R s . 110 on as im p a irs. H e then so ld it to B h u sh a n a t a p ro fit o f 2 0 U Bhu shan so ld it to C h a ra n a t a lo s s o f 10% . Chars fin a lly so ld it fo r R s . 1188 a t a p ro fit o f 10% . Bov m uch d id A sh o k p a y fo r th e a rtic le ? (a ) R s . 8 9 0 (c ) R s . 7 8 0 (b ) R s . 1000
41. A sold a table to B at a profit o f 15% . Later on, How much did .4 pay for the table o rig in ally? (a) Rs. 300 (c) Rs. 345 (b ) R s . 320
B sold
it back (0/4 at a profit o f 20% , thereby gaining R s. 69.
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(d ) R s . 350 (d ) R s . 8 4 0
42. A deafer sold two T V sets for Rs. 2400 20% on one and losing 20% on net gain or net loss. (a) R s. 300 loss
each, gaining the other set F in d his
5 0 . A m an b u ys tw o c y c le s fo r a to ta l c o st o f R s . 900. By se llin g one fo r 4/5 o f its c o st an d o th er fo r 5/4 of its c o st, he m akes a p ro fit o f R s . 9 0 on th e w hole e n a ctio n . F in d the c o st p ric e o f lo w e r p riced cycle. (a ) R s . 3 6 0 (c ) R s . 3 0 0 (b ) R s . 2 5 0 (d ) R s . 4 2 0
(b ) R s. 200 loss (d ) R s. 300 gain
ic) R s. 200 gain
43. Ob selling tea at R s. 40 per kg a lo ss o f 10% is _ inclined Calculate the amount o f tea (in k g ) sold i f ibe total kiss incurred is R s . 80. (a) 12 kg (b ) 15 kg (c ) 18 kg (d ) 20 kg
5 1 . A m erch an t bought tw o tra n s is to rs , w h ich together co st h im R s . 4 8 0 . H e so ld one o f th em a t a lo ss o f 15* and o th er a t a g a in o f 1 9 % . I f th e se llin g p rice o f bo* the tra n sisto rs are e q u a l, fin d th e c o st o f the lo*® p rice d tra n sisto r. (a ) R s . 3 0 0 (c ) R s . 2 0 0 * ' (b ) R s . 180 (d ) R s . 2 8 0
44. A colour T V and a V C P were sold for R s . 12,000 , each. The T V was sold at a loss o f 20% w hereas the VCP was sold at a gain o f 20% . Find gain o r lo ss in the whole transaction. la) R s. 1200 loss (c) Rs. 960 loss (b ) R s. 1000 loss (d ) R s. 1040 loss
5 2 . A m an u factu re r m ake s a p ro fit o f 15% b y selling* co lo u r T V fo r R s . 5 7 5 0 . I f th e c o st o f m an u facfl**! in cre ase s b y 3 0 % and th e p ric e p a id b y the retaikf * in creased b y
(Note 1 a this case there w ill alw ays be a lo ss) 45. A o n setts a T V set for R s. 3450 and makes a p rofit of 15%. He setts another T V at a loss o f 10% . I f on the whole, he neither gains nor loses, find the selling price of f e tceoai T V set. !  i iP <b) R s. 4400 (d ) R s. 4500
20% , fin d
th e p ro fit p e rcen t m ade by »
m anufactu rer. (a ) 6 (2 /1 3 )% (c ) 6 (1 /1 3 )% (b ) 4 (8 /1 3 )% (d ) 7 (4 /1 3 )%
4050
53. The cost o f m a n u fa ctu rin g an a rtic le is m ade up • materials, labour and o ve rh e a d s in th e ra tio 4 1 3 « —^
on the camera, that costs him Rs. 600, so that he m akes the cost o f labour is Rs. 45, find the profit percent if the article is sold for Rs. 180. (•) 50% (c) 25%
54
a profit of 20%? (a) Rs. 800 fel Rs 7 2 0 (c) Rs. 750 <d) Rs 8 5 0 61. A watch dealer pays 10% custom duty on a watch that costs Rs. 250 abroad. For how much should he mark it, if he desires to make a profit of 20% after giving a
discount of 25% to the buyer? (a) Rs. 400 (c) Rs. 275 (b) Rs. 440 1 (d) Rs. 330
(b) 33.33% (d) 20%
TWo dealers X and Y selling the same mode) o f refrig erator mark them under the same selling prices. X gives successive discounts o f 25% and 5% and Y gives successive discounts of 16% and 12%. From whom is it more profitable to purchase the refrigerator? (a) From Y
(b) From X (c) Indifferent between the two (d) Cannot be determined
55. A sells a car priced at R s. 36,000. He gives a discount of 8% on the first Rs. 2 0 ,0 0 0 and 5% on the remaining Rs. 16,000. His com petitor B sells a car o f the same make, priced at Rs. 36,000. If he wants to be competi tive what percent discount should B offer on the marked price. (a) 5% (c) 6.66% , f t ) 5.5% (d) 8.33%
62. A shopkeeper buys an article for Rs. 400 and marks it for sale at a price that'gives him 80% profit on his cost. He, however, gives a 15% discount on the marked price to his customer. Calculate the actual percentage profit made by the shopkeeper. (a) 62% (b) 64% ' <c) 53% , (d) 34% 63. In the land of the famous milkman Merghese Durian, a milkman sells his buffalo for Rs. 720 at some profit. Had he sold his buffalo at Rs. 510, the quantum o f the loss incurred would have been double that o f the profit earned. What is die cost price? (a) Rs. 600 (c) Rs. 675 (b) Rsi 625 (d) None o f these
h u n d re d .
56. An article costs Rs. 7 0 0 to a manufacturer who lists its price at Rs. 800. H e sells it to a trader at a discount of 5%. The trader gets a further discount o f 5% on his net payment for paying in cash. Calculate the amount that the trader pays to the manufacturer (a) Rs. 722 (c) Rs. 725 (b ) Rs. 720 (d ) N on e o f these
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(a) Rs. 72 (c) Rs. 82.8 1
64. A trader purchases apples at Rs'. 60 per
He
spends 15% on the transportation. What should be the selling price per 100 to earn a profit o f 20%? (b) Rs. 81.8 (d) Rs. 83.8
57. In question 56, find the profit percent that the manu facturer makes on the sale.
(a) 1500/7% (c) 2000/7%
(b ) 22/7% (d ) N on e o f
65. A dishonest dealer professes to sell at cost price but uses a 900 gram Weight instead of a i kilogram weight. Find the percent profit to the dealer. (a) 10% (c) 12.5% ■ (b) 11.11% ., (d) None of these
these
58. A firm dealing in furniture a llow s 4% discount on the marked price o f each item . What price must be marked 00 a dining table that cost R s. 4 0 0 to assemble, so as
to make a profit o f
(a) Rs. 475 (c) Rs. 500
20
%.
(b ) Rs. 480 <d) Rs. 520
L€V€l o f D iffic u lty (LO D)
II
A shopkeeper allow s a d iscount o f 12.5% on the ®atfced price o f a certain article and makes a profit o f 20%. If the article cost the shopkeeper Rs. 210, what Price must be m ark ed on the article? h) Rs. 280 (b ) R s. 288 N one o f these
1 Rs. 300
I
H
* Camera allo w s a discount o f J0% on the adv«tued price o f I c a m e ra . W hat price must be marked
1. Mithilesh makes 750 articles at a c o s t o f 6 0 p a i s e p e r article. He fixes the selling p r i ^ e s u c h t h a t i f only 6 0 0 articles are sold, he w o u l d have made a profit o f 40% on the outlay. H o w e v e r , 1 2 0 articles got s p o i l t a n d h e was able to sell 6 3 0 articles at t h i s p r i c e . F i n d h i s actual profit p e r c e n t a s the p e r c e n t a g e of total outlay a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e unsold a r t i c l e s are useless. H 42% m 5 3% ' ■ ■ ■
198
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
2. A manufacturer estimates that o n inspection 12% of the articles he produces will be rejected. He accepts an order to supply 22,000 articles at Rs. 7.50 each. He estimates the profit o n his outlay including the manu facturing of rejected articles, to be 20%. Find the cost of manufacturing each article. (a) Rs. 6 (b) Rs. 5.50 (c) Rs. 5 (d) Rs. 4.50 (e) Rs. 6 J 3. The cost of setting up the type of a magazine is Rs. 1000. The cost of running the printing machine is Rs. 120 per 100 copies. The cost of paper, ink and so On is 60 paise per copy. The magazines are sold at Rs. 2.75 each. 900 copies are printed, but only 784 copies are sold. What is the sum to be obtained from advertisements to give a profit of 10% on the cost? (a) Rs. 730 (c) Rs. 726 (e) Rs. 750 (b) Rs. 720 (d) Rs. 736
7. A dishonest dealer marks up the price of hj, by 20% and gives a discount of 10% to the cuS  He also uses a 900 gram weight instead  i™ a . kilogram weight. Find his percentage profit
th ese m a n e u v e rs. (a ) (c )
8% 20%
(b )
12 %
(d ) 16 %
(e ) N o n e o f th ese
8.
A d ish o n e st d e a le r m a rk s up the p ric e o f his
20%
by
and g iv e s a d isco u n t o f
10%
to the custom' I
§ i
^
B e s id e s , he a lso c h e a ts b o th h is su p p lie r and his bjw I
100 g ram s
w h ile b u y in g o r s e llin g
1 kilogram
TyB I I
the p e rcen tag e p ro fit earn e d b y the shopkeeper (a ) 2 0 % (c ) 32 % (e ) N o ne o f th ese 9 . F o r q u e stio n a d isco u n t o f (b ) 2 5 % (d ) 2 7 .5 %
*
8, i f it is k n o w n th at the shopkeeper takes I 10 % fro m h is su p p lie r and he disregard I
__
th is d isco u n t w h ile m a rk in g u p ( i.e . he m arks up at th eI u n d isco u n te d p r ic e ), fin d th e percentage profit fordx M sh o p keep e r i f th e re is n o o th e r chang e from the previ1 o u s p ro b le m . (a ) 3 2 %

4. A tradesman fixed his selling price of goods at 30% above the cost price. He sells half the stock at this price, onequarter of his stock at a discount of 15% on the original selling price and rest at a discount of 30% on the original selling price. Find the gain percent altogether. (a) 14.875% (b) 15.375% (c) 15.575% (d) 16.375% (e) 16.5% 5. A tradesman marks an article at Rs. 205 more than the cost price. He allows a discount of 10% on the marked price. Find the profit percent if the cost price is Rs. x. [(184S0)~10] X i ( I 5 s o j  100l x (e)
None o f these
*1
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(c ) 4 0 .3 3 % (e ) 5 0 %
(b ) 3 6 .6 6 %
1 5 .
(d ) 4 6 .6 6 % ■
1 0 . C h e a p an d B e s t, a k ira n a sh o p bought some apples! I 4 p e r rup ee and a n e q u a l nu m b er at 5 per rupee, ft I then so ld th e e n tire q u a n tity a t 9 fo r 2 rupees. Whatis h is p e rcen tag e p ro fit o r lo s s ? (a ) (c ) 1 .2 3 % lo ss (b )
6 . 66%
p ro fit no loss
8 . 888%
(d ) N o
(e ) N o n e o f th ese
[(18450)] 10*
<b)
11. A w a tch d e a le r s e lls w a tch e s at R s . 600 per watckH H o w e v e r, he is fo rce d to g iv e tw o su ccessive discouo I o f 10% and 5 % re sp e c tiv e ly . H o w e ve r, he recovers^ I sa le s ta x on the net sa le p ric e fro m the custom er*  ,jJ o f the net p ric e . W h at p ric e does a custom er bave I p ay h im to b u y the w atch . (a ) R s . 5 3 9 .7 5 R s . 5 3 8 .7 5 (b ) R s . (d ) R s . 53 9.65 53 8.65
(a)
f 18450 (d) x
100
6.
D olly goes lo a
shop to purchase a doll p riced at R s. 400. She is offered 4 discount options by the shop keeper. W hich o f these options should she opt fo r to gain maximum advantage of the discount offered.
U ) Single discount o f 30% (b ) 2 successive discounts o f 15% each Cc) 2 successive discounts o f 20% and 10% (d ) 2 successive discounts o f 20% and 12% ($) Either (b ) or (c )
(c)
(e ) R s . 5 4 0 .5 5 12. D eb bought 100 kg o f ric e fo r R s . 1100 and aA 1 x (J(j^ ■ /.tul a lo ss o f as m uch m oney as he re ce ive d fo r ° I A t w hat p rice d id he s e ll the ric e ?
soldi1 " 1!
(a)
R s . 9 p e r kg (c ) R s . 9 .5 per kg (e ) N one o f these
(b ) R s . 9.16 66 per ** (d ) R s . 10.33 per
U k> ..
13. A carpenter w a n ts to sell 4 0 chairs. If he sells them at Rs. 156 per c h a ir, h e w o u ld be able to sell all the
ch airs. B u t fo r e v e ry R s. 6 increase in price, he will be left w ith o n e a d d itio n a l unsold chair. At what selling p rice w o u ld h e b e a b le to m axim ise his profits (assum ing u n so ld c h a ir s re m a in w ith him )? (a) 198 (b) 192 (c) 2 0 4 (d ) 210 (e) C a n n o t b e d e te rm in e d D irections f o r Q u e s tio n s 1 4 1 5 : R ead the following and answ er the q u e s tio n s th a t follow . D octors h a v e a d v is e d R en u , a chocolate freak, not to take m o re th a n 2 0 c h o c o la te s in o ne day. W hen she went to the m arket to b u y h e r d a ily q u o ta, she found that if she buys chocolates fro m th e m a rk e t co m p lex she would have to pay Rs. 3 m o re fo r th e sa m e n u m b e r o f chocolates than she would h av e s p e n t h a d sh e b o u g h t them from her uncle Scrooge’s s h o p , g e ttin g tw o sw ee ts less per rupee. She fi nally d ec id e d to g e t th e m fro m U ncle Scrooge’s shop pay ing only in o n e r u p e e c o in s . 14. H ow m a n y c h o c o la te s d id she buy? (a) 12 (c) 18 (e) M o re d a ta r e q u ir e d (b ) 9 (d ) 15
on the first Rs. 8000,5% on next Rs. 12,000 and 3% on the rest to buyer Sashi, Shyamu decided to give a discount of 7% on the first 12,000,6% on the next 8,000 and 5% on the rest to buyer Rajesh. These discounts were, however, sub ject to the buyers making the payment on time failing which the discount gets reduced by 1% for every delay of a week. In each case, the selling price of 36,000 was arrived at by increasing the cost price by 25%. 18. If each of them got the payments on time, what is the approximate percentage profit of the person getting the higher profit? (a) 19%
(b) 21%
(c) 25%
(d) 17%
(e)
20%
19. If Sashi defaults by 1 and 2 weeks in the second and third payments respectively, what would be the profit of Ramu in the sale of the car?
(a) Rs. 5920 (c) Rs. 5860 (e) Rs. 6040
(b) Rs. 6240 (d) Rs. 5980
15. H o w m u c h w o u ld s h e h a v e spent at the market co m p lex ? (a) R s. 6 (e) R s. I I ( b ) R s . 12 (c ) Rs. 9 (d) Rs. 5
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20. What would be the difference in the profits if both the buyers default in each payment by a week? (a) Rs. 200 (b) Rs. 300 (c) Rs. 400 (d) Rs. 500 (e) None of these 21. Find the selling price of goods if two salesmen claim to make 25% profit each, one calculating it on cost price while another on the selling price, the difference in the profits earned being Rs. 100 and selling price being the same in both the cases? (a) Rs. 2000 (b) Rs. 1600 (c) Rs. 2400 (d) Rs. 2500 (e) Rs. 3000 22. A shopkeeper calculates percentage profit on the buy ing price and another on the selling price. What will be their difference in profits if both claim a profit of
20% on goods sold for Rs. 3000? (a) Rs. 200 (b) Rs. 100 (c) Rs. 400 (d) Rs. 150 (e) None of these
16. A sh o p k e e p e r m a k e s a p ro fit o f Q% by selling an o b ject f o r R s . 2 4 . H a d th e c o st price and selling price been in te r c h a n g e d , i t w o u ld h av e led to a loss of 6 2 .5 Q % . W ith th e la tte r c o s t price, w hat should be the new s e llin g p r ic e to g e t a p ro tit o f Q%7 (a) R s . 3 4 .4 0 (b ) R s. 32.50 (c) R s . 2 5 .6 0 (d ) R s. 38.4 (e) N o n e o f th e s e
17. Find the c h a n g e in th e p e rcen tag e profit for a fruit vendor w h o , a f te r fin d in g 2 0 % o f the fruits rotten, increased h is s e llin g p ric e by 1 0 % over and above 15% that be w a s a lr e a d y ch arg in g ? (a) — 15 (b ) +11.5 (c)  1 3 .8 (d )  1 1 5 (e) Cannot b e d e te r m in e d
directions f o r Q u e s t i o n s 1 8  1 9 : R ead the following and answer the q u e s tio n s th a t fo llo w . K a n u a n d S h y a m u d e c id e d to sell their cars eachMat 36.000. W h ile R a m u d e c id e d to give a discount of
8
23. A pharmaceutical company made 3 0 0 0 strip s of tab lets at a cost of R s . 4 8 0 0 . Th e com pany gave aw ay 1000 strips of tablets to doctors as free sam ples. A discount of 25% w as allo w ed on the printed p rice. Find the ra tio o f p ro fit if the p rice is raised from Rs 3.25 to R s . 4 .2 5 per strip and if a t th e l a t t e r p r ic e , samples to doctors w ere done a w a y w i th . ( N e w
p ro fit/o ld p rofiO
200 ipiP P n p & efa rQ u a n R a freA p filu tfefor tieC A T
fa ) 55.5 fe ) 80 (b ) 63.5 (c ) 75 (d ) 99.25
2 9 . D a v i d sells his L a p to p to G o lia th at a lo ss o f 20% subsequently se lls it to H e rc u le s at a p rofit o f v H ercules, a fte r fin d in g so m e d e fe ct in the lap* turns it to G o liath b u t c o u ld re c o v e r only R s. loss i f D a v id had p a id
24. A
merchant makes a p rofit o f 20% by se llin g an ar ticle. W hat would be the percentage change in the
4
rc%
profit percent bad he paid
10%
less fo r it and the
ev ery R s. 5 he had p a id . F in d th e am o u n t o f He!
customer paid 10%
(a) 120%
(c ) 13333%
more fo r it? (b ) 125% (d ) 150% 30.
(a)
R s. 3500
(c ) R s . 1 7 ,5 0 0
Rs. 1.75 lakh for the (b) Rs. 2500 (d ) None of »hese
(e ) 1 3 0 %
25.
An article
costing Rs. 20 was
marked 25% above the
cost price. After two successive discounts o f the sam e percentage, the customer now pays R s. 2 0 .2 5. W hat would be the percentage change in p ro fit had the p rice been
A d ish o n est shopkeeper, at the time of selling and P U r 10% less and 20% more per JdJogj^ re sp e c tiv e ly . Find the percentage profit earned k tre a ch e ry. (Assuming he sells at Cost Price) (a ) 30% (b) 20% ( c ) 25% (d) 33.33%
c h a sin g , w e ig h s
increased by the same
percentage tw ice succes
31. A
sive ly instead o f reducing it? (a) 3600% (b ) 3200% (d ) 4000%
(c)
2800%
(e) 3800%
26. D ivya goes is able to
to buy fru its and after a lo t o f barg aining get the price o f a dozen apples reduced by
marks articles at a price that gives hima of 30%. 6% of the consignment of goods w as lo st in a fire in his premises, 24% was soiled and h ad to be so ld at half the cost price. If the remainder w» so ld at the marked price, what percentage profit o r lo ss d id the dealer make on that consignment? ( a ) 2% (b) 2.5% (c) 3 % ' (d) 6 .2 % ;
d e a le r p ro fit
R e. 1 from the in itia l p rice, thereby enabling h er to get 1 apple extra fo r every rupee saved. (G e ttin g no d is count on the extra apple). W hat is the in itia l p rice o f a dozen apples? (a) R s. 10
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(b ) R s . 13
32. A book was sold for a certain sum and there was a lo ss of 20%. Had it been sold for Rs. 12 more, there w ould have been a gain of 30%. What would be the profit if the book were sold for Rs. 4.8 more than what it w as sold for? (a) No profit, no loss ■ <c) 10%
(b )
(c) R s. 12
(d) R s . 15
20 %
27. The accounts o f a com pany show sales o f R s . 1 2 ,6 00 . The prim ary cost is 35% o f sales and trad in g co st accounts for 25% o f the gross p ro fit. G ro ss p ro fit is arrived at by excluding the p rim ary co st p lu s the co st o f advertising expenses o f R s . 1400, d ire cto r’s sa la ry of R s. 650 per annum plus 2% o f annual sa les as m is
(d ) 2 5 %
For Q uestions 3 3 3 6 use th e fo llo w in g data:
3 3 . T w o th o u sa n d p e o p le liv e d in B u s in e s s V illage of I w h ic h 5 5 % w e re m a le an d th e re s t w e re fem ale. The I m ale p o p u la tio n e a rn e d a p ro fit o f 5 % and the female p o p u la tio n ea rn e d
c e lla n e o u s costs. Fin d the percentage p ro fit (a p p ro x) o n a capital investm ent o f R s . 14,000?
(a) 35% (c ) 28% (b ) 31% (d ) Cannot be determ ined
8%
o n an in v e stm e n t o f R s .
50 each.
I
F in d th e ch an g e in th e p e rce n ta g e p ro fit o f the village j i f the ra tio o f m a le to fe m a le g e ts re ve rse d the nex y e a r, p o p u la tio n re m a in in g th e sa m e . (a ) D ro p o f 0 .3 (c ) In c re a s e o f 0 .4 5 (b ) In c re a s e o f 0 .3 (d ) D ro p o f 0 .4 5
28. Jonny h a s tw o cycles and one ricksh aw . T h e rick sh a w is worth R s .
96. If h e
se lls the rickshaw along w ith the
first cycle, he h a s a n amount double that o f the valu e of th e second c y c le . B u t i f he decides to se ll the ric k
3 4 . In th e q u e stio n 3 3 , fin d th e ch a n g e in the p e rc e n t p ro fit o f th e v illa g e , i f th e p o p u la tio n increases W j 1 0 % . (A ssu m e th e ra tio re m a in s th e sam e) (a ) In c re a s e o f (c ) N o ch an g e 10% (b ) In c re a s e o f (d ) C a n n o t be deternuo*®
.U j*
1
shaw along with the s e c o n d c ycle , the am ount received w o u ld b e less than the v a lu e o f firs t c y c le by R s . 30 6. W h a i is th e value o f firs t cycle?
H B 900 C c) H m
Rs. 600 (d) None of these
(b )
3 5 . F o r q u e stio n 3 4 , fin d th e p e rce n ta g e change u1 p ro fit.
Chapter 6:
Profit and
201
(a) Increase o f 10%
(c) No change
(b) Increase o f 11.11%
(d) Cannot be determined
R s. 40,000. E ach w ashing m ach ine w as m arked up b y
20%
and
o ver cost and each m icro w a ve o ven w a s so ld a t m icrow ave ovens co u ld not be s o ld : ' W h at is (b ) R s . 2 5 0 0 lo ss
fi For question 33, w h at w ould be the change in the
percentage profit, i f alongw ith the reversal o f the ratio o f males to fem ales, the profit also increases by 1% for both m ales a n d fem ales. (a) Drop o f 1.3 (c) Increase o f 0.8 (b) Increase o f 1.3 (d) N one o f these
a p rofit o f R s . 2 ,0 0 0 . Th e rem ain in g w a sh in g m ach in e s
3
Raghav’s o ve rall p ro fit/lo ss? (a ) R s. 1000 p ro fit (c ) R s . 1000 lo ss
(d) C an n o t be d e term in ed
42. A fte r se llin g a w atch, Shyam fo und th at he h ad m ade a lo ss o f 10% . He also found th at had he so ld it fo r R s . 27 m ore, he w ould have m ade a p ro fit o f
?7. A rickshaw d e aler buys 3 0 rickshaw s fo r R s . 4725. O f these, 8 are fo u rs e a te rs and the rest are twoseaters. At what price m ust h e sell the fourseaters so that i f he sells the tw oseaters a t 3/4th o f th is p rice, he m akes a profit o f 40% on his outlay. (a) Rs. 180 (c) Rs. 360 (b) Rs. 270 (d ) Rs. 450
5%. T h e
actual in itia l lo ss w as w hat percentag e o f th e p ro fit earned, had he sold the w atch fo r a 5 % p ro fit? (a ) 23% (b ) 150% (c ) 2 0 0% (b ) 1 8 0 % 43. Sambhu buys ric e at R s . 10/kg and p u ts a p ric e tag on it so as to earn a p ro fit o f 2 0 % . H o w e ve r, h is fa u lty balance shows (a ) 50% is
38. A flat and a p iece o f lan d w ere bought by two friends Raghav and S ita re sp ec tiv e ly at prices o f Rs. 2 lakh and Rs. 2.2 lakh. T h e p rice o f the flat rises by 20 percent every y e a r an d th at o f land by 10% every year. After tw o years, th ey decide, to exchange their posses sions. W hat is p e rc e n ta g e gain o f the gainer? (a) 7.56%
(c) 4.39 % (b ) 6.36 %
1000 gm
w hen it is a c tu a lly 8 0 0 g m . (c ) 18% (d ) 1 0 %
W hat is h is actual gain percentage? (b ) 40% 44. Th e p ro fit earned when an a rtic le is so ld fo r R s . 8 0 0
20
tim es the lo ss in cu rre d w hen it is so ld fo r
R s. 27 5. A t w hat p rice should the a rtic le be so ld i f it is desired to m ake a p ro fit o f 2 5 % . (a ) R s . (c ) R s. 45. 300 375 (b ) R s . 350 (d ) R s . 40 0
(d) N one o f these
39. A. B and C fo rm a com pany. A invests half o f C ex pecting a return o f 10% . B invests threefourths o f C, expecting a retu rn o f 15% on it. C invests :Rs. 3000 and the profit o f the firm is 2 5 % . How much would 5 ’s share o f p ro fit b e m o re than that o f A’s share if B gets an a d d itio n al 8% fo r m anaging the business? (Assume that th e ir ex p ec ta tio n s w ith respect to returns on capital in v este d a re m e t before profit is divided in the ratio o f c a p ita ls invested). (a) 20% (c) 15% .. ,j,
.. (b ) 18%
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sold it to C. If D gives R s . 2145 to how m uch did A buy it fo r? (a ) R s . (c ) R s . 1000 1500 (b ) R s . 2000 (d ) R s . 1800
A se lls to B goods at five th ird s the rate o f p ro fit a t w hich B has decided to se ll it to C. C , on o th er h an d ,
se lls it to D at onethird the rate o f p ro fit a t w h ic h B
C a t 10% p ro fit,
46. In the tow n o f Andher N agari C haup at R a ja , sh o p keepers have to buy and se ll goods in the ran g e o f R s. 500 to R s . 9 9 9 . A shopkeeper in su ch a to w n decides not to buy o r se ll goods fo r am ounts th at co n tain the d ig it 9 o r fo r am ounts that add up to 13 o r are a m ultiple o f 13. W hat is the m axim um p o ssib le p ro fit he can earn? (a ) R s. 388 (c ) R s. 488 (b ) R s . 389 (d ) N one o f these
(d) C annot be determ ined
a p ro fit o f 20% on
40 A driver o f a a u to ric k sh a w m akes
every trip w hen h e c a rrie s 3 passengers and the price of petrol is R s. 30 a litre. F in d the percentage p rofit for the sam e jo u rn e y i f h e g o e s fo r four passengers per trip and the p rice o f p e tro l reduces to Rs. 24 litre? (Assume th a t re v e n u e p e r passenger is the same in both the c ases.)
(a)
3 3 .3 3 %
(b ) 6 5 .6 6
(d )
41 Raghgv b o u g h t 2 5 w a sh in g m achines and microwave
ovens fo r R s. 2 ,0 5 ,0 0 0 . H e sold 80% o f the washing m ic ro w a v e ovens for a profit of
47. M anish bought a com bined total o f 2 5 m o n ito rs and printers. He m arked up the m onitors b y 2 0 % on the cost p rice , w h ile each p rin ter w as m a r k e d u p b y D ata inadequate R s. 2000. H e was able to se ll 7 5 % o f the m o n i t o r s a n d 2 printers and make a p ro fit o f R s . 4 9 ,0 0 0 . T h e r e m a in in g m onitors and j p r i n t e r s c o u l d n o t b e s o l d b y
2 0 2 1 How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
him. Find his overall profit or loss if he gets no return on unsold items and it is known that a printer costs 50% of a monitor. (a) Loss of Rs. 48,500 (b) Loss of 21,000 (c) Loss of Rs. 41,000 (d) Inadequate data 48. For question 47, Manish’s approximate percentage profit or loss is (a) 14.37% loss (c) 12.14% loss (b) 16.5% loss (d) Insufficient information
49. An orange vendor makes a profit of 20% by selling oranges at a certain price. If he charges Rs. 1.2 higher per orange he would gain 40%. Find the original price at which he sold an orange. (a) Rs. 5 (c) Rs. 6 (b) Rs. 4.8 (d) None of these
The cost of running a taxi depends on the fuel efgj ‘ cjen cy (in terms of mileage/litre), depreciation (straight line ove, 10 years) and the driver’s salary (not taken into account if the taxi is self owned). Depreciation is Rs. 100 per day everyday of the fifS t^ years. This depreciation has to be added equally to theC O s l for every customer while calculating the profit for a ticular trip. Similarly, the driver’s daily salary is also apR * tioned equally across the customers of the particular d a y Assume, for simplicity, that there are 50 customers every day (unless otherwise mentioned). The cost of fuel is R s. u per litre (unless otherwise stated). The customer has to pay 20% over the meter read in g while settling his bill. Also assume that there is no fuel cost for waiting time (unless otherwise stated). Based on the above facts, answer the following: 1. If Sardar Preetpal Singh’s taxi is 14 years old a n d has a fuel efficiency of 12 km/litre of fuel, find h is profit in a run from Howrah Station to Park S treet (a distance of 7 km) if the stoppage time is 8 m inutes, (Assume he owns the taxi) (a) Rs. 32.25 (c) Rs. 34.25 (e) Rs. 44.85 (b) Rs. 40.85 (d) Rs. 42.85
i# W ( :
U p
as:
50. The AMS magazine prints 5000 copies for Rs. 5,00,000 every month. In the July issue of the magazine, AMS distributed 500 copies free. Besides, it was able to sell 2/3 of the remaining magazines at 20% discount. Be sides, the remaining magazines were sold at the printed price of the magazine (which was Rs. 200). Find the percentage profit of AMS in the magazine venture in the month of July (assume a uniform 20% of the sale price as the vendor’s discount and also assume that AMS earns no income from advertising for the issue). (a) 56% (b) 24.8% (c) 28.5% (d) 22.6%
fP
[ii
$B
(e) Cannot be
• Mai percent*
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I *uili?
(a) 3130 (c) 34.32 (e) None of I  k highest p
2. For question 2, Sardar Preetpal Singh’s percentage profit is (a) 391.42% (b) 380% (c) 489.71% (d) 438.23% (e) 444.25% 3. For the same joumey as in question 1 if on an oth er day, with heavier traffic, the waiting time increases to 13 minutes, find the percentage change in the profit (a) 12% (b) 14% (c) 13% i f 16% (e) 17% 4. For question 3, if Sardar Preetpal Singh idled his ta x i for 7 minutes and if the fuel consumption during id lin g is 50 ml per minute, find the percentage decrease m the (a) (c) (e) profits. 10.74% 10.87% 10.44% (b) 11.21% (d) 9.94%
Level o f D iffic u lty (LOD)
III
(i)i II
1 Cannot b whic
The charges of a taxi journey are decided on the basis of the distance covered and the amount of the waiting time during a joumey. Distance wise, for the first 2 kilometres (or any part thereof) of a joumey, the metre reading is fixed at Rs. 10 (if there is no waiting). Also, if a taxi is boarded and it does not move, then the meter reading is again fixed at Rs. 10 for the first ten minutes of waiting. For every addi tional kilometre the meter reading changes by Rs. 5 (with changes in the metre reading being in multiples of Re. 1 for every 200 metres travelled). For every additional minute of waiting, the meter reading changes by Re. 1. (no account is taken of a fraction of a minute waited for or of a distance less than 200 metres travelled). The net meter reading is a function of the amount of time waited for and the distance travelled.
^% W as If *)C
C a n n o tb
Directions fo r Questions 510: Answer questions based this additional information: M l Vikas Verma owns a fleet of 3 taxis, where he p*r his driver Rs. 3000 per month. He also insists on keepioJ an attendant for Rs. 1500 per month in each of his ta x is*
Chapter 6:
Profit and Lo ss 1 2 0 3
1
of id lin g . For a m o ving t a x i, th e fu e l consumption is given by 1 2 km/per litre. O n a p a rtic u la r day, he re c e iv e d the following reports about the th re e taxis.
Id lin g re q u ire s 5 0 m l o f m in u te S w code
fuel for e v e ry
T h e in ve stm e n t fo r the p la n t is R s . 1 0 c ro re (to be in v e ste d in p la n t, m a ch in e ry , e t c .).
advertising,
in fra s tru c tu re
The following information is known bottle sizes planned:
Bottle size
300 m l 500 m l 1.5 litre
ab o ut th e d iffe re n t
Total k ilo m etres
W aiting tim e w ith idling
190 m in 170 m in 180 m in
Waiting tim e without idling
30 m in 80 m in 60 m in
H I
B
260
26 4 27 5
Bottling cost
R s. 2 R s. 5 R s. 10
Cost o f liquid
R s. 0 .6 Re. 1 R s. 3
Transportation cost
Sale price
R s . 10 R s . 18 R s . 40
D ealer margin
R s. 3 R s.
10 paise 20 paise
per bottle
15 paise per bottle per botde
6
R s . 12
5. The maximum revenue has been generated by which
taxi? (a) A (c) C Based on this information answer the questions below:
(b) B
' (d) A & B
(e) Cannot be determined
If it is to be assum ed that every customer travelled at
least l^iOometres: 6. Which o f the three taxis generated the maximum rev enue? (a) A ’ ■ (b) B
11. For which bottle should CocaCola try to maximise sales to maximise its profits. (A s s u m e that the total number of litres of CocaCola sold is constant irre spective of the break up of the sales in terms of the botde sizes)
300 m l (b) 500 ml (c ) 1.5 litres
(a)
(c) C (d) Both A & B (e) Cannot be determ ined 7. What percentage o f the total revenue was generated by to rifl? (a) 3230 (b) 33.36 (c) 34.32 (d) 34.36 (e) None of these
8.
(d) Indifferent between the three sizes (e ) Cannot be determined
ye a r,
12. www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/ www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/
(a ) (c ) (e )
If the company sells only 300 ml bottles in the first how many bottles should it sell to re c o ve r the investment made in the first year only? 23,255,814
32,255,814
None of these
(b) 232,558,140 (d) 322,558,140
The highest profit was yielded by which taxi? (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) Both A & B (e) Cannot be determined
[*4 .
9. The taxi w hich had the highest percentage profit for the day w as (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) B & C (e) Cannot be determined 10. The profit as a percentage o f costs for the day was. (a) 179.46% (b) 150.76% (c) 163.28% (d) 173.48% (e) Cannot be' determined Directions f o r Q uestions 11— 15: Read the following an answer the questions that follow. , J The CocaCola Company is setting up a plant for roanu facture and sale o f the soft drink.
13. If sales of 300 ml bottles to 500 ml bottles is 4 : 1, and there is no sale of 1500 ml bottles how many 300 ml bottles will be required to recover the investment? (a) 1,73,53,580 (b) 2 ,9 3 ,2 5 ,5 1 2 (c) 1 6 ,2 5 ,8 4 8 (d) 1 6 ,2 5 ,7 7 4 (e) Cannot be determined
14. For question 13, the total number of both the types to be sold in India in order to recover the whole investment is (a) 3 6 6 5 8 9 0 (b) 2032310 (c) 2 1 6 9 1 9 7 5 (d ) 21723165
(e) C an n o t be d eterm ined
15. If we add administrative costs @ Re. 1 per litre, which bottle size will have the maximum profitability?
(a )
300 ml
C an n o t
(d ) In d iffe re n t
(e)
(b) 5 0 0 ml (c ) 1 .5 litres between the three sizes be determined
204
How to Prepare tor QutftitatKm Aptitude for the CAT
16. Hotel Chanakya in Chankyaptni has a fixed riibnthly cost of Rs, 1.000,00. The advertising cost is Rs. 10,000 per month. !t has 5 A/C rooms, which cost Rs. 600 per day and 10 noilA/C rooms, which cost Rs. 350 per day. Direct costs are Rs. 100 per day for an A/C room, and Rs. 50 for a nonA/C room. In the month of April 2020. the occupancy rate of A/C rooms is 50% while that of nonA/C rooms is 45%. Find the profit of the hotel in rupee terms for the month o f April 2020. (a) 33,600 (c) (32,000) Loss (e) None of these (b) 28,800 (d) (17,750) Loss
20. Mr. Amamath and his family o f 4 went to a re*tah and got a bill for: Soups (Rs. 126), Starters (r M eals (Rs. 300), Breads (Rs. 245) and (Rs. (a) Cc) (e) 210). Find the profit for the restaurant Rs. 341 (b) Rs. 351 Rs. 361 (d) Rs. 371 Rs. 381 ^1
fill
M
fh *
i
I f
■ § 1
21. The approximate percentage profit for the res**! on the bill is (a) 40% (e) 60% (b) 45% (c) 50% (d) 55^
^ .6 0 0 oftbese ,estii»ate!
22. Which o f these are true: (i) Profit increases if a part o f the money spent ( starters was spent on breads and another pan 0 fj the starters was spent on snacks. ■ (ii) Profit increases if a part o f the money spent J
17. For the above question, keeping the A/C occupancy constant at 50*3% what should be the minimum occu pancy rate for nonA/C rooms for incurring no loss for the month? (a) 75.66% (c) 83.33% (e) 80% 18. For the questions 15 and 16: Rs. 25,000worth of ad vertising a sales promotion o f 20% off onthe change in the profit or loss? (a) Reduction .of loss by Rs. 5,900 (b) Reduction of loss to Rs. 5,900 (c) Reduction of loss by Rs. 26,100 (d) Both b and c (e) None of these 19. Advertising worth Rs. 50,000 is done for the sales promotion of A/C rooms (advertising a 20% reduction in the bill for A/C rooms). This leads to a doubling of the occupancy rate of A/C rooms. Besides, it also has an effect of increasing nonA/C room occupancy by 20%. Is this advised? (a) Yes (b) N o (c) Indifferent(d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these A resuurani lias a pricing policy that allows for the following markups: Soups
S tM e n > M arku p o f 40% 50% 25% uu s r fe 
1 I§
die m on th c
s of 8 am1
(b) 80.66% (d) 86.66%
meal item s was spent on starters and another pat] 73,000 ID Rs* spent on soups was spent on breads. I
c> Rs. 96,000
doubles the occupancy rate. If this is done, what is the
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bill ,. (a) (ii) only (c) (ii) and (iii) (e) N one o f .these answer the questions that follow.
(iii) Profit decreases if a certain amount (say a) of the] {i None o f th e s e spending on soups was spent on starters and thel > !k percentage m a same amount (Rs. x) o f the spending on soupsj j jscentage o f th e 1 spent on meal items. _ (b) (iii) only (d) A ll the three
m F in d th e p e r M h fn m s.
m (00%
tc) 525%
D irections f o r Q u estio n s 23— 28: Read the following* l«) Cannot b e d e l ^ fw tio n 2 5 a t
Prabhat Ranjan inaugurates his internet cafe on the lst o f January 2003. He invests in 10 computers @ Rs. 30,000 per computer. Besides, he also invests in the other inW structure of the centre, a sum o f Rs. 1 lakh only. He ch a rg es] his customers on the time spent on the internet a flat rateaj Rs. 50 per hour. His initial investment on computers has w be written o ff equally in 3 years (1 lakh per year) and*J infrastructure has to be written off in 5 years (@ Rs. 20»® J per year). He has to pay a fixed rental o f Rs. 8000 per the space and also hires an assistant at Rs. 2000 per nl0!1 For every hour that he is connected to the internet, has to bear a telephone charge o f Rs. 20 irrespective number of machines operational on the internet at that \ O n to p of this, he also has to pay an electricity cWPH R s . 5 p e r computer per hour. Assume that there are oo^n c o sts in v o lv e d unless otherwise mentioned. The to® 1J c a fe is o p e n 12 hours a day and is open on all 7 days ®
forp
m onths
*>i7
m onths
i
W
V '
Meals Breads
Markup o f Markup o f Markup o f Markrup of
v V
I p
If
n%
75%
C h ap ter&
( Assunw
P ro «
andL oss J 205
that i f
a m ach in e is
not occupied, it is put
T h e fa re s o f the 4 c la s s e s a re a s fo llo w s : 3 tie r: R s. 330 A C 3 tie r: R s. 898 A C 2 tie r. R s. 1388 A C firs t: R s. 2691 N o. o f berths per bogey: 72 N o. o f berths per bogey: 64 N o. o f berths per bogey: 45 N o. o f berths per bogey: 26 N o. o f

pff aid
I
, h*ncc consum es n o e le c tr ic ity ). u n ifo rm 8 0 % 2 0 0 3 , fin d
bogeys: 8
^ssuming I niontb o f month.
April
occupancy rate for the his profit or loss for the
Nol
o f b o g e y s :1 2
N o ..o f
bogeys: 2
(, ) R s. 1 .02 .4 00 <c) R s. 1 .2 3 .6 0 0
(b ) R s . 1 ,2 2 ,4 0 0 (d ) R s . 1 ,2 0 ,7 3 3 .3 3
No, of bogeys: 1
^e ) N o n e o f t h e s e
I I th e o c c u p a n c y ra te d ro p s
Ju n e, w h a t i s t h e v a lu e o f (a ) R s. 9 0 , 0 0 0
(C) R s. 1 .2 3 ,6 0 0
to 6 0 % the p ro fit
in the m onth o f fo r the m onth?
( b ) R s , 7 0 ,0 0 0
(d ) R s . 9 0 ,6 3 3 .3 3
(e> N o n e o f these
Patna to Delhi distance: 11 0 0 kilometres. Assume th e train does not stop at any station unless otherwise in d ic a t e d . Running cost per kilometre: AC bogey — > Rs. 25, n o n AC bogey — > Rs. 10.
29.
25
rate of 80% d u rin g th e peak h o u rs o f 2 to 8 pm and 4 0 % i n the off peak h o u r s o f 8 am to 2 pm fin d th e expected profit for
if P r a b h a t estim ates a fix e d o ccu p a n cy
him in th e m onth o f J u l y 2 0 0 6 .
(a) R s. 7 3 ,0 0 0 (c) R s. 9 6 ,0 0 0 (e) None o f these 26. The percentage (b ) R s . 9 3 ,0 0 0 (d ) R s . 1 ,2 7 ,5 0 0 30.
percentage o f the tion. Find the Prabhat runs.
margin is d e fin e d as the margin as a variable c o st fo r an hour of opera percentage margin of the cyber cafe
(b ) 5 3 3 .3 3 %
(a) 600 %
(e) Cannot
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31. (d ) N o n e
of these months will the invest
bercfetermined
25
1 For question
m ent?
be required fo r
above, how Prabhat to
m a n y 3 0 d a y re c o v e r b a ck
Assuming full occupancy, a bogey o f w h ic h c la s s e x hibits the highest profit margin? (a) AC 3 tier (b) AC 2 tier (c) AC first class (d) 3 tier Assuming full occupancy in all the classes, for a jo u r ney between Patna to Delhi, the profit margin (a s a percentage of the running costs) o f the Class showing the lowest profit is approximately. (a ) 116% (b) 1 2 7 % (c) 109% 1 (d) None o f these What is the approximate profit for the railways in rupees if the Magadh Express runs at full occupancy on a particular day? (a) Rs. 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 (b) Rs. 2 7 5 ,0 0 0 (c) Rs. 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 (d) Cannot be determined
32.
(a) 3.58 m onths (c) 5.71 m onths (e) Cannot be
(b) 3 .7 2 (d) 3 .8 1
m ontH s m onths 33.
determined
8
per hour have to b e dropped d ras hour in the fo u rth y e a r o f opera tion, what is Prab h at*# expected p ro fit fo r the calen d ar year 2010 a i m i n g a n average o f 6 0 % o ccu p an cy
the internet ra te s tically to R s . 2 0 p e r ^•e for the y e a r .'
34.
(b) Rs. (d) Rs. “termined
1 ,6 6 ,6 0 0 9 1 ,5 0 0
For question 3 1 , the percentage o f the total profit that comes out of AC bogeys is (approximately). (a) 5 0 % (b) 6 0 % (c) 7 0 % (d) 8 0 % The highest revenue for a joumey from Patna to Delhi will always be generated by (a) 3 tier (b ) AC 3 tier (c) AC 2 tier (d) Cannot be determined A newspaper vendor sells three kinds o f periodicalsdailies, weeklies and monthlies. The weeklies sell fo r Rs. 1 2 a t a p ro fit o f 2 0 % , th e monthlies sell fo r Rs. 5 0 a t a profit o f 25%, w h ile th e dailies sell at Rs. 3 a t a p ro fit o f 50%. I f th e re is a
governm ent re stric tio n o n the to ta l n u m b e r o f p e rio d i
cals that one p a rtic u la r n ew s
three typ e s o f p e rio d ic a ls , m axim ise p ro fits? (a ) S e ll m axim um I
ve n d o r, c a n
a new spaper ven d o r, h a s s u ffic ie n t r m u u e s l io n s 2 9  3 3 : R e a d the fo llo w in g and ^ ^ q B e s t io M ■ ■ *!*'* has (h a t fo llo w . fro m P a tn a to D e lh i b y the M agadh
sell, and K a iu demand tor all the what should h e do to
weeklies
4 c lr "
206 j
How to Prepare tor Quanfertrw Aptitude for (he CAT
35.
(b) Sell maximum monthlies (c) Sell maximum dailies (d) Cannot be determined Without the restriction mentioned in the problem above, what should the newspaper vendor do to maximise his profits if his capital is limited? (a) Sell maximum weeklies (b) Sell maximum monthlies (c) Sell maximum dailies (d) Cannot be determined A fruit vendor buys fruits from the fruit market at wholesale prices and sells them at his shop at retail prices. He operates his shop 30 days a month, as a rale. He buys in multiples of 100 fruits and sells them in multiples of a dozen fruits. He purchases mangoes for Rs. 425 per hundred and sells at Rs. 65 per dozen, he buys apples at Rs. 150 per hundred and sells at Rs. 30 per dozen, he buys watermelons (always of equal size) at Rs. 1800 per hundred and sells at Rs. 360 per dozen. Which of the three fruits yields him the maxi mum percentage profit? (a) Mangoes (b) Apples (c) Watermelons (d) Both b and c
the newspaper has a circulation of 12,000 copje_ is the approximate minimum advertising .required if the newspaper has to breakev0 S ___ w r w particular day. (Assume there is no wastage \ 3 (a) 300 cc (b) 350 cc (c) 435 cc (d) 45* 40. For question 39, if it is known that the new* house is unable to recover 20% of its dues, whajTjj be the approximate advertising booking target
particular day in order to ensure the breakeven • 1 cnP 0im (a) 375 cc (b) 438 cc (c) 544 cc (d) 562.5 cc
36.
H in ts a n d S o lu tio n s
1. C o st o f 7 5 0 a rtic le s = R s . 4 5 0  » outlay. H e n c e , S P o f 6 0 0 a rtic le s = R s . 6 3 0 . (@>40% pn& o n h is o u tla y ) /. S P o f e a ch a rtic le = R s . 1 .0 5 .
2 . W h e n the m a n u fa c tu re r m ake s 100 article s, he sells o n ly
37. For question 36, if he adds o ra n g e s, which he buys at Rs. 180 per hundred and sells at Rs. 33 per dozen, what can be his maximum profit on a particular day if he invests Rs. 1800 in purchasing fruits everyday and he sells everything that he buys?
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R even u es = x 7 .5 = R s . 6 6 0 c h in e + p a p er, in k
88.
B u t p ro fit b e in g 2 0 % o f o u tla y , to tal outlay is Rs. SSI
3 . T o ta l c o st = T y p e + R u n n in g co st o f printing m a
= 10 00 + 1 2 0 x 9 + 5 4 0 = 2 6 2 0 N e t su m to b e reco ve re d = R s . 2882. 4 . A ssu m e C P o f goods = 10 0. T h e n m ark e d p ric e = 13 0. R e ve n u e s — i x 130 + T x 0 .S 5 x 130 + —
(a) Rs. 1200 <b) Rs. 1180 (c) Rs. 1260 (d) Rs. 1320 3 8 . For questions 36 and 37, if the fruit vendor hires you as a consultant and pays you 2 0 % of his profit in the month of July 2006 as a service charge, what can be the m aximum fees that you will get for your consultancy charges? (a) Rs. 7200 (b) Rs. 14,400 (c) Rs. 7440 (d) Cannot be determined 39. A newspaper costs Rs. 11 to print on a daily basis. Its sale price (primed) is Rs. 3. The newspaper gives a sales incentive of 40% on the printed price, to the newspaper vendors. The newspaper makes up for the W ms through advertisements, which are charged on the basis of per column centimetre rates. The advertise ment rales of the newspaper are Rs. 300 per cc (col umn centimetre). It has to give an incentive off 15% on the advertising bill to the advertising agency. If
x 130
5 . I f C P = x , then m arked p ric e = x + 205 and S e llin g p ric e = 0 .9 * + 1 8 4 .5 . P ro fit = 1 8 4 .5  0 .1 jc
7.
A ssu m e C P a s 1 R e /g ram . T h e n , he s e lls 9 0 0 g ram s fo r R s . 1080, W h ile the C P o f 9 0 0 g ram s is R s . 900.
8.
H e b u ys 1100 g ram s fo r R s . 1000 and se lls 900 fo r R s . 1080. T o c a lc u la te p ro fit p e rcen tag e, eith er equate m oney o r the goods. I I p I percentag e p ro fit, eith er equaw
9 . H e b u ys 1100 g ram s fo r R s . 9 0 0 and se lls
900 IP
for R s . 1080. To c a lc u la te
money
o r equate the goods.
w
Chaptei 
Unsold items = 1
lO Take the L C M o f 4 and 5 and assum e 20 appk®
machines +
3
m icro w a v es.
Goods sold i I washing machines + 12 m ic ro w a v e s = 80% of total value. 44 If 1 represents the loss, then 20 L re p resen ts th e 1H X I I ® 525 g i g profit. Hence, L —
H ence, CP = 300. 45. A sells at 50% profit, while B sells at 3 0 % p ro fit. 46. The required profit will be given by: Maximum possible selling price — M in im u m p o s
Ixxighi at each p ric e .
Ensure that you equate e ith e r the goods o r the m oney.
12.
The loss is co vered b y the sa le o f 2 0 e xtra kgs o f rice. i.e . C P o f 100 k g = S P o f
120 kg
13.
Pro fit m axim isatio n is to ta lly dependent on revenue m axim isation, sin ce the co st is constant.
U I5 .S o lve using o p tio n s.
original CP and SP is Q%, while is 62.5% of Q. The o nly valu e s sa tisfy in g these are 60% and 37.5%. Hence Q — 60%. ] 7. If C P = 100, o rig in a l marked price =115 and new marked p rice = 126.5. But he now sells on 80% of
K i. Difference betw een the reverse d iffe re n ce his m arked p ric e .
sible purchase price. 50. Sales of 3000 copies fo r Rs.160 and 1500 c o p ie s f o r Rs. 200 each.
21.
Assum e
die SP
to be 125 fo r both the salesm en.
H ints and S o lu tio n s
1 1 0 . C o ncentrate on c re a tio n o f th e re v e n u e e q u a t io n a n d the co st eq uatio n s se p a ra te ly . R e v e n u e fro m n ey w ill depend on (a ) leng th o f jo u m e y (o v e r k ilo m e t r e s ) a jo u r
?4. If in itia l co st w ill be 120.
25.
27.
price is 1 0 0 , then in itia l se llin g p rice Then, the new co st p ric e is 9 0 , w h ile the new se llin g price is 1 3 2 . The su ccessive percentage d ro p s in m arked p ric e to get the se llin g price are 1 0 % e a ch . Prim ary cost = 0.35 x 12600 Gross p ro fit = 12600  (1 4 0 0 + 6 5 0 + 2 5 2 )  0 .3 5 x
12600. /. Trad in g co st = 2 5 % o f G ro ss p ro fit. Net p ro fit =
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(b ) tim e o f w a itin g .
B e sid e s, the fix e d m etre re a d in g o f R s . 1 0 a t th e s t a r t is used up at the ra te o f 1 R e p e r 2 0 0 m e tre s a n d / o r p ro fit
Gross p ro fit  2 5 % o f G ro ss = 75% o f G ro ss profit. .. Net P ro fit i and percent p ro fit = ———  x 100 . ^ P Outlay
28. Solve using o p tio n s. 29. Assume D a v id 's co st
1 R e/m inute
o f w a itin g .
U . C o ca C o la earn s (1 0  3 )  (2 + 0 .6 + 0 .1 ) = R s . 4 .3 per 30 0 m l b o ttle. S im ila rly , fo r 5 0 0 m l b o ttle , th e p r o fit is 12  6 .1 5 = R s . 5 .8 5 . and fo r 1500 m l b o ttle , 2 8  1 3 .2 = 1 4 .8 f o r 1 5 0 0 m l b o ttle. T h e p ro fit p er m l so ld h as to b e m a x im is e d . 12. R s . 10 cro re j g = 2 ,3 2 ,5 5 ,8 1 4 .
price as 100. Then, Goliath b u ys at 80, se lls at 100 and b u ys back from Hercules at 90. 30 Buys 1200 w hen he p a y s for 1000 and sells 900 when he re c e iv e s m o n ey for 1 0 0 0 . 3336.Investments are R s . 55000 for men and Rs. 45000 for women. The rate o f re tu rn b e in g g iv e n , w e can find out the
percentage p ro fit o v e ra ll.
1 3 1 4 . T h e earn in g fo r o ne se t o f 5 b o ttle s 1 4 .3 x 4 •+ • 5 .8 5 = R s . 2 3 .0 5 .
37 Solve through o p tio n s.
  A ’s share is o n ly depend ent on the ra tio o f ca p ita l
. _ Margin per bottle 15. w M axim u m profitability =  ■ ■§§—§§ ■  . ■ ■ Cost per bottle
1619P ro fit = ite m . 2 0 2 2 . •'O b se rve
re
investment, Assume cost B
I
100
and S P = 120.
Then, when price o f p e tro l is red u ced  *
Revenue I Expenses. the profitability rates for each
ty p e
of
\ 80 and SP I 160.
B
The num ber of w a sh in g m ach in e s p lu s the num ber o f
23. R e ve n u e s a
8 computers x Rs. 50/hr x 12 hours I
206
*iw tprVap« eferQMrth§ir ApM ucfe far tw CAT
Costs 1 monthly cost ♦ x 12 boars x 30 days.
Depreciaiioa
23. The custom er p ays R s . 38 afte r a d isco ^ j
Hourly cost H ence,
12
the lis t
p rice
2428. UIJJ be solved an the same principle as question 23. 2933. Revenues = occupancy x cost/ticket.
Cost x no. o f kilometres. Kilometer
T h is also m eans that at a buys the item at Rs. 32.
must be Rs. 40. 20% discount tfe
k
Detailed Solutions & Short Cuts
LO D I I . 0l9 x Price = 495  * Price 550. 3. 1.15 x Price = 4600  * Price = 4000.
Hence, the profit for the retailer will be Rs 60 32). 25. The labour price accounts for Rs. 400. Sii^g profit percentage gives a 20% profit on this ^ ■ 1 C o %nent. i.e. Rs. 80. Hence, the marked price is Rs. 980. v Goods left 30. The percentage profit = x 100
G o od s sold
5. 2400 = 125 x cost price — >Cost price = 1920
Profii at 2040 = R s. 120 Percentage profit = 120/2040 x 100 = 6.25% 7. The C P w ill be R s. 5400. Hence at an S.P . o f5703.75 the percentage profit w ill be 5.625% 9. The buying price is R s. 9 per dozen, w hile the sales price is R s. 12 per dozen  a profit o f 33.33%
= 10/40 x 100 = 25% 31. In the question, A’s investment has to be conskfejj as Rs. 10,000 (the house he puts up for sale) He sells at 11,500 and buys back at Rs. 9775. H e** his profit is Rs. 1725. Required answer =■ 1725 r x 100 = 17.25 ■ 10000 32. For 12 locks, he would have paid Rs. 51. and soi them at Rs. 57. This would mean a profit percentage of 11.76% 35. A 10% reduction in price increases the consumpti* by 11.11% (Refer Table 4.1). But the increase incosumption is 6.2 kg. Hence, the consumption (original) will be 6.2 x 9= 55.8 kg. Hence, original price = 279/55.8 = Rs.5. Hence, reduced price = Rs. 4.5

0*0*
1 1
G P x 1.2 = 25 » C P = 20.833
A l a selling price o f R s. 22 .5 , the p ro fit percent 1.666/20.833 = 8%
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Sace,
tlC otfpe
12.
Solve using options. Option (c ) gives you R s. 175 as the cost of the trouser. Hence, the sh irt w ill cost 12% more i.e , 175 + 17.5 + 3.5 = 196. This satisfies the total cost requirement o f R s. 371.
100II
13. The formula that satisfies this condition is : Loss of #/100% (Where a is the common p ro fit and loss percentage). Hence, in this case 4 0 0 /1 0 0 = 4 % loss. 14. Use PCG as follows:
37. Percentage profit =
io% 1 *68.4 *80 5%I *76 Hence, 31.6% is the correct answer. 16. On a m arked price of R s. 80, a discount of 10% would m ean a selling price of R s. 72. Since this represents a 20% profit we get: 100 mi
12 x C P = 72 * C P = 60. 18 For R s.
Goods left x 100 Goods sold = 10/20 x 100 = 50% 40. B sold the table at 25% profit at Rs. 75. Thus co st price would be given by: CPB x 1.25 = 75 B’s Cost price = Rs. 60. We also know that A sold it to B at 20% profit j Thus, A’s Cost price x 1.2 = 60 * A’s cost price = 50. 42. Net loss = (20/100)2  4% of cost price. Thus, 4800 (total money realized) represents 96% of the vaw*. Thus, the cost price would be Rs. 5000 and the to * * would be Rs. 200. 45. The profit of 15% amounts to Rs. 450. This sh0$ also be the actual loss on the second TV. Thus, the actual loss = Rs. 450 (10% of C.P) Hence, the CP of the second set = Rs. 4500.
11<50. §>§]
i II
72, we can buy
a dozen pair
of gloves.
Hence, for R s. 24 we can buy 4 pairs o f gloves. 20. 180 x 0.9 x x * 1377 x «o.85 Which means a 15%
discount.
§  A l % 0, there is a 4% loss. This means a cost price of Rs. 1000. For a 16% profit, the sellin g price Aouid he R s. U 60.
 18450 1 0 *
48. 4% of the cost
price = Rs. 200. Thus, cost price = Rs. 5000 and selling price @ 6% profit = Rs. 5300. 52. Original Cost Price = Rs. 5000
New Cost Price = 1.3 x 5000 = Rs. 6500 price paid b y retailer = 1.2 x 5750 = Rs. 6900 Profit percentage = (400/6500) x 100 = 6 (2/13)% $4. Assume m arked price fo r both to be 100. r s selling price = 100 x 0.75 x 0.95 = 71.25 T s selling price = 100 x 0.84 x 0.88 = 73.92. Buying from *x' is m o re profitable.
x 6. She should opt for a straight d isc o u n t o f 3 0 % a s t h a t gives her the m axim um benefit.
8. While buying
He buys 1100 gram instead o f 1 0 0 0 g ra m s ( d u e t o his cheating). Suppose he bought 1100 gram s fo r R s. 1 0 0 0 While selling: He sells only 900 grams w hen h e ta k e s th e m o n e y for 1 kg. Now according to the pro b lem s h e s e lls a t a
\l
56. The trader pays 800 x 0.95 x 0.95 = R s . 722 57. Manufacturer’s p ro fit p ercen tag e = (22/700) x 100 = (22/7)% 61. Cost price to the w atch dealer = 250 + 10% o f 250 = R s . 275 Desired selling p rice fo r 20% p ro fit = 1.2 X 275 = 330 But 330 is the p ric e afte r 25% discount on the marked price. Thus, M arked p rice X 0 .7 5 = 330 — » M P = 440 Hence, he should m a rk the item at R s. 440. 64. Cost per 100 a p p le s = 60 + 15% o f 60 = R s. 69. Selling price @ 20% p ro fit = 1.2 x 69 = R s. 82.8 65. Profit percent = (100/900) x 100 = 11.11%
8%
profit (20% mark up and 10% d isc o u n t). Hence his selling price is R s. 1080 f o r 9 0 0 g ra m s. To calculate profit percentage, w e e ith e r e q u a te th e goods or the money. In this case, let us equate the m o n ey a s fo llo w s : Buying; 1100 grams for Rs. 1000 Hence 1188 grams for Rs. 1080 Selling: 900 grams for Rs. 1080 Hence, profit% = 288/900 = 32% (using goods left by goods sold fo rm u la ) 9. The new situation is Buying: 1100 grams for Rs. 900 Hence, 1320 gram s for Rs. 1080 Selling: 900 grams for Rs. 1080
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x 0 .6
LOD I I
1. Total outlay (in itia l investm ent) = 750 Rs. 450.
= 5
By selling 60 0, he should m ake a 40% p ro fit on the
ouday. T h is m eans that the se llin g p rice fo r 600 should be 1.4 x 450 — » R s . 630 Thus, se llin g p rice p er a rtic le = 630/600 = 1.05. Since, he se lls o n ly 630 a rticle s at th is p rice , his total
recovery = 1.05 x 6 3 0 = 66 1.5
Profit percent (actual) = (2 11.5/450) x 100 = 47% Total cost (assu m e) = 100. Recovered am ount = 65 + 0 .8 5 x 32.5 + 0.7 x 32.5 « 65 + 27 .6 2 5 + 22.75 = 115.375 Hence, profit percent = 15.375% 5 Cost price * x M arked P ric e =
420 x 100 = 46.66% 900 10. Assume he bought 20 apples each. N e t in v e s tm e n t => Rs. 5 + Rs. 4 = Rs. 9 for 4 0 apples. H e w o u ld s e ll 40 apples @ (40 x 2)/9 = Rs. 8.888  > L o ss o f R s. 0.111 on Rs. 9 investm ent Loss percentage = 1.23% 12. The problem is structured in such a w a y th a t y o u should be able to interpret that i f h e h a d so ld 120 k g o f rice he would recover die investm ent o n 100 k g o f rice. Profit %
I
G o o d s le f t x 100 G o o d s s o ld (20/120) x 100 1 1 6 .6 6 % l o s s .
% Loss/Profit =
*+205
* lW
SeUing Price = 0 .9 * + 184.5 Perceniage P ro fit = £ (  0 * * J8 4 '5 ^
Since, cost price f o r D e b i s R s . 11; s e l l i n g p r i c e p e r kg would be R s . 9 .1 6 6 . 13 C o m p a r i s o n s h a v e t o b e m a d e b e t w e e n : 1 9 2 x 3 4 t 1 9 8 x 3 3 , 204 x 3 2 a n d 2 1 0 x 3 1 f o r t h e h i g h e s t p r o d u c t a m o n g s t th e m .
210
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
T h e h ig h e st v a lu e o f re ve n u e is seen at a p ric e o f R s. 198. 14 & I S :
Using options from question 15. Suppose she had spent Rs. 6 at the market complex, she would spend Rs. 3 at her uncle's shop. The other condition (that she gets 2 sweets less per rupee at the market com plex) gets satisfied in this scenario if she had bought 12 chocolates overall. In such a case, her buying would have been 2 per Rupee at the market and 4 per rupee at Uncle Scrooge's shop. Trial and error will show that this condition is not satisfied for any other option combination. 16. The given situation fits if we take Q as 60% profit and then the loss would be 37.5% (which is 62.5%) of Q). Thus, if Rs. 24 is the cost price, the selling price should be 24 x 1.6 = Rs. 38.8 18. Ramu’s total discount: 8% on 8000 = Rs. 640 5% on 12000 = Rs. 600 3% on 16000 = Rs. 480
20. The following working would show the ^StyRamu's Discounts 7% on 8000 = Rs. 560 4% on 12000 = Rs. 480 2% on 16000 = Rs. 320
*** pri#1 ■
Trading(
Total = Rs. 1360 on Rs. 36,000. Shyamu's discounts: 6% on 12000 = 720 5% on 8000 = 400 4% on 16000 = 640
28.
H cpcC’ ^ percent Lfwe*55
Rs. 1760 on Rs. 36000 Thus, their profits would vary b y R s . 4 0 0 (since the* cost price is the same) 21. If their CP’s had been 1 0 0 0 e a c h , th e ir respectjw SP’s can be calculated as follows: 100025% T
= + 250
Then90* value of second c; Also 498 Hence 0
betheco Note heft
equations
>1250 (for
th e p e rso n calculatiM gI
time.
29.
David (1 ( Goliath d
profit on the CP) 100033.33% T = + 333.33
Total = Rs. 1720 on Rs. 36000. Hence. Realised value = 34280. Shyamu’s Discounts: 7% on 12000 = 840 6% on 8000 = 480 5% on 16000 = 800
* 133333
Hercules the laptop Hence, H David buj 30. While pur price o f
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Rs. 2120 on Rs. 36000 Hence, Realised value = 33880. The higher profit is for Ramu. Also, the CP has a mark up of 25% for the Marked price. Thus die CP must have been 28800 (This is got by 36000  20% o f 36000  PCG thinking) Thus, the profit % for Ramu would be: (5480*100)/ 28800 — > 19% approx. 19. In the case of the given defaults, the discount for Ramu would have gone down to: 4 % on 12000 (the second payment) and the second discount would thus have been Rs.480 meaning that th e sale price would have risen by Rs.120 (since th ere is a Rs.120 drop in the discount) 1% on 16000 — » A reduction o f 2% of 16000 in the d isco u n t — » a reduction of Rs. 320. H e n c e . R a m u ’s profit would have gone up by Rs.440 in a ll & would yield his new profit as: 5 4 8 0 + 4 4 0 = R s . 5920
(for the person calculating h is p ro fit on SP: 25%o f SP = 33.33% of C P ) The value of the difference in th is c a se has turned out to be Rs.83.33. This has .o c c u rre d w hen we have assumed the CP as 1 0 0 0 . B u t , w e a re g ive n a differ ence of Rs.100. Use unitary method as follows: Difference of 83.33 when C P is 1000 Hence, difference of 1 0 0 when C P = ? ? ?
1
While se ll of
1000 gi
through th
100x1000 = Rs. 1200 8333 H ence, Tht 23. Find out the total revenue realization for both king sold; cases: Rs. 4.8 Case 1: (Old) Total sales revenue = 2 0 0 0 x 32$*I M or la 0.75. 3 3 Iu toe first Profit,,,d = Total sales revenue  4 8 0 0 I Case 2: (New) Total sales revenue = 3 0 0 0 ** I 0.75 o.: Profit,** = Total sales revenue  4800 The ratio of profit will be given b y P ro fitneW S iK 'U * 25. The successive discounts must have been of ^ each. The required price will be got b y red ,j f i g i by 10% twice consecutively, (use PCG app1 tk for successive change)
b y: G oods left 3 2 . Anincreas 50%of the
m
^7
T h efollow ing calculations will showthe respective
37. 1 1
8
! 0.75* *
22
= 1.4 * 4 7 2 5  * =
Rs. 4725,
a p r o fit o f
O n an investm ent o f
40%
primary C o st: 35% o f 12600 = 4410 M iscellaneous costs = 2% o f 12 60 0 = 252 Gross P ro fit * 1 2 6 0 0 4 4 1 0  1400  65 0  25 2 = 5888 Trading co st = 0.25 x 5 8 8 8 * 1472 Hence, N et profit = 4416. percentage profit = 4416/14000 = 3 1 .5 4 % 2g i f we assum e the v a lu e o f th e f ir s t c y c le as R s . 9 0 0 . Then 900 + 96 = 996 sh o u ld b e e q u al to tw ic e the value of the second c y c le . H e n c e , the va lu e o f the second cycle works o u t to b e : 4 9 8 . Also 498 + 96 = 5 9 4 w h ic h is R s .3 0 6 less than 9 0 0 . Hence, Option a f it s th e situ a tio n perfectly and will be the correct a n sw e r. Note here that i f y o u h ad trie d to solve this through equations, you w o u ld h a v e got stuck for a very long time. 29. David (100) — » G o lia th (8 0 ) — » Hercules (1 0 0 ) — » Goliath (90) Hercules loss c o rre sp o n d s to 10 when David buys the laptop for 100. Hence, H e rc u le s ’ s lo s s w o u ld be Rs. 17500 when David buys th e la p to p fo r 1 ,7 5 ,0 0 0 . 30. While purchasing he w o u ld ta k e 1200 grams for the price of 1000 g ra m s. While selling h e w o u ld s e ll 9 0 0 grams for the price of 1000 grams. S in c e CP = SP, the profit earned is through the w e ig h t m a n ip u la tio n s . It will be given
by:
m eans a p ro fit o f 18 9 0 . . . H en ce, the targeted sa le s re a liz a tio n is R s . 6 6 1 5 .
The
required eq uation w o u ld b e :
8p + 22 (3p)/4 = 6615 —» 8p + 33p/2 = 6615
In this expression for LHS to be equal to RHS, we need 33p/2 to be an odd number. This can only hap pen when p is not a multiple of 4 (why?? Apply your mind). Hence, options a & c get eliminated auto matically. 38. After 2 years, the flat would be worth Rs. 288000, while the land would be worth Rs. 266200. The profit percentage of the gainer would be given by: (21800/266200) x 100 = 8.189% Hence (d). 39. The total investment will be A + B + C . C being 3000, B will be 2250 and A will be 1500. The total investment is: 6750. Returns to be given on their expectations: A = 150, B = 337.5 and C = 0. From this point calculate the total profit, subtract A ’s and B’s expected returns and B 's share o f the profits for managing the business before dividing the profits in the ratio of capital invested. 40. The cost of the trip would be proportional to the price of petrol. So, if initially the cost is 100, the new cost would be 80. Also, initially since his profit is 20%, his revenue would be 120. When he takes 4 passengers instead of 3 his revenue w o u ld g o u p to 160  and his profit w o u ld becom e 100% (c o s t 80 and revenue 160). 41. Total num ber o f m icro w ave o ve n s = 15 H e n ce, w ash in g m ach in es =10
T h u s, H e s e lls C o st o f
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Goods left/goods so ld = 3 0 0 x 100/90 0 = 33.33% 32. An increase in th e p ric e b y R s .1 2 w ill correspond to 50% of the CP. Hence, The CP is R s .2 4 a n d in it ia lly the book w as being so ld at Rs. 19.2. H e n c e , i f th ere is an increm en t o f R s. 4 .8 in the selling p ric e , th ere w o u ld be no
ftfofit o r lo s s .
33.
In
the first year, the
p r o fit p e rcen tag e w o u ld be:
80% o f both a t a p ro fit o f R s . 40,000. 80% o f the goods = 0.8 x 2,05,000 = 1,64,000 + 40,000 =
0 5 5 x 5 + 0l 45x 8 1
0 .5 5 x
1,64,000.
To tal am ount reco vered =
8+
* I
2,04,000
0 .4 5 x 5
= 6.65
H en ce, lo ss = R s .
1000
•
S in c e t h e ra tio re m a in s u n ch an g ed the percentage P ro fit o f t h e v illa g e w ill re m a in unchanged too. V * p r o f i t w o u l d in c re a s e b y c h a n g e i n t h e p e rc e n ta g e
47 .
10%
5 p rin te rs (2 + 3 ) and 20 m o n ito rs. H e 2 p rin ters fo r a p ro fit o f R s . 2000 e a c h . H e n c e , p ro fit fro m p rin te r sa le s 1 R s . 4000.
Th ere w ere s e lls Th en , p ro fit fro m m o nito r sa le s = R s . 4 5 0 0 0
as there is no
profit.
2 1 2 ( How to Prepare for Quantitative Apttude for the CAT
Th us, p ro fit per m onitor « — — — = (S in ce , 15 m onitors
_
45000 _ 5nn_ Rs. 3000 15 were sold in all.)
= R s . 15000 *s R s . 7500
..
„ Total cost
= 15 00 0 x 2 0 + 7 5 0 0 x 5
<. T o ta l R e ve n u e s = 1 8 0 0 0 x 15 + 9500 H e n ce , lo ss o f R s . 4 8 ,5 0 0 T a 4 8 . L o ss % =
H cace, C .P . o f m onitor And C .P . o f P rin ter
A9
4 8 ,5 0 0 3 ,3 7 ,5 0 0
_ X 1 0 0 = 14
37 %
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profit and Loss LOD I
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214]
H o w t oP re p a re
(br OoanlWive AplBixle for Ids CAT
33. b 34. e 35. a
36. b 37. b
38. d
39. d
40. c 41. c 42. c 43. a 44. c 45. a 46. a 47. a
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49. d 50. b
48. a
profit and c r ^ 6
Los*
2
J
2
33. d 34. b
35. G 36. d 37. a 38. a 39. c 40. c l i — IS N H i * . 'iJ
1
H i
IS. a
 c
17. b 18. d
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B
in t e r e s t
INTRODUCTION
T h e chapter on Interests form s another im portant topic from the C A T ’s point o f view . H ow ever, th is relevance/ importance is only restricted to the use o f interests and its concepts in Data Interpretation. A s fa r as the use o f direct questions is concerned, in ter ests (lik e P ro fit and Lo ss) has been conspicuous b y its absence in the last fiv e years. However, it’s relevance to D ata Interpretation rem ains as high as alw ays. Prio r to studying th is chapter how ever, you are required
rate o f in te re st is used to d e te rm in e th e d iffe re n c e between w hat is b orrow ed and w h a t is re p a id . T h e re are tw o b a sis o n w h ic h in te re s ts a re calculatedS im p le In te re s t It is c a lc u la te d o n th e b a s is o f a basic
am ount b orrow ed fo r the e n tire p e rio d a t a p a rticu la r rate o f in te re st. T h e am o u n t b o rro w e d is th e p rin c ip a l for th e e n tire p e rio d o f b o rro w in g . C o m p o u n d In te r e s t pound in te re st. tra tio n : A sum o f R s . T h e in te re s t o f th e p re vio u s year/s
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1000 Simple interest R s . 100 R s . 100 R s . 100 R s . 100
F ir s t y e a r S e co n d y e a r T h ir d y e a r F o u rth y e a r
is/are added to the p rin c ip a l fo r th e c a lc u la tio n o f the com T h is d iffe re n c e w ill b e c le a r fro m th e fo llo w in g illus a t 1 0 % p e r a n n u m w ill have
to ensure that a clear understanding o f percentages and percentage calculation is a m ust. Th e faster you are at per centage calculation, the faster you w ill be in so lvin g ques tions o f interests. However, questions o f interests are s till im portant fo r exams lik e M A T, SN A P , A T M A , C E T , IR M A and B A N K P.O . exam s. Hence, if you are planning to go fo r the entire spectrum o f management exam s— th is chapter retains its importance in term s o f m athem atics too. Question from L O D I and L O D I I o f the chapter regu la rly appear in exam s lik e the B an k PO entrance o r others management exam s.
Compound interest 1
R s. R s. R s. R s. 100 110 121 133.1 are added the interest n
Note that the p re v io u s y e a r 's in te re s ts the original sum o f R s . 1000 to c a lc u la te be paid in the case o f co m p o u n d in te re s t.
Terminology Pertaining to Interests
CONCEPT OF TIME VALUE OF MONEY
The The value o f money is not constant. T h is is one o f the principal facts on w hich the entire econom ic w o rld is based. A rupee today is not equal to a rupee tom orrow . H ence, a rupee borrowed today cannot be repaid by a rupee tom or row . T h is is the basic need fo r the concept o f in terest. Th e w ho b o rro w s
lends money is the C reditor and the money is the D e b to r . T h e am ount o f m o n e y that is initially b o r r o w e d lS the C a p ita l or P r in c ip a l money. J T h e p e rio d fo r w h ic h m o n e y is deposited o r b o r r o
w ho calle d T im e .
man
Chapter 7 :
Interest
217
The extra m oney, th at w ill be p a id o r re c e iv e d fo r th e use o f the p rin cip al a fte r a c e rta in p e rio d is c a lle d th e T o ta l interest on the c a p ita l. The sum o f the p rin c ip a l and th e in te re st any tim e is ca lle d the A m o u n t. So, A m o u n t = P r in c ip a l + T o t a l In t e r e s t is the ra te at
COMPOUND INTEREST In monetary transactions, often, the borrower and the lender, in order to settle an account, agree on a certain amount of interest to be paid to the lender on the basis of specified unit of time. This may be ye«~Iy or halfyearly or quarterly, with the condition that the interest accrued to the principal at a certain interval of time be added to the prin cipal so that the total amount at the end of an interval be comes the principal for the next interval. Thus, it is differ ent from simple interest. In such cases, the interest for the first interval is added to the principal and this amount becomes the principal for the second interval, and so on. The difference between the amount and the money borrowed is called the compound interest for the given interval.
at
th e end
of
Rate of Interest
lated and is a lw a y s sp e c ifie d
which the interest is calcu in percentage terms.
SIMPLE INTEREST
The interest o f 1 y e a r fo r est rate per annum . I f
numis
w e m ean
every Rs. 100 is called the Inter we say “the rate of interest per an that Rs. r is the interest on a principal
of R s. 100 fo r 1 y e a r.
Relation Among Principal, Time, Rate Percent of Interest Per Annum and Total Interest
Suppose, Principal = Rs. P, Time = t years, Rate of interest per annum = r% and Total interest = Rs. 1 Then i.e. Total interest Principal x Time x Rate of interest per annum Since the Amount = Principal + Total interest, we can write
A m o u n t (A ) = P +
Formula
Case 1: Let principal = P, time = n years and rate = r% p < annum and let A be the total amount at the end of n years, then n A = P 1+
I =
Pxtxr
100
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i
Case 2: When compound interest is reckoned halfyearly. If the annual rate is r% per annum and is to be calculated for n years. Then in this case, rate = (r/2)% halfyearly and time = (2n) halfyears. •\ From the above we get A = P 1+
r/2
Pxtxr
100
y e a rs
Time s
T o t a l in te re s t ( In te re st o n th e P r in c ip a l f o r o n e y e a r ) 
100
Thus, if w e have th e
interest per year is R s . 5 0 , years is 300/50
total interest as Rs. 300 and the then we can say that the number = 6 years.
Case 3: When compound interest is reckoned quarterly. In this case, rate = (r/4)% quarterly and time = (4n) quarter years. As before,
N < *e:
The rate o f in te re st is n o rm a lly s p e c ifie d in te rm s
°f annual rale o f in te re st. In su c h a c a se w e ta k e th e tim e fin yean. However, i f the rate o f in te re st is s p e c ifie d in te rm s o f ^monthly rate, w e ta ke tim e in te rm s o f
A = P 1+
r/4
4n
100
6
m o n th s.
Note: The difference between the compound interest
and the simple interest over two years is given by Pr/1002 or p f— )
A ko , the h a lfy e a rly ra te o f in te re st is h a lf th e a n n u a l Wl interest. T h a t is i f th e in te re st is 1 0 % p e r ann um
be chained six m o n th ly , w e h a v e to ad d in te re st e v e ry
months @ 5 %.
liooj
DEPRECIATION OF VALUE
The value of a machine or any other article subject,to wear and tear, decreases with time. This decrease is called its depreciation. Thus if V9 is the value at a certain time and r% per annum is the rate of depreciation per year, then the value V j at the end of r years is
Thus, a calculation: 4 y e a rs in c re a s e a t 6% pa q ^ Rs. 120 would yield an e x p ressio n : 120 x I .0 6 4. It W ouJ(j be impossible for an average s tu d e n t to a tte m p t such a question and even if one u se s a d v a n c e d techniqueg ^ calculations, one will end u p u s in g m o r e tim e than one has. Instead, if you h a v e to s o lv e th is p ro b lem , y0Q should look at it from the fo llo w in g p e rc e n ta g e change graphic perspective:
f t V iM m /
'i
POPULATION The problems on Population change are similar to the prob lems on Compound Interest. The formulae applicable to the problems on compound interest also apply to those on population. The only difference is that in the application of formulae, the annual rate of change of population replaces the rate of compound interest However, unlike in compound interest where the rate is always positive, the population can decrease. In such a case, we have to treat population change as we treated deprecia tion of value illustrated above.
120
134.82
+6%
7.2
127.2
+6% 6 + 1.62
Ita
■
tjm
I
+6%
6 + 2.1
+ 6%
ox.
i<". 1
I f you try to check the an sw er on a calcu lato r, yoo w ill discover that you have a v e ry c lo se approximation. Besides, given the fact that yo u w o u ld be w orking with options and given su fficie n tly co m fo rtab le options, you need not calculate so c lo se ly ; in ste a d , sa ve tim e through the use o f approxim ations.
H
*5as y°Bm
„1 a r to the 1
anil change
1 lease, 20' m I O C
T h is 20% ii
APPLICATIONS OF IN T E R E S T S IN D .I.
The difference between S im p le A n n u a l g ro w th rate and Compound A n nual G ro w th R a te :
G ro w thRate (C. O bviously, th ifficult than thi
The students should see the chapter on interests essen tially as an extension of the concept of percentages.
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rate of growth o f the G D P o f an eco no m y.
The Measurement o f G ro w th R a te s is a p rim e concern ■ M Interest f business and Econom ics. W h ile a m anag er m ight be inter ested in calculating the grow th rate s in the sales of to product, an economist m ight be in te re ste d in find in g out th e In mathematical term s, there are b a s ic a lly tw o ways in which growth rates are ca lcu la te d . T o fa m ilia riz e yourself with this, consider the fo llo w in g e xa m p le . The sales o f a brand o f sco o ters in cre a se from 10®* 120 units in a particular c ity . W h a t d oes th is mean to y0® Simply that there is a percentage in c re a se o f 20% in sales of the scooters. N ow read fu rth e r: What if the sales m oves fro m 120 to 14 0 i n the next y8 ® and 140 to 160 in the th ird y e a r? O b v io u sly , the*® ® constant and uniform grow th fro m 10 0 to 120 to 160 " a growth of exactly 20 units p e r y e a r. In te rm s o f the ° growth in the value o f the sa le s o ve r th ere ye ars, it ^ easily seen that the sale has g ro w n b y 6 0 on 100 i*® * growth. p In this case, w hat does 2 0 % rep rese n t? I f you situation as a p lain problem o f in te re sts 2 0 % repteSI simple interest that w ill m ake 1 0 0 grow to 160. more tl ^ three y,
All the rules of percentage calculation, which were elucidated in the chapter of percentages, will apply to the chapter on interests. Specifically, in the case of compound interests, the percentage rule for calculation of percentage values will be highly beneficial for the student. Besides, while solving the questions on interests the student should be aware of the possibility of using the given options to arrive at the solution. In fact, 1 feel that the formulae on Compound Interest (Cl) unnecessarily make a very simple topic overly mathematical. Besides, the Cl formulae are the most unusable formulae available in this level of mathematics since it is virtually impos sible for the student to calculate a number like 1.08 raised to the power 3 , 4 , 5 or more. Instead, in my opinion, you should view Cl problems sim ply as an extension of the concept of successive percenuge increases and tackle the calculations required through approximations and through the use of the per centage rule of calculations.
£ IS
sS
Chapter 7:
Interest
2 1 S
In the context o f D.I., this value o f 20% in terest is also called the Simple Annual Growth R ate. (S A G R ) The process for calculating SAGR is sim ply th e sam e as that for calculating Simple Interest. Suppose a value grow s from 100 to 2 00 in 10 y ears  the SAGR is got by the sim ple ca lc u latio n 100% /10 = 10% What is Compound Annual G row th Rate (C A G R )?
Let us consider a sim ple situation. L et us go back to the scooter company.
io% T
14.64
* 161.04
* ...
177.14  l0* f > 194.8
16.10 17.71
10% T
19.48
214.3 3 10» T  > 235.7
21.43
10* f > 259.2
2157
T hus, the p ercen tag e in crease a fte r 10 y e a rs @ 1 0 % w il l b e 159.2 (approx). H ow ever, this w as th e ea sy p art. W h a t w o u ld y o u d o i f you had to calcu late 12% C l fo r 10 y ears. T h e p e rc e n ta g e calcu latio n s w ould o b v io u sly b ec o m e m u c h m o re d iffic u lt and infeasible. H ow can w e tack le th is situ a tio n ?
1 0 0  1 ^ 1 1 2  + 12 ? [
Suppose, the company increases it’s sales b y 20% in the first year and then again increases its* sales b y 20% in the second year and also the third year. In such a situation, the sales (taking 100 as a starting value) trend can b e easily tracked as below:
10020% T
+ 20
*120
20% T
+24
+ 144
20% T
+ 28.8
In o rd er to u nderstand h o w to tack le th e se co n d p e rc e n t *172.8 ag e increase in th e ab o v e P C G , le t’s try to e v a lu a te w h ere w e are in the question. W e have to calculate 12% o f 112, w h ich is th e sa m e a s 12% o f 100 + 12% o f 12. B u t w e h ave already calculated 12% o f 100 as 12 fo r the first arrow o f the P C G . H ence, w e n o w h av e to calcu late 12% o f 12 and add it to 12% o f 100. H ence the addition has to be: 12  1.44 = 13.44
As you m ust have realized , this calcu latio n is pretty similar to the calculation o f C om pound interests. In the above case, 20% is the rate o f co m pound in terest w hich will change 100 to 172.8 in three years. This 20% is also ca lle d a s th e C om p o u n d A nnual Growth Rate (CAGR) in th e context o f D ata interpretation. rate an!
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100
*1 1 2
Obviously, the calculation o f th e C A G R is m uch m ore difficult than the calculation o f th e SA G R and the C om
Take note o f the addition o f 1.44 in this step. It w ill be significant later. The P C G w ill n o w look like:

mceni pound Interest form ula is essentially a w aste o f tim e for
b e itf :S o ft
anything more than 3 years. * 125.44  — T > ?
(upto three years, i f you know y our squares and the methods for the cubes you can still feasibly w ork things out gO tft but beyond three years it becom es pretty m uch infeasible to calculate the com pound interest). So is there an alternative? Yes there is and th e alternative largely depends on your ability to add w ell. H ence, before trying out what I am about to tell you, I w ould recom m end you should strengthen yourself a t addition. jt P # Suppose you have to calculate the C.I. on Rs. 100 at the ** * rate of 10% per annum for a period o f 10 years, j You can combine a m ixture o f P C G used for successive changes with guesstimation to get a pretty accurate value. In this case, since the percentage increase is exactly 10% (which is perhaps the easiest percentage to calculate), we \ (fi ^ use PCG all the way as follows:
L i.* 100
We are now faced w ith a situation o f calculating 12% o f 125.44. O bviously, i f you try to do this directly, y o u w ill have great difficulty in calculations. We can sidestep this as follows: 12% o f 125.44 = 12% o f 112 + 12% o f 13.44. B ut w e have already calculated 12% o f 112 as 13.44 in the previous step. Hence, our calculation changes to: 12% o f 112 + 12% o f 13.44 = 13.44 + 12% o f 13.44 But 12% o f 13.44 = 12% o f 12 + 12% o f 1.44. We have already calculated 12% o f 12 as 1.44 in the previous step. Hence 12% o f 13.44 = 1.44 + 12% o f 1.44 = 1.44 + 0.17 = 1.61 (approx) Hence, the overall addition is 13.44 + 1.61 = 15.05 Now, your PCG looks like: 100 ■ *2  > 112 —
+ 7 ■ > ?
10% f
+10
*110
10% t
+4
*121
io% T
+ 12.1
* 133.1
i\
\{ m
•146A
125. 44 —  1 —  > 140.49
m
220
H o * to P repare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
T
will be a slightly increasing series (A n d can be proximated). Thus, the following table shows the approxim ate lation of 12% C l for 10 years with an initial value of 100. Thus, 100 becomes 309.78 (a percentage increase o f 209.78%) Similarly, in the case o f every other compound interest calculation, you can simply find the trend that the first 2 3 years interest is going to follow and continue that tren (j to get a close approximate value o f the overall percentage increase. Thus for instance 7% growth fo r 7 years at C.I. w ould mean:
1 • 1 + 7.49
Calcj.
You are again at the sam e point— faced with calculating th e ra th e r intim idating looking 12% o f 140.49 12% o f 140.49 = 12% o f 125.44 + 12% o f 15.05_____ a lre a d y ca lc u lated C om p are this to the previous calculation: 12% o f 125.44 = 12% o f 112 + 12% o f 13.44
W ^ v
i _____________________
easily
*
1
J
J*
j# 
>1fa *
.h n lV S
JC
a lre a d y ca lc u lated T h e only calculation that has changed is that you have to calcu late 12% o f 15.05 instead o f 12% o t 13.44. (which w as approx 1.61). In this case it w ill be approximately 1.8. H ence you shall now add 16.85 and the PCG will look as:
100
 ^
+ 12
*1 1 2
+ 13.44
*125.44
+ 15D5
* 140.49
100
+7

+ 107
■ >114.49
+8 .0 1
* 122.5
16.85
* 16634
+ 855 + 9.11
* 13L05 ■ > 140.16+ 9.75
*1  *9 1
I f you evaluate the change in the value added at every arrow in th e P C G above, you will see a trend— T h e additions were: + 1 2 , + 1 3 .4 4 (change in addition = 1.44), +15.05(change in ad d itio n = 1.61), + 16.85 (change in addition = 1.8) I f y ou now evaluate the change in the change in addi tion, y ou w ill realize that the values are 0.17, 0.19*. This
A t th e e n d o f P rincipal (approx)
+ 10.35
* 160.24
ye a rs, find ID 4i%
A n approximate growth o f 60.24% The actual value (on a calculation) is around 60.57%tion for the answer.
Hence as you can see w e have a pretty decent approxima 1 Solution
Lei print
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Interest f o r the y ea r
+12 + 13.44 □ + 15.05 — j +16.85 1.61 1.8
T h eninte
Nov.usi
fnte = >
Change in Addition
1.44
C hange in change in Addition
year 0 year 1 year 2 year 3 year 4 year 5 year 6 year 7 year 8 year 9 year 10
100 112 125.44 140.49 157.36 176.2 197.3 220.92 247.33 276.83 309.78
□
]
3
0 .1 7 0 .1 9
= >
□ +18.86 □ 21.11 □ 23.62 □
26.41 29.5 32.95
2.01
2.25 2.51 2 .7 9
] ] ]
0.21
0.24 0 .2 8
3.1 3
I
0.31
:« ]
0 .35
This series is approximated giving all values in this table.
Chapter 7:
l">r< *
2 2
T h e in crea se in
the addition will need to be
in crease d
For any amount, interest for the 1st three years @ 6/ SI will be equal to 6 x 3 = 18% Again, interest for next 4 years will be equal to 7 28%. And interest for next 4 years (till 11 years) — 7.5 X 4 30% So, total interest = 18 + 2 8 + 30 = 76C : So, total interest earned by h in t  7 6 % ife amount (76x1200) = Rs. 912 100 This calculation can be done very conveniently using the percentage rule as 75% + 1% = 900 + 12 = 912. A sum o f money d o u b les itself in 12 y e a rs .
Thus, in this case if we had W considered the in crease to be an A .P . the respective^Mition
1 would have been: *J * ■
at a greater rate than as an A .P .
L
I
L
^
+7, +7.49, +8.01. +8.55. +9.11, +9.69, +10.^9.’ However +7, +7.49. +8.01, +8.55, +9.11,. +9,75, +10.35 are the actual addition used. Notice that using 9.75 instead ol 9.69 is a deliberate adjustment, since while u sin g C .I. the impact on the addition due to the interest on the interest shows an ever increasing behaviour.
WORKEDOUT PROBLEM/
P r o b le m 7 .1
The SI on a sum of money is 25% o f the
Find the rate percentage per annum.
€
principal, and the rate per annum is equal to the number of years. Find the rate percent. (a) 4.5% (b) 6% (c) 5% (d) 8%
(a) 12.5% S o lu tio n years.
(b) 8 .3 3 $
(c) 10%
(d) 7.51%
Let principal * x , then interest = x , time = 12
Solution
Let p rin cip al = Then interest =
x, tim e =
t y e a rs
.
. . ,. v*
Using the formula. Rate = (Interest x 100)/Principal x T im e = (x x 100)/(r x 12) = 8.33%
A lternatively: It is obvious that in 12 y e a rs , 100% o f the
jr/4,
rate = t%
Now, using the S I fo rm u la , w e get
Interest = (P rin c ip a l x R a te x T im fi)/1 0 Q
= >
j
=*
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amount is added as interest. If a sum o f money gets doubled in interest = (100/*)%. Problem 7.4
_ y
x/4 = (x x / x r)/1 0 0
, t2 = 25 t  5%
So, in 1 year = (100/12)% of the amount is added. Hence, every year there is an addition o f 8.33% (which is the rate o f simple interest required). Alternatively, you can also use the formula. ye: i t s , then rate of
A ltern ative ly, yo u can a lso so lv e th is b y u sin g the op tions. w herein you sh o u ld c h e c k th at w h e n y o u d iv id e 25 by the value o f the o p tio n , y o u g e t th e o p tio n ’s va lu e a s th e . answer. »
Thus. 25/4.5 * 4 .5 . H e n c e , o p tio n (a ) is in c o rre c t;
A lso, 25/6 * 6 . H e n ce o p tio n (b ) is in c o rre c t.
A certain sum o t m o n e y a m o u n t s t o Rs. 704
Checking fo r o ptio n (c ) w e g e t, 25/5* = 5 . H e n c e , (c ) is the answer.
in 2 years and Rs. 800 in 5 y e a r s . Find th e r a t e p e r c e n t a g e per annum. (a) Rs. 580 (b) Rs. 6Q0 (c) R s . 660 td) Rs. 640
Q 2Z3E3
for the
^he rate
°* * nteresl
f ° r firs t
3
y e a rs
is 6%
per annum, for the next 4 y e a rs, 7 p e r ce n t p e r aS n u m and period beyond 7 y e a rs, 7 .5 p e rcen tag e s p e ra m u m . lent out R s . 1200 fo r 11 y e a rs , fin d the to ta l in te r est earned by him? *
If a man (a) R s. 1002
R s . x and rate  r% Then, difference in between the i n t e r e s t o t 5 years and of 2 years equals to
Solution Let the principal be
Rs. 800  Rs. 704 =; R y 96 So, interest for 3 years = Rs. 96 Hence, interest/year = Rs. 96/3 = us, 32 So, interest for 2 years,.'* 2 x Rs 32  Rs. 64 So, the principal = Rs. 904  Rs. 64 Rs o40 Thought process here should be Rs. 96 interest in 3 years * Rs. 52 interest every year.
(b) R s . 9 1 2
(c ) R s . 8 6 4 (d ) R s . 94 8
Solution
Whenever it u not mentioned w h e th e r we h ave to as**■11 SI or Cl we should assu m e S I.
222
H cm t to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude tor the CAT
Second year interest = R s . 4 5 + 10% o f R s ^ So , am ount at the end o f 2 y e a rs = 4 5 0 +
H e n ce , p rin c ip a l = 704  64 = 64 0 P ro b le m s 7 .5 A sum o f m oney w as invested at
^
5 ^ 5
SI at a
94 5 J
S o , not v a lid . H ence answ er has to lie betw een 4 5 0 and 550 (Sjn
c e rta in rate fo r 3 y e a rs. H ad it been invested at a 4% h ig h er ra te , it w o uld have fetched R s . 4 8 0 m ore. Fin d the p rin c ip a l.
y ie ld s a sh o rtfa ll on R s . 605 w h ile 5 5 0 y ie ld s an Pv ^
X C es$ .)
O p tio n (c ) R s . 48 0 F irs t ye a r interest = R s . 48 Second year in terest = R s . 4 8 + 1 0 % o f R s .
(a ) R s . 4 0 0 0 (b ) R s 4 4 0 0 (c ) R s . 50 0 0 (d ) R s . 3500
Solution
Then
L e t the rate be
y% and principal be Rs. x and
43 _
S o , am ount at the end o f 2 y e a rs = 5 8 0 . 8 * 605 O p tio n (d ) R s . 500 F ir s t y e a r’s in te re st = R s . 5 0 Second y e a r’s in tere st = R s . 5 0 + 1 0 % o f R s . 59
the tim e be 3 y e a rs.
according to the question = (x(y + 4 ) x 3)/100
 (x y x 3 )/1 0 0 = 4 8 0
=>
=*
x y + 4 x  x y = 160 x 100 x = (1 6 0 x 100)/4 = Rs. 40 00
N ote:
= R s. 5 5 .
Am ount = 6 0 5 . In g e n eral, w h ile so lv in g t h r o u g h o p tio n s , the
A ltern a tively: Excess money obtained = 3 years @ 4% per
annum
= 12% o f whole money So, according to the question, 12% = Rs. 480 So, 100% = Rs. 4 0 0 0 (answer arrived at by using unitary method.)
P ro b le m 7 .6
student sh ould use the p rin c ip a l o f s t a r t i n g w ith the m id d le (in term s o f v a lu e ), m ore c o n v e n i e n t o p tio n . This w ill often reduce the num ber o f o p t i o n s t o b e c h e c k e d by th e student, thus red u cin g the tim e r e q u i r e d f o r problem so lvin g d ra stic a lly . In fa c t, th is t h u m b r u l e s h o u ld be used not o n ly fo r the ch ap ter o f i n t e r e s t s b u t f o r a ll other chapters in m aths.
A certain sum of money trebles itself in 8
years. In how many years it will be five times?
(a) 22 years (b) 16 years (c) 20 years(d) 24 years
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L O D I le v e l.
Fu rth erm o re, a lo o k a t the p a st q u e s t i o n papers of
exam s lik e C E T , M a h a ra sh tra , L o w e r l e v e l M B A exams and bank P O exam s w ill y ie ld th at b y s o l v i n g through options and startin g w ith the m id d le m o r e convenient o p tio n , there w ill be sig n ific a n t tim e s a v i n g s fo r these exam s w here the q u estio n s are e s s e n tia lly a s k e d fro m the
Solution It trebles itself in 8 years, which makes inter
est equal to 200% of principal. So, 2 0 0 % is added in 8 years. H e n ce , 4 0 0 % , which makes the whole amount equal to fiv e tim es o f the principal, which will be added in 16 years.
P ro b le m 7 .7
If C l is charged on a certain sum for 2 years becomes 6 0 5 . Find the principal? Rs. 4 5 0 (c) Rs. 4 8 0 (d) Rs. 500
__________________ 1 1 Problem 7.8 I f the d iffe re n c e b e t w e e n t h e C l a n d S I0 a certain sum o f m oney i s R s . 7 2 a t 1 2 p e r c e n t p e r an * * for 2 y e a rs, then fin d th e am ount.
a t 10% the am ount (a ) R s . 5 5 0 (b ) U sin g
(a ) R s . 60 0 0 (b )
Rs.
5000
(c) Rs.
5 5 0 0 (d ) Rs' ^
Solution
ra te /lO O )*"*
the formula, amount = Principal (1 +
S o lu tio n L e t the p rin c ip a l = * S im p le in tere st = ( *
x 12 x 2 )/1 0 0
 *
60 5 = p ( i + 10/100)2 = p ( ll/ 1 0 )2 p = 6 0 5 (1 0 0 /1 2 1 ) =
Rs. 50Q
Com pound in tere st = * [ 1 + 1 2 / 1 0 0 ] So , 4 1 1 2 /1 0 0 ]2  *  2 4 */1 0 0 = 7 2
A lte rn a tiv e ly : C h e c k in g the o p tio n s,
O p tio n (a ) R s . 5 5 0 F ir s t y e a r in te re st = R s . 5 5 , w h ich g iv e s the total am ount R s . 6 0 5 at the end o f firs t y e a r. S o not a v a lid option.
je[1122/1002  1  2 4 /1 0 0 ] = 7 2 => 4 1 2 5 4 4 /1 0 °°°  24/100] = 72
=> x = 72 x 10000/144 = R s . 5 0 0 0 teres* I A lternatively: S im p le in te re st and compound
the firs t ye a r on an y am ount is the sam e
O ption <b) R s . 4 5 0
F ir s t y e a r in te re st = R s . 45
Chapter 7 :
Interest
223
Difference in the second year's interest is due to the fact that compound interest is calculated over the first year’s intevest also. Hence, we can say that Rs. 72 = Interest on first year’s interest ♦ 12% on first year's interest = Rs. 72. Hence, first year's interest = Rs. 600 which should be 12% o f the original capital. Hence, original capital  r s. 5000 (this whole process can be done mentally). You can also try to solve the question through the use of options as follows. Option (a) Rs. 6000 First year’s CI/SI = Rs. 720 Difference between second year’s C l and SI = 12% o f Rs. 720 * Rs. 72 Hence, not correct. Option (b) Rs. 5000 First year’s CI/SI = 12% o f Rs. 5000 = Rs. 600 Difference between second year’s C l and SI = 12% of
600 = 72 year’s C l and SI = 12% o f 600 = Rs. 72
Again, interest earned from Rs. 1800 at the end o f year = (1800/100) x (8/12) x 2 r = Rs. 2 4 r So, total interest earned —36r, w hich equals 216 => r  216/36 = 6%
A lternatively: Checking the options.
O ption (a) 9% Interest from Rs. 1200 = 9% o f 1200 = 108 Interest from Rs. 1800 = twothirds o f 18% on Rs. ; 8 0 0 = 12% on Rs. 1800 = Rs. 216 Total interest = Rs. 324 O p tio n (b) 6% Interest earned from Rs. 1200 = 6% on 1200 = Rs. 72 Interest earned from Rs. 1800 = twothirds o f 12% on Rs. 1800 = Rs. 144 (We w ere able to calculate the interest over second part very easily after observing in option (a) that interest earned over second part is double the interest earned o ver first part). Total interest = Rs. 216 We need not check any other option now. P roblem 7.11 Rajiv lend out Rs. 9 to Anni on condition
Hence option (b) is the correct answer. Therefore we need not check any other options.
Problem 7 .9
The population o f Jhum ri Tilaiya increases
by 10% in the first year, it increases by 20% in the second year. What will be its population after 3 years, if today it is 200,000? (a) 11.540 (b) 13,860 (c) 12,860 (d ) 12.540
year and due to mass exodus, it decreases by 5% in the third
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Solution
M oney going out:
that the am ount is payable in 10 m onths by 10 equal instal ments o f Re. 1 each payable at the start o f every month.
W hat is the rate o f interest p er annum if the first instalm ent has to be paid one m onth from the date the loan is availed. M oney com ing in : Rs. 9 today
Solution Population at the end o f 1 year will be — »
10,000 + 10% of 10,000 = 11,000 At the end of second year it will be 11,000 + 20% of 11,000= 13,200 At the end of third year it will be 13,2005% o f 13,200 = 12,540.
Re. 1 one m onth later + Re. 1, 2 m onths later ... + Re. 1, 10 months later. The value o f the m oney com ing in should equal the value o f the m oney going out for the loan to be com pletely paid off. In the present case, for this to happen, the follow i n g equation has to hold: Rs. 9 + Interest on Rs. 9 for 10 m onths = (Re. 1 + Interest on Re. 1 for 9 m onths) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 8 months) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 7 m onths) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 6 months) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 5 m onths) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 4 months) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 3 m onths) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 2 months) + (Re. 1 + interest on Re. 1 for 1 months) + (Re. 1)
E 5323E 2H 0 Seth A nkoosh G aw dekar borrow s a sum
Rs. 1200 at the beginning o f a year. A fter 4 months, Rs1800 more is borrow ed at a rate o f interest double the Previous one. At the end o f the year, the sum o f interest on the loans is Rs. 216. W hat is the first rate o f interest per annum?
% 9%
(b) 6%
Cc) 8%
(d) 1 2 %
Solution
Let the rate o f interest be = r%
interest earned from Rs. 1200 at the end o f year *<1200ryiOO = Rs. 12r
224
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT 6. Fin d the rate o f interest i f the am ount afte r 2 years 0 simple interest on a capital o f R s. 1 2 0 0 is R s .
Rs. 9 + Interest on Rs. I for 90 months  Rs. 10 +
Interest on Rs. 10 for 45 months. — * Interest on Re. I for 90 months  Interest onRe. I for 45 months = Rs. 10  Rs. 9 * Interest on Re. 1 for 45 months = Re. I (i.e.money would double in 45 months.) Hence the rate of interest 45
= 2.222%
(a) 8%
(c) 10%
(e) 12%
(b ) 9% (d ) 11%
7. A fte r ho w m any y e a rs w ill a su m o f R s . 12,5oq become R s . 17 ,5 00 a t the ra te o f 1 0 % p e r annum? (a ) 2 years
(c) 4 years
(b ) 3 y e a r s (d ) 5 y e a rs
Note: The starting equation used to solve this problem, comes from crediting the borrower with the interest due to early payment for each of his firs t nine instalments.
(e ) 6 years 8. W hat is the d iffe re n ce b etw een th e sim p le interest ob a p rin cip al o f R s . 5 0 0 b e in g c a lc u la te d a t 5% per an num for 3 ye ars and 4 % p e r an n u m fo r 4 years? (a ) R s . 5 (b ) R s . 10 (d ) R s . 4 0
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
1. Rs. 1200 is lent out at 5% per annum simple interest for 3 years. Find the amount after 3 years. (a) Rs. 1380 (c) Rs. 1470 (e) Rs. 1240 2. Interest obtained on a sum o f R s. 5000 fo r 3 years is Rs. 1500. Find the rate percent. (a) 8% (c) 10% (e) 12% 3. Rs. 2100 is lent at compound interest o f 5% per annum for 2 years. Find the amount after two years. (a) Rs. 2300 (c) R s. 2310 (e) None of these 4. R s. 1694 is repaid after two years at compound interest. Which of the following is the value o f the principal and the rate? (a) R s. 1200, 20% (c) R s. 1400, 10% (e) None of these 5. Find the difference between the simple and the com pound interest at 5% per annum for 2 years on a prin cipal of R s. 2000. (a) 5 (c) 4.5 (e) None of these (b ) 105 (d ) 5.5 (b ) R s. 1300, 15% (d ) R s. 1500, 12% (b ) R s. 2315.25 (d ) R s. 2320 (b ) 9% (b ) (d ) R s. 1290 R s. 1200
0
(c ) R s . 20 (e ) N one o f these 9.
W hat is the sim p le in te re st o n a su m o f R s.7 0 0 if the rate o f in terest fo r the fir s t 3 y e a rs is 8 % p er annum and fo r the la st 2 y e a rs is 7 .5 % p e r an n u m ? (a ) R s. 2 6 9 .5 (c ) R s . 273 (e ) None o f these (b ) R s . 2 8 3 (d ) R s . 2 8 0
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(d ) 11% (a ) 400 (c ) 352 (b ) 3 9 2 (d ) 3 8 2 (e ) C annot be d e term in ed
10. W hat is the sim p le in te re st fo r 9 y e a rs o n a sum of R s. 800 i f the rate o f in te re st fo r th e f ir s t 4 years is 8% per annum and fo r the la s t 4 y e a rs is 6 % p er annum?
11. W hat is the d iffe re n ce b e tw e e n co m p o u n d interest and sim ple in tere st fo r th e su m o f R s . 2 0 0 0 o v e r a 2 year period i f the com pound in te re s t is c a lc u la te d at 20* I and sim p le in te re st is c a lc u la te d a t 2 3 % .. (a ) R s . 4 0 (c ) R s . 44 (e ) N one o f these 12. F in d the com pound in te re st o n R s . 1 0 0 0 at the rate 20% per annum fo r 18 m o n th s w h e n in te re st pounded h a lfy e a rly . (a ) R s . 331 (c ) R s . 3 2 0 (e ) N one o f these 13. F in d the p rin c ip a l i f th e in te re s t
c o m p o u n d e d
(b ) R s . 4 6 (d ) R s . 4 5
(b ) R s . 1331 (.d ) R s . 3 2 5
rate o f 10% p er ann um fo r tw o y e a rs is Rs(a ) R s . 20 00 (b ) R s . 2 2 0 0
Chapter 7:
Interest
2 2 5
(c) Rs. 1000
(d) Rs. 1100
interest be 13% SI per annum charged halfyearly, what am ount will he get after 42 m onths? (a) 27,800 (c) 29,100 (e) None o f these (b) 28,100 (d) 28,500
(e) Rs. 1200
14. Find the principal if compound interest is chained on the principal at the rate o f 1 6 ^ % per annum for two years and the sum becomes Rs. 196. (a) Rs. 140 (c) Rs. 150
(b) Rs. 154 (d) Rs. 144
22. Ranjeet makes a deposit o f Rs. 50,000 in the Punjab National Bank for a period o f 2 ) 4 years. I f th e rate o f interest is 12% per annum com pounded halfyearly, find the maturity value o f the m oney deposited by him. (a) 6 6 ,9 1 1 .2 7
(c ) 6 7 ,9 2 5 .9 5 (e ) N o n e o f th e se . 2 3 . V i n o d m a k e s a d e p o sit o f R s . 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 in S y n d ic a te B a n k fo r a p e rio d o f 2 y e a rs . I f th e ra te o f in te re s t b e 1 2 % p e r an n u m co m p o u n d ed h a lf y e a rly , w h a t a m o u n t w ill h e g e t a fte r 2 y e a rs ? (a ) (c ) 1 2 2 ,2 4 7 .8 9 1 2 6 ,2 4 7 .6 9 (b ) 1 2 5 ,4 3 6 .7 9 (d ) 1 2 2 4 3 6 .8 9
(e) None o f these 15. The SBI lent Rs. 1331 to the Tata group at a com pound interest and got Rs. 1728 after three years. What is the rate o f interest chaiged if the interest is compounded annually? (a) 11% (c) 12% (e) None o f these (b) 9.09% (d) 8.33%
(b) 6 6 ,1 2 3 .3 4
(d ) 6 5 ,5 5 0 .8
16. In what time will Rs. 3300 become Rs. 3399 at 6% per annum interest compounded halfyearly? (a) 6 months (c) year (e) None of these 17. Ranjan purchased a Maruti van for Rs. 1,96,000 and
2
(b) 1 year (d) 3 months
(e ) N o n e o f th ese
the rate of depreciation is 14U % per annum. Find the value of the van after two years. (a) Rs. 1,40,000 (c) Rs. 1,50,000 (e) None o f these (b) Rs. 1,44,000 (d) Rs. 1,60,000
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18, 1994? (a ) (C ) R s . 1 2 .6 0 R s . 15 (e ) N o n e o f th e se
2 4 . W h a t w ill b e th e s im p le in te re s t o n R s . 7 0 0 a t 9 % p e r an n u m fo r th e p e rio d fro m F e b ru a ry 5 , 1 9 9 4 to A p r il
(b ) R s . 1 1 .3 0 (d ) R s . 13
2 5 . A ja y b o rro w s R s . 1 5 0 0 fro m tw o m o n e y le n d e rs . H e p a y s in te re s t a t th e ra te o f 1 2 % p e r an n u m fo r o n e lo a n an d a t th e ra te o f 1 4 % p e r a n n u m fo r th e o th e r. T h e to ta l in te re s t h e p a y s fo r th e e n tire y e a r is R s . 1 8 6 . H o w m u ch d o e s h e b o rro w a t th e ra te o f 1 2 % ?
18. At what percentage per annum, will Rs. 10,000 amount to 17,280 in three years? (Compound Interest being reckoned) (a) 20% (e) 12% (b) 14% (c) 24% (d) 11%
(a)
(c )
19. Vinay deposited Rs. 8000 in ICICI Bank, which pays him 12% interest per annum compounded quarterly. What is the amount that he receives after 15 months? (a) Rs. 9274.2 (c) Rs. 9314.3 (e) None of these (b) Rs. 9228.8 (d) Rs. 9338.8
Rs. 1 2 0 0 Rs. 1 4 0 0
(b) Rs. (d ) Rs.
1300 300
(e) N one o f these 26.
A
sum was invested at sim ple interest at a certain
interest for 2 years. It would have fetched Rs. 60 more had it been invested at 2% higher rate. W hat w as the sum ? (a) Rs. 1500 ' (e> Rs. 2500 (b) Rs. (d ) Rs. 1300 1000
20. What is the rate of simple interest for the first 4 years if the sum of,Rs. 360 becomes Rs. 540 in 9 years and the rate of interest for the last 5 years is 6%?
(a) 4% (c) 3.5%
(b) 5%
(c) 3%
(d)
6%
27. T he difference between sim ple and com pound interest on a sum o f m oney at 5% per annum is Rs. 25. What is the sum ?
21 Harsha makes a fixed deposit of Rs. 20,000 with the Bank of India for a period of 3 years. If the rate of
(a) Rs. 5000 (c) Rs. 4000
(b) Rs. 10,000 (d) D ata insufficient
226
How to Prepare fo r Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
28. A su m o f m o ney is b o rro w ed and paid back in two Rs. 882, allowing 5% co m p o u n d in te re st. The sum borrowed was
e q u a l a n n u al in sta lm e n ts o f (a )
(a) Rs. 200 (c) Rs. 400 37.
A
(b) Rs. 300 (d) Rs. 350
interest jn
Rs. 16 40
(b) Rs. 1680 (d) Rs. 1700 2 y e a rs and 3 years respectively. The interest was Rs.56. The sum (b) Rs. 700 (d) Rs. 780 Rs. 1750 at same as that on Rs. 2500 at bor
sum o f money becomes 4 times at simple 10 years. What is the rate o f interest? (b) 20% (c) 30%
(c) Rs. 1 6 2 0
p e r ann um fo r
(a) 10%
(d) 40%
29. T w o e q u a l su m s w e re borrowed at 8% simple interest
d iffe re n c e in the ro w e d w e re (a )
38. A sum o f money doubles itself in 5 years. In how many years will it becom e four fold (if interest is compounded)? (a) 15 (b) 10 (c) 20 (d) 12 39. A difference between the interest received from two different banks on Rs. 400 for 2 years is Rs. 4. What is the difference between their rates? (a) 0.5% (c) 0.23% (b) 0.2% (d) 0.52%
Rs. 690
(c) Rs. 740 9% per annum be the
30. In what time willthe simple interest on 10.5% per annum in 4 years? (a) 6 years and 8 months (b) 7 years and 3 months (c) 6 years (d) 7 years and 6 months
40. A sum o f money placed at com pound interest doubles itself in 3 years. In how m any years will it amount to 8 times itself? (a) 9 years (c) 27 years (b) 8 years (d) 7 years
31. In what time will Rs. 500 give Rs. 50 as interest at the rate o f 5% per annum simple interest? (a) 2 years (c) 3 years (b) 5 years (d) 4 years
41. If the compound interest on a certain sum for 2 years is Rs. 21. W hat could be the sim ple interest? (a) Rs. 20 (b) Rs. 16 (c) Rs. 18 (d) Rs. 20.5 42. Divide Rs. 6000 into two parts so that simple interest on the first part for 2 years at 6% p.a. may be equal to the simple interest on the second part for 3 years at 8% p.a. (a) Rs. 4000, Rs. (c) Rs. 3000, Rs. 2000 (b) Rs. 5000, Rs. 1000 3000 (d) N one o f these
32. Shashikant derives an annual income o f Rs. 688.25
from Rs. 10,000 invested partly at 8% p.a. and partly at 5% p.a. simple interest. How much o f his money is invested at 5% ? (a) Rs. 5000 (c) Rs. 4800 (b) Rs. 4225 (d) Rs. 3725
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33. If the difference between the simple interest and com pound interest on some principal amount at 20% per annum for 3 years is Rs. 48, then the principle amount must be (a) Rs. 550 (c) Rs. 375 Manoj for 4 years (b) Rs. 500 (d) Rs. 400 and received together from both
43. Divide Rs. 3903 betw een A m ar and Akbar such that Amar’s share at the end o f 7 years is equal to Akbar s share at the end o f 9 years at 4% p.a. rate of compound interest. (a) Amar = (b) Amar = (c) Amar = (d) Amar = Rs. 2028, A kbar = Rs.1875 Rs. 2008, A kbar = Rs. 1000 Rs. 2902, A kbar = Rs.1001 Rs. 2600, A kbar = Rs.1303
34. Raju lent Rs. 400 to Ajay for 2 years, and Rs.100 to Rs. 60 as interest. Find the rate o f interest, simple interest being calculated. (a) 5%
per (a )
(b) 6%
(c) 8%
(d) 9%
44. A sum o f money* becom es 7/4 o f itself in 6 years ata certain rate o f simple interest. Find the rate of interesl(a) (c) 12% 8% (b) 12(1/2)% (d) 14% *
35. in what time will Rs. 8000 amount to 40,000 at 4% annum? (simple interest being reckoned)
10 0
years
(b) 50 years (d) 160 years
(c) 110 years
36.
What annual payment will discharge a debt of Rs. 808 due in 2 years at 2% per annum?
45. Sanjay borrowed Rs. 900 at 4% p.a. and Rs. 1 5% p.a. for the same duration. He had to pay R5, ^ in all as interest. W hat is the tim e period in }'e (a) (c) 5 years 2 years (b) 3 years (d) 4 years
Chapter 7:
Interest
2 2 7
46. If the difference between compound and simple inter est on a certain sum o f money for 3 years at 2% p.a. is Rs. 604, what is the sum? (a) 5,00,000 (c) 5,10,000 (b) 4,50,000 (d) None of these
3. If
R s.
1100
is o b tain ed a fte r le n d in g o u t R s .
x a t 5%
p e r an n u m fo r
2
y e a rs an d R s .
1800
is o b ta in e d a fte r
le n d in g o u t R s . y a t
10%
p e r an n u m fo r
2
y e a rs , fin d
x + y.
47. If a certain sum o f money becomes double at simple interest in 12 years, what would be the rate o f interest per annum? (a) 8(1/3) (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 14 48. Three persons Amar, Akbar and Anthony invested different amounts in a fixed deposit scheme for one year at the rate o f 12% per annum and earned a total interest o f Rs. 3,240 at the end o f the year. If the amount invested by Akbar is Rs. 5000 more than the amount invested by Amar and the amount invested by Anthony is Rs. 2000 more than the amount invested by Akbar, what is the amount invested by Akbar? (a) Rs. 12,000 (c) Rs. 7000 (b) Rs. 10,000 (d) Rs. 5000
(a) Rs. 2500 (c) Rs. 2000 (e) Rs. 2250
(b) Rs. 3000 (d) Rs. 2200
D irections f o r Q uestions 4 6 : Read the following and an
swer the questions that follow. 4. certain sum o f money was lent under the following repayment scheme based on Simple Interest:
A
8% per annum for the initial 2 years 9.5% per annum for the next 4 years 11% per annum for the next 2 years 12% per annum after the first 8 years Find the amount which a sum o f Rs. 9000 taken for 12 years becomes at the end o f 12 years. (a) 20,200 (b) 19,800 (e) None o f these (c) 20,000 (d) 20,160
49. A sum of Rs. 600 amounts to Rs. 720 in 4 years at Simple Interest. W hat will it amount to if the rate of interest is increased by 2%? (a) Rs. 648 (b) Rs. 768 (c) Rs. 726 (d) Rs. 792 50. What is the amount o f equal instalment, if a sum of Rs. 1428 due 2 years hence has to be completely repaid in 2 equal annual instalments starting next year. (a) 700 (c) 650 (b) 800 (d) Cannot be determined
5. If a person repaid Rs. 22,500 after 10 years o f borrow ing a loan, at 10% per annum simple interest find out what amount did he take as a loan? :  § 11,225 (c) 10,000 (e) None o f these (b) 11,250 (d) 7500
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Level of Difficulty (LOD)
1 A sum o f m oney invested a t sim ple interest triples
itself in 8 years at sim ple interest. Find in how many
6. Mr. X , a very industrious person, wants to establish his own unit. For this he needs an instant loan o f Rs. 5,00,000 and, every five years he requires an addi tional loan o f Rs. 100,000. If he had to clear all his outstandings in 20 years, and he repays the principal of the first loan equally over the 20 years, find what amount he would have to pay as interest on his initial borrowing if the rate of interest is 10% p.a. Simple Interest. (a) Rs. 560,000 (c) Rs. 525,000 (e) None o f these (b) Rs. 540,000 (d) Rs. 500,000
years will it becom e 8 tim es itself at the sam e rate? (a) 24 years • (b) 28 years (c) 30 years (d) 21 years (e) 25 years 2. A sum of money invested at sim ple interest triples itself in 8 years. How m any tim es will it becom e in 20
yean time? (a) 8 times <c) 6 times fe) None o f these (b) 7 tim es (d) 9 tim es
7. The population o f a city is 200,000. If the annual birth rate and the annual death rate are 6% and 3% respec tively, then calculate the population o f the city after 2
years. (a) 212,090 (c) 212,000 (e) 215,000 (b) 206,090 (d) 212,180
2 2 8
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
8.
at 6% per six months. T h e re st o f the am o unt is le n t o u t at 5% per annum a fte r o ne y e a r. T h e ratio o f interest after 3 years from the time w 'hen first amount was lent out is 5 : 4. Find
A p a rt o f R s . le n t o u t
38,800 is
14. F in d the co m p o u n d in te re s t at th e ra te o f io % f
,
years
(a )
on th at p rin c ip a l w h ic h in 3 y e a rs at the rate Qf
10% p er an n u m g iv e s R s . 3 0 0 a s s im p le interest. R s. R s.
the se co n d part that was lent out at 5%. (a) Rs. 26,600 (c) Rs. 27,500 (e) None o f these 9. If the simple interest is 10.5% annual and compound interest is 10% annual, find the difference between the interests after 3 years on a sum o f Rs. 1000. <a) (c) (e) Rs. i5 Rs. 16 Rs. 10 (b) Rs. 12 (d) Rs. 11 (b) Rs. 28,800 (d) Rs. 28,000
(c)
331 330
(b ) (d )
R s. R s.
310 333
(e ) N o n e o f th ese 15 . T h e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n C l a n d S I o n a c e rta in sum of m o n ey a t 10 % p e r a n n u m fo r
3 y e a rs
is R s .
620. Find
the p rin c ip a l i f it is k n o w n th a t th e in te re st is com pou nd ed a n n u a lly . (a ) R s. R s. R s.
(c)
(e )
20(1,000 10.000 125,000
(b )
R s. R s.
(J)
20,000 100,000
16.
T h e p o p u la tio n o f M a n g a lo re w a s 1 2 8 3 5 7 5 on 1 Janu a ry 20 01 an d th e g ro w th ra te o f p o p u la tio n w as 10% in th e la s t y e a r an d 5 % in th e y e a rs p r io r to it . the only e x c e p tio n b e in g
10. A sum o f Rs. 1000 after 3 years at compound interest becomes a certain amount that is equal to the amount that is the result o f a 3 year depreciation from Rs. 1728. Find the difference between the rates of C l and depreciation. (Given C l is 10% p.a.). (Approximately) (a) 3.33% (c) 3% (e) 2% 11. The RBI lends a certain amount to the SBI on simple interest for two years at 20%. The SBI gives this (b) 0.60% (d) 1%
1999 w h e n
b e c a u se o f a hug e exodus in p o p u la tio n . W hat was 1995?
th e re w a s a d e c lin e o f 2 0 % th e p o p u la tio n o n Ja n u a ry 1 . (a ) (c ) 1 ,0 0 0 .0 0 0
(b ) 1 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 id ) 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
1,250,000
(e ) N o n e o f th e se
17. 2001 www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/ www.catdreamz.blogspot.in/
A c c o rd in g to th e
c e n s u s , th e p o p u la tio n growth
ra te o f L u c k n o w is g o in g to b e a n in c re a s in g A P with f ir s t y e a r 's ra te a s 5 % a n d c o m m o n d iffe re n c e as 5%, b u t s im u lta n e o u s ly th e m ig ra tio n , ra te is an increasing
entire amount to Bharti Telecom on compound interest for two years at the same rate annually. Find the percentage earning o f the SBI at the end o f two years on the entire amount. (a) 4% (c) 3(2/7)% (b) 3(1/7)% (d) 3(6/7)%
GP
w ith f ir s t te rm a s 1 % a n d c o m m o n ra tio o f 2. If
p o p u la tio n o n 31 D e c e m b e r
2000
is 1 m illio n , then
fin d in w h ic h y e a r w ill L u c k n o w w itn e s s its firs t fall in p o p u la tio n ? (a )
(e) Cannot be determined 12. Find the compound interest on Rs. 64.000 for 1 year at the rate o f 10% per annum com pounded quarterly (to the nearest integer). (a) Rs. 8215 (c) Rs. 8185 (e) None o f these (b) Rs. 8205 (d) Rs. 8225
2005
(b ) 2006
(c )
2007
(d )
2008
(e ) N e v e r 1 8 . M o h it A n a n d b o rro w s a c e rta in su m o f m oney from th e A M S B a n k a t 10 % p e r a n n u m a t co m p o u n d inter
est.
T h e e n tire d e b t is d is c h a rg e d in f u ll b y Mohit
A n a n d o n p a y m e n t o f tw o e q u a l a m o u n ts o f R s . KHW e a c h , o n e a t th e e n d o f th e f ir s t y e a r a n d the other» th e e n d o f th e se c o n d y e a r. W h a t is th e approxim ate v a lu e o f th e a m o u n t b o rro w e d b y h im ? (a ) R s . 1 8 5 2
(c )
13. If a principal P becomes Q in 2 years when interest
R% is com pounded halfyearly. A nd if the same
principal P becomes Q in 2 years when interest S% is compound annually, then w hich o f the following is true. (a) R > S (C) R < S (e) None o f these (b ) R = S (d ) R < D
(b ) R s . 1 7 3 6 (d ) R s . 1 7 9 2
R s . 1694
(e ) N o n e o f th e se 1 9 . In o rd e r to b u y a c a r , a m a n b o rro w e d R s . 18 0 ,0 0 0 o’ the c o n d itio n th a t h e h a d to p a y
7.5%
in te re st equa*
nil'1 1 '
y e a r. H e a ls o a g re e d to re p a y th e p rin c ip a l i n  a n n u a l in s ta lm e n ts o v e r 2 1 y e a r s . A f t e r a ce rta in
Chapter 7:
Interest
2 2 9
j
I
ber o f years, however, the rate o f interest has been reduced to 7%. It is also know n that at the end o f the agreed period, he w ill have paid in all Rs. 270,900 in interest. For how m any years does he pay at the re duced interest rate?
(a) 7 years (c) 14 years (e) 15 years (b ) 12 years (d ) 16 years
(a) 3.5% (c) 5.5% (e) 5%
(b) 4.5% (d) 6.5%
^
25. Som e am ount w as lent at 6% p er annum sim ple inter est. A fter one year, Rs. 6800 is repaid and the rest of the am ount is repaid at 5% per annum . If the second year’s interest is 11/20 o f the first year's interest, find what am ount o f m oney w as lent out. (a) Rs. 17,000 (c) Rs. 16,500 (e) N one o f these (b) Rs. 16,800 (d) Rs. 17,500
20. A sum o f Rs. 8000 is borrow ed at 5% p.a. com pound interest and paid back in 3 equal annual instalm ents. W hat is the am ount o f each instalm ent? (a) Rs. 2937.67 (c) Rs. 2037.67 (e) N one o f these 21. Three am ounts x , y and z are such that y is the sim ple interest on x and z is the sim ple interest on y . I f in all the three cases, rate o f interest p er annum and the tim e for which interest is calculated is the sam e, then find the relation betw een (a) x y z = 1 (c) z j g  p (e) N one o f these ft th t } ig If in
y and
(b ) Rs.
3000
<d) Rs. 2739.76
26. An am ount o f Rs. 12820 due 3 years hence, is fully repaid in three annual instalm ents starting after 1 year. T he first instalm ent is 1/2 the second instalm ent and the second instalm ent is 2/3 o f the third instalm ent. If the rate o f interest is 10% per annum , find the first instalm ent. (a) Rs. 2400 (c) Rs. 2000 (b) Rs. 1800 (d) Rs. 2500
zyz xz
(b ) x 2 = (d) y 2
D ire c tio n s f o r Q u e stio n s 2 7 2 8 : Read the follow ing and
answ er the questions that follow. T he leading Indian bank ISBI, in the afterm ath o f the K argil episode, announced a loan schem e for the Indian Army. U n d er this schem e; the follow ing options w ere avail able.
L o a n s upto S o ft loan Interest (N orm al)
22. A person lent out so m e m oney fo r 1 y ea r at 6% per annum sim ple interest a n d after 18 m onths, he again lent out the sam e m o n ey a t a sim ple interest o f 24% per annum . In b o th th e cases, h e g o t Rs. 4704. W hich o f these could b e the am ount that w as lent out in each case if interest is p aid h alfyearly? (a) Rs. 40 0 0 (c) Rs. 42 0 0 (e) Rs. 3800 23. A person b o ught a m o to rb ik e u n d er the follow ing (b ) R s. 44 0 0 (d ) R s. 3600
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Schem e 1 Schem e 2 Schem e 3 Schem e 4
Rs. 50,000 Rs. 75,000 Rs. 100.000 Rs. 200,000
50% o f total 40% o f total 30% o f total 20% o f total
.8% 10% 12% 14%
scheme: D ow n paym en t o f R s. 15,000 and the rest amount at 8% p e r an n u m fo r 2 years. In th is way, he
1 1 )1
Soft loan is a p art o f the total loan and the interest on this lo an is h a lf the norm al rate o f interest charged. 27. Soldier A took som e loan under schem e 1, soldier B under schem e 2, soldier C under schem e 3 and soldier
D u n d er schem e 4. If they g et the m axim um loan
paid Rs. 28,920 in total. F in d the actual price o f the motorbike. (A ssum e sim ple interest). (a) Rs. 26,000 (c) Rs. 27,200 (b ) R s. 27,000 (d ) R s. 26,500
u n d er th e ir resp ectiv e schem es fo r one year, find w hich loan is M U L (M U L, M axim um Utility Loan, is defined as the ratio o f the total loan to interest paid over the tim e. L ow er this ratio the better the M UL). (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D
^
(e) Rs. 28,000 24. Hans K um ar borro w s R s: 7 0 0 0 a t sim ple interest from the village m oneylender. A t the end o f 3 years, he again borrow s Rs. 3000 an d clo ses h is account after paying Rs. 4615 as interest afte r 8 years from the time he m ade the first borrow ing. F in d the rate o f interest.
28. E xtending this plan, ISB I fu rth er announced that w idow s o f all the m artyrs can get the loans in w hich the proportion o f soft loan w ill be double. T his
/j
r I
230l
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
loan component die firs t year. For all subsequent y e a rs, the so ft lo an com ponent applicable on the loan, fo llo w s the valu e s p ro vid ed in the table. The widow of a so ld ie r takes R s . 40.000 under scheme 1 in one account fo r 1 year and Rs. 60,000 under scheme 2 fo r 2 y e a rs. Find the total interest paid by her over the 2 y e a r period. (a ) Rs. 11,600 (b) Rs. 10,000 (c) Rs. 8800 (d) None o f these
in cre ase in the proportion o f the so ft is o n ly ap p lica b le fo r
in g rate h as to b e m o re th an th e h a lf y e a rly comp0Und in g ra te . H e n ce S > R .
15. S o lv e th ro u g h o p tio n s an d u se p e rcen tag e changc
g ra p h ic.
16. I f P is the p o p u la tio n o n 1 Ja n u a ry 1995 then P x 1.05 x 1.05 x 1.05 x 1.05 x 0.8 x 1.1 = 128357*
U s e o p tio n s an d p e rce n tag e c h a n g e g ra p h ic to calcu. la te .
29. A sum is divided between A and B in the ratio of 1 : 2. A purchased a car from his part, which depreciates 142% per annum and B deposited his amount in a bank, which pays him 20% interest per annum com pounded annually. By what percentage will the total sum of money increase after two years due to this investment pattern (approximately). (a) 20% (c) 30% (b) 26.66% (d) 25%
20. 8000 x (1.05)3 = x x (1.05)2 + * x (1.05) + 24. S o lv e th ro u g h o p tio n s. 2728 .T h e m ean in g o f th e ta b le is U n d e r S ch em e 1 th e m a x im u m b o rro w in g allowed is R s . 50000. T h e n o rm a l in te re s t to b e charged is 8%
p er annum and fo r th e s o ft lo a n co m p o n en t 4% per annum h a s to b e c h a rg e d . It is a ls o g iv e n th at 50% of the lo a n ta k e n is th e s o ft lo a n co m p o n e n t.
29. D iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e to ta l v a lu e s a t th e start and at
the end is 2 0 0 x 1.2 x L 2 + 1 0 0 X y X y j  (2 0 0 + 100)
30. Michael Bolton has $90,000 with him. He purchases a car, a laptop and a flat for $15,000, $13,000 and $35,000 respectively and puts the remaining money in a bank deposit that pays compound interest @ 15% per annum. After 2 years, he sells off the three items at 80% of their original price and also withdraws his entire money from the bank by closing the account. What is the total change in his asset? (a) 4.5% (c) 4.32% (b) +3.5% (d) +5.5%
30. F in a l asse ts = 63000 x 0.8 + 27000 x '( 1 .1 5 )2
C a lc u la te u s in g p e rc e n ta g e c h a n g e g ra p h ic .
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Detailed Solutions & Short Cuts
LOD I 1. The annual interest w ould be Rs. 60. After 3 years the total value w ould be 1200 + 60 x 3 = 1380
io% T , io% T
Hints and Solutions
3.
X
1400 + 1540 Interest in 2 years = Rs. 240. Interest per year = Rs. 120 Rate o f interest = 10% 7. 12500 @ 10% sim ple interest w ould give an interest of Rs. 1250 per annum . F o r a total interest of 8s 5000, it w ould take 4 years. 9. 8% @ 700 as Rs. 56 per year fo r 3 years 7.5% @ 700 = Rs. 52.5 p er year for 2 yea*5 Total interest = 56 x 3 + 52.5 x 2 = 273. 11. Simple interest @ 23% as 46 0 0 x 2 = 9200 Compound interest @ 20% > 24000 — » Rs. 8800 com pound interest. Difference = 9200  8800 = Rs. 400.
20% t _ 20% T
+ 6.1* = 1100
y 1 0.2y = 1800
6. Interest will be charged on the initial amount bor rowed, on the amount of principal still to be paid. 7. Required value = 200000 x (1.03)2 (Solve using percentage change graphic) 9. (1.105)3 x 1000  1.3 x 1000 12. 64000 x (1.025)4 13. Halfyearly compounding always increases the value of the amount more than annual compounding. Since, increase over 2 years is equal, the annual compound
20000
f
2 8 8 0 0
Chapter 7:
Interest
2 31
12. 1000
l0* T > 1100 —!g*T > 1210
■ >
4.
S im ila r ly
‘
y = R s . 15 0 0 . y = 2500.
1331. Compound interest = 1331  1000 = Rs. 331 14. P x 7 /6 x 7/6 = 196  > P = ( 1 9 6 x 6 x 6 ) / 7 x 7 = 1 4 4 . 16. Since compunding is h alf yearly, it is clear that the rate o f interest changed for 6 m onths w ould b e 3 %
3%t ) 3399. 18. Solve through options: 10000  20* 1 > 12000 — — 17280. 22. 50000 — > 53000 —— > 14400 3300
x +
9 0 0 0 + 7 2 0 + 7 2 0 + 85 5 + 8 5 5 + 85 5 + 8 5 5 + 9 9 0 + 9 9 0 + 1 0 8 0 + 10 80 + 10 80 + 1080 = 9 0 0 0 + 7 2 0 x 2 + 85 5 § 20160
x
4 + 9 9 0 x 2 + 1080 x 4
6.
T h e sim p le in te re st w o u ld be d e fin e d on the b a sis o f th e su m o f th e A P . 50000 + 4 7 5 0 0 + 45 00 0 + . . . + 2500 = 525000.
8.
F x ( 0 .0 6 ) x 6 I  = 5/4 (3 8 8 0 0  F ) x 0 .0 5 x 2
w h e re F is th e f ir s t p a rt. 1 .4 4 F = 1 9 4 0 0  0 .5 F
56180
59550.8 — — T> 63123.84 — — 24. (73/365) x 0.09 x 700 = Rs. 1 2 .6 . (Since the tim e period is 7 3 days)
> 6 6 9 1 1 .2 7
F = 1 9 4 0 0 /1 .9 4 = 1 0 00 0.
T h u s , th e se co n d p a rt = 3 8 8 0 0  10 0 0 0 = 2 8 8 0 0 1 0 . T h e am o u n t @ 1 0 % C l c o u ld b eco m e R s . 13 31 .
26. Based on the inform ation we have, we can s a y th at there w ould have been Rs. 3 0 extra interest per y e a r. For 2% o f the principal to be equal to Rs. 30, th e principal am ount should be Rs. 1 5 0 0 28. 882 x (1.05) + 882 = P x (1 .0 5 )2 Solve for P to get P = 1 6 4 0 31. Interest per year = Rs. 25. Thus, an interest o f Rs. 50 would be earned in 2 years. 34. Total effective am ount lent for 1 year
A ls o , R s . 17 28 d e p re cia te d a t R % h as to becom e R s . 1331. T h u s, 1728 x [(1 0 0 /? )/1 0 0 ]3 = 1331 (a p p ro x im a te ly ). T h e c lo se s t v a lu e o f R = 8 % T h u s , th e d iffe re n c e is 2 % .
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1 2 . 6 4 0 0 0 x (1 .0 2 5 )4 = 7 0 6 4 4 .0 2 5 . In te re st 6 6 4 4 .0 2 5 O p tio n (e ) no n e o f th e se is c o rre c t. 1 5 . G o th ro u g h tr ia l an d e rro r o f th e o p tio n s. Y o u w ill g e t: 2 0 0 0 0 x (1 .3 ) = 2 6 0 0 0 (@ sim p le in te re st) 2 0 0 0 0 x 1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1 = 2 6 6 2 0 @ com p ound in te re st. T h u s 2 0 0 0 0 is the c o rre c t an sw e r. 1 7 . P o p u la tio n g ro w th ra te acco rd in g to th e p ro b le m : Y e a r 1 = 5 % , y e a r 2 = 10% , y e a r 3 = 15% Y e ar 4 = 20% , year 5 = 25% , year 6 = 30% . P o p u la tio n d e crease due to m ig ra tio n : Y e ar 1 = 1 % , year 2 = 2% , year 3 = 4% Y e ar 4 = 8 % , year 5 = 16% , year 6 = 32% . T h u s , th e f ir s t f a ll w o u ld hap pen in 2 0 0 6 . 1 9 . S o lv e th is o ne th ro u g h o p tio n s. O p tio n (c ) reduced
= Rs. 400 x 2 + Rs. 100 x 4 = Rs. 1 2 0 0 Interest being Rs. 60, R ate o f interest 5% 36. A x (1.02) + A = 808 x (1 .0 2 )2 > A = Rs. 4 0 0 40. If it doubles in 3 years, it would become 4 times in 6 year and 8 tim es in 9 years. 42. 12% o f jc = 24% o f (6 0 0  x )  » x = 4 0 0 0 Thus, the tw o pants should b e Rs. 4000 and Rs. 2 0 0 0 . 44. The total interest in 6 years = 7 5 % Thus per year = SI = 12.5% 47. 100/12 = 8.33% 50. The rate o f interest is not defined. Hence, option (d) is c o rre c t
LOD I I
1. In 8 years, the interest earned = 200% Thus, per year interest rate = 200/8 = 25% To become 8 times w e need a 700% increase 700/25 = 28 years. 3. x « Rs. 1000 (As 1000 @ 5% for 2 years = 1100).
ra te fo r 14 y e a rs fits the c o n d itio n s. 2 2 . 4 2 0 0 + (4 % o f 4 2 0 0 ) 3 tim e s = 4 2 0 0 + 0 .0 4 x 3 x 4200 = 4704. 2 4 . T h e in te re st w o u ld be p a id on 7 0 0 fo r 3 y e a rs + 10 00 0 fo r 5 y e a rs. @ 6 .5 % the to ta l in te re st fo r 8 y e a rs = 1365 + 3 2 5 0 = R s. 4615
m\
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptituc*
fe for the CAT
. 27. Interest for A = 6% o f 50000. Interest for B, C and D the interest is more than 6%. Thus A *s loan is MUL.
The final v a lu e w o u ld be: 0.8 x 6 3 0 0 0 + 2 7 0 0 0 x 1.15 — > D ro p in v a lu e = 4 .3 2 %
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Chapter 7:
Interest 
233
ANSWER KEY
Interest L O D I
ii a 2. c O' 31. a 32. d 33. c 34. a 35. a 36. e 37. c 38. b 39. a 40. a 41. a 42. a 43. a 44. b ,
4. c 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. a 9. c 10. e 11. a 12. a 13. a 14. e 15. b 16. a 17. b 18. a 19. a 20. b 21. c 22. a 23. c 24. a 25. a 26. a 27. d 28. a 29. b 30. a
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45, d 46. a 47. a 48. b 49. b 50. d
.
r
2 3 4 I How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Interest LOD II 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. b 6. c 7. d 8. b 9. c 10. e 11. a 12. e 13. c 14. a 15. b 16. b 17. b 18. b 19. c 20. a 21.. d 22. c 23. b 24. d 25. a 26. c 27. a 28. b 29. a 30. c
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'
—
□
RATIO, PROPORTION AND VARIATION
INTRODUCTION
The concept of ratio, proportion and variation is an impor tant one for the aptitude examinations. Questions based on this chapter have been regularly asked in the CAT exam (direct or application based). In fact, questions based on this concept regularly appear in all aptitude tests (XLRI, CET, NMIMS, Symbiosis, NIFT, IRMA, bank PO etc.). Besides, this concept is very important in the area of Data Interpretation, where ratio change and ratio compari sons are very popular question types.
The Calculation of a ratio: Percentage an d decimal values The calculation o f ratio is principally on the same lines as the calculation of a percentage value. Hence, you should see it as: The ratio 2/4 has a percentage value of 50% and it has a decimal value o f 0.5. It should be pretty obvious to you that in order to find out the decimal value o f any ratio, calculate the percentage value using the percentage rule method illustrated in the chapter of percentage and then shift the decimal point 2 places to the left. Thus a ratio which has a percentage value o f 62.47% will have a decimal value of 0.6247.
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RATIO
When comparing any two numbers, sometimes, it is neces sary to find out how many times one number is greater (or less) than the other. In other words, we often need to express one number as a fraction o f the other. In general, the ratio of a number * to a number y is defined as the quotient of the numbers x and y. The numbers that form the ratio are called the terms of the ratio. The numerator of the ratio is called the antecedent and the denominator is called the consequent of the ratio. The ratio may be taken for homogenous quantities or for heterogeneous quantities. In the first case, the ratio has no •wit (or is unitless), while in the second case, the unit o f the ratio is based on the units of the numerator and that of the denominator. Ratios can be expressed as percentages. To express the value of a ratio as a percentage, we multiply the ratio by 100.
Th u s, 4/5 d
Some Im portant Properties of Ratios
1. If we multiply the numerator and the denominator o f a ratio by the same number, the ratio remains unchanged. rp. . That is,
a
— = b mb
ma
2. If we divide the numerator and the denominator of a ratio by the same number, the ratio remains un changed. Thus
0.8 * 80%
3, Denominator equation method: The magnitudes of two ratios can be compared by equating the denominators of the two ratios and then checking for the value of the numerator.
2 3 6
How to P repare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CA T
1
Hence, you can safely assum e that the area of equilateral triangle w ill have V3 in its answer 7 ? only case w hen this gets negated would be when value o f the side has a com ponent which has fourth root o f three. 6. The m ultiplication o f the ratios — and ~ yie]^.
a /b x c /d =
T hus, if we have to check for 8/3 We can compare vs 11/4
vs
(8 x 1 3 3 ) (3x1.33)
11
That is.
< — 4 In fact, the value o f a ratio has a direct relationship w ith the value o f the num erator o f the ratio. A t the sam e time, it has an inverse relationship with the
deno m in ato r o f the ratio. Since the denom inator has
10.66
bd
7. When the ratio a/b is compounded with itself resulting ratio is ar/b and is called the duplicate ratio. Similarly, a 3/i>3 is the triplicate ratio and
b0 5 is the subduplicate ratio o f alb.
an inverse relationship w ith the ratio’s value, it in volves an unnecessary inversion in the m inds o f the reader. H en ce, in m y opinion, w e should look at
m aintaining constancy in th e denom inator and work
8. If
a/b = c/d — e / f — g / h =
k then
all th e req u isite calcu latio n s on the num erato r's
basis. T h e read er should recall here the Product Con stancy T able (or the denom inator change to ratio change table) explained in the chapter o f percentages to understand the m echanics o f how a change in the d eno m in ato r affects the value o f the ratio. A clear u n d erstan d in g o f these dynam ics w ill help the b ased o n ratios. student becom e m uch faster in solving the problem s
k = Ca + c + e + g)
(b + d + f + h)
9. If tij/fcj, a 2/b2, ajb3 ... a j b n are unequal fractions Then the ratio:
(1 ,
( a i + a 2 + a 3 + ... + a „ )
(b\ + bi +b$ + ...b„)
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{alb) ( c /d ) ad be
4.
T h e ratio o f tw o fractions can b e expressed as a ratio o f tw o integers. T hus the ratio:
lies between the low est and the highest of these fractions. 10. If we have two equations containing three unknowns as
ayX + b {y + c ,z = 0 a 2* + b^y + c 2z = 0
y
and
(U (2)
a /b : c /d =
Then, the value o f *,
and z cannot be resolved
5. If either o r b oth the term s o f a ratio are a surd quan
tity, then the ratio will never evolve into integral n um bers unless the surd quantities are equal. Use this p rinciple to spot options in questions having surds.
.
without having a third equation. However, in the absence o f a third equation, we can find the proportion x : y : z. This w ill be given by
b\C2  b2Cy: cxa 2  c 2a t : a lb2  a2b v
This can be remembered by writing as
E x a m p le : — j = can never be represented by integers.
follow s.
If
T his principle can also be understood in other words a s follow s: S uppose w hile solving a questions, you com e across a situation w here V3 appears as a part o f the process. In such a case, it w ould be safe to assume that V3 w ill also be part o f the answer. Since the only way the V3 can be rem oved from the answ er is by multi p lying o r dividing the expression by \ 3 . T h u s for instance, the form ula for the area o f an equi lateral triangle is (V3/4)a .
F ig. 8 .1
M ultiply the coefficients across the arrow in always taking a m ultiplication as positive ^ row points dow nw ards and taking it as negateve arrow points upwards. Thus x corresponds to b xc2  b 2C\ and so on* ^ j
Chapter 8:
Ratio. Proportion and Variation
2 3 7
II. If the
ra tio a lb
ity ) and
> I< called a ratio of it k is a positive number: and
g re a te r in e q u a l
F u rth e r, i f it w e re g iv e n th a t A ’ s s a la ry w a s c o u ld d e riv e th e v a lu e s o f C ’s s a la ry (a s
800, y o u
1500).
(a + k ilib + J) < tj/b
(<?  A)/( b  A) > a lb
SHORTCUT
fo r th is p ro c e ss:
Similarly if a lb < I then
(a t k)l(b + k) > a /b
T h e L C M p ro c e ss g e ts v e ry cu m b e rso m e e s p e c ia lly i f y o u
and
(a  k )l(b  k ) < a lb
a re try in g to c re a te a b rid g e b e tw e e n m o re th a n
3
q u a n titie s .
(The student should try assuming certain values and check the results] 12. Maintenance o f equality w hen numbers arc added in both the numerator and the denom inators This if best illustrated through an example:
20/30 = (20 + 2)/(30 + 3)
S u p p o se , y o u h a v e th e ra tio tra in a s fo llo w s :
A:B = 2 :3 B C = 4 :5
( P = 6 :1 1
!):L
= 12:17
In o rd e r to c re a te o n e c o n so lid a te d ra tio fo r th is s itu a tio n u s in g th e L C M p ro c e ss b e co m e s to o 'o n g . T h e sh o rt c u t g o e s a s fo llo w s :
i.e. a lb = (a + c)l(b + d ) if and only if d d = alb. In other words, the ratio o f the additions should be equal to the original ratio to maintain equality of ratios when tw o different numbers are added in the
num erator and denom inator. Consequently, if d d > a lb then (a + c )l(b + d ) > alb and if d d < a lb then (a + c V (b + d) < a lb The practical applications o f (11) and (12) is o f im mense im portance fo r the CA T and other aptitude exams.
A :B :C :D :E c a n b e w ritte n d ir e c tly a s :
2 x 4 x 6 5 x 11 x x 12 : 3 x 4 x 6 x 1 2 : 3 x 5 x 6 x 1 2 : 3 x
17
T he thought algorithm fo r this case goes as:
T o g e t th e c o n so lid a te d ra tio A :B :C :D :E , A w ill c o rre s p o n d to th e p ro d u ct o f a ll n u m e ra to rs (2 x 4 x 6 x 1 2 ) w h ile
B
w ill ta k e th e fir s t, d e n o m in a to r an d th e la s t 3 n u m e ra to rs (3 x 4 x 6 x 1 2 ). C o n th e o th e r h a n d ta k e s th e f ir s t tw o
M A T H EM A TIC A L U S E S O F R A T IO S
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x 11 x 1 7 ). D 4 then s :
d e n o m in a to rs an d th e la s t 2 n u m e ra to rs ( 3 x 5 x 6 x 1 2 ) , D ta k e s th e fir s t 3 d e n o m in a to rs an d the la s t n u m e ra to r (3 x 5 x 1 1 x 1 2 ) and E ta k e s a ll th e fo u r d e n o m in a to rs ( 3 x 5
Use 1
As a b rid g e b etw een 3 o r m o re q u a n titie s: Suppose you have a ratio relationship given between the salaries o f two individuals A and B. Further, if there is another ratio relationship between B and C. Then, by com bining the tw o ratios, you can come up with a single con solidated ratio betw een A , B and C. T his ratio will give you
the relationship betw een A and C.
In m a th e m a tic a l te rm s th is c a n b e w ritte n a s : I f a lb = N i l D ^ b lc = N J 0 2, d d = ,V3/ 0 3 an d d i e = N 4I
b :
c . d . e 
N {N 2N K N ^ : D ,N 2iV3A/4:
D }D ?N v\ i :D xD 2D }N A:D rD 1n }lD 4
Use 2
R a tio a s a M u lt ip lie r T h is is th e m o st co m m o n u se o f R a tio s :
Illu stratio n
The Ratio o f A’s salary to B 's salary is 2:3. T he ratio o f B 's
If
A:B
is
3 : 1,
th en th e v a lu e o f
B
h a s to b e m u ltip lie d b y
3
to g et th e v a lu e o f A .
salary to C’s salary is 4:5. W hat is the ratio o f A ’s salary to C’s salary ?
Using th e co n v e n tio n a l p ro ce ss in th is case: Take the LCM o f 3 and 4 (the tw o values representing B ’s amount). The LCM is 12. Then, convert B 's value in each ratio to 12. Thus, Ratio 1 f 8/12 and R atio 2 = 12/15
CALCULATION METHODS related to RATIOS (A) Calculation methods for Ratio comparisons:
T h e re c o u ld be fo u r b ro ad c a se s w h e n y o u m ig h t b e re q u ire d to d o ra tio c o m p a ris o n s: T h e ta b le b e lo w c le a r ly illu s tra te s th e se :
N um erator D enom inator R atio
C ase I C ase 2 Increases Increases D ecreases Increases Increase M ay Increase o r D ecrease
C alculations
N ot req u ired R eq u ired
Thus. A :B :C Hence. A:C
= 8:12:15
= 8:15
2 3 8 I How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Case 3 Case 4 __
Decreases Increases Decreases Decreases
Decreases Not required May Increase or Decrease Required
able to use this m ethod effectively. (This is also true the next method.) However, once you can calculate p^. centage values o f 3 digit ratios to 1% range, there is no{ much that can stop you in com paring ratios. The Cat and all other aptitude exam s norm ally do not challenge you to calculate further than the 1% range when you are looking at ratio com parisons. 3. N u m era to r d e n o m in a to r p e rc e n ta g e change methodThere is another way in w hich you can co m p a re clo se ratio* like 173/212 and 181/225. F or this m e th o d , you need to calculate the percentage changes in th e n u m e rato r and the denominator. Thus: 173 — > 181 is a % increase o f 4  5% While 212 — > 225 is a % increase o f 6 —7%. In this case, since the denom inator is increasing more than the numerator, the second ratio is smaller. This method is the m ost pow erful m eth o d fo r comparing close ratios— provided you are good w ith y o u r percentage rule calculations. (B) M ethod fo r ca lc u latin g th e v alu e o f a percentage change in th e ratio : PCG (Percentage C hange G raphic) g iv e s u s a convenient
In case 2 and 4 in the table, calculations will be neces sitated. In such a situation, the following process can be used fo r ratio comparisons. 1. T h e C ro ss M ultiplication M ethod Two ratios can be compared using the cross multiplication method as follows. Suppose you have to compare 12/15 with 15/19 Then, to test which ratio is h ig h e r c ro s s m u ltip ly and compare 12 x 19 and 15 x 17. If 12 x 19 is bigger the Ratio 12/17 w ill b e b ig g er. I f 15
x 17 is higher, the ratio
higher.
N o te :
15/19 w ill be h ig h e r.
In this case, 15 x 17 b e in g h ig h e r, th e R a tio 15/19 is
In real time usage (esp. in D.I.) th is m etho d is highly impractical and calculating th e p ro d u ct m ig h t be more cumbersome than calculating the percentage v a lu e s. Thus, this method will n o t b e a b le to te ll y o u the a n sw e r
if you have to compare —— with — —
J v
5624 5783
.
:
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3743 3821 173 181
2. P ercentage value com parison m ethod:
c ™
Suppose you have to co m p are : — — w ith
•
.
In such a case just b y e stim a tin g the 10% ran g es fo r each ratio you can c le a rly see th a t — the first ratio is > 8 0 % w h ile the seco n d ra tio is < 8 0 % Hence, the first ratio is o b v io u sly g rea ter. This method is e x tre m e ly c o n ve n ie n t i f the tw o ra tio s have their values in d iffe re n t 10% ra n g e s. However, this problem w ill becom e s lig h tly m ore d if f i cult, if the two ratios fa ll in the sam e 10% ran g e. T h u s , i f you had to compare ,73/2J2 w ith 18,/225. both the v a lu e s would give values betw een 8 0  9 0 % . T h e n e x t step w o uld be to calculate the 1% ran g e. The first ratio here is 81  82 % w h ile the second ra tio lies between 8 0  81 % Hence the first ratio is th e laiger of the tw o . For this method to be effective for you, you’ll first need to master the percentage rule method for cal culating the percentage value of a ratio. Hence if you cannot see that 169.6 is 80% o f 212 or for that matter that 81% o f 212 is 171,72 and 82% is 172.84 you will not be
N o te :
method to calculate the value o f the p e rce n tag e change in a ratio. Suppose, you have to calculate the p e rcen tag e change between 2 ratios. This has to b e done in tw o stages as: Original Ratio — 1 Bffectof > Intermediate R a tio
numerator
— — 9 of » Final Ratio
Denominator
Thus if 20/40 becomes 22/50 Effect o f numerator = 20 — » 22(10% increase) Effect o f denominator = 50 — > 40(25% decrease) (* * ■ I verse fashion) Overall effect on the ratio: 1 0 0 _L°?T >
Numerator Effect
no
■ 25%i~> 82.5
Denominator Effect
Hence, overall effect = 17.5% decrease. P R O P O R T IO N When two ratios are equal, the four quantities compoSll,r I them are said to be proportionals. Thus if a /b = c/d, ih® ® I b% c, d are proportionals. This is expressed by saying ^ i is to b as c is to d, and the proportion is written as
H
P
Chapter 8. Ratio, Proportion and Variation 239
a : b :: c : d
or
a :b s c ;d
• The term s a and d are c a lle d the extremes while the
terms b and c are c a lle d the m eans.
(b) Calculation implication: If A increases by 10%, B will also increase by 10% (c) G raphical implications: The following graph is rep resentative of this situation.
 If fo u r q u a n titie s are in proportion, the product of (be extrem es is equal to th e product of the means. Let a, by c, d be the proportionals. Then b y d e fin itio n a /b = c/d
‘(i .
Hence
ad — be
(d) Equation implication: T h e ratio A /B is constant. (2) Inverse Proportion: When A varies inversely as B, the following implication arise. (a) Logical implication: When A increases B decreases (b) Calculation im plication: If A decreases by 9.09%, B will increase by 10%. (c) G raphical implications: The following graph is rep resentative of this situation.
if any three terms of proportion are given, the fourth m ay be found. Thus if a, c, d are given, then b = adI
c.
• I f three quantities a , b and c a re in continued propor tion, then a : b = b : c ' ! /.
ac —b
In this case, b is said to be a m ean proportional between a and c; and c is said to be a third proportional to a and b. • If three quantities a re p roportionals the first is to the third is the duplicate ratio of th e first to the second. That is: for a : b : : b : c
a:c= a
 . 2
• If four quantities a, b, c and d form a proportion, many other proportions may be deduced by the properties of frac tions. The results o f these operations are very useful. These operations are 1. Invertendo: 2. Alternando: If a/b — c /d then b/a — die If a /b = c/d, then ale = b/d  c + d\
d c —d J d\
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stan t. m anner that i f
:b
1.2
(d ) E q u a tio n im p lic a tio n : T h e p rodu ct A x B is co n
A q u an tity ‘A ' is sa id to v a ry d ire c tly a s an o th er 'B '
w hen the tw o q u a n titie s depend upon each o th er in su ch a
B is ch an g ed , A is chang ed in the sam e ra tio .
3. Componendo: If a/b —c/d, then
V b J
4 . D iv id e n d o :
iip
a —b b
Note:
T h e w o rd d ire c tly is o ften o m itte d , and A is sa id to
v a ry as B.
The symbol
is used to denote variation. Thus,
If a/b — c/d, then
A oc B is read “A varies as B".
I f A °c B then, A = K B w here K is an y co n stan t. T h u s to fin d
5. Componendo and Dividendo: I f alb = cld, then (a + b)/{ja — b)  (c + d )/(c  d)
K = A /B , w e need one va lu e o f A and a
correspond ing va lu e o f B.
VARIATION
E sse n tia lly there are
variables can be relate d
two kinds of proportions that two by:
(1) Direct Proportion When it is said that A varies directly as B, you should un derstand the following implications: (a) Logical im plication: When A increases B increases
K = 3/12 = 1/4 = * A = B x (1/4). A quantity A is said to vary inversely as another B w hen A varies directly as th e reciprocal of B . Thus if A varies inversely as B , A = m IB , w here m is constant. A quantity is said to vary jointly as a n um ber o f oth ers when it varies directly as their product. Thus A var ies jointly as B and C, when A = mBC. If A varies as B when C is constant, an d A varies as C when B is constant, then A will vary a s B C when both
w here
B and C vary.
2 4 0
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
T h e v a ria tio n o f A depend s p a rtly on th at o f B and p a rtly o n th a t o f C . A ssu m e th a t each le tte r v a ria tio n takes p lace se p a ra te ly , e a ch in its tu rn p ro d u cin g its o w n e ffe ct on A.
While adopting this approach the student should careful in being able to distinguish the numbers in u as pointing out the unknown variable. ^
P ro b le m 8 .2
Two numbers are in the ratio P ; q ^
W ORKEDOUT PROBLEM/
Problem 8.1
R s . 5 7 8 3 is d iv id e d am ong S h e rry , B e rry ,
an d C h e rry in su ch a w a y th at i f R s . 2 8 , R s . 37 and R s . 18 be d e d u cted fro m th e ir re sp e ctiv e sh a re s, th ey h ave m oney in th e ra tio 4 : 6 : 9 . F in d S h e rry ’ s sh a re . (a ) R s . 12 5 6 (b ) R s . 12 2 8 (c ) R s . 1456 (d ) R s . 1084
1 is added to both the numerator and the d e n o m in a to r ratio gets changed to R /S. Again, when 1 i s a d d e d to the numerator and the denominator, it b e c o m e s 1/2 pthe sum of P and Q. 'n < 1
(a)
3
(b)
4
(c ) 5
(d ) 6 this probj
Solution The normal p ro ce ss o f so lv in g would be through the writing o f eq u atio n s.
Approach 1: Then,
*
Solution
T h e p ro b le m c le a rly states th at w hen w e re
We have: Final ratio is x/2x.
= P /Q
d u ce 2 8 , 3 7 an d 18 ru p e e s re s p e c tiv e ly fro m S h e rry ’s , B e r r y ’s and C h e rry ’s sh a re s, th e re su lta n t ra tio is : 4 : 6 : 9 . T h u s , i f w e assu m e the red u ced v a lu e s as 4 jc, 6 x and 9 x , w e w ill h a v e —» S h e rry ’ s sh a re —> 4 * + 2 8 , B e r r y ’s sh are —> 6 x + 3 7 and C h e r ry ’ s sh are —» 9 x + 18 and th u s w e h ave (4 .x + 2 8 ) + (6 * + 3 7 ) + ( 9 x + 1 8 ) = 57 83 > 1 9 * = 5 7 8 3  8 3 = 5 7 0 0 H en ce, * = 300.
, 2 x —2
Then, Qx  2 Q = 2P x  I P 2 (P  Q ) = x (2 P  Q ) (A t th is is a complex one) Approach 2:
. .
stag e w e see that the solution
R+ 1 =
1
5+1
2
2
H e n c e , S h e rry ’s sh a re is R s . 1 2 2 8 .
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p I J ^ C_ J
2 R + 2 = S + 1 —> R = — ^
N o te :
F o r p ro b le m s b ased on th is ch a p te r w e are a l
N ow ,= — =  (A t
Q +1 S 2S
th is tim e w e realise
t h a t
w a y s c o n fro n te d w ith ra tio s an d p ro p o rtio n s betw een d iffe re n t n u m b e r o f v a ria b le s . F o r th e ab o ve p roblem w e h ad th re e v a ria b le s w h ic h w e re in th e ra tio o f 4 :6 : 9 . W h e n w e h ave su ch a situ a tio n w e n o rm a lly assum e the v a lu e s in th e sam e p ro p o rtio n , u sin g one unkn o w n
V
we are getting stuck) Start from front:
P +2  = 0
1/2 —» 2 P
+2
+ 4 = Q + 2 (A g a in th e solution is 5
n o t
o n ly (in th is e xa m p le w e co u ld ta ke the th ree v a lu e s as 4 jt, 6 x and 9 x re s p e c tiv e ly ). T h e n , th e to ta l v a lu e is rep rese n te d b y th e a d d itio n o f th e th re e g iv in g ris e to a lin e a r e q u a tio n , w h ic h on so lu tio n . w ill re s u lt in th e a n sw e r to th e v a lu e o f the un kno w n V . H o w e v e r, th e stu d en t sh o u ld re a lis e th at m ost o f the tim e th is u n k n o w n 'x ' is n o t needed to so lv e the p ro b lem . T h is is illu s tra te d th ro u g h the fo llo w in g altern ate ap p ro a c h to s o lv in g th e ab o ve p ro b le m : A s su m e th e th re e v a lu e s a s 4 , 6 and 9 T h e n w e have (4 + 2 8 ) + (6 + 3 7 ) + (9 + 1 8 ) = 57 83 19 = 5 7 8 3 8 3 = 50 0 0 > 1 = 30 0 H e n ce , 4 + 2 8 = 1228.
visible and we are likely to get stuck)
Note:
Such problems should n e v e r b e a tte m p te d by writing the equations since this process t a k e s m o re time than is necessary to solve the problem a n d i s im p ractical in the exam situation due to the amount o f t i m e required in writing. Besides, in complex problems where the final solution is not visible to the student while starting off, uiany times the student has to finally abort the problem way. This results in an unnecessary wastage of time tf student has attempted to write equations. In fact, the student should realise that selecting correct questions to solve in aptitude exams like * * * * w , is more important than being aware of how all the P lems are solved.
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
241
The fo llo w in g p ro ce ss w ill illu s tra te th e solution p ro cess. O ption A : It has P + Q = =3 . T h e 1/2 o r 2/1. U sin g
option based
i.e. A = 75/9 = 8.33 ____________ P ro b le m 8 .5 If x/y = 3/4, then find the value of the exp, (5*  3y)/(7x + 2y).
possible values of P!Q are numerator
1/2, w e
see th at on a d d in g 2 to b o th th e
and the d en o m in ato r w e get
3/4 (N o t
(a) 3/21 (c) 3/29
(b) 5/29 (d) 5/33
the re q u ire d v a lu e .)
2/1 will also not give the answer. We should a lso re a lis e th at the numerator has to be lower than the d en o m in ato r to have the final value o f 1/2. N ext w e try O p tio n B , where we have 1/3 as the o n ly possible ratio. Then w e get th e final value as 3/5 (Not equal to 1/2) H ence, w e re je c t option B . N ext w e try O p tio n C , where we have
S im ila rly , w e see th at 1/4 o r 2/3 C h eckin g correct.
Solution
Assume the values as * = 3 and y — 4. Then we have (1 5 1 2 )
(2 1 + 8 )
= 3/29
Problem 8.6
Rs. 3650 is divided among 4 engineers, 3
MBAs and 5 CAs such that 3 CAs get as much as 2 MBAs and 3 Engineers as much as 2 CAs. Find the share of an MBA. (a) 300 (c) 475 (b) 450 (d) None of these
for 1/4 we get 3/6 = 1/2. Hence, the option is
 If 10 persons can clean 10 floors by 10 mops in 10 days, in how many days can 8 persons clean 8 floors by 8 mops? (a) 12 Vi days (c) 10 days (b) 8 days (d) 8 % days
Solution 4E + 3M + 5C= 3650 Also, 3C = 2M, that is, M = \ 5 C and' <ZM='ZQ that is, E = 0.66C Thiis, 4 x 0 .6 6 C + 3 x 1.5 C + 5C = 3650 C= 3650/12.166 That is, C = 300 Hence, M = 1.5 C = 450
I The ratio of water and milk in a 30 litre mixture is 7 : 3. Find the quantity of water to be added to the mixture in order to make this ratio 6 : 1 . (a) 30 (b) 32 (c) 33 (d) 35
Solution
D o n o t g et c o n fu se d b y th e d is tra c tio n s g iv e n
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in the p ro b lem .
10 m en an d 10 d a y s m e a n s 10 0 m an d a ys
are required to c le a n 10 flo o rs .
Th at is , 1 flo o r re q u ire s 10 m a n d a ys to g et cle a n e d . Hence, 8 flo o rs w ill re q u ire 8 0 m a n d a ys to c le a n . Th e re fo re , 10 d a y s a re re q u ire d to c le a n 8 flo o rs . Q 2 E & 3 E Q 9 T h re e q u a n titie s
ATC, where AT is a co n sta n t. W h e n
A, B, C are su ch th a t AB = A is kep t co n sta n t, B varies d ire c tly a s C ; w h e n B is k e p t co n sta n t, A v a rie s d i rectly C and w h e n C is k e p t c o n sta n t, A v a rie s in v e rs e ly as
In itia lly , A w a s at 5 an d A :
Solution
Solve while reading — » As you read the first
B.
B
: C w a s 1 : 3 : 5 . F in d the
value o f A w hen B e q u a ls 9 a t co n sta n t C . ' (a ) 8 (b ) 8 .3 3 (c j 9 (d ) 9 .5
sentence, you should have 21 litres of water and 9 litres of milk in your mind. In order to get the final result, we keep the milk constant at 9 litres. Then, we have 9 litres, which corresponds to 1 Hence, *?' corresponds to 6. Solving by using unitary method we have 54 litres of water to 9 litres of milk. Hence, we need to add 33 litres of water to the original mixture. Alternatively, we can solve this by using options. The student should try to do the same
Solution
In itia l v a lu e s are 5 , 15 an d 2 5 .
Th us w e h ave 5 x 1$ = K x 25. Hence, K = 3. Thus, the eq u atio n is AB = 3 C. For the p ro b le m , keep C co n sta n t 3x25.
at
25.
Then, A x 9 =
2 4 2 I How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CA T
P ro b lem 8.8
T h re e
containers A, B a n d C are having
5. If a : b  c : (I then th e v alue o f (b)
a +b c +d
i
f
m ixtures o f m ilk and w ater in the ratio o f 1 : 5, 3 : 5 and 5 : 7 re s p e c tiv e ly . If the capacities o f the containers are in the ratio 5 : 4 : 5 , find the ratio o f milk to water, if the m ixtures o f a ll the three containers are mixed together. S o lu tio n A ssum e that there are 500, 400 and 500 litres (e)
ac
c~ + d
° 2 + b2 2 IS
(a) 1/2
(c)
a —b c —d
(d) ab
cd
bd
6. A crew can row a ce rtain co u rse up the stream jn ^ m inutes; they can ro w th e sa m e course down stream 9 m inutes less th an th ey ca n row it in still water, fv long w ould they tak e to row dow n with the stream (a) 45 o r 23 m in u tes (c) 60 m inutes (e) 25 m inutes 7. I f fl, b t c , d a re in c o n tin u e d proportion th en
a d b —c
respectively in the 3 containers. Then we have, 83.33,150 and 208.33 litres o f m ilk in each o f the three containers. Thus, the total m ilk is 441.66 litres. Hence, the am ount o f w ater in the m ixture is 1400441.66 = 958.33 litres. Hence, the ratio o f m ilk to w ater is 441.66 : 958.33 — » 53 : 115 (U sing division by 0.33333) T he calculation thought process should be: (441 x 3 + 2) : (958 x 3 + 1) = 1325 : 2875. D ividing by 25 > 53 : 115.
(b ) 63 o r 12 minutes (d) 19 minutes
> x . W hat is th e v a lu e o f x . (b ) 3 (c) (d) 0
(a) 2 (e) 4
8. If 4 exam iners can exam ine a certain number of swer books in 8 days by w orking 5 hours a day, fa how m any hours a day w ould 2 examiners haven
level of Difficulty (LOD)
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books in 20 days. (a) 6 (e) 10 (b j I Vi (a) a + c + d (c ) a + b + c + d (e) None o f these
(b ) 400, 800, 670
work in order to exam ine tw ice the number of answ er (c) 8 (d) 9
1. D ivide Rs. 1870 into three parts in such a way that h alf o f the first part, onethird o f the second part and onesixth o f the third part are equal. (a) 241, 343, 245 (c) 470, 640, 1160 (e) N one o f these
9. If a , by c, d are proportional, then {a  b ) { ft c)la(b ) a + d — b c
(d) a + c  b  d
(d) 420, 600, 850
2. D ivide Rs. 500 among A , B , C and D so that A and B
together get thrice as much as C and D together, B gets four times o f what C gets and C gets 1.5 times as much as D . N ow the value o f what B gets is (a) 300 (c) 125
10. In a mixture o f 40 litres, the ratio o f milk and waters 4 :1 . How m uch w ater m ust be added to this m ixtm *
so that the ratio o f m ilk and w ater becomes 2:3. (a) (c) (e)
20 litres 40 litres
35 litres
(b ) 32 litres (d) 30 litres
.
(b) 75 (d) 150
<e) N one o f these •» i r
11. If i4 varies as C, and B varies as C, then which of*1 following is false:
(a) (A + B ) oc C (c) ^ ^A B oc C (e) N one o f these ( b ) (A  B ) ** VC ( d ) A B qc C 2
^
11 7 ;
a
b+ c
  r* ^ e n each fraction is equal to
c +a a +b b + e f
b
c
(a) (a + (c) 1/4
(b) 1/2
(d) 0
(e) N one o f these
12. If three num bers are in th e ra tio o f 1 : 2 :3 and
sum is 18, then th e ra tio o f sq u a re s o f the nun^er'
4. I f 6** + 6y* = 13xy,w hat is
the ratio o f * to y? (d ) 1: 2
(a) 2 : 3 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 4 : 5 (Hint: U se options to solve fast)
(a) 6 : 12 : 13 (c) 36 : 144 : 324
(b ) 1 : 2 : 4
(d) 3 : 5 : 7
(c) None o f these
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
2 4 3
13.
Th e ra tio b etw een tw o n u m b e rs is is 180. T h e f ir s t n u m b e r is : (a ) 60
3 : 4 and their LCM (d) 20
(b ) 45
(c) 15
(O 25
14.
A and B a re tw o a llo y s o f argentum and brass prepared
20. T h e stu d e n ts in three batches at AMS Careers are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5. I f 20 students are increased in each batch, the ratio changes to 4 : 5 : 7. The total number o f students in the three batches before the increases were
(a ) 10 (b ) 9 0 (c ) 10 0 (d ) 150 2 1 . T h e sp eed s o f th re e c a rs a re in th e ra tio 2 : 3 : 4 . T h e ra tio b e tw e e n th e tim e s ta k e n b y th e se c a rs to tra v e l th e sa m e d is ta n c e is
7 : 2 and 7 : 11 re o f the two alloys are m elted to fo rm a th ird alloy C, the proportion o f argentum and b ra ss in C w ill be:
b y m ix in g m e ta ls in p ro p o rtio n s sp e ctive ly . I f e q u a l q u a n titie s (a ) 5 : 9 (e ) 7 : 9 (b )
5:7
(c) 7 : 5
(d) 9 : 5
15.
I f 30 m en w o rk in g
7 hours a day can do a piece o f how m any days w ill 21 men (b ) 22.5 days (d) 45 days d ay do the sam e w ork?
(a) 2 : 3 :4 (c) 4 : 3 : 6 (e) 3 : 4 : 6
(b) 4 : 3 :2 (d) 6 : 4 : 3
w o rk in 18 d a y s , in w o rkin g 8 h o u rs a (a ) 24 days (c) 30 days
(e) 20 days 16. The incomes o f A and B are in the ratio 3 : 2 and their expenditures are in the ratio 5 : 3. I f each saves Rs. 1000, then, A’s incom e can be: (a) Rs. 3000 (c) Rs. 6000 (e) Rs. 4500 (b) R s. 4000 (d) Rs. 9000
22. If a, bt c and d are proportional then the mean propor tion between a 2 + c2 and b2 + d 2 is (a) aclbd (b) ab + cd (c) alb + d ie (d) azfb2 + c2l S (e) None o f these 23. A number z lies between 0 and 1. Which o f the follow ing is true? (a) z > V z (h) z > 1/z (c) (e) z 4 > z3.
z
> i,
(d)
1/z
> Vz
17. If the ratio o f sines o f angles o f a triangle is 1 : 1 ; V2, the squares o f other tw o sides is (a) 3 : 4 (b) 2 : 1 1 : 2 <c) 1 :1 (d ) (e) Cannot be determ ined
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(a) Rs. 720 (c) Rs. 450 (e) Rs. 1250
then the ratio o f square o f the greatest side to sum o f
24. Rs. 2250 is divided among three friends Amar, Bijoy and Chandra in such a way that l/6th o f Amar’s share, l/4th o f Bijoy’s share and 2/5th o f Chandra's share are equal. Find Am ar’s share. (b) Rs. 1080 (d) Rs. 1240
18. Divide Rs. 680 am ong A , B and C such that A gets 2/3 of what B gets and B gets l/4 th o f w hat C gets. Now the share o f C is?
(a ) R s . 4 8 0 (c ) R s . 4 2 0 (e ) N one o f th e se
25. After an increment o f 7 in both the numerator and denominator, a fraction changes to 3/4. Find the origi nal fraction.
(a )
5/12
(b )
7/9
(c) 2/5
(d )
3/8
(b)
(d )
Rs. 300 Rs. 360
(e ) 7 /1 2 2 6 . T h e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n tw o p o s itiv e n u m b e rs is 10 an d th e ra tio b e tw e e n th em is 5 : 3 . F in d th e p ro d u ct o f th e tw o n u m b e rs.
A, B, C e n te r in to a partnership. A contributes onethird o f th e w h o le c a p ita l as A and
w hile B contributes as much how m uch w ould each re
C to g e th e r contribute. I f the profit at the end
(a) 375 (e) 250
/ ‘ (b )
17 5
. (c)
275
(d )
125
o f the y e a r is R s . 8 4 ,0 0 0 , ceive?
27. I f 3 0 o x e n can plough l/7 th o f a field in 2 days, how
m a n y d a y s 18
oxen will take to do the remaining (b) 2 0 days (d) 18 days
<a) 2 4 ,0 0 0 , 2 0 ,0 0 0 , 4 0 ,0 0 0 fl>) (c )
w o rk ? (a ) 3 0 d a y s (c ) 15 d a y s
28,000, 4 2 ,0 0 0 , 1 4 ,0 0 0 28,000, 4 2 ,0 0 0 , 1 0 ,0 0 0
W) 28,000, 1 4 ,0 0 0 , 4 2 ,0 0 0
(* )
(e ) 21 d a ys
None
o f th e se
244
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
2 8 . A c a t ta ke s 5 le ap s fo r e v e ry 4 le a p s o f the dog a re e q u al to 4
leaps o f a dog, but 3 leaps o f the cat. What is th e ra tio o f the sp eed o f the cat to that o f the (a) II : 15 (b) (d) 15: II 15: 16
sure is reduced by 20% , find the respective civ volume. (a) 16.66% (c) 2 5 % (b ) (d )
+ 25%
nge'i +16.66%
dog?
(c) 16 : 15
(e) 11 : 16
37. If Rs. 58 is divided am ong 15 0 c h ild re n such that girl and each boy gets 2 5 p an d 5 0 p re sp e ct}!? Then how many girls are there ? (a) 52 (b) 54 (c) 68 (d) fa 38. If 391 bananas w ere distributed am o n g three monke in the ratio 1/2 : 2/3 : 3 / 4 , h o w m a n y bananas did ^ first monkey get? (a) 102 (b) 108 (c) 112 (d) 104 39. A mixture contains m ilk a n d w a te r in the ratio 5 • j On adding 5 litres o f w a te r, th e ra tio o f m ilk to water becomes 5 : 2 . The q u a n tity o f m ilk in the mixture is (a) 16 litres (c) 3 2 .5 litres (b) 2 5 lit r e s
(d ) 2 2 .7 5 litre s
29. The present ratio o f ages of A and B is 4 :5 . 18 years ago. this ratio was 11 :16. Find the sum total o f their present ages. (a) 90 years (c) 110 years (e) 95 years 30. Four numbers in the ratio 1 : 3 : 4 : 7 add up to give a sum o f 105. Find the value o f the biggest number. (a) 42 (e) 70 31. Three men rent a farm for Rs. 7000 per annum. A puts 110 cows in the farm for 3 months, B puts 110 cows for 6 months and C puts 440 cows for 3 months. What percentage o f the total expenditure should A pay? (a) (c) 20% 16.66% (b) 14.28% (d) 11.01% (b) 35 (c) 49 (d) 63 (b) (d) 105 years 80 years
40. A beggar had ten paise, tw e n ty p a ise . an d one rupee coins in the ratio 1 0 : 1 7 : 7 r e s p e c tiv e ly a t the end of day. If that day he earned a to ta l o f R s . 5 7 , how mam twenty paise coins did he h a v e ? (a) 114 (b) 171
(c ) 9 5 (d ) 85
32. 10 students can do a jo b in 8 days, but on the starting day, two o f them informed that they are not coming.
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25
41 . Vijay has coins o f the d e n o m in a tio n o f R e . 1 ,5 0 p an d p in the ratio o f 1 2 : 10 : 7 . T h e to ta l w orth of th e coins he has is R s . 7 5 . F in d th e n u m b e r o f 25 p coins that Vijay has (a) 48
(b ) 7 2 (d ) N o n e o f these
By what fraction will the number o f days required for doing the whole work get increased? (a) 4/5 3 (b) 3/8 (c) 3/4 (d) 1/4 33. A dishonest milkman mixed 1 litre o f water for every he now adds 15 litres of milk to the mixture, find the ratio o f milk and water in the new mixture. (a) (c) 12:5 7:2 (b) 1 4 : 3 (d) 9 : 4
(c) 6 0
42. If tw o num bers are in the ratio o f 5 : 8 and if 9 b e added to each, the ratio b eco m es 8 : 11. N ow find ® lower number. (a) 5 (c) 15 (b ) 1 0 (d ) N o n e o f
these
litres of milk and thus made up 36 litres o f milk . If
43. W hat num ber m ust be taken fro m e a c h term ot fraction 27/35 th at it m ay beco m e 2 : 3 ? (a) 9 (c) 11 (b ) 10 (d ) N one o f
these
34. Rs. 3000 is distributed among A, B and C such that A gets 2/3rd of what B and C together get and C gets 1/2 o f what A and B together get. Find C ’s share. (a) Rs. 750 (c) Rs. 800 (b) Rs. 1000 (d) Rs. 1200
44. If * varies inversely as y 2 — 1 an d is equal to 24 "
y = 10, find x when y —5.
35. If the ratio o f the ages o f Maya and Chhaya is 6 : 5 at present, and fifteen years from now, the ratio will get changed to 9 : 8, then find Maya’s present age. (a) 24 years (c) 18 years (b) 30 years (d) 33 years
(a) 99
(b) 101
(c)
91
(d) 93
J
45. If x varies as y, and y =■ 7 w hen x — 18, find 1
ji
(a) 36 (b) 54 (c) 72 <d) 18 , 46. A varies jointly as B and C; and (a) 17.5 (b) 35 (c) 70
A=
6 when (<*) 105
36. A t constant temperature, pressure of a definite mass of g as is inversely proportional to the volume. If the pres
C = 2; find A when B = 5, C = 7.
Chapter 8:
Ratio. Proportion and Variation j 2 4 5
47.
as y d ire c tly , an d a s z in v e rs e ly , and * = 14 when y * 10; fin d z w h e n v = 49, y == 45.
I f x v a rie s (a )
same. Two discs have their thicknesses in the ratio of 9:8; the ratio o f the radii if the w eight o f the first is twice that o f the second is (a) 4 : 3 (e) 2 : 5
4 . I f a and b are p o s itiv e in te g e rs th en V 2 a lw a y s lie s b e tw e e n : (a ) ( a + b )/(a  b ) and a b (b ) a lb an d (a + 2 b )!{a + b ) ( c ) a and b (d ) a b H a + b ) an d (a — b )la b (e ) a + b and a b (b )
14/10
(b ) 10 (d )
(c) 10/14
Cannot be determined
5:2
(c ) 2
:1
(d) 1 : 2
4g. A cask contains a m ix tu re o f 49 litres o f w ine and
water in the p ro p o rtio n 5 : 2. How much w ater m ust be added to it so th a t th e ratio o f wine to water m ay be 7 : 4 ?
(a) 3.5
(c ) 7
(b) 6
(d) N one o f these gallons o f mixture o f w in e and
49.
A ca sk c o n ta in s 12
How m uch o f the m ix tu re m u st be draw n o ff an d w ater substituted, so th a t w in e and
w ater in th e ra tio 3 : 1 . w ater in the (a ) 3 litre s (c )
5 . T h e c o s t o f d ig g in g a p it w a s R s . 1 .3 4 7 . H o w m u ch
w ill it c o s t (a p p ro x im a te ly ) i f th e w a g e s o f w o rk m e n p e r d a y h a d been in c re a se d b y 1/8 o f th e fo rm e r w a g e s an d le n g th o f th e w o rk in g d a y in c re a se d b y 1/20 o f th e fo rm e r p e rio d ? (a ) (c ) R s . 1443' • R s .1439 • (b ) R s . 1 2 3 4 (d ) R s . 10 0 0
cask m ay becom e h a lf an d h a lf.
(b ) 5 litr e s (d ) N o n e o f th e se
6
litre s
50. The to tal number o f p u p ils in th re e c la s s e s o f a sc h o o l num ber o f p u p ils in c la s s e s I an d I I a re in the ra tio 3 ; 5 and those in c la s s e s I I an d I I I are in the
is 3 3 3 . T h e ratio 7 : 1 1 .
Find the n u m b e r o f p u p ils in th e c la s s th at num ber o f p u p ils .
(c ) 16 5 (d ) 1 8 0 (b ) 10 5
(e ) R s . 1111 6 . A v e s s e l c o n ta in s a litr e s o f w in e , an d a n o th e r v e s s e l c o n ta in s b litr e s o f w a te r, c lit r e s a re ta k e n o u t o f e a c h v e s s e l an d tra n sfe rre d to th e o th e r i f c x (a + b ) = a b .
had the h ig h e st (a ) 63
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Level of Difficulty (LOD)
I f A an d B a re th e re s p e c tiv e v a lu e s o f th e a m o u n t o f w in e c o n ta in e d in th e re sp e c tiv e c o n ta in e rs a fte r th is o p e ra tio n , th e n w h a t c a n b e sa id ab o u t th e re la tio n s h ip b e tw ee n A an d B .
II
1. If the work done by ( x  1) m en in ( x + 1) days is to the work done by (x + 2) m en in ( x  1) days is in the
&, A  C
(a ) (c )
„
> 2
A = B A  B  Ac
(b )  j Z c (d ) A C  ~
ratio 9 : 10, then the value o f * is (a) 10 (e) 16
(b) 12 (c) 8 (d) 15
(e ) N o n e o f th ese 7 . I f su m o f th e ro o ts an d th e p ro d u ct o f th e ro o ts o f a q u a d ra tic e q u atio n 5 a re in th e ra tio o f 2 : 1 , th e n
2. The duration o f a railw ay jou m ey varies as the dis
tance and inversely as the velocity; the velocity varies directly as the square root o f the quantity o f coal used per kilometre, and inversely as the num ber carriages in the train. In a jo u m ey o f 50 km in half an hour with 18 carriages, 100 kg o f coal is required: How much coal will be consum ed in a jou m ey o f 42 km in 28 minutes with 16 carriages. (a) 53.76 kg (b) 149.33 kg (c) 47.51 kg (d) 48.43 kg (® ) None of these
* The weight of a circular disc varies as the square of the radius when the thickness remains the same; it also
w h ic h o f th e fo llo w in g is tru e ? (a ) f ( S ) < 0 (b ) (b 2  A a c ) < 0
(c) S is a p e rfe c t sq u a re (d ) S is a p e rfe c t cu b e
(e ) N o n e o f th ese
8.
factory em ploys skilled workers, unskilled workers and clerks in the proportion 8 : 5 : 1, and the w ages o f
A
a skilled worker, an unskilled worker and a clerk are in the ratio 5 : 2 : 3 . W hen 2 0 unskilled w orkers are em ployed, the total daily w ages o f all am ount to Rs. 318. The wages paid to each category o f workers are (a) Rs. 2 4 0 , Rs. 6 0 , Rs. 18
varies as the thickness w hen the radius remains the
2 4 6 1 How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
(b ) R s . 2 0 0 , R s . 9 0 , R s . 28 (c ) R s . 15 0, R s . 1 0 8 , R s . 6 0 (d ) R s . 2 5 0 , R s . 5 0 , R s . 18 (e ) N one o f these 9 . I f a : b = c : d , and e :/ * = g * / )* ? ( .) I i i (b ) (c « + <ft)
(a) 25 weeks (c) 24 weeks (e) None o f these
(b) 26 weeks (d) 20 weeks
: K then (ae + b f ) : (ae 
(« “ / )
(eg  dh)
(d )
15. In a journey of 48 km perform ed by tonga, ricksha*, and cycle in that order, the distance covered by ^ three ways in that order are in the ratio of 8 : 1 • j _ j f^ J and charges per kilometre in that order are in the ratio of 8 : 1 : 4 . If the tonga charges being 24 paise Per kilometre, the total cost o f the journey is  (a) Rs. 9.24 (c) Rs. 12 (e) None o f these (b) Rs. (d) Rs. 10 14
(c)
(e g + dh) (e g  dh)
e  f e+f
(e) None o f these 10. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Bronze is an alloy containing 80% o f copper, 4 % o f zinc and 16% of tin. A fused mass of brass and bronze is found to contain 74% o f Copper, 16% o f zinc, and 10% o f tin. The ratio o f copper to zinc in Brass is: (a) 64% and 36% (c) 50% and 75% (e) None of these (b) 33% and 67% (d) 35% and 65%
16. A bag contains 25 paise, 50 paise and 1 Re. coim There are 220 coins in all and the total amount in the bag is Rs. 160. If there are thrice as many 1 Re. coins as there are 25 paise coins, then w hat is the number of 50 paise coins? (a) 60 (c) 120 (e) None o f these (b) (d) 40 80
11. The Lucknow Indore Express without its rake can go 24 km an hour, and the speed is diminished by a quan
D irections f o r Q u estio n s 1 7 1 9 : R ead the following and
tity that varies as the square root of the number of wagons attached. If it is known that with four wagons its speed is 20 km/h, the greatest number o f wagons with which the engine can just move is (a) 144 (c) 142 12. If x varies as y then x2 + y varies as (a) x + y (e)*2 / (e) None o f these
~ if
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(c) 143 (d) 124
answer the questions that follow. Tuliram runs in a triathlon consisting o f three phases in the following manner. R unning 12 km , cycling 24 km and swimming 5 km. H is speeds in the three phases are in th e ratio 2 : 6 : 1. He com pletes the race in n minutes. Later, he changes his strategy so that the distances he covers in each phase are constant but his speeds are now in the ratio 3 : 8 : 1 . The end result is that h e com pletes the race taking 20 minutes m ore than the earlier speed. It is also know n that he has not changed his running speed when he changes his strategy. 17. W hat is his initial speed w hile swimming? (a) 1/2 km/min (c) 0.15 km /m in (e) None o f these (b) 0.05 km/min (d) 0.2 km/min
(b) 140
(b) x  y (d) *5  y 3
13. If f(x ) — 7 "”—Tr. then the ratio of x to fly ) where y =
f ( x ) is
(a) x : y (c) 1 :1 (e) None o f these
14.
(b) x2 : y 2
(d) y : x
18. If his speeds are in the ratio 1:3:1, w ith the runn^ time remaining unchanged, w hat is his finishing (a) 500/3 m in (c) 200/3 m in (e) None o f these (a) 9 kmph (c) 54 kmph (e) None o f these (b) 250/3 min (d) 350/3 min
A contractor employs 200 men to build a bund. They fin is h 5/6 of the work in 10 weeks. Then rain sets in and not only does the work remain suspended for 4 w e e k s but also half of the work already done is washed a w a y . After the rain, when the work is resumed, only 140 m en turn up. The total time in which the contrac tor is able to complete the work assuming that there a re no further disruptions in the schedule is
19. W hat is Tuliram ’s original speed o f running? (b ) 18 kmph (d) 12 kmph
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation 1 2 4 7
20. C oncentrations o f th ree w in e s A . B and C are 1 0 % ,
m um nu m b er o f com p artm ents th at can be c a rrie d b y the eng ine is (a ) (e )
20% and 3 0 % re sp e c tiv e ly . T h e y a re m ix e d
Find x.
tin the
ra tio
2 : 3 : x re su ltin g in a 2 3 % co n c e n tra tio n s o lu tio n .
49 7
(b )
48
(c )
46
(d )
47
(a) 7
(e ) 3
(b) 6
<C) 5
(d ) 4
T h re e d ru n kard s agree to p o o l th e ir vo d k a and d ecid ed to sh are it w ith a fo u rth d ru n kard (w h o had no vo d k a ) at a p ric e eq u al to 5 ro u b le s a litr e . T h e fir s t d ru n kard co n trib u ted 1 litr e m o re than the second and th e se c ond co n trib u te d a litre m o re than the th ird . T h e n a ll fo u r o f th em d iv id e d th e vo d k a e q u a lly and d ra n k it. T h e fo u rth d ru n ka rd p a id m oney* w h ic h w a s d iv id e d in the ra tio o f each d ru n k a rd ’s c o n trib u tio n to w ard s
21. Th e co st o f an a rtic le (w h ic h is co m p o sed o f ra w m a te rials and w a g e s) w a s 3 tim e s the v a lu e o f th e ra w m aterials used . T h e c o st o f ra w m a te ria ls in cre a se d in the ratio 3 ; 7 an d w ag e s in c re a se d in th e ra tio 4 : 9 . Fin d the p resen t c o st o f th e a rtic le i f its o rig in a l c o st w as R s . 18. (a ) R s . 41 (e ) R s . SO 22. In a co ed u catio n al sc h o o l th e re a re 15 m o re g irls than boys. I f the n u m b e r o f g ir ls is in c re a se d b y 10% and the num ber o f b o y s is a ls o in c re a se d b y 1 6 % , there w ould be 9 m o re g ir ls th an b o y s. W h a t is th e nu m b er o f students in th e sc h o o l? (a ) 140 (b ) 125 (c ) 26 5 '(d ) 25 5 (b ) R s . 3 0 ( c ) R s . .4 0 (d ) R s . 4 6
h is p o rtio n . It w a s fo u n d th at the fir s t d ru n ka rd sh o u ld get tw ic e as m u ch m o n ey a s the se co n d . B a se d o n th is in fo rm a tio n a n sw e r the q u estio n s 2 6 — 2 8 . (A ssu m e th at a ll sh are s a re in te g ra l). 2 6 . H o w m u ch m o ney d id the seco n d d ru n ka rd get (in ro u b le s )? . (a ) 8 .( c ) 15
,• i \
,
.(b ) . 20 (d ) D a ta in s u ffic ie n t
(e ) 260 23. A t D M B a n g a lo re c la s s o f 1 9 9 5 , S o n a li, a f ir s t y e a r student h as ta ke n 10 c o u rse s , e a rn in g g rad es 4 2 points e a c h ),
2 7 . H o w m an y litre s o f vo d k a w a s co nsu m ed in a ll b y the fo u r o f th em ? (a ) 12 . (b )
points e a c h ). H e r g rad e p b in t a ve ra g e is 3 .2 , and i2 f 8 . W h a t p ro p o rtio n o f th e fo u rth d ru n k a rd ’s d rin k d id the seco n d d ru n ka rd c o n trib u te ? < a) 1/3 . 6
3
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B
£. ; (c ) 10 (w o rth 3 p o in ts e a c h ) an d C (w o rth , (b ) 2/3, * (c ) 1/2 (b ) 1 , 3 an d (d ) 1 , 6 and
A (w orth
16
.( d ) N o ne o f th ese
the course in w h ic h sh e g e t C ’s w e re d e le te d , h e r G P A in the re m a in in g co u rse s w o u ld b e 3 .3 3 3 . H o w m an y A ’s, B ' s and C ’ s d id sh e g e t? (a ) (c ) (e ) 3 , 1 and 6 3 , 6 and 1 1, 7 and 2 th e h o ste l at H a rv a rd
(d ) N o n e o f these
2 9 . In R a m n a g a r C o lo n y , the ra tio o f sc h o o l g o in g c h il d re n to n o n sch o o l g o in g c h ild re n is 5 : 4 . I f in the n e x t y e a r, the nu m b er o f n o n sch o o l g o in g c h ild re n is in c re a se d b y 2 0 % , m a kin g it 3 5 ,4 0 0 , w h a t is th e n ew ra tio o f sch o o l g o in g c h ild re n to n o n sch o o l g o in g c h ild re n ? 4 :5 , (c ) 2 5 : 2 4 . . ,
24. Total exp en ses o f ru n n in g
Business S ch o o l are p a rtly fix e d an d p a rtly v a ry in g lin e arly w ith the n u m b e r o f b o a rd e rs. T h e ave rag e expense p er b o a rd e r is $ 7 0 w h e n th ere are 2 5 b o ard ers and $6 0 w h e n th e re a re 5 0 b o a rd e rs. W h a t is the average e xp e n se p e r b o a rd e r w h e n th e re a re boarders? (a ) 55 (e ) 52 25. The speed o f th e e n g in e o f G o n d w a n a E x p re s s is 42 km /h w hen n o co m p artm en t is a tta ch e d , and the reduction in sp eed is d ire c tly p ro p o rtio n a l to the square root o f the n u m b e r o f co m p artm en ts attach ed . If the speed o f th e tra in c a rrie d b y th is en g in e is 2 4 km/h w hen 9 co m p artm en ts a re attach e d , th e m a x i (b ) 5 6 (c ) 5 4 (d ) 5 0 100
l b ) 3 :2
(d .) N o ne o f these
3 0 . A p re cio u s sto n e w e ig h in g 35 g ra m s w o rth R s . 1 2 ,2 5 0 is a c c id e n ta lly d ro p p ed and g e ts b ro k e n in to tw o p ie c e s h a v in g w e ig h ts in the ra tio o f 2 : 5 . I f the p ric e v a rie s as the sq uare o f the w e ig h t then fin d the lo ss in c u rre d . . (a ) R s . (c ) R s .
5750 5500
them
(b ) R s . (d ) R s .
6000 5000
3 1 . O n h is death b ed , M r. K a lu c a lle d upon h is th ree so n s and to ld to d istrib u te a ll h is a sse ts w o rth R s . 5 2 5 ,0 0 0 in the ra tio o f 1/15 : 1/21 : 1/35 am ongst
248
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
th e m se lve s. F in d the p o rtio n s.
biggest share amongst the three 245,000 (d) 13,250
(b )
re ce ive d the sam e am o unt a s th e o th er when §he tained the age o f 2 0 y e a rs , th e ir sh ares are (a ) R s . 3 5 ,6 0 0 and R s . 2 5 ,4 0 0 (b ) R s . 3 0 5 0 0 each (c ) R s . 2 4 ,0 0 0 and R s . 3 7 0 0 0 (d ) N o n e o f th ese
(a) 1 7 .5 0 0 (c) 1 0 ,5 0 0
32. Three jackals Paar, Maar and Taar together have 675 loaves o f bread. Paar has got three times as much as Maar but 25 loaves more than Taar. How many does Taar have? (a) 175 (c) 375 (b) 275 (d) None o f these
D ire c tio n s f o r Q u e s tio n s 3 9  4 1 : R e a d th e passage bcl^
and a n sw e r the q u e stio n s th at fo llo w : A n sh u g ave B o b b y an d C h a n d a n a a s m an y pens as egJ one o f them a lre a d y h ad . T h e n C h a n d a n a g ave Anshu an (j B o b b y a s m an y p e n s a s e a ch a lre a d y h a d . N o w each had a n eq u al num b er o f p ens .T h e to ta l n u m b e r o f pens is 72. 3 9 . H o w m an y p ens d id B o b b y h a v e in itia lly ? (a ) 24 (b ) 18 (c ) 12 (d ) 6
33. King Sheru had ordered the distribution o f apples according to the following plan : for every 20 apples the elephant gets, the zebra should get 13 apples and the deer should get 8 apples. Now his servant Shambha jackal is in a fix. Can you help him by telling how much should he give to the elephant if there were 820 apples in total? (a) 140 (b) 160 (c) 200 (d) 400 34. In the famous Bhojpur island, there are four men for every three women and five children for every three men. How many children are there in the island if it has 531 women? (a) 454 (b) 1180 (c) 1070 (d) 389
4 0 . H o w m an y p ens d id C h a n d a n a h a v e in itia lly ? (a ) 24 (b ) 18 (c ) 12 (d ) 6
4 1 . H o w m an y p ens d id A n sh u h a v e in itia lly ? (a ) 30 (b ) 36 (c ) 42 (d ) 48
4 2 . T h e vo lu m e o f a p y ra m id v a rie s jo in t ly as its height and the a re a o f its b a se ; an d w h e n th e area o f the base is 6 0 sq u are d m an d th e h e ig h t 14 d m , the volume is 2 8 0 c u b ic d m . W h a t is th e a re a o f th e base o f a pyra
35. Which o f the following will have the maximum change in their values if 5 is added to both the nu merator and denominator o f all the fractions? (a) 3/4 (b) 2/3 (c) 4/7 (d) 5/7 36. 40 men could have finished the whole project in 28 days but due to the inclusion of a few more men, work got done in 3/4 of the time. Find out how many more men were included (in whole numbers)? (a) 12 (c) 14 (b) 13 (d) None of these
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is 2 6 d m ? (a ) 4 0 (c ) 5 0 43. (b ) (d )
m id w h o se vo lu m e is 3 9 0 c u b ic d m and whose height
45 N o n e o f these
T h e e xp e n se s o f an a ll b o y s ’ in s titu te are partly con1 stan t and p a rtly v a ry a s th e n u m b e r o f b o ys. The ex1 p en ses w e re R s . 1 0 ,0 0 0 fo r 15 0 b o y s and R s . 8400 fa I 120 b o y s. W h a t w ill th e e x p e n se s be w hen there aff I 3 3 0 b o y s? (a ) (c ) 1 8 ,0 0 0 2 2 ,4 0 0 (b ) 1 9 ,6 0 0 (d ) N o n e o f these
37. Mr AM, the magnanimous cashier at X Y Z Ltd., while distributing salary, adds whatever money is needed to make the sum a multiple o f 50. He adds Rs. 10 and Rs. 40 to A’s and B ’s salary respectively and then he realises that the salaries o f A, B and C are now in the ratio 4 : 5 : 7 . The salary o f C could be (a) Rs. 2300 (c) Rs. 1800 (b) Rs. 2150 (d) Rs. 2100
4 4 . T h e d ista n ce o f th e h o riz o n a t se a v a rie s as the squ I ro o t o f the h e ig h t o f th e e y e a b o ve se a le v e l. When I d ista n ce is 1 4 .4 k m , th e h e ig h t o f th e e ye is 18 raefl^j F in d , in k ilo m e tre s , th e d is ta n c e w h e n the heigh1 I th e e y e is 8 m e tre s. (a ) (c ) 4 .8 k m 9 .6 k m (b ) 7 .2 k m (d ) 1 2 k m
38. A mother divided an amount of Rs. 61,000 between her two daughters aged 18 years and 16 years respec tively and deposited their shares in a bond. If the in terest rate is 20% compounded annually and if each
4 5 . A m ix tu re o f c e m e n t, sa n d an d g ra v e l in the rJl‘ 1 : 2 : 4 b y vo lu m e is re q u ire d . A person m easu re o ut q u a n titie s b y w e ig h t. H e finds w eig h t o f o n e c u b ic fo o t o f ce m e n t is 94 kg. 100 kg and g ra v e l 110 k g . W h a t sh o u ld be th e1 iB I
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
2 4 9
cement, sand and gravel by weight in order to give a proper mixture?
mixture if the first solution is know n to contain 1 0 per cent more o f salt than the second. (a) 4 kg, 6 kg (c) 4 kg, 9 k g (e) N one o f these
6.
(a) 4 7 : 100 : 220 (c) 47 : 200 : 440
(b) 94 : 100 : 220 (d) None o f theje
(b) 3 kg, 7 kg (d) 5 kg, 9 kg
From a full barrel containing 7 2 9 litres o f honey we pour o ff la ' litre and add w ater to fill up the barrel. A fter stirring the solution thoroughly, we pour o ff ‘a ’ litre o f the solution and again add w ater to fill up the barrel. A fter the procedure is repeated 6 tim es, the solution in the barrel contains 6 4 litres o f honey. Find a.
(a ) 2 4 3 lit r e s (b ) 81 lit r e s (d ) 3 litr e s
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
III
1. An alloy o f gold and silver is taken in the ratio of
1: 2. and another alloy o f the same metals is taken in the ratio of 2 : 3. How many parts o f the two alloys must be taken to obtain a new alloy consisting o f gold and silver that are in the ratio 3 :5 ? (a) 3 and 5 (c) 2 and 5 (e) 3 and 5 (b) 2 and 9 (d) 1 and 5
(c) 2 .7 lit r e s
(e ) N o n e o f th e se
7 . In tw o a llo y s , th e ra tio s o f n ic k e l to tin a re S : 2 an d 3 :4 (b y w e ig h t). H o w m a n y k ilo g ra m o f th e f ir s t
2. There are two quantities o f oil, with the masses differ ing by 2 kg. The same quantity o f heat, equal to 96 kcal, was imparted to each mass, and the larger mass of oil was found to be 4 degrees cooler than the smaller mass. Find the mass o f oil in each o f the two quantities. (a) 6 and 8 (c) 2 and 9 (e) None o f these (b) 4 and 6 (d) 4 and 9
a llo y an d o f th e se co n d a llo y sh o u ld b e a llo y e d to g e th e r to o b ta in 2 8 k g o f a n e w a llo y w ith e q u a l c o n te n ts o f n ic k e l a n d tin ? (a ) 9 k g o f th e f ir s t a llo y an d 2 2 k g o f th e se co n d (b ) 17 k g o f th e f ir s t a llo y an d 11 k g o f th e se co n d
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(d ) 8 k g a n d 2 0 k g re s p e c tiv e ly (e ) N o n e o f th e se
(c ) 7 k g o f th e f ir s t a llo y a n d 21 k g o f th e se co n d
8 . In tw o a llo y s , a lu m in iu m a n d iro n a re in th e ra tio s o f 4 : 1 a n d 1 :3 . A ft e r a llo y in g to g e th e r 10 k g o f th e f ir s t a llo y , 1 6 k g o f th e se co n d a n d s e v e ra l k ilo g ra m s o f p u re a lu m in iu m , .i i * illo y w a s o b ta in e d in w h ic h th e ra tio o f a lu m in iu m to iro n w a s 3 : 2 . F in d th e w e ig h t o f th e n e w a llo y . (a ) 15 (b ) 3 5
3. There are two alloys o f gold and silver. In the first alloy, there is twice as much gold as silver, and in the second alloy there is 5 times less gold than silver. How many times more must we take o f the second alloy than the first in order to obtain a new alloy in which there would be twice as much silver as gold? (a) Two times (c) Four times (e) Five times (b) Three times (d) Ten times
9.
(c) 6 5
(d ) 9 5
(e) 8 0 There are tw o alloys o f gold, silver and platinum . The first alloy is know n to contain 4 0 p er cent o f platinum and the second alloy 2 6 per cent o f silver. T he percent age o f gold is the sam e in both alloys. H aving alloyed
150
4. Calculate the weight and the percentage o f zinc in the zinccopper alloy being given that the latter’s alloy with 3 kg o f pure zinc contains 90 per cent of zinc and with 2 kg of 90% zinc alloy contains 84% o f zinc. (a) 2.4 kg or 80% (c) 3.4 kg or 60% (e) None of these (b) 1.4 kg or (d) 7.4 kg or 88% 18%
kg o f the first alloy and 2 5 0 kg o f the second, we
get a new alloy that contains 3 0 per cent o f gold. How many kilogram o f platinum is there in the new alloy? (a) 1 7 0 kg (c) 1 6 0 kg (e) 1 8 0 kg
10.
(b) 1 7 5 kg (d) 165 kg
5 Two solutions, the first o f which contains 0.8 kg and flic second 0.6 kg o f salt, were poured together and 10 kg o f a new salt solution were obtained. Find the weight o f the first and o f the second solution in the
Two alloys o f iron have different percentage o f iron in them. T he first one w eighs 6 kg and second one w eighs 12 kg. One piece each o f equal w eight was cut
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
off from both the a llo y s and the firs t piece was alloyed w ith th e second a llo y an d the second piece alloyed w ith the firs t o n e . As a result, the percentage of iron becam e the sam e in the resulting two new alloys. What w a s th e w e ig h t o f each cutoff piece? (a) 4 kg (c) 3 kg (e) 3.5 kg (b) 2 kg (d) 5 kg
, , 24 2 (a) 2 5  5 (c) i i 1
48 4 (b) 5 0 ' 5 I (d) 24 3
1 ' 50'5
(e ) N o n e o f th ese
1
25 7 9q»
1 6 . A n a llo y o f g o ld , s ilv e r a n d b ro n z e contains b ro n ze , 7 % g o ld an d 3 % s ilv e r . A
seco n d alloy 0j
b ro n ze and s ilv e r o n ly is m e lte d w ith th e firs t and tfe m ix tu re c o n ta in s 8 5 % o f b ro n z e , 5 % o f gold and 10% o f s ilv e r . F in d th e p e rc e n ta g e o f b ro n z e in the second a llo y . (a ) 7 5 % (b ) 7 2 .5 % (c ) 70 % (d )
11. Two litres o f a mixture o f wine and water contain 12% water They are added to 3 litres of another mixture containing 7% water, and half a litre of water is then added to whole. What is the percentage o f water in resulting concoction? fa) 17(2/7)% (c) 17(3/11)% (e) None o f these (b) 15 (7/11)% (d) 16(2/3)%
67.5%
1 7 . G u n p o w d e r c a n b e p re p a re d b y sa ltp e tre and nitrous o x id e . P ric e o f s a ltp e tre is th ric e th e p ric e o f nitrons o x id e . N o to rio u s g a n g ste r K a llu B h a i s e lls the gun. p o w d e r a t R s . 2 1 6 0 p e r 1 0 g , th e re b y m akin g a profit o f 2 0 % . I f th e ra tio o f s a ltp e tre a n d n itro u s oxide in th e m ix tu re b e 2 : 3 , fin d th e c o s t p ric e o f saltpetre, (a ) R s . 2 1 0 /g m (c ) R s . 12 0/g m 18 . T w o b o x e s (b ) R s . 3 0 0 /g m (d ) N o n e o f th ese
12. Three vessels having volumes in the ratio o f 1 : 2 : 3 are full of a mixture o f coke and soda. In the first vessel, ratio o f coke and soda is 2 : 3, in second, 3 : 7 and in third, 1 : 4. If the liquid in all the three vessels were mixed in a bigger container, what is the resulting ratio o f coke and soda? (a) 4:11 (b) 5:7 (d) 7:5 (c) 7:11 (e) None o f these
A
an d
B
w e re f ille d w ith a m ix tu re of rice
an d d a l— in A in th e r a tio o f 5 : 3 , a n d in J? in the ratio o f 7 : 3 . W h a t q u a n tity m u st b e ta k e n fro m the first to fo rm a m ix tu re th a t s h a ll c o n ta in 8 k g o f ric e and 3 kg o f d a l?
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(a ) 4 k g (b ) 5 k g (c ) 6 k g (d ) T h is c a n n o t b e a c h ie v e d
13. Two types o f tea are mixed in the ratio o f 3 : 5 to produce A e first quality and if they are mixed in the ratio o f 2 :3 , the second quality is obtained. How many kilograms o f the first quality has to be mixed with 10 kg of the second quality so that a third quality having the two varieties in the ratio of 7 : 11 may be produced? (a) 5 kg (c) 8 kg (e) None o f these (b) 10 kg (d) 9 kg
1 9 . A p e rso n b u y s 18 lo c a l tic k e ts fo r R s 110. Each first c la s s tic k e t c o s ts R s . 1 0 a n d e a c h se co n d class ticket c o sts R s 3 . W h a t w ill a n o th e r lo t o f 18 tic k e ts in which th e n u m b e r o f f ir s t c la s s a n d se c o n d c la s s tickets aie in te rc h a n g e d c o s t? (a ) 112 (b ) 11 8 (c ) 12 1 (d ) 124
14. A toy weighing 24 grams o f an alloy o f two metals is worth Rs. 174, but if the weights o f metals in alloy be interchanged, the toy would be worth Rs. 162. If the price of one metal be Rs. 8 per gram, find the price o f the other metal in the alloy used to make the toy. (a) Rs. 10 per gram (c) Rs. 4 per gram (b) Rs. 6 (d) Rs. 5 per gram per gram
2 0 . T w o ja r s h a v in g a c a p a c ity o f 3 a n d 5 litre s rcspe C tiv e ly a re f ille d w ith m ix tu re s o f m ilk and water. I® th e s m a lle r ja r 2 5 % o f th e m ix tu re is m ilk and in la rg e r 2 5 % o f th e m ix tu re is w a te r. T h e ja r s are ® n,P tie d in to a 10 lit r e c a s k w h o se re m a in in g capacity fille d u p w ith w a te r. F in d th e p e rc e n ta g e o f m ilk in ca sk . (a ) 5 5 % (c ) 4 5 % (b ) 5 0 % (d ) N o n e o f these
15. The weight of three heaps of gold are in the ratio 5 : 6 :7 . By what fractions o f themselves must the first two be increased so that the ratio of the weights may be changed to 7 : 6 : 5 ?
2 1 . T w o c u b e s o f b ro n z e h a v e th e ir to ta l w eig h t le n t to 6 0 k g . T h e f ir s t p ie c e c o n ta in s 10 kg of r
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
j 251
zin c and the second p ie ce co n ta in s 8 k g o f pu re z in c . W hat is the percentage o f z in c in the firs t p ie ce o f bronze i f tile seco n d p ie c e co n ta in s 15 p e r ce n t m ore zin c than the firs t? (a ) 15% (b ) 2 5 % (c ) 5 5 % (d ) 2 4 %
kg p e r h o u r w h en the sp eed is 6 0 k m p e r h o u r. I f th e c o a l co sts the r a ilw a y co m p an y R s . 15 p e r 10 0 k g an d i f th e o th er e xp e n se s o f th e tra in b e R s . 12 p e r h o u r, fin d a fo rm u la fo r the c o st in p a ise p e r k ilo m e tre w h en the speed is 5 k m p e r h o u r.
22. Sonu gets a je w e lle ry m ade o f an a llo y o f co p p e r and silv e r. T h e a llo y w ith a w e ig h t o f 8 k g co n ta in s p p e r cent o f copper. W h a t p ie ce o f a c o p p e rs ilv e r a llo y containing 4 0 p e r ce n t o f s ilv e r m u st b e a llo y e d w ith the firs t p ie ce in o rd e r to o b tain a n e w a llo y w ith the m inim um p ercentag e o f co p p e r i f the w e ig h t o f the second p iece is 2 k g ? (a ) 2 kg fo r p > 6 0 ,
55 18 1200 755 + (c) 5 18
(a ) 12 00 +
(b ) 12 00 +
755 18
(d ) N o n e o f th ese
a
k g , w h e re a e
[0 , 2 ], fo r p =
Hints and Solutions
1. C h e c k the e q u a tio n : — — — — + — = ( x + 2 ) ( x  l)
60, 0 k g fo r 0 < / ? < 6 0 (b ) 0 kg fo r p > 6 0 , a k g , w h e re 6 0 , 2 k g fo r 0 < p < 6 0 (C ) 0 kg fo r p > 6 0 , a 7 0 , 0 kg fo r 0 < p < 7 0 (d ) N one o f these k g , w h e re a e [0 ,3 ], fo r p =
a e [0 , 2 ], fo r p
=
T h ro u g h o p tio n s
J
q
2. 5 = k —
w h e re Q is th e q u a n tity o f c o a l u se d p e r
23. From a v e sse l fille d up w ith p u re s p irit to th e b rim , two litre s o f s p irit w a s re m o ve d an d 2 litre s o f w a te r were added. A fte r the so lu tio n w a s m ix e d , 2 litre s o f the m ixtu re w a s p o u red o f f an d a g a in 2 litre s o f w a te r was added. T h e so lu tio n w a s s tirre d a g a in an d 2 litre s
k m and N is th e n u m b e r o f c a rria g e s . 100 = km 18
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k m
1800 V2 900V 2 5 = 900V 2
and
o f the m ixtu re w a s re m o ve d an d 2 litr e s o f w a te r w a s added. A s a re su lt o f th e ab o ve o p e ra tio n s, th e vo lu m e o f w ater in the v e s se l in c re a se d b y 3 litr e s th an the volum e o f s p irit re m a in in g in it . H o w m a n y litr e s o f sp irit and w a te r w e re th ere in th e v e s s e l a fte r th e ab o ve procedure w a s c a rrie d o u t? (a) 0 .7 litre o f s p irit an d 3 .7 litr e s o f w a te r (b ) 1.5 litre s o f s p irit an d 4 .5 litre s o f w a te r (c ) 8.5 litre o f s p irit an d 1 1 .5 litr e s o f w a te r (d ) 0 .5 litre o f s p irit an d 3 .5 litr e s o f w a te r 24. There are tw o q u a litie s o f m ilk — A m u ] an d S u d h a having d iffe re n t p ric e s p e r lit r e , th e ir v o lu m e s b e in g 130 litre s and 18 0 lit r e s re s p e c tiv e ly . A ft e r e q u al amounts o f m ilk w a s re m o ve d fro m b o th , th e m ilk rem oved fro m A m u l w a s ad ded to S u d h a and v ic e versa. T h e re su ltin g tw o ty p e s o f m ilk n o w h a v e the same p rice . F in d the am o u n t o f m ilk d ra w n o u t fro m each type o f m ilk ? (a ) 58 .6 6 (c) 81.23 (b ) 7 5 .4 8 (d ) N o n e o f these 13 . y =
t
JQ N
Then
150
=
900^2 x
16
3
w2
 ri * 1 _ 2w2
r\t 2
w2
5. 1347 x 1.125 x 0.9523
6 . A ssu m e v a lu e s o f a , b and c su ch th a t th e y s a tis fy
c (a + ft) = ab.
Then A = a  c an d
B —c
8 . N u m b e r o f w o rk e rs c le rk s .
32
s k ille d ,
20
u n s k ille d an d
4
T h e n , w ag e s a re d iv id e d in th e ra tio
160 : 40
:
12.
11, 5 = 24  k \ f W
x + 1 — — ,/ (> » ) =
X + 1
+ 1 1
x \
1 4 . 2 0 0 0 m an w e e ks = — o f the to ta l w o rk . 6 T o ta l w o rk = 2 4 0 0 m an w e e k s W o rk le ft a fte r d isru p tio n = 14 00 m en w e e k s.
5
25' Assum e that the ra te o f co n su m p tio n o f c o a l b y a lo com otive v a rie s a s th e sq u are o f th e sp eed and is 1000
252
I How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
1 7 1 9 . L e t th e ru n n in g sp eed be 2x, then t x and x are the c y c lin g an d sw im m in g sp eed s re sp e c tiv e ly Then, A ls o . And — i» + 2 0 60 2 3 . S o lv e u sin g o p tio n s 2 4 . V a ria b le c o st p e r b o a rd e r = 6 0 x 5 0  7 0 x 25 = 50 = — _________ (1 ) + —a+ —________ M i 2x 6x x ■ RS+ 1 (2 ) 3v 8y v (3 )
7 . C h e c k the o p tio n s. 8 . 8 0 % a lu m in iu m (4 : 1) and 2 5 % alum inium (\ h ave to be m ix e d w ith p u re alu m in iu m to obtai a llo y w ith 6 0 % a lu m in iu m . 10 x 0 .8 + 1 6 x 0 .2 5 + * 10 + 16 +jc = 0 .6
3y = 2x
9.
S in c e th e p e rcen tag e o f g o ld in both allo ys is sa m e, a n y m ix tu re o f th e tw o w ill contain the p ercen tag e c o n c e n tra tio n o f g o ld . H e n c e , w e get F ir s t a llo y : G o ld : 30 :
25 2 6 2 8 . L e t th e c o n trib u tio n s be C , C + 1 and C + 2 . T o ta l V o d k a = 3 C + 3 = 3 ( C + 1) T h e to ta l \fo d k a sh o u ld be d iv is ib le in to 4 p a rts. H e n c e , C c a n ta k e v a lu e s lik e 3 , 7 , 11 e tc . P ro c e e d w ith tr ia l an d e rro r an d c h e c k th e v a lu e fo r w h ic h a ll c o n d itio n s a re m et. 3 1 . T h e ra tio is 7 : 5 : 3 3 4 . R a tio s a re 3 : 4 an d 3 : 5 i.e . 9 : 12 : 2 0
Silver : 30: Silver : 26 :
Plating 40 Platinum 44
AND
10. L e t V
S e co n d a llo y :
G o ld 30 :
be th e w e ig h t o i th e c u t o ff p iece.
^ 6  w w T h e n ,  = — 12 —
3 7 . T h e q u e stio n a s k s fo r a p o s sib le a n sw e r and n o t fo r a d e fin ite a n sw e r. 4 4 . D = k y lh g 1 4 .4 3
w
w
1 3 . F ir s t a llo y h a s 3 7 .5 % o f th e f ir s t te a type. Similarly, th e se co n d a llo y h a s 4 0 % o f th e firs t tea type. The m ix tu re sh o u ld c o n ta in 4 2 .8 5 % o f the firs t tea type. T h is is n o t p o s s ib le .
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f t
16. W h e n o n e a llo y h a v in g 7 % g o ld is m ixed with a n o th e r a llo y h a v in g n o g o ld , th e re su lt is a new alloy w ith 5 % g o ld . H e n c e , ra tio o f m ix in g is 2 : 5.
Hints and Solutions
1.
in
1 9 . 1 0 * + (1 8 
jc )
x 3 = 110
2 0 . O u t o f 8 lite r s m ilk an d w a te r m ix tu re poured in to th e 1 0 lit e r c a s k , th e m ilk is 0 .2 5 x 3 + 0.75 x 5 s 4 .5 . 21. 10 = 0 .1 5 .
jc
O n e a llo y c o n ta in s 3 3 .3 3 % g o ld , th e o th e r c o n ta in s 4 0 % g o ld . T h e m ix tu re m u st c o n ta in 3 7 .5 % g o ld . S o lv e u s in g a llig a tio n . 96
X
x
60 
2 2 . S in c e th e se co n d a llo y c o n ta in s 6 0 % copper, the fr I = 4 (R e q u ire d d iffe re n c e ). C h e c k usq u ire m e n t fo r th e m in im is a tio n o f copper w ill be ful I fille d b y o p tio n 2 . N o te , th a t th e v a lu e s o f the n il® ’I
(x + 2 )
in g o p tio n s.
33.33
3. I1 st A lloy
66.66
83.33 gives 1 :2 2nd Alloy
b e r o f k g s re q u ire d o f th e se co n d a llo y w ill depe B ® I o n th e v a lu e o f p . 2 4 . S o lv e th ro u g h o p tio n s . 2 5 . T o ta l c o st = O th e r e x p e n s e s (p a ise /k m ) + (p a is e /k m ). C o a l C o n su m p tio n = k x s 1000 = k x 6 0 2 ^ I
4 . C h e c k u s in g o p tio n s w h e th e r th e g iv e n c o n d itio n s o f m ix in g a re m e t. O p tio n (a ) g iv e s : 2 .4 k g o f z in c @ 8 0 % co n c e n tra tio n . i.e . 3 k g a llo y o f 8 0 % z in c c o n c e n tra tio n is
m ix e d w ith 3 k g o f p u re z in c . S a tis fie s th e g iv e n c o n d itio n . 5 . S o lv e u s in g o p tio n s th e fo llo w in g eq u atio n 0 .6 0 8 — 
k=
5 —
5 v »2 an d C o a l c o n su m p tio n = Jg
R e q u ire d e x p re s s io n is T o ta l c o st 1 M + J L s x 15. 18
x
10
= 0 .1
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
2 5 3
petailed Solutions & Short Cuts
lo d i
o u t rig h t fro m th e ch a p te r o f p e rce n ta g e s, y o u need to be a b le to lo o k at % v a lu e s o f ra tio s d ire c tly b y u sin g the P e rcen tag e ru le fo r c a lc u la tio n s ) % d e cre ase in tim e w h e n g o in g d o w n stre a m = 9 /5 4
I. So lve th is q u e stio n u sin g
options. 1/2 o f the first part
= 1 6 .6 6 % S in c e , th e % d e cre a se is 1 6 .6 6 % , th is sh o u ld c o rre sp o nd to a % in c re a se in sp eed b y 2 0 % (S in c e , p ro d u ct sp eed x tim e is c o n sta n t). T h is m eans th a t th e sp eed sh o u ld d ro p b y 2 0 % w h ile g o in g u p stream an d h en ce th e tim e sh o u ld in c re a se b y 2 5 % w h ile g o in g u p stre a m . B u t , 3 0 /5 4 d o es not g iv e u s a v a lu e o f 2 5 % in c re a s e . H e n ce th is o p tio n is in c o rre c t. T e s tin g fo r o p tio n 2 : T im c upstream = 8 4 m in u te s (g iv e n ) T im e downstream = 6 3 m in u te s ( f ir s t v a lu e fro m o p tio n ) T im e StilWater = 7 2 m in u te s (6 3 + 9 ) % in c re a se in tim e w h e n g o in g u p stream = 12/72 = 1 6 .6 6 % % d e cre a se in tim e w h e n g o in g d o w n stre a m = 9 /7 2 = 1 2 .5 % th e
should equal 1/3"1 o f the second part and — o f the
third p a rt. T h is m ean s th a t d iv isib le b y
the first part should be
by 6 . L o o k in g options h as option
2, th e second one by 3, and the third one at the options, none o f the fir s t 4 its third num ber divisible by 6 . T h u s ,
(©) is correct.
2. (y4 + B ) — 3 (C* + D ) —> A + B
= 375 and C + D = 125. Also, since C gets 1.5 times D we have
C = 75 and D = 50, and B = 4 C = 300.
3. The given condition has a , b and c symmetrically placed. Thus, if we use a = b = c = 2 (say) we get each fraction as 1/2.
5. 1.2
= 3 : 6 S o , a 2 + b 2lc 2 + £ = 5/45 = 1/9 From the given options, only ab/cd gives us this value.
6. If you try to solve this question through equations,
the process becomes too long and alm ost inconclu sive. The best way to approach this question is by dying to use options. The question asks us to find the tim e in which the boat can move downstream. The basic situation in this question is: Percentage increase over still w ater speed while go ing downstream = Percentage decrease over still water speed while going upstream.
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sp ond p ro d u ct sp eed x tim e is c o n sta n t).
S in c e , th e % d e cre a se is 1 2 .5 % , th is sh o u ld c o rre
to a % in c re a se in sp eed b y 1 4 .2 8 % (S in c e ,
T h is m e an s th a t th e sp eed sh o u ld d ro p b y 1 4 .2 8 % w h ile g o in g u p stre am an d h en ce th e tim e sh o u ld in c re a se b y 1 6 .6 6 % w h ile g o in g u p stre a m . T h is is a c tu a lly o c c u rrin g . H e n c e , th is o p tio n is c o rre c t. O p tio n c & d c a n b e seen to b e in c o rre c t in th is c o n te x t. 7 . E x p e rim e n ta lly i f y o u w e re to ta k e th e v a lu e o f a , b ,
(Since. S(jownslreani —S]oat + SstRun and S U pStream — boat
c , an d d a s 1 : 2 : 4 : 8 , y o u g et th e v a lu e o f th e
e x p re ssio n a s 3 .5 . I f y o u try o th e r v a lu e s fo r an d
S ) ‘'stream'
. Hence, the percentage increase in tim e while going upstream should match the percentage decrease in time while going dow nstream in such a way that the percentage change in the speed is same in both the cases).
Testing fo r o p tio n 1 :
a, b , c
d e x p e rim e n ta lly
y o u ca n se e th a t w h ile y o u c a n
ap p ro ach 3 , y o u ca n n o t get b e lo w th at. F o r in sta n c e , 1 : 1.1 : : 1.21 : 1.331 G iv e s u s :  0 .3 3 1 /  0 .1 1 th an 3 . 8. 4 x 8 x 5 = 16 0 m an h o u rs are re q u ire d fo r V no. w h ic h is s lig h tly g re a te r
Timcup*iean. = 84 minutes (given)
Tim edownfclfejun = 4 5 m in u te s ( f ir s t v a lu e fro m the option)
o f a n s w e r sh e e ts. S o , fo r ‘ 2jc* a n s w e r sh e e ts w e w o u ld re q u ire 3 2 0 m an h o u rs = H o u rs a d a y.
2 x 20 x h  » n = 8
TimcsuUwaier f 54 m inutes (45 + 9) % increase in tim e w h e n going upstream = 30 /5 4 [Note: T h e p ercen tag e increase should be written as 30*100/54. H o w e v e r, as I have repeatedly pointed
10.
In
cre a te
32 an d w a te r = 8 . W e w a n t to 2 : 3 m ilk to w a te r m ix tu re , fo r th is w e w o u ld n e e d : 32 m ilk an d 48 w a te r. (S in c e m ilk is not in c re a sin g ). T h u s , w e need to ad d 40 litre s o f w ater.
litr e s , m ilk =
40
254
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
12. 1 : 2 : 3 — > x, 2 x
and I r add up to 3 6 .
25. 26.
T r ia l and e rro r w o u ld g iv e fra c tio n . T h e ir ra tio b e in g ra tio is
us
2/5
as
the ‘^i
S o the num bers a re : 6 , 12 and 18.
Ratio of squares = 36 : 144 : 32 4.
14. S in ce eq ual q u an tities are being m ixe d , both a llo y s have 18 kg s (1 8 being the L C M o f 9 and 18). T h e th ird alloy will get, 14 kg of argentum from the first alloy and 7 kg of argentum from the second alloy. Hence, the required ratio: 21:15 = 7:5 15. The total number of manhours required = 30x7x18 = 37 80
5:3,
th e d iffe re n c e accord in
assume that a number which is
2. B u t
th is d iffe re n c e is
10. T o
get the
^ ^
exp and the ra tio
5 tim e s . T h is
g iv e s 2 5 and
15
req u ired v a lu e s. H e n c e , th e p ro d u ct is 3 7 5
x 8 x no. of days — > 3780/168 = 22.5 days Note, you could have done this directly by: (30 x 7
21
x 18V(2I x 8). 17. It is clear that the triangle would be a 45  45  90 triangle. The required ratio would be 1 : 1. 18. Solve by options. Option (aj c = 480 fits perfectly because if C = 480, B = 120 and A = 80.
19. A 's co n trib u tio n = 3 3 .3 3 %
27. 60 o xen days = 1/7 of the field — » 420 oxen days required to plough the field. Thus, the remaj work would be 360 oxen days. With 18 o x T ] would take 20 days. 28. Assume that 1 cat leap is equal to 3 m etres and 1a J leap is equal to 4 metres. Then the speed of the cat in o n e u n it tim e = 3*5 15 meters. Also, the speed of the dog in o n e u n it tim e = 4 v i = 16 meters. The required ratio is 16:15 30. x + 3x + 4x + I x = 105 — »x = 7 Thus, I x = 49. 31. The share of the rent is on th e b a s is o f th e ratio of tit I number of cow months. A u s e s 3 3 0 c o w months (lio I x 3 ), B uses 660(110 x 6) and C u ses 1320 cw I months (440 x 3 ) Hence, the required ratio is: 3 3 0 :6 6 0 :1 3 2 0 = 1:2:4 I 32. 10 x 8 = 80 man days is re q u ire d fo r the jo b . If only I 8 students turn up, they w o u ld re q u ire 10 days to I complete the task. The n u m b e r o f d a y s is increasins I by 1/4. 33. The initial amount o f water is 9 lit e r s and m ilk is Z !I liters. By adding 15 liters o f m ilk th e mixture b e I comes 42 milk and 9 water — > 14:3 the required I ratio. 34. From the first statement A = From the second statement
2000.
12 0 0 and C
B 's contribution = 50%
C s contribution = 16.66% Ratio o f profit sharing = Ratio of contribution =2:3:1 Thus, profit would be shared as : 28000 : 42000 : 14000. 20. 2 r + 20 : 3x + 20 : 5x + 20 = 4 : 5 : 7  » x = 10 and initially the number o f students would be 20, 30 and
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50 a total of 100. 22. Assume any values for a,b,c and d such that they are proportional: e.g. 1,2,4 and 8. Then the mean proportional between .a2 + c2 (17) and b2 + d 2 (68) will be 34. Since 17/34 = 34/68. Put a = 1, b = 2, c = 4 and d = 8 in the options to see which one gives 34 as the answer Clearly Option
b is the correct answer.
B + C=^
A
I
=
1 0 0 0 and
+
23. Option (d) is true since Hz will be greater than 1 and Vz would be less then 1. 24. Amar's share should be divisible by 6. Option d gets rejected by this logic. Further: A + B + C = 2250. If Amar's share is 720 (acc. To option a) Bijoy’s share should be 480 & Chandra's share should be 300. (Gives us a total of 720 + 480 + 300 = 1500).
But
35. 6jc + 15 : 5x + 15 = 9 : 8 > 4 5 * + 135 = 48* + 126 3* = 15 — >x = 5 Maya’s present age = 6 x = 3 0 37. Solve using options. For option (c) 68 girls. Hence, 82 boys Amount with Girls = 68 x 0.25 = ^ Amount with Boys = 82 x 0.5 = 41Total of Rs. 58. Thus, option (c) fits the conditions. 38. The ratio : 1/2 : 2/3 ; 3/4 $ Converts to 6 : 8 : 9 (on m u ltip ly ^ ^
the required total is 2250 (50% more than 1500). Since all relationships are linear, 1500 will increase
to
2250 if we increase all values by 50%. Hence, Amar's share should be 1080.
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
2 5 5
T h u s, the firs t m o n ke y w o u ld g et (3 9 1 /2 3 ) x bananas.
6=
102
F u rth e r w ith th e se v a lu e s fo r a a n d b o p tio n a a ls o ca n b e ru le d o u t s in c e it m e a n s th a t th e v a lu e sh o u ld
40.
The
ratio of the
v a lu e s o f
the three coins are: o f value of coins. to Rs. 1 7 . Hence,
lie b e tw ee n 5 an d 6 w h ic h it o b v io u s ly d o e s n o t. A ls o , O p tio n d g iv e s 6 /5 an d 1/6 . T h is m e an s th a t th e v a lu e sh o u ld lie b e tw e e n 0 .1 6 6 6 an d 1 .2 (w h ic h it o b v io u s ly d o e s n o t). H e n c e , o p tio n b is c o rre c t. 5 . (1 3 4 7 x 1 .1 2 5 )/1 .0 5 = 1 4 4 3 . 6 . T h e c o n stra in t g iv e n to u s fo r th e v a lu e s o f a , b , au d
10 x 10 : 17 x 2 0 : 7 x
1 0 0 = 1 0 0 :3 4 0 :7 0 0
= 5 :1 7 :3 5
is the ra tio o f d iv is io n
Th u s. 20 p a ise c o in s c o rre sp o n d there w ill be 8 5 c o in s .
41. R atio o f n o . o f c o in s = 12 : 10 : 7
42.
values o f coins = 1 : 0.5 : 0.25 coins = 12 : 5 : 1.75 1 Th u s, he h as Rs. 7 in 25 paisa coins. Which means that he w o u ld have 28 such coins. So lve u sin g options. 15/24 becomes 24/33 —» 8/11
R atio o f in d iv id u a l R atio o f g ro ss v a lu e o f 27 11
c is
c (a + b) = a x b
= 48 : 20 : S 7o> Rs. , i f75 we ta k e a
= 6 , b = 3 an d c = 2 , w e h a v e
18 = 18 an d a fe a s ib le se t o f v a lu e s fo r a , b an d c re s p e c tiv e ly . W ith th is se t o f v a lu e s , w e c a n c o m p le te th e o p e ra tio n a s d e fin e d a n d se e w h a t h a p p e n s. A . W in e le f t in th e f ir s t v e s s e l = 4 = (6  2 ) B . W in e in th e se co n d v e s s e l = 2 W ith th e se v a lu e s n o n e o f th e f ir s t 4 o p tio n s m a tc h e s . T h u s , o p tio n (e ) is c o rre c t. 7 . T h e o n ly in fo rm a tio n a v a ila b le h e re is th a t  b l c sh o u ld b e e q u a l to 2 /1 . T h is is n o t s u ffic ie n t to m a k e a n y o f th e f ir s t fo u r o p tio n s a s c o n c lu s io n s . H e n c e , o p tio n e is c o rre c t. 8 . T h e ra tio o f to ta l s a la rie s w ill b e : 4 0 :1 0 :3 . T h is g iv e s 5 3 c o rre sp o n d s to 3 1 8 . H e n c e , 1 c o rre sp o n d s to 6 . T h u s th e w a g e s a re : 2 4 0 , 6 0 a n d 18 r e s p e c tiv e ly . 9 . S o lv e b y ta k in g v a lu e s o f a , b ,
43 —

=
16/24
= 2/3 .
35
11
44.
45.
Thus option (c) is correct. J0(y2 1). This gives k = 24 x 99 = 2376. The equation becomes x = 2376/(24) = 99. x = ky 18 = I k > k = 18/7 Hence, x = 18/7 x y When j y = 21, * = 54.
47. x  ky lz
We cannot determine the value o f from the given information and hence cannot answer the question. 48. Initial wine = 35 litres Initial water = 14 litres Since, we want to create 7 : 4 mixture o f wine and water by adding only water, it mean that the amount of wine is constant at 35 litres. Thus 7 : 4 = 35 : 20. So, we need 6 litres o f water. 50. The overall ratio is: 21:35:55. Dividing 3,33 in 111 parts (21 + 35 + 5 5 ) each part will be 3 and Class HI will have the highest number o f pupils — » 55 x 3 =
165
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c,
h in d e p e n d e n tly o f e a c h o th e r
0 an d and
d an d
e , f , g , an d
= 1, £ >= 2, c = 3, d — 6 9,
e = 3, /=
g
= 4
h  12
g iv e s ( a e + b f) : ( a e  b f )  2 1 :  1 5 =  7 / 5 O p tio n (b ) (e g + d h )/(c g — d h ) = 8 4 /  6 0 =  7 / 5 . 1 1 . S p e e d = 2 4  Ic lN . P u ttin g v a lu e o f N = 4 w e g e t: 2 0 = 2 4  2k. H e n c e , k = 2 T h u s th e e q u a tio n is :
LO D II
J B y taking the quired ra tio 3. I l l I
S=
2 4  2 V iV
T h is m ean s th a t w h e n N = 1 4 4 , th e sp e e d w ill b e co m e z e ro . H e n c e , th e tra in c a n ju s t m o v e w h e n 143
value o f x = 8 from option c , the re o f 9 :1 0 is achieved.
w a g o n s a re a tta c h e d . 13. L e t x = 5 Then And
9 r,2
f ( x ) = 6 /4
= 1 .5 = y
wl
tr f
f ( y ) m 2 .5 / 0 .5 = 5 .
T h u s , th e ra tio o f x : f [ y ) = 1 : 1
Thus, r,/r2S 4:3 4 Suppose you take o = 3 and b = 2 . It can be clearly fccen that the square root of 2 does not lie between 2 ^ 3. Hence, option c is incorrect.
N o te : E v e n i f y o u ta k e so m e o th e r v a lu e o f y , y o u
w o u ld s t ill g e t th e sa m e a n sw e r.
256
j How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
5
14. 2000 man weeks before the rain. 5/6* o f the work is completed. Hence. 2400 men weeks will be the total amount o f work. However, due to the rain half the work gets washed off — > This means that 1000 man weeks worth o f work must have got washed off. This leaves 1400 men weeks o f work to be completed by the 140 men. They will take 10 more weeks and hence the total time required is 24 weeks. 15. Total distances covered under each mode = 32 , 4 and 12 km respectively. Total changes = 3 2 x 24 + 4 x 3 + 1 2 x 1 2 = 9 2 4 paise = Rs. 9.24. 16. The no. o f coins o f 1 Re = 3* and 25p = x Conventionally, we can solve this using equations as follows.
A + B + C = 220 A I 3C A
(you would need to check for this after conv. /enin, the values into kmph). So, we can start by checking individual option from question 19. Amongst the 4 values (9, 18, 54, and 12) 12 % is the easiest to check. Checking for it we have: Scenario 1: 12/12 + 24/36 + 5/6 = 1 + 1 h r + 4o 'mills + 50 mins = 2 hr 30 minutes. Scenario 2: 12/12 + 24/32 + 5/4 = lh r + 45 minute + 1 hr 15 minutes = 3 hrs. This doesn’t match the condition of 20 minutcj extra. If you check for 18 kmph, y o u w ill get a ll values fitting in perfectly. Scenario 1 would give you 1 h r 4 0 m inutes and Scenario 2 would give you 2 h o u rs. Answers are: 17. e 18. b 19. b
21
H
*■ U
1
A
f
oi
af
ID
ol H
(1) (2) (3)
5:
+ 0.5B + 0.25 C = 1 6 0
an
29. 5
01
We have a
situation with 3 equations and 3
unknowns, and we can solve for
A (no. o f 1 Re coins), B (no. o f 50 paise coins)
Assume raw materials cost as 1 5 0 and total costas 450. (Thus, wages cost is 3 0 0 ) Since, the cost o f raw m aterials g o es up in the ratio and the new wages cost w ould b eco m e in the ratio The new cost would becom e, 1 0 2 5 . Since 450 become 1025 (change in to ta l cost), uni tary method calculation w ould give u s th at 18 would become Rs. 41. o f 3:7 the new raw m aterial cost w o u ld become 350 4:9 as 675.
31. Tt
21
and
C (no. o f 25 paise coins)
However, a much smarter approach would be to go
through the options. If we check option (a)  no. of 50 paise coins = 60 we would get the number of 1 Re coins as 120 and the num ber o f 25 paise coins as 40. 120 x 1 + 60 x 0.5 + 40 x 0.25 = 160 T his fits the conditions perfectly and is hence the correct answer. 1719. In order to solve this question, if you try going through equation and expressions, it would lead you in to a very long draw n solution. Thus: and 12/2* + 24/6* + S ix = rU6 0 12/3y + 24/8 y + 5ly = n + 20/60
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Tt 24
33. Ra
So
34. W <
M t
%
In 36* Si,
on
23. From the question, it is evident that after leaving outj the C courses, Sonali’s GPA goes to 3 .3 3 . T h is mean* that the number o f subjects she m ust have had afa leaving out the C’s m ust b e a m ultiple o f 3 . Th is only occurs in Option c. Hence, that is the answer. 24. When there are 25 boarders, the total expenses * $1750. W hen there are 50 boarders, the total ^ penses are $ 3000. The change in expense dueto coming in o f 25 boarders is $ 1250. Hence, exp^ per boarder is equal to $50. This also m ean^L when there are.25 boarders, the variable cost" be 25 x 50 = $1250. H ence, $500 must be the & expenses. So for 100 boarders, the total cost would be. (fixed) + $ 5000 = $5500 25. S = 42  t i n 24 = 42  k x 3 > * = 6
Qf, tP tj ■ oj Sljj
t& e
We also know that 3y = 2x. In order to handle this expression, you can try be substituting the values o f the speeds. Also, we know that his running speed (initially) is tw ice his sw im m ing speed. Q uestion 17 is asking us his swimming speed, white 19 is asking us his running speed. So the answer of the tw o questions should be in the ratio 1 : 2. H ow ever, a scrutiny o f the options shows us that none o f the 4 options (values) in question 17 have a value w hich is half the values provided for in 19.
\
^
Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
2 5 7
So,
S = 42  6V *
F o r 4 9 co m p artm en ts th e tra in w o u ld n o t m o ve. H ence it w o u ld m o ve fo r 4 8 co m p artm en ts.
dition is that each o f them has 24 pens. The follow ing table will emerge on the basis o f this logic. Anshu 24 12 42 Bobby 24 12 6 8400 10000. Chandana 24 48 24
26*28:
L e t the th ird d ru n k a rd g et in x litr e s . T h e n th e seco n d w ill co n trib u te * + 1 an d th e fir s t w ill c o n trib u te x + 2 litre s . T h u s in a ll th e y h a v e 3 x + 3 litre s o f the d rin k . U sin g o p tio n a in q u e stio n 2 7 , th is v a lu e is 12, g ivin g
Final Second round Initial 43.
x as 3 .
Expenses for 120 boys = Expenses for 150 boys =
A ls o , each d ru n k a rd w ill d rin k 3 litre s . T h u s, the fir s t d ru n k a rd b rin g s 5 litre s and the se c ond 4 litr e s . T h e ir c o n trib u tio n to th e fo u rth d ru n k ard w ill be in th e ra tio 2 :1 an d h e n ce th e ir sh are o f m oney w o u ld b e a ls o in th e ra tio 2 :1 . H e n c e , th is option is c o rre c t fo r q u e stio n 2 7 . H e n ce, fo r q u e stio n 2 6 , th e se co n d d ru n k a rd w ill get 5 ro u b les (fo r h is c o n trib u tio n o f 1 lit r e to th e fo u rth ) and fo r q u e stio n 2 8 , th e a n s w e r w o u ld be 1:3 29. 5 : 4  » 5 : 4 .8  » 2 5 : 2 4 .
Thus, variable expenses are Rs. 1600 for 30 boys. If we add 180 more boys to make it 330 boys, we will get an additional expense o f 1600 Rs. 9600. Total expenses are Rs. 19600. 45. x 6 =
47 : 100: 220 would give:0.5 cubic feet o f Cement, lcubic feet o f sand and 2 cubic feet o f gravel. Required ratio 1 : 2 : 4 is satisfied.
LOD I I I 1. You can use alligation between 33.33% and 40% to get 37.5%. Hence the ratio o f m ixing m ust be 2.5:4.16  * 3:5 Suppose you are checking option b w hich gives the value o f a as 81 litres. Then, it is clear that when you are pouring out 81 litres, you are leaving 8/9 o f the honey in the barrel. Thus the amount o f honey contained after 6 such operations will be given by: 729 x (8/9)6. If this answer has to be correct this value must be equal to 64 (which it clearly is not since the value will be in the form o f a fraction.) Hence, this is not the correct option. You can simi larly rule out the other options. 7. It is clear that if 7 kg o f the first is mixed with 21 kg o f the second you will get 5 + 9 = 14 kg o f nickel and 14 kg o f tin. You do not need to check the other options since they will go into fractions. 10. The piece that is cut o ff should be such that the frac tion o f the first to the second alloy in each o f the two new alloys formed should be equal. If you cut off 4 kg, the respective ratios will be: First alloy: 2 kg o f first alloy and 4 kg o f second alloy Second alloy: 4 kg o f first alloy and 8 kg o f the second alloy. It can easily be seen that the ratios are equal to 1:2 in each case.
O p tio n (c ) is c o rre c t. 31. T h e ra tio o f d is trib u tio n sh o u ld b e : 21 x 35 : 15 x 3 5 : 15 x 21  » 14 7 : 1 0 5 :6 3 > 7 :5 :3 T h e b ig gest sh are w ill b e w o rth : 7 x 5 2 5 0 0 0 /1 5 = 245000.
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6. Check each o f the options as follows:
33. R a tio o f d is trib u tio n = 2 0 : 13 : 8 So the e le p h an t sh o u ld g et (2 0 /4 1 ) x 8 2 0 = 4 0 0 . 34. W om en : M e n = 3 : 4 M en : C h ild re n = 3 : 5 W om en : M e n : c h ild re n = 9 : 12 : 2 0 In the ra tio , 9 —» 53 1 W o m en T h u s, 2 0 —» 11 8 0 c h ild re n .
36. S in ce , th e w o rk g e ts d o n e in 2 5 % le s s tim e th ere m ust h ave been a n a d d itio n o f 3 3 .3 3 % m e n . T h is w o u ld m ean 1 3 .3 3 m en e x tra —» w h ic h w o u ld mean 14 e x tra m en (in w h o le n o s .) 38. T h is is a sim p le q u e stio n i f y o u c a n c a tc h h o ld o f the lo g ic o f the q u e stio n , i.e . th e y o u n g e r d a u g h te r’s share m ust b e su c h a fte r a d d in g a C l o f 2 0 % fo r tw o years, she sh o u ld g e t th e sam e v a lu e a s h e r e ld e r sister. None o f th e o p tio n s m eets th is re q u ire m e n t. H e n c e , None o f th ese is c o rre c t. ^ 4 1 You should re a lis e th at w h e n A n sh u g iv e s h e r pens to Bob by & C h an d an a, th e n u m b e r o f p en s fo r both Bobby & C h an d an a sh o u ld d o u b le . A ls o , the num b er o f pens fo r A n sh u & B o b b y sh o u ld a ls o d o u b le w hen
Chandana g iv e s o ff h e r p e n s. F u rth e r th e fin a l co n
258
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
13. T h is is again the typ ical allig atio n situatio n. Th e required ratio w ill be g iven b y (7/18  3 / 8 ): (2 / 5  7/18) A ltern ately, you can also lo o k at it through options. It can be e a sily seen that i f you take 8 kg o f the firs t w ith 10 kg o f the second you w ill get the required 7:11 ratio . 17. Th e cost o f m aking one gram o f gun pow der w ould be R s . 180. T h is w ill contain 0 .4 gm o f saltpetre and 0 .6 gm o f nitro u s o xid e . C h e ck through op tio n s. A t the rate o f saltpetre o f 300/gm , the nitrou s oxid e w ill cost Rs.lO O /gm . Th e total cost o f 0 .4 gram s o f
saltp etre w ill be 120 an d 0 .6 g ram s o f nitrous ox'd w ill be R s . 6 0 g iv in g the to ta l c o st as 180. 2 0 . T h e re w ill be a to tal o f 4 .5 litr e s o f m ilk (25% of ^ + 75% o f 5 ) g iv in g a to ta l o f 4 .5 . H e n ce , 2 3 . G o through the o p tio n s a s fo llo w s : A cco rd in g to o p tio n d , i f th e in itia l q u an tity of spjjj is 4 litre s , h a lf the s p irit is ta k e n o u t w hen 2 litres d raw n o u t. T h u s th e s p irit a fte r th ree tim es of jju o peration w o u ld b e : 4 x (1 /2 )2 = 0 .5 litr e s . T h is m a tch e s the option. You can ch e ck fo r y o u rs e lf th a t th e fir s t th ree options win not w o rk .
45%
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Chapter 8:
Ratio, Proportion and Variation
259
  ANSWER KEY
Ratio, P ro p o rtio n a n d Variation § e
LOD I
31. b 32. d 33. b 34. b 35. b 36. b 37. c 38. a 39. b 40. d 41. d 42. c 43. e
2. a
3. b
4. a 5.
d
6. b 7. b
8. c
9. b
10. c
11. b 12. c 13. b 14. c 15. b 16. c 17. c 18. a 19. b 20. c
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45. b 46. b 47. d 48. b 49. d 50. 1
44. a
21. d 22. b
23. d
irr
2* c
26. a
27^b 28. d
260!
How to Prepare for Quantitative
Aptitude fo
1
33. d
34. b 35. c 36. c 37. d 38. d 39. d 40. a 41. c 42. b 43. b 44. c j 45. a
Ratio, Proportion and Variation LOD II
1. c 2. a 3. a 4. b 5. a 6. e 7. c 8. a 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. e 13. c 14. c 15. a 16. a 17. e 18. b 19. b 20. c 21. a
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: 22. c
23. c 24. a 25. b 26. c 27. a 28. a 29. c 30. d 31. b 3 2. b
Chapter 8:
Rate. Proportion and Variation
261
Ratio. Proportion and V a ria tio n L O D H I
1.



£ a
4. a
5. a
6. a
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. a
11. c
11
a
13. c 14. b 15. a 16. b 17. b 18. d 19. d
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20. c
21. b
22. a
23. d 24. b 25. c
I
TIME AND WORK
INTRODUCTION
T h e concept of time and work is another important topic for the aptitude exams. Questions on this chapter have been appearing regularly over the past decade in all aptitude ex ams. On an average, you will have 23 questions based on this chapter every year in the CAT.
One day’s work = 1/10 + 1/12 = (12 + 10)/120 [Taking LCM o f the denominators}
=
22/120
Theory
In the context of the CAT, you have to understand the fol lowing basic concepts of this chapter: I f A does a work in a days, then in one day A does — of the work.
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A LTERN ATIVE APPROACH
Then the number of days required to complete the w ork is 120/22. Note that this is a reciprocal o f the fraction of work done in one day. This is a benefit associated with solving tim e and work through fractions. It can be stated as—the num ber o f time periods required to complete the full work will b e the reciprocal o f the fraction o f the work done in one tim e period.
a
I f B does a work in b days, then in one day B does — » — of the work.
b
Instead o f taking the value o f the total work as 1 unit o f work, we can also look at the total work as 100 per cen t work. In such a case, the follow ing rule applies: If A d o e s a work in a days, then in one day A
100
Then, in one day, if A and B work together, then their combined work is — + —.
a If B does a work in b days, then in one day
100« r L — — % of the work.
of the work.
a
b
or
——
a +b
ab
b
Then, in one day, if A and B work together, the# combined work is
In the above case, we take the total work to be done as “ 1 unit of work”. Hence, the work will be completed when 1 unit of work is completed. For example, if A can do a work in 10 days and B can do the same work in 12 days, then the work will be com pleted in how many days.
100
a
100
b
c o n
This is often a very useful approach to look at tbe ®h cept of time and work because thinking in terms of P i*I ;tuaU» ages gives a direct and clear picture o f the ac of work done.
I
say is that e ve n th ough w e ca n th in k in either a percentage or a fra c tio n a l v a lu e to s o lv e the problem, there will b e a th o u g h t p ro c e ss d iffe re n c e b etw een the two.
W hat I m ean to T h in k in g ab o ut w o rk done a s a p e rce n tag e v a lu e g iv e s us a lin e a r p ic tu re o f the q u an tu m o f th e w o rk th at h a s been done and the q u an tu m o f th e w o rk th a t is to b e d o n e. O n the other h an d , i f w e th in k o f th e w o rk done a s a fra c tio n a l valu e, the th o ug h t p ro c e ss w ill h a v e to b e s lig h tly lo n g e r to get a fo il u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e w o rk d o n e. F o r in sta n ce , w e ca n th in k o f w o rk done a s 7/9 o r 7 7 .7 7 % . T h e p ercentag e v a lu e m a k e s it c le a r a s to h o w m u ch q u an tum is le ft. T h e p e rce n ta g e v a lu e c a n b e v is u a lis e d on the num ber lin e , w h ile th e fra c tio n a l v a lu e re q u ire s a m en ta l in ve rsio n to f u lly u n d e rsta n d th e q u an tu m . A n a d d itio n a l a d va n ta g e o f th e p e rce n tag e m etho d o f so lvin g tim e an d w o rk p ro b le m s w o u ld b e th e e lim in a tio n o f the need to p e rfo rm cu m b e rso m e fra c tio n a d d itio n s in vo lvin g L C M s o f d e n o m in a to rs. H o w e ve r, y o u sh o u ld re a lis e th a t th is w o u ld w o rk o n ly i f you are a b le to h a n d le b a s ic p e rce n ta g e c a lc u la tio n s in vo lvin g stan d ard d e c im a l v a lu e s . I f y o u h a v e r e a lly in te r nalised the te ch n iq u e s o f p e rc e n ta g e c a lc u la tio n s g iv e n in
Chapter 9 :
Time and Work
2 63
8.33% work to be done » which can be done in 8.33/18.33 of a day = 5/11 of a day (since both the numerator and the denominator are divisible by 1.66), then the work will be completed in 5 days.
The entire process can be done mentally.
The Concept of Negative Work
Suppose, that A and B are working to build a wall while C is working to break the wall. In such a case, the wall is being built by A and B while it is being broken by C. Here, if we consider the work as the building o f the wall, we can say that C is doing negative work.
E xa m p le: A can build a wall in 10 days and B can build
it in 5 days, while C can completely destroy the wall in 20 days. If they start working at the same time, in how many days will the work be completed.
Solution:
The net combined work per day here is: A’s work + B 's work  C ’s work = 10% + 20%  5%
the ch ap ter o f p e rc e n ta g e s, th e n y o u c a n re a p th e b e n e fits for th is ch ap ter.
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= 25% work in one day. Hence, the work will get completed (100% work) in
T h e b e n e fit o f u s in g th is c o n c e p t w ill b eco m e ab u n dantly c le a r b y s o lv in g th ro u g h p e rc e n ta g e s th e sam e e x
ample th at w a s so lv e d a b o v e u s in g fra c tio n s . E xam ple:
I f A c a n d o a w o rk in 1 0 d a y s an d B c a n d o the
4 days. The concept o f negative work commonly appears as a problem based on pipes and cisterns, where there are inlet pipes and outlet pipes/leaks which are working against each
same w o rk in 12 d a y s , th e n th e w o rk w ill b e co m p le te d in how m any d a y s. One d a y 's w o rk = 1 0 % + 8 .3 3 % = 1 8 .3 3 % (N o te , no L C M s re q u ire d h e re ) H ence, to d o 1 0 0 % w o r k , it w ill re q u ire : 1 0 0 /1 8 .3 3 . T h is can b e so lv e d b y a d d in g 1 8 .3 3 m e n ta lly to g e t b e tween 5 6 d a y s . T h e n o n y o u c a n g o th ro u g h o p tio n s and m ark the c lo se st a n sw e r. Th e p ro cess o f s o lv in g th ro u g h p e rce n ta g e s w ill y ie ld rich d ivid en d s i f an d o n ly i f y o u h a v e ad eq u ate p ra c tic e on adding stand ard p e rce n ta g e v a lu e s . T h u s , 1 8 .3 3 x 5 = 9 1 .6 6 should not g iv e y o u a n y h e a d a ch e s an d sh o u ld be done w hile read ing fo r th e f ir s t tim e . Th u s a th o ug h t p ro c e ss c h a rt fo r th is q u e stio n sh o u ld look lik e th is.
other. If we consider the work to be filling a tank, the inlet pipe does positive work while the outlet pipe/leak does negative work.
Application of Product Constancy Table to Time and Work
The equation that applies to Time and Work problems is Work Rate x Time = Work done This equation means that if the work done is constant, then — > Work rate is inversely proportional to time. Hence, the Product Constancy Table will be directly applicable to time and work questions. [Notice the parallelism between this formula and the formula o f time speed and distance, where again there is product constancy between speed and time if the distance is constant.)
A can d o a w o rk in 1 0 d a y s B can do the sam e w o rk in 12
If
( —> m e a n s 10% w o rk ) and d a y s ( —>
8.33%
w o rk — > le a v e s
18.33% w o rk in a d a y in 5 d a y s 9 1 .6 6 % w o rk >
264
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Time is usually in days or hours although any standard unit o f time can be used. The unit of time that has to be used in a question is usually decided by the denominator of the unit o f work rate. Here, there are two ways o f defining the Work rate. (a) In the context of situations where individual working efficiencies or individual time requirements are given in the problem, the work rate is defined by the unit: Work done per unit time. In this case, the total work to be done is normally considered to be 1 (if we solve through fractions) or 100% (if we solve through percentages). Thus, in the solved problem above, when we calcu lated that A and B together do 18.33% work in a day, this was essentially a statement of the rate of work of A and B together. Then the solution proceeded as: 18.33% work per day x No. of days required = 100% work Giving us: the no. o f days required = 100/18.33 = 5 — (b) In certain types of problems (typically those involving projects that are to be completed), where a certain category of worker has the same rate of working, the Work rate will be defined as the number of workers of a particular category working on the project. For instance, questions where all men work at a certain rate, the work rate when 2 men are working together will be double the work rate when 1 man is working alone. Similarly, the work rate when 10 men are working together will be 10 times the work rate when 1 man is working alone. In such cases, the work to be done is taken as the number of mandays required to finish the work. Note, for future reference, that the work to be done can
a lso b e m easured in term s o f the volume o f work defined in th e co n text o f daytoday life.
W ork rate x T im e = W ork d o n e (o r w o rk to be d 0ne)
T h u s, if the w ork to b e d o n e is d o u b le d , the produq
work rate x time also h as to b e d o u b le d . S im ila rly , jf J / w ork to be d one in creases b y 2 0 % , th e p ro d u c t o f work r X time also has to b e in c re a se d b y 2 0 % an d so on.
T his m ethod is b e st e x p la in e d b y a n exam ple: A co n tracto r e stim a te s th a t h e w ill fin ish the road C on struction project in 100 d a y s b y e m p lo y in g
50
men.
H ow ever, a t th e en d o f th e 5 0 th day, w hen as per estim ation h a lf the w o rk sh o u ld h a v e b e e n completed k finds that only 4 0 % o f h is w o rk is d o n e . (a) H ow m any m o re d a y s w ill b e re q u ire d t o com plete the w o rk ? (b) H ow m any m ore m en sh o u ld h e e m p l o y in o rd e r to com plete the w o rk in tim e ?
Solution:
(a) T he con tacto r h a s c o m p le te d 4 0 % o f t h e w o r k in 50 days. If the nu m b er o f m en w o rk in g o n th e project remains constant, the ra te o f w o rk a lso re m a in s constant. Hence, to com plete 100% w ork, h e w ill h a v e to complete the F o r this he w ould re q u ire 7 5 m o r e d a y s . (T h is calcu rem aining 60% o f th e w ork.
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the project. T his can be solved as: 50 m en w orking fo r 50 d ay s — » 50 x
lation is done using th e u n ita ry m e t h o d . ) ( b ) In order to com plete the w o rk o n t i m e , i t i s o b v io u s that he w ill have to in crease the n u m b e r o f m e n w o rk in g on I
50 = 2500 m andays.
I
2500 m andays has re su lte d in 40% w o r k com pletion I Hence, the total w ork to b e d one in t e r m s o f th e n u m b e r of I m andays is got by using un itary m ethod: W ork left = 60% = 25 0 0 x 1.5 =
3750 mandays
T his has to be com pleted in 5 0 days. H e n c e , th e num b# j o f m en required per day is 3 7 5 0 /5 0 = 75 m e n . Since, 50 m en are already w o rk in g on the project, I
For example, the volume of a wall to be built, the num ber of people to be interviewed, the number of chapattis to be made and so on.
contractor needs to h ire 25 m o re m en. [Note, this can be done u sing the percentage chaw ■ graphic for product change. S ince, the num ber of constant at 50, the 50% increase in w ork from 40% t0 t, ilgtlQ* I is solely to be m et by increasing the num ber o f men. ■ ■ the num ber o f m en to be increased is 50% o f the on num ber o f m en = 25 men.J
WORK EQUIVALENCE METHOD
(T o S o lv e T im e a n d W o rk P ro b le m s ) The work equivalence method is nothing but an application of the formula:
Chapter 9:
Tim e and Work
2 6 5
The Specific Case of Building a Wall (Work as Volume of Work)
cases, the unit o f work can also be co n sid ered to be in term s o f the volume o f work. Fo r exam p le , b u ild in g o f a wall o f a certain length, breadth
and h e ig h t In su ch ca se s, the fo llo w in g A s already m en tio n ed , in c e rta in
T h e n , th e le n g th o f th e w a ll h a s to b e fa c to re d in . T h e re are o n ly tw o o p tio n s fo r d o in g so . v iz : M u ltip ly in g b y 2 0 0 /4 0 0 (< l f w h ic h w ill re d u ce th e nu m b e r o f d a y s ) o r m u ltip ly in g b y 4 0 0 /2 0 0 (> 1 , w h ic h w ill in c re a se th e n u m b e r o f d a y s ). T h e d e c is io n o f w h ic h o n e o f th e se is to b e d o n e is m ad e o n th e b a s is o f th e fa c t th a t , w h e n th e le n g th o f th e
formula applies:
w a ll is in c re a s in g , th e n u m b e r o f d a y s re q u ire d w ill a ls o in c re a se .
Ll B l H l
Lg& yH i
2
H e n c e , w e ta k e th e v a lu e o f th e fra c tio n g re a te r th a n 1 to g et
d2
where L B and H are respectively the length, breadth and height o f the w a ll to be built, while m, t and d are respec
the num ber o f
— 10 x
(400/200)
men, the am ount o f tim e per day and days. Further, the suffix 1 is for the first work situ atio n , while the suffix 2 is for the second work
tively the num ber o f C o nsid er the
W e c o n tin u e in th e sa m e w a y to g et N o ch a n g e in th e b re a d th o f th e w a ll —» h e n c e , m u ltip ly b y 1 0 /1 0 (n o ch a n g e in
d£
situation.
following problem:
Example:
height
20 men w orking 8 hours a day can completely length 200 m eters, breadth 10 metres and
build a w a ll o f
20 m etres in 10 days. H ow m any days will 25 men 12 h o u rs a day require to build a wall o f length 400 10 m etres and height o f 15 metres.
working
Height o f the wall is decreasing — > hence, multiply by 15/20 (< 1 to reduce d2) Number of men working is increasing — » hence, multi ply by 20/25 (< 1 to reduce d 2) Number of hours per day is increasing — » hence, multi ply by 8/12 (< 1 to reduce the number o f days)
m eters, breadth
This question can be solved directly by using the for mula above
tn fil
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T h e c o n c e p t o f e ffic ie n c y is c lo s e ly re la te d to th e c o n c e p t o f w o rk ra te . W h e n w e m a k e a sta te m e n t sa y in g A is tw ic e a s e ffic ie n t
Here,
L, is 200 metres £ , is 10 metres
Hi is 20 metres
m,
I n is 400 m etres
B2 is 10 metres
H 2 is 15 metres n ij is 25 men d j is unknown
t 2 is 12 hours a day
a s B, w e m ean to s a y th a t A d o e s tw ic e th e w o rk a s B in th e sa m e tim e . In o th e r w o rd s , w e c a n a ls o u n d e rsta n d th is a s
while
is 20 men hours a day
A
w ill re q u ire h a lf th e tim e re q u ire d b y B to d o th e sa m e
w o rk . In th e c o n te x t o f e ffic ie n c y , a n o th e r sta te m e n t th a t y o u m ig h t co m e a c ro ss is T h is is th e sa m e a s sam e w o rk a s
d x is 10 days
and f , is 8
Then we get 2 0 0
x 10 x 20/400 x 10 x 15 = 20 x 8
A
is th ric e a s e ffic ie n t a s
A is tw o tim e s m o re e ffic ie n t th a n B. B o r A d o e s th e
x 10/25 x
12
x < £ >
d j = 5.333/0.6666 = 8 days
B in l/ 3 rd o f th e tim e .
T h is is
Equating Men, Women and Children
d ire c tly d e riv e d fro m th e c o n ce p t o f e ffic ie n c ie s .
A lte rn a tive ly, yo u follow s: 10 x (4 0 0 /2 0 0 )
can also directly w rite the equation as
E x a m p le :
8 m en c a n d o a w o rk in
12 d a y s w h ile 2 0
x (1 0 / 1 0 ) x (20/15) x (20/25) x (8/12)
w o m en c a n d o it in 10 d a y s . In h o w m a n y d a y s c a n 12 m en and 15 w o m en co m p le te th e sa m e w o rk .
This can be done b y thinking o f the problem as follows: The number o f d a y s have to be found ou t in the second c*® Hence, on the L H S o f the equation write dow n the unknown and on th e R H S o f the equation write down the
c°*re*f)onding k n o w n *. = 10 x .. ..
S o lu tio n :
Total w o rk to be d o n e = 8 x 12 = 96 m a n d a y s, or total work to be d o n e = 2 0 x 10 = 2 0 0 w o m a n d a y s. Since, the work is the same, w e c a n equate 96 m a n d a ys
H en ce,
= 2 0 0 w o m a n d a y s.
1 m an d ay  2.08333 womandays.
266j
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
N o w , i f 12 m en and 15 wom en are w orking on the w ork w e get 12 men are equal to 12 x 2.08333 = 25 wom en
H ence, the w o rk done p er day is eq uivalent to 25 + 15 wom en w o rkin g p er day. T h a t is , 4 0 wom en w o rkin g per day. H ence, 4 0 x no. o f d ays = 200 wom an days N um ber o f d ays = 5 d ays.
Work left on the sixth day is: 8.33%, which require: 8.33/18.33 of the sixth day. Since, both these numbers are divisible by l gg get 5/11 of the sixth day will be used — > 0.45 of ^ sixth day is used. Hence, 5.45 days are required to finish the work
N ote:
I
WORKED OUT PROBLEM/
Problem 9.1 A can do a piece of work in 10 days and B
in 12 days. Find how much time they will take to complete the work under the following conditions: (a) Working together (b) Working alternately starting with A. (c) Working alternately starting with B. (d) If B leaves 2 days before the actual completion of the woik. (e) If B leaves 2 days before the scheduled completion of the work.
(f) If another person C who does negative work (i.e. works against A and B and can completely destroy the work in 20 days) joins them and they work to gether all the time.
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Solution
(a) 1 day’s work for A is 1/10 and 1 day’s work for B is
1/12.
Although the explanation to the questio,, through percentages seems longer, the student should realise that if the values in the fractiontopercentage table is internalised by the student, the process of S0]u tion through percentage will take much lesser time be cause we are able to eliminate the need for the calculaJ tion of LCMs, which are often cumbersome, (if u,e numbers in the problem are those that are covered in the fraction to percentage conversion table). In fact, the percentage method allows for solving while reading. I (b) Working alternately: When two people are working al ternately the question has to be solved by taking 2 days as a unit of time instead o f 1 day. So in (a) above, the work done in 1 day will be covered in 2 days here. Thus, in 2 days the work done will be 18.33%. In 10 days it will be 91.66%. On the 11th day A works by himself. But A’s work in 1 day is 10%. Therefore, he will require 4/5 of the 11th day to finish the work. (c) Working alternately starting with B: Here, there will be no difference in work completed by the 10th day. O n the 11th day, B works alone and does 8.33% of the w ork (which was required to complete the work). Hence, the whole o f the 11th day will get used. (d) If B leaves 2 days before the actual completion of the work: In this case, the actual completion of the work is after 2 days of B ' s leaving. This means, that A has worked alone for the last 2 days to complete the w orkBut A does, 10% work in a day. Hence, A and 5 m ust have done 80% of the work together (@ 18.33% per day)Then, the answer can be found by 80/18.33 + 20/10 days.
N ote:
Then, working together, the work in one day is equal to: — +— = ^ of the work. Thus working together they
need 60/11 days to complete the work — > 5.45 days. Alternately, you can use percentage values to solve the above question: A’s work =10%, B 's work = 8.33%. Hence, A + B — 18.33% of the work in one day. Hence, to complete 100% work, we get the number o f days required = 100/18.33 » 5.55 days. This can be calculated as @ 18.33% per day in 5 days, they will cover 18.33 x 5 = 91.66%. (The decimal value 0.33 is not difficult to handle if you have internalised the fraction to per centage conversion table of the chapter of percentages).
For calculation o f 80/18.33, we can usejthe f** If they that the decimal value is a convenient oneJ— _ _ worked together they would complete 73.33% work in 4 days and the work that they would have on the 5th day would be 6.66%. At the rate o f 18.33% work per day while w° ^ J together, they would work together for 6.66/1
Chapter 9:
Tim e and Work 1 2 6 7
the 5th d a y. S in c e both the numerator and denominator
are d iv is ib le b y 4/11 p 0 .3 6 3 6 .
after 25 days he finds that the work is only 40% complete. How m any m ore men need to be em ployed to: (a) com plete the work in tim e?
1.66 the above ratio is converted into
Hence, they work together for 4.3636 days after which B leaves and then A com pletes the w ork in 2 m ore days. Hence, the time required to finish the work would be = 6.3636 days. (e) If B leaves 2 days before the scheduled com pletion o f the work: Completion o f the w ork w ould have been scheduled assuming that A and B both w orked together for completing the w ork (say, this is x days). Then, the problem has to be view ed as x  2 days w as the tim e for which A and B w oiked together. T he residual am ount o f work left (which w ill be got by 2 days w ork o f A and B together) w ould be done b y A alone a t his ow n pace of work.
Thus we can get the solution by: Number o f days required to com plete the w ork = [(100/
Solution
in 25 days.
In order to com plete the w ork in tim e, the
contractor has to finish the rem aining 60% o f the work Now, in the first 25 days the work done = 50 x 25 = 1250 mandays — » 40% o f the work. H ence, w ork left = 60% o f the w ork = 1875 mandays. Since, 25 days are left to com plete the task, the num ber o f people required is 1875/25 = 75 men. Since, 50 m en are already working, 25 more m en are needed to com plete the work. Thought process should go like: 1250 — > 40% o f work. Hence, 1875 mandays required to complete the work. Since there are only 25 days left, we need 1875/25 = 75 m en to com plete the work. (b ) Com plete the w ork 10 days before tim e? F or this purpose, we have to do 1875 mandays o f work in 15 days. H ence, m en = 1875/15 = 125 men. P ro b lem 9.3 F or the previous problem , if the contractor
ig g g g
( f ) If C joins the group and does negative w ork, w e can see that one d ay’s w ork o f the three together w ould be
A 's work + B ’s w ork  C ’s w ork = 10% + 8.33%  5%
= 13.33% Hence, the w ork w ill b e com pleted in (100/13.33) days.
[Note:
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continues with the sam e workforce: finished?
(a) how m any days behind schedule w ill the w ork be
This can be calculated by 13.33 x 7 = 13 x 7
+ 033 x 7 = 93.33. Then, work left = 6.66, w hich w ill require h a lf a day more at the rate o f 13.33% per day.
Solution
He has com pleted 40% w ork in 25 days.
H ence, to com plete the rem aining 60% o f the work, he would require 50% m ore days (i.e. 37.5 days) (Since, 60% is 1.5 tim es o f 40% ) Hence, the w ork would be done 12.5 days behind schedule. (b) how much increase in efficiency is required from the w ork force to com plete the w ork in tim e?
Advantage of Solving Problems on Time and Work through Percentages S tudents should under
stand here, that most o f the tim es the values given for the number of days in w hich the w ork is com pleted by a w orker will be convenient values like: 6 0 days, 40 days, 30 days, 25 days, 24 days, 20 days, 16 days, 15 days, 12 days, 11 days, 10 days, 9 days, 8 days, 7 days, 6 days, 5 days, 4 days, 3 days and 2 days. All these values for the num ber o f days will yield convenient decim al values. If your fraction to percentage table is internalised, you can use the process of solving while reading by taking the percentage o f work done per day process rather than gening delayed by the need to find LCM’s w hile solving through the process of faction of work done per day.] A contractor undertakes to build a wall in
50 % » . He employs 30 people fo r the same. However,
Solution
If the num ber o f men working is kept con
stant, the only way to finish the w ork in time is by increasing the efficiency so that more work is done every manday. This should be m athem atically looked at as follows: Suppose, that 1 manday takes care o f 1 unit o f work. Then, in the first 25 days, work done = 25 (days) x 50 (men) x 1 (work unit per m anday) = 1250 units o f work. Now, this 1250 units o f work is ju st 40% o f the work. Hence, work left = 1875 units o f work.
268
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
25 (d a y s ) x 50 (m e n ) x z (work units per mand a y ) = 1875 > z = 1.5 T h u s , th e w o rk d o n e p e r manday has to rise from 1 to 1.5, th a t is , b y 50%. Hence, the efficiency of work has to
Then. ris e b y 5 0 % .
2. 6 men can do a piece o f work in 12 days. How men are needed to do the work in 18 days. (a) 3 men (b) 6 men (e) 5 men (c) 4 men (d) 2 m en
A is twice as efficient as B. If they complete a work in 30 days find the times required by each to com plete the work individually. Solu tion When we say that A is twice as efficient as B,
3. A can do a piece of work in 20 days and B can it in 15 days. How long will they take if both w o a together? ’v H T''
00
<?)
t i
 days days
(b) (d)
it means that A takes half the time that B takes to complete the same work. Thus, if we denote A’s 1 day’s work as A and B's one day's work as B, we have
? f i
(e) None o f these 4. In question 3 if C , who can finish th e sa m e w ork in 25 days, joins them, then how long w ill th e y take to complete the work? (a)  days
A = 2B
Then, using the information in the problem, we have: 30 A + 30 B  100% work That is, 90 B = 100% work + B = 1.11 % (is the work done by B in 1 day) — » B requires 90 days to complete the work alone. Since, A = 22? — >we have A = 2.22 % — » A requires 45 days to do the work alone. You should be able to solve this mentally with the fol lowing thought process while reading for the first time:
(b) 12 days
(d)
< s ;
(c)
0
days
47 ( i l ) days
o f these (e) None 1 5. Nishu and Archana can do a piece o f work in 10 days and Nishu alone can do it in 1 2 d a y s . In how m an y days can Archana do it alone? (a) 60 days (c) 50 days (e) 52 days (b) 30 (d) 45
d ays d ays
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^ = 3.33%. — = 1 . 11 %. Hence, work done is 1.11% 30 3 per day and 2.22% per day — > 90 and 45 days.
P roblem 9.5
A is two times more efficient than B. If they
complete a work in 30 days, then find the times required by each to complete the work individually. Solu tion Interpret the first sentence as A = 3B and solve
6. Baba alone can do a piece o f work in 10 days. Anshu alone can do it in 15 days. If the total wages for th e work is Rs. 50. How much should Baba be paid if th ey work together for the entire duration of the work? (a) Rs. 30 (c) Rs. 50 (d) None o f these (b) (d) Rs.
R s. 20
40
according to the process of the previous problem to get the answers. (You should get A takes 40 days and B takes 120 days.)
7. 4 men and 3 women finish a job in 6 days, and 5 m en and 7 women can do the same job in 4 days. How lo n gI will 1 man and 1 woman take to do the work? (a) 22f y ) days (b) 25 f I ) days
(d ) 12 ( ^ ) d a y s
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
i
(c)
days
(d) None o f these 8. If 8 boys and 12 women can do a p ie c e o f work days, in how many days can the w o rk be done boys and 11 women working together? (a) 15 days (b) 10 days
1. Raju can do 25% of a piece o f work in5 days.How many days will hetake to complete thework ten times? (a) 150 days (b) 250 days (c) 200 days (d) 180 days (e) 192 days
.
oj
Chapter 9:
Tim e and Wbrk
2 0 9
(c )
12 days
(d ) 8 d a ys
(e ) C annot be d eterm in ed
9.
A can do a p ie ce o f w o rk in 10 days and B can do the
same w o rk in 2 0 d a y s. the w o rk in
16. Sashi can do a piece o f work in 25 days and Rishi can do it in 20 days. They work for 5 days and then Sashi goes away. In how many more days will Rishi finish the work? (a) 10 days (c) 14 days (e) None o f these (b) 12 days (d) 15 days
With the help of C , they finish 5 d a y s. How long will it take for C alone (b) (d) 10 days 15 days
to fin ish the w o rk ? (a ) 20 d a ys
(c) 35 days (e) 12 days
10. A can do a piece o f work in 20 days. He works at it for 5 days and then B finishes it in 10 more days. In how many days will A and B together finish the work? (a) 8 days (c) 12 days (e) 16 days (b) (d) 10 days 6 days
17. Raju can do a piece o f work in 10 days. Vicky in 12 days and U nku in 15 days. They all start the work together, but Raju leaves after 2 days and Vicky leaves 3 days before the work is completed. In how many days is the work completed? (a) 5 days (c) 7 days (e) 9 days 18. Sambhu can do 1/2 o f the work in 8 days while Kalu can do 1/3 o f the work in 6 days. How long will it take for both o f them to finish the work?
, ,
(b) 6 days (d) 8 days
11. A and B undertake to do a piece o f work for Rs. 100. A can do it in 5 days and B can do it in 10 days. With the help of C, they finish it in 2 days. How much should C be paid for his contribution? (a) Rs. 40 (b) Rs. 20 (e) Rs. 50 (c) Rs. 60 (d) Rs. 30
(a) — days
88 ,
(b)
days
(c) y j days (e) None o f these
72
(d) 8 days
12. Twenty workers can finish a piece of work in 30 days. After how many days should 5 workers leave the job so that the work is completed in 35 days? (a) 5 days (c) 15 days (e) 25 days 13. Arun and Vinay together can do a piece of work in 7 days. If Arun does twice as much work as Vinay in a given time, how long will Arun alone take to do the woik. (a) 6.33 days (c) 11 days (e) 80 days (b) 10.5 days (d) 72 days (b) 10 days (d) 20 days
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(a) 6 days (c) 2 days (e) None o f these
19. Manoj takes twice as much time as Anjay and thrice as much as Vijay to finish a piece o f work. Together they finish the work in 1 day. W hat is the tim e taken by Manoj to finish the work? (b) 3 days (d) 4 days
20. An engineer undertakes a project to build a road 15 km long in 300 days and em ploys 45 men for the purpose. After 100 days, he finds only 2.5 km o f the road has been completed. Find the (approx.) number o f extra men he must employ to finish the work in time, (a) 43 (e) 60 (b) 45 (c) 55 (d) 68
14. Subhash can copy 50 pages in 10 hours; Subhash and Prakash together can copy 300 pages in 40 hours. In how much time can Prakash copy 30 pages? (a) 13 h (b) 12 h (e) 10 h (c) 11 h (d) 9 h
15. X number of men can finish a piece of work in 30 days. If there were 6 men more, the work could be finished in 10 days less. What is the original number of m en? (a) 10
(e )
21. Apurva can do a piece o f work in 12 days. Apurva and Amit complete the work together and were paid Rs. 54 and Rs. 81 respectively. How many days must they have taken to complete the work together? (a) 4 days (e) 4.8 days (e) 4.2 days 22. (b) 4.5 days (d) 5 days
(b) 11
(c) 12
(d) 15
13
Raju is tw ice as good as Vijay. Together, they finish the work in 14days. In how many days can Vijay alone do the same work?
2 7 0 1 How to ftepate tor Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
r
Sanjay together 8/23 of the work. How much shoi uid Ajay be paid? (a) Rs. 245 (b) Rs. 295 (c) Rs. 300 (d) Rs. 345 30. Anmol is thrice asgood a w o rkm an asV inay atl(j therefore is able to finish the jo b in 60 days less than Vinay. In how many days will they finish the job working together?
(a ) 2 2 f i ) d ays
(a) 16 days
(c ) 32 days (e ) 42 days
days (d) 72 days
(b ) 21
23. In a company XYZ Ltd. a certain number of engineers can develop a design in 40 days. If there were 5 more engineers, it could be finished in 10 days less. How many engineers were there in the beginning? (a) 18 (b) 20 (c) 25 (d) 15 (e) 16 24. If 12 men and 16 boys can do a piece of work in 5 days and 13 men and 24 boys can do it in 4 days, compare the daily work done by a man with that done by a boy? (a) 1 :2 (b) 1 :3 (c) 2 :1 (d) 3 :1 (e) 3 : 2 25. A can do a work in 10 days and B can do the same work in 20 days. They work togetherfor 5 days and then A goes away. In how many more days will B finish the work? (a) 5 days (c) 10 days (e) None of these (b) 6.5 days (d) 8— days
(b) f j f S (d) 20 days
days
(c) 15 days
31. In a fort there was sufficient food for 2 0 0 soldiers for 31 days. After 27 days 120 soldiers left the fort. For how many extra days will the rest of the food last for the remaining soldiers? (a) 12 days (b) 10 days (c) 8 days (d) 6 days 32. Anju, Manju and Sanju together c a n reap a field in 6 days. If Anju can do it alone in 10 d a y s and M anju in 24 days. In how many days will S a n ju alo ne be able to reap the field? (a) 40 days (c) 35 days (b) 3 6 days (d) 3 2 days
26. 30 men working 5 h a day can do a work in 16 days. In how many days will 20 men working 6 h a day do the same work?
1 (a) 22— days
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(b) 20 days (d) N one o f these (a) 84 days (c) 75 days (b) (d)
8 0 days 70 days
33. Ajay and Vijay can do a piece o f work in 28 days. I With the help o f M anoj, they can finish it in 21 I days. How long will Manoj take to finish the work I all alone?
(c) 21 days
27. Ajay and Vijay undertake to do a piece of work for Rs. 200. Ajay alone can do it in 24 days while Vijay alone can do it in 30 days. With the help of Pradeep, they finish the work in 12 days. How much should Pradeep get for his work? (a) Rs. 20 (c) Rs. 180 (b) Rs. 100 (d) Rs. 50
34. Ashok and Mohan can do a piece o f w ork in 12 days. I Mohan and Binod together do it in 15 days. If Ashok is twice as good a workman as Binod. In how much time will Mohan alone can do the work? (a) 15 days (c) 25 days (b) (d) 2 0 days 35 days
28. 15 men could finish a piece of work in210 days. But at the end of 100 days, 15 additional men are employed. In how many more days will the work be complete? (a) 80 days (c) 55 days (b) 60 days (d) 50 days
35. Ajay and Vijay together can do a piece of w ork in & days. Ajay alone does it in 10 days. W hat time does Vijay require to do it alone? (a) 20 days (c) 25 days (b) IS days (d) 30 days
36. A cistern is normally filled in 5 hours. However.1 takes 6 hours when there is leak in its bottom. ^ cistern is full, in what tim e shall the leak empty * (a) 6 h (b) 5 h (c) 30 h (d) 15 h 37. Pipe A and B running together can fill a cistern 1 ,1 minutes. If B lakes 5 minutes more than A to w*
29. Ajay, Vijay and Sanjay are employed to do a piece of work for Rs. 529. Ajay and Vijay together are supposed to do 19/23 of the work and Vijay and
Chapter 9:
Time and Work
27 1
cistern, then the time in which A and B w ill f i l l the cistern separately will be re s p e c tiv e ly ?
(a ) (c )
th e ta n k in 10 h o u rs an d
B ca n em p ty th e ta n k in 15
h o u rs th en fin d h o w m an y h o u rs w ill it ta k e to co m p le te ly f i l l a h a lf em p ty ta n k ? ' (a ) (c ) 3 0 h o u rs 2 0 h o u rs (b ) 15 h o u rs (d ) 3 3 .3 3 h o u rs
15 m in . 20 min 10 m in , 15 min
(b)
15 m in ,
10 m in 2 0 m in
(d ) 2 5 m in ,
38 . A can do a
work in 18 days, B in 9 d a y s an d C in 6 days. A and B start w o rk in g to g e th e r an d a fte r 2 days C joins them. In h o w m a n y d a y s w ill th e jo b be (b) 4
d ays
4 6 . A b b o t c a n d o so m e w o rk in 1 0 d a y s , B i l l c a n d o it in 2 0 d a y s an d C lin to n c a n d o it in 4 0 d a y s . T h e y s ta rt w o rk in g in tu rn s w ith A b b o t s ta rtin g to w o rk o n th e f ir s t d a y fo llo w e d b y B i l l o n th e se co n d d a y an d b y C lin to n o n th e th ird d a y an d a g a in b y A b b o t
completed?
(a) 4.33 days (c) 4.66 days
(d ) 5 d a y s 10 of
39. 24 men working 8 h a d a y c a n f in is h a w o rk in days. Working a t a ra te o f 10 h a d a y , th e n u m b e r men required to f in is h th e w o rk in 6 d a y s is (a) 30 (b)
32 (c ) 3 4 (d ) 3 6
o n th e fo u rth d a y an d so o n t i l l th e w o rk is co m p le te d f u lly . F in d th e tim e ta k e n to c o m p le te th e w o rk f u lly ? (a ) (c ) 47. A, 16 d a y s 17 d a y s (b ) 15 d a y s (d ) 1 6 .5 d a ys
40. A certain job w a s a s sig n e d to a g ro u p o f m en to d o it in 20 days. But 12 m e n d id n o t tu rn u p fo r th e jo b and the remaining m en d id th e jo b in 3 2 d a y s . T h e o rig in a l number of m en in g ro u p w a s (a)
32
B and C ca n d o so m e w o rk in 3 6 d a y s . A and B
to g e th e r d o tw ic e a s m u ch w o rk a s C a lo n e an d A an d
(b)
34
(c ) 3 6
(d ) 4 0
C to g eth er c a n d o th ric e a s m u ch w o rk a s B a lo n e . F in d th e tim e taken b y C to d o th e w h o le w o rk .
(a ) 7 2 d a y s (c ) 10 8 d a y s (b ) 9 6 d a ys (d ) 12 0 d a ys
41. 12 men c o m p le te a w o rk in 18 d a y s . 6 d a y s a fte r th e y bad started w o rk in g , 4 m en jo in th e m . H o w m a n y m o re days w ill a ll o f th e m ta k e to c o m p le te th e re m a in in g work? (a) 10
d ays (b ) 12 d a y s (d ) 9 d a y s (c ) 15 d a y s
4 8 . T h e re a re th re e T a p s A ,
B and C in a ta n k . T h e y ca n
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a fte r 2 h o u rs, ta p ru n n in g . A ft e r th e 4 th h o u r, tap (a ) (c ) 32% 75% (b ) 5 2 %
f i l l th e ta n k in 10 h rs , 2 0 h rs an d 2 5 h rs re s p e c tiv e ly . A t f ir s t , a ll o f th em a re o p ened sim u lta n e o u s ly . T h e n
C is c lo se d and A and B a re kep t B is a ls o c lo s e d . T h e
42. A takes 5 d a y s m o re th a n B to d o a c e rta in jo b an d 9 days m ore th an C ; A a n d B to g e th e r c a n d o th e jo b in the same tim e a s C . H o w m a n y d a y s A w o u ld ta k e to do it? (a) 16 days (c) 15 days
(b ) 1 0 d a ys (d ) 2 0 d a ys 6 h b u t ta k e s 4 h lo n g e r b o tto m . I f th e c is te rn is h o w m u ch tim e ?
re m a in in g w o rk is d o n e b y Ta p A a lo n e . F in d th e p e r ce n ta g e o f th e w o rk done b y T a p A b y its e lf.
(d ) N o n e o f th ese
4 9 . T w o ta p s are ru n n in g c o n tin u o u sly to f i l l a ta n k . T h e 1st tap c o u ld h a v e fille d it in 5 h o u rs b y it s e lf an d the se co n d o ne b y it s e lf c o u ld h a v e f ille d it in 2 0 h o u rs. B u t th e o p e ra to r fa ile d to re a lis e th at th ere w a s a le a k in th e ta n k fro m th e b e g in n in g w h ic h cau se d a d e la y o f o ne h o u r in th e f illin g o f th e ta n k . F in d th e tim e in w h ic h th e le a k w o u ld e m p ty a f ille d ta n k . in 10 h . 10 h . A t (a ) (c ) 15 h o u rs 2 5 h o u rs (b ) 2 0 h o u rs (d ) 4 0 h o u rs
43. A cistern is n o rm a lly f ille d in to fill because o f a le a k in it s full, the leak w ill e m p ty it in (a) IS h (c ) 20 h
( b ) 16 h (d ) N o n e o f th e se
44 If three taps a re o p e n to g e th e r, a ta n k is f ille d One of the taps c a n fill in 5 h a n d a n o th e r in what rate does the 3 rd p ip e w o rk ?
Waste p ip e e m p ty in g th e ta n k is 10 h (b) Waste p ip e e m p ty in g th e ta n k is 2 0 h
(a )
5 0 . A ca n do som e w o rk in 2 4 d a y s , B ca n d o it in 32 d a y s an d C c a n .d o it in 6 0 d a y s . T h e y sta rt w o rk in g to g eth er. A le ft a fte r 6 d a y s and B le ft a fte r w o rk in g fo r 8 the f ill (a )’ 30 d a ys. How m an y m o re d ays are re q u ire d to
(c) Waste pipe emptying th e ta n k is 5 h (4) Fills the tank in 10 h
45. Th ere are tank and
two pipes in a tank. P ip e A is fo r f illin g Pipe B is for emptying th e ta n k . I f A c a n
co m p le te th e w h o le w o rk ?
(b) 25
(c ) 2 2
(d ) 2 0
272
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
Level of Difficulty (LOD)
1.
IB
(a )
I
(b )
1
(c)
(e)
if f
■
TVo forest officials in their respective divisions were involved in the harvesting of tendu leaves. One divi sion had an average output of 21 tons from a hectare and the other division, which had 12 hectares o f land less, dedicated to tendu leaves, got 25 tons of tendu from a hectare. As a result, the second division har vested 300 tons of tendu leaves more than the first. How many tons of tendu leaves did the first division harvest? (a) 3150 (c) 3500 (e) None of these (b) 3450 (d) 3600
D irections f o r Q u e stio n s 6  1 0 : R e a d th e fo llo w in g and
answer the questions that follow. A set o f 10 pipes (set X ) c a n f i l l 7 0 % o f a tank in 7 minutes. Another set o f 5 pipes (set Y ) f i l l s 3 /8 o f the tank in 3 minutes. A third set o f 8 p ip es (set Z ) c a n em pty 5/jq o f the tank in 10 minutes.
6 . How m a n y m in u te s w
(a ) 5 m in u te s
ill it ta k e to f i l l th e ta n k i f a ll the
23 p ip e s a re o p e n ed a t th e sa m e tim e ? (b ) 5 — m in u te s
2.' According to a plan, a drilling team had to drill to a depth of 270 metres below the ground level. For the first three days the team drilled as per the plan. How ever. subsequently finding that their resources were getting underutilised according to the plan, it started to drill 8 metres more than the plan every day. There fore, a day before the planned date they had drilled to a depth of 280 metres. How many metres of drilling was the plan for each day. (a) 38 metres '(c) 27 metres (e) None of these (b) 30 metres (d) 28 metres
(c) 6 minutes (e) None o f these
(d )
6 — m in u te s
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(a) 16 minutes (c) 7 minutes (e) None o f these (a) 5 minutes (c) 7 m inutes (e) 8 minutes
7. If only half the pipes o f set X are closed and only half the pipes o f set Y are o p en an d all other pipes are open, how long will it take to fill 49 % o f the tank? (b) 13 m inutes (d) 8 m inutes
8. If 4 pipes are closed in set Z, an d all others remain open, how long w ill it take to fill the tank? (b ) 6 m inutes (d ) 7 .5 m inutes
3. A pipe can fill a tank is x hours and another can empty it in y hours. If the tank is l/3rd full then the number of hours in which they will together fill it in is
(a) (c)
Q xy) % rm xy
(b) (d)
(3sy)
( y  x)
2
xy
9. If the tank is half full and set X and set Y are closed, how many m inutes w ill it take fo r set Z to empty u* tank if alternate taps o f set Z are closed. (a) 12 minutes (c) 40 minutes (e) 25 minutes (b ) (d ) 2 0 m inutes 16 m inutes
ft
3(yx) (e) None of these
K yx)
4. Dev and Tukku can do a piece of work in 45 and 40 days respectively. They began the work together, but Dev leaves after some days and Tukku finished the remaining work in 23 days. After how many days did Dev leave (a) 7 days (c) 9 days (e) 12 days (b) 8 days (d) 11 days
10. If one pipe is added fo r set X and set Y and set capacity is increased by 20% on its original value all the taps are opened at 2.58 p .m ., then at whattinl does the tank get filled? (If it is initially empty' (a) 3.05 p.m. (b ) 3.04 p.m. (c) 3.10 p.m. (d) 3.03 p.m. (e) 3.06 p.m.
Z.
5. A finishes 6/7th of the work in 2 z hours, B works twice as fast and finishes the remaining work. For how long did B work?
'
.yli
Kj
n (J O
U . Ajit can do as much w ork in 2 d ay s as Baljit c in 3 days and B aljit can do as m uch in 4 days as in 5 days. A piece o f w ork takes 2 0 days if a* 1
Chapter 9:
Time and Work
2 7 3
together. H o w lo n g w ork b y h im se lf? (a )
would Baljit take to do all the (b) 44 days (d) 50 days
(c ) 2 .2 2 d a y s (e ) N o n e o f th ese
(d ) 4 .3 d a ys
82 days
17. T h re e d ig g e rs d u g a d itc h o f 3 2 4 m deep in s ix d a y s w o rk in g sim u lta n e o u sly . D u rin g one s h ift , th e th ird d ig g e r d ig s as m an y m etres m o re th an th e se co n d as th e seco n d d ig s m o re th an th e f ir s t . T h e th ird d ig g e r’s w o rk in 10 d a y s is e q u a l to th e fir s t d ig g e r's w o rk in 14 d a y s . H o w m an y m etres d o es th e f ir s t d ig g e r d ig p e r s h ift? (a ) 15 m (b ) 18 m ( c ) 21 m (d ) 2 7 m
(c) 66 days
(e) 46 days
12. Two pipes can fill a cistern in 14 and 16 hours respec tively. The pipes are opened simultaneously and it is found that due to leakage in the bottom of the cistern, it takes 32 minutes extra for the cistern to be filled up. When the cistern is full, in what time will the leak empty it? (a) 114 h (e) 90 h (b) 112 h (c) 100 h (d) 80 h
18.
(e ) 2 5 m
A, B
and C w o rk in g to g eth er co m p le te d a jo b in 10
d a y s . H o w e v e r, C o n ly w o rk e d fo r th e fir s t th re e d a y s w h en 3 7 /1 0 0 o f th e jo b w a s d o n e. A ls o , th e w o rk done by
13. A tank holds 100 gallons o f water. Its inlet is 7 inches in diameter and fills the tank at 5 gallons/min. The outlet o f the tank is twice the diameter o f the inlet. How many minutes will it take to empty the tank if the inlet is shut off, when the tank is full and the outlet is opened? (Hint: Rate of filling or emptying is directly proportional to the diameter) (a) 7.14 min (c) 0.7 min (e) 12.5 min (b) 10.0 min (d) 5.0 min
19.
A in 5 d a y s is e q u a l to th e w o rk d o n e b y B in 4
d a y s. H o w m an y d a y s w o u ld b e re q u ire d b y th e fa ste s t w o rk e r to co m p le te th e e n tire w o rk ? (a ) (c ) (e ) 20 30 50 d a ys d a ys d a ys (b ) (d ) 2 5 d a ys 4 0 d a ys
A and B co m p le ted a w o rk to g eth er in 5 d a y s . H a d A
w o rke d at tw ic e th e sp eed and B a t h a lf th e sp e e d , it w o u ld h a v e ta ke n them fo u r d a y s to co m p le te th e jo b . H o w m u ch tim e w o u ld it ta ke fo r A a lo n e to d o th e w o rk ? (a ) (c ) (e ) 10 25 24 d a ys d a ys d a ys (b ) (d ) 2 0 d a ys 15 d a ys
!4. A tank of capacity 25 litres has an inlet and an outlet tap. If both are opened simultaneously, the tank is filled in 5 minutes. But if the outlet flow rate is doubled and taps opened the tank never gets filled up. Which of the following can be outlet flow rate in liters/min? (a) 2 (e) 1 (b) 6 (c) 4
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2 0 . T w o ty p is ts o f v a ry in g s k ills c a n do a jo b in 6 m in u te s i f th e y w o rk to g eth er. I f th e f ir s t ty p is t ty p e d a lo n e fo r 4 m in u te s an d th en th e se co n d ty p is t typ e d alo n e fo r 6 m in u te s, th e y w o u ld b e le ft w ith 1/5 o f th e w h o le w o rk . H o w m an y m in u te s w o u ld it ta ke th e slo w e r ty p is t to co m p le te the ty p in g jo b w o rk in g a lo n e ? (a ) (c ) (e ) 10 m in u te s 12 m in u te s 16 m in u te s (b ) 15 m in u te s (d ) 2 0 m in u te s
(d)
3
15. X takes 4 days to complete onethird of a job, Y takes 3 days to complete onesixth of the same work and Z takes 5 days to complete half the job. If all o f them work together for 3 days and X and Z quit, how long will it take for Y to complete the remaining work done, (a) 6 days (c) 5.1 days (e) None of these (b) 8.1 days (d) 7 days
2 1 . T h re e co o k s h a v e to m ake 8 0 id lis . T h e y are k n o w n to m ake 2 0 p ie ce s e v e ry m in u te w o rk in g to g eth er. T h e fir s t co o k began w o rk in g alo n e an d m ade 2 0 p ie ce s h a v in g w o rke d fo r so m etim e m o re than th re e m in u te s. T h e re m a in in g p art o f the w o rk w a s done b y th e se c ond and the th ird co o k w o rk in g to g eth er. It to o k a to ta l o f 8 m in u te s to co m p le te th e 8 0 id lis . H o w m an y m in u te s w o u ld it ta ke the fir s t co o k alo n e to co o k 160 id lis fo r a m arriag e p a rty the n e xt d a y ?
16. A completes 2/3 of a certain job in 6 days. B can complete 1/3 of the same job in 8 days and C can complete 3/4 of the work in 12 days. All of them work together for 4 days and then A and C quit. How long will it take for B to complete the remaining work alone? (a) 3.8 days (b) 3.33 days
2 7 4
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
■
(a )
16 m in u te s
(b ) 2 4 m in u te s (d ) 4 0 m in u te s
sa m e ta n k . A s a r e s u lt , tw e lv e m in u te s m ore ■ n ee d ed to f i l l th e ta n k th a n to d is c h a rg e it . D e ^ '* th e d e liv e ry o f th e p u m p d is c h a rg in g the tank ^
( c ) 3 2 m in u te s
(e)
3 0 m in u te s
2 2 . It ta k e s s ix d a y s fo r th re e w o m en an d in g to g e th e r to co m p le te a th e sa m e w o rk fiv e d a y s H o w m a n y tim e s d o e s th e o f a w o m an? (a )
two m en work work. Three men would do sooner than nine women.
( a ) 4 0 m 3/m in ( b ) 5 0 m V m in (c ) 6 0 m 3/m in ( d ) 8 0 m /m in
2 7 . T w o p ip e s
A an d B c a n f i l l u p a h a lf fu ll tank jn
was ^
output o f a man exceed that (b) 4 times (d) 6 times
h o u rs . T h e ta n k w a s in it ia lly e m p ty . P ip e
o p e n fo r h a lf th e tim e re q u ire d b y p ip e A to fyi ta n k b y it s e lf . T h e n , p ip e
3 tim es
A
w a s k e p t o p en fo r as ^
\
(c) 5 times (e) 7 times
tim e a s w a s re q u ire d b y p ip e
B to f i l l up 1/3 of
ta n k b y it s e lf . I t w a s th e n fo u n d th a t the tank W a 5 /6 f u ll. T h e le a s t tim e in w h ic h a n y o f the pipes f i l l th e ta n k f u lly is (a ) (c ) 4 .8 h o u rs 3 .6 h o u rs (b ) 4 h o u rs (d ) 6 h o u rs
23. Each o f A , B and C need a certain unique tim e to do a certain work. C needs 1 hour less than A to complete the work. Working together, they require 30 minutes to com plete 50% o f the job. The work also gets com pleted if A and B start w orking together and A leaves after 1 hour and B w orks for a further 3 hours. How much work does C do per hour? (a) (c) 16.66% 50%
2 8 . A ta n k o f 4 2 5 lit r e s c a p a c ity h a s b e e n f ille d w ith water th ro u g h tw o p ip e s , th e f ir s t p ip e h a v in g been opened f iv e h o u rs lo n g e r th a n th e s e c o n d . I f th e first pjpe w e re o p e n a s lo n g a s th e s e c o n d , a n d th e second pipe w a s o p e n a s lo n g a s th e f ir s t p ip e w a s o p en , then th e f ir s t p ip e w o u ld d e liv e r h a lf th e a m o u n t o f water d e liv e r e d b y th e se c o n d p ip e ; i f th e tw o p ip e s were op en s im u lta n e o u s ly , th e ta n k w o u ld b e f ille d up in 1 7 h o u rs . H o w lo n g w a s th e s e c o n d p ip e open? (a ) (c ) 10 h o u rs ( b ) 1 2 h o u rs
(b) 33.33%
(d) 66.66%
(e) None o f these 24. Two women Renu and Ushi are w orking on an em broidery design. If Ushi worked alone, she would need eight hours more to com plete the design than if they both worked together. Now if Renu w orked alone, it would need 4.5 hours more to com plete the design than they both w orking together. W hat tim e would it take Renu alone to com plete the design? (a) (c) 10.5 hours 14.5 hours (b) 12.5 hours (d) 18.5 hours
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15 h o u rs
( d ) 1 8 h o u rs
2 9 . T w o m e n a n d a w o m a n a re e n tru s te d w ith a task. T h e se c o n d m a n n e e d s th re e h o u rs m o re to cope with th e jo b th a n th e se c o n d m a n a n d th e w om an would n e e d w o rk in g to g e th e r. T h e f ir s t m a n , w o rkin g alooe. w o u ld n e e d a s m u c h tim e a s th e se c o n d m an and d* w o m a n w o r k in g to g e th e r. T h e f ir s t m a n , working
(e) N one o f these 25. M ini and Vinay are quiz m asters preparing for a quiz. In x minutes, M ini makes y questions more than Vinay. If it were possible to reduce the tim e needed by each to make a question by tw o m inutes, then in x m inutes M ini would make 2y questions more than Vinay. How m any questions does M ini make in x minutes? (a) l/4[2{x + (b) 1/4[2C* y)
a lo n e , w o u ld sp e n d e ig h t h o u rs le s s th an the doub* p e rio d o f tim e th e s e c o n d m a n w o u ld sp end worton" a lo n e . H o w m u c h tim e w o u ld th e tw o m en and ^ w o m a n n e e d to c o m p le te th e ta s k i f th e y a ll wor* to g e th e r? (a ) (c ) 1 hour 4 h o u rs ( b ) 3 h o u rs ( d ) 5 h o u rs
 J (2 x 2 + 4 y 2) ]
j(2 x 2 + 4
y) y) 
y2) ] Ay1) ]
3 0 . T h e B u b n a d a m h a s fo u r in le t s . T h ro u g h the fu *1 ^ in le t s , th e d a m c a n b e f ille d in 1 2 m in u te s ; s e c o n d , th e th ird a n d th e fo u rth in le t , it in
(c ) E ither a or b (d) 1/4 [2(x J(2x2 
throng
can b e 1 1
(e) N one o f these 26.
A
15 m in u te s ; a n d th ro u g h th e f ir s t an d the Le all in le t , in 2 0 m in u te s . H o w m u c h tim e w ill i i laK fo u r in e ts to f i l l u p th e d a m ? (a ) (c ) 8 m in 1 2 m in (b ) 1 0 m in (d ) N o n e o f these
tank o f 3600 cu m capacity is being filled with
water. T he delivery o f the pum p discharging the tank is 20% more than the delivery o f the pump filling the
Chaptar 9?
ftme and Wfcrk
2 7 5
levd of Difficulty (LOO)
m iw ers A c questions that fo llo w .
fia*etB*afor Q aestim a I — 10; Study the follow ing tables
Qsrfw: T o r Gom pany has to go through th e fo llo w in g jjases fa r the ta m rh o f a aew coy;
m
m TO 40 30 20
5. If C works ac 90.9G9*& o f bw effid e a ;y daring mar keting and Eaanch. who win be bigh ts! paid a a o a c st
th e f i v r o f t e ?
fa) .4
(by C
*c} D
(d> £
B 6. If che company decides that the first 4 worts can he started simultaneously and the experts w if he afcv cated to (heir respective work areas only and a work w tB be done by a nonexpert only if the work hi his area of expertise is completed, men the expert who will first be assisted in his work wiR he fassume that
marketing and launch can oirfy be done after ihe f i r s t four arc folly completed)
fa) A
tey £ 7 . F ar t h e q u e s t i o n a b o v e . A e t m m r r r a m n u m b e r o f d a y s i n w i n c h t h e w h o i e p r o j e c t w i l l g e t c o in u ie T e d  a s s u m e e v e r y t h i n g i s u t i l i s e d e f f i c i e n t l y a B t h e t h a e . a n d n o 1 b o d y is u tilis e d i n a w o r k th a t h e r e f u s e s i d w o r k o p o a > (a ) 2 2 3 d a y s
Dr D d m Id * 2 5 .2 5 daws
Expert mandavs required. I Design and dcwdopmenr Z PmuHvpe n e a rm }. Masker smvey 4 Mannmannng soup 5. M denng a d fanncii 30 15 30 15 15
item eqpciT numdins required
(b) B
fcj C
i'd) D
H r profile o f the com pany ’s ;m anpow er is Worter mm A B C D E E xpert ac Dengs and development ggHOtyge creation Maker aavey and a a k e u g and launch H a fa 'W riiif Maker sarcey Nam Expert a t AH others AB others AB others Refusal to w ork am Marker survey Market survey D e s i s and development
ic) 2 4 . 7 5 d a y s
(e ) N o n e o f th e s e
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AH others All others Market survt e Vfiiiof mmi hip
1 For the situation in q u e s t i o n 6. t h e h i g h e s t  . r n i n g be for
ia> A
(h ) Both. B a d D
(c C ..
<4) E
L G m
this satiation, the m inim im ? rm m rer o f d m s t * i d i the com pany can lau n ch a new toy going
feoegh afl fee sa g es is faj 40 A m fb > 4 0 .5 days
*c) 45 days
< < T )> 44 days
te) Keae of these
 K j4 and C tefase ta have an ything to do w ith die ■ ■ ■ bearing set ap . T h e num ber o f d ays by
which
<e) Carnot be determined 5. If each work has an equal payment af Rs.l8J)0Ql the lowest earning for the above a o n a a i will be for (a) A Cb> £ (c ) C (tfi B (e) Cannot be determined 10. The value of the earning for Ae highest earning person, (if (he data for questions M ace accuratew ill be U ) 193123 <b> 13250: (c) L2J75 td> B (e> Cannot be determined
Directions f a r Q uestions 11— 20: Read the following and
fe
project w $ get delayed 5 3 dav s
win
fb>
be
4 (fays
(d ) 6 d ays
^ Sfaae o f t o e
^ ® cadi a f A c fiv e w orks is e q u a lly valu e d ac
fcIAjO ttX i e m axim um am ount w ill be received by
answer the questions that fioflow.
A fort c o n t a i n s a g r a n a r y , t h a t has 1 0 0 0 t m
o f grain.
(*t £
49 *
$*> C
D
(d )
£
T he f o r t is under a s i e g e f r o m an e n e m y army c h a t b a a b l o c k e d o f f a l l the s u p p l y routes. T he a r m y m the fo rt has t h r e e kinds o f soldiers: Sepoys — * 2.00.000
fr* ^ c s n n a 3, d ie s e c o n d h ig h e s t a m o u n t w ill b e re ■ fcadhy
a IN C
fe * J
(C) D
(d> £
M a m » UXKOOG
Foodes — » IJMlOOO
276
How to Prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for the CAT
1 0 0 S e p o y s ca n h o ld 1 0 0 M a n tris 5 0 F o o tie s
5% o f the enem y for one month.
(a)
(c ) 17. I f
2 0 0 0 to n s 5 0 0 0 to n s
can h o ld 10% o f the enemy for 15 days.
(b ) 2 5 0 0 tons (d) Cannot be
determ
can hold 5% o f the enem y for one month.
A se p o y e a ts 1 kg o f food per month, a Mantri eats 0.5 kg o f fo o d p e r month and a footie eats 3 kg o f food. (As su m e
1 ton = 1000 kg).
The king has to make some decisions based on the long est possible resistance that can be offered to the enemy. I f a king selects a soldier, he will have to feed him for the entire period o f the resistance. The king is not obliged to feed a soldier not selected for the resistance. (Assume that the entire food allocated to a particular soldier for the estim ated length o f the resistance is redis tributed into the king's palace in case a soldier dies and is not available for the other soldiers.) 11. If the king w ants to m axim ise the time for which his resistance holds up, he should (a) Select all m antris (c) Select all sepoys (b) Select all footies (d) None o f these
*
the k in g m ad e the worst possible selectj0n his soldiers to offer the resistance, th e percentage crease in the minimum amount o f g ra in that should l available in the granary to ensure th at the f0rt B n f if lS t ^ lost is (a) 1 0 0 % (b ) 5 0 0 % (c) 6 0 0 % (d) Cannot be determine The difference in the minimum g ra in required f 0 r [ L second worst choice and the w o rs t ch o ice to ens^J that the resistance lasts for 5 0 m o n th s is (a) (c)
5000 10000
18 .
tons tons
(b) (d)
7 5 0 0 to n s C a n n o t be determined
19.
If the king strategically attacks the feed er line on ^ first day of the resistance so that the g ra in is no longer a constraint, the maximum time fo r w h ich the resis tance can last is (a) (c)
10 0 250
12. Based on existing resources, the maximum number of m onths for w hich the fort's resistance can last is (a) 5 months (c) 7.5 m onths (b) 20 months (d) Cannot be determined
20.
months months
( b ) 1 5 0 m onths ( d ) C a n n o t b e determined
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(b) 12.5 months (d) Cannot be determined
13. If the king m akes a decision error, the maximum re duction in the tim e o f resistance could be (a) 15 m onths (c) 16.66 m onths
If the feeder line is o p e n e d a fte r 6 m o nth s and prior to that the king had m ad e d e c is io n s b a se d o n food avail ability being a c o n s tra in t th e n th e num b er o f months (maximum) fo r w h ic h th e re s is ta n c e c o u ld last is (a) (c)
1 0 0 m o n th s 5 (b ) 1 5 0 m o nth s
months
(d)
C anno t
b e determined
D ir e c tio n s f o r Q u e s t i o n s 2 1 —2 5 : S tu d y th e following a n d
14. If the king estim ates that the attackers can last for only 50 months, w hat should the king do to ensure victory? (a) Select all mantris (b ) Select the mantris and the sepoys (c) Select the footies (d) The king cannot achieve this 15. I f a reduction in the ration allocation by 10% reduces the capacity o f any soldier to hold off the enemy by 10%, the num ber o f whole months by which the king can increase the life o f the resistance by reducing the ration allocation by 10% is (a) 4 months (c) No change (b) 2 months (d) This will reduce the time
answer the questions that follow. A gas cylinder can d is c h a rg e g a s a t the rate of 1 w l minute from burner A and at th e ra te o f 2 cc/minute frofll burner B (maximum rates o f d is c h a rg e ). T h e capacity of1 ^1 gas cylinder is 1000 cc o f gas. The amount o f heat generated is e q u a l to 1 kcal ptf I of gas.
However, there is w astage o f the heat as per folio"'
G as discharge @
0 0 .5 cc/m inute 0 .5 1 cc/m inute 1— 1.5 cc/m inute 1.5 + cc/m inute @ (Includ e higher extrem es)
'Loss
10* 20 * 25* 3 0 *^ 1
16. T he minim um am ount o f grain that should be avail ab le in the granary to ensure that the fort is not lost (assum ing the estim ate o f the king o f 50 months being the duration for which the enemy can last is
21. If both burners are opened simultaneously s
ucb
.»
correct) is
the first is opened to 90% o f its capacity ant*1^ ond is opened to 80% o f its capacity, the arn
Chapter 9:
Time and Work j 2 7 7
tim e in w h ich the gas c y lin d e r w ill be em pty ( i f it w as h a lf fu ll at the sta rt) w ill be: (a ) 250 m inutes (c ) 200 m inutes (b ) 4 0 0 m inutes (d ) N o ne o f these
14. T h e net flo w in the o rig in a l situ a tio n is 5 litre s/m in u tes. T h e req u ired a n sw e r w ill be su ch th at w hen it is d o u b led , the in c re a se in e m p tyin g ra te (in litre s / m in u te ) sh o u ld be m ore than 5 litre s/m in u te . „„ _ ! \ w o rk le ft a fte r 3 d a ys 15. R eq u ired an sw e r =  — ■ n Y s w o rk rate 32 4 17. D itc h dug p e r d ay = ——  = 5 4 m etres o ‘ x + ( x +. y ) + ix + 2 y ) = 5 4 10(jc + 2 y ) = 1 4 * U se o p tio n s to so lv e . 1 8 . W o rk done on the fir s t th re e d a ys is 3 7 % . H e n ce , w o rk done on the n e x t 7 d a ys is 6 3 % . S in c e , th is is A + B ’s w o rk w e get O ne d a y ’s w o rk o f (A + B ) = 9 % A ls o , 5A = 4 5 . H ence A = 4 % and B = 5%
22. The m axim um am ount o f heat w ith the faste st speed o f cooking that can be u tilis e d fo r co o kin g w ill be w hen: (a ) Th e firs t b u rn e r is opened upto 5 0 % o f it's ap er ture (b ) Th e second b u rn e r is opened upto 2 5 % o f it's aperture (c ) E ith e r (a ) o r (b ) (d ) N one o f these 23. Th e am ount o f heat u tilis e d fo r co o kin g i f a fu ll gas cylin d e r is b u rn t b y o p ening the ap erture o f b u rn e r A 100% and that o f b u rn e r B 50 % is (a ) 90 0 k c a l (c ) 750 k c a l (b ) 8 0 0 k c a l (d ) C an n o t be determ in ed
B , tu rn s o u t to be the fa ste st w o rk e r.
19. S o lv e th ro u g h o p tio n s. 2 0 . W o rk done b y th e fir s t ty p is t in 2 m in u te s = 2 0 % . H e n c e , th e firs t ty p is t’ s w o rk ra te = 10% p e r m in u te . 2 2 . S o lv e th ro u g h o p tio n s. 2 3 . S o lv e th ro u g h o p tio n s. 2 4 . L e t x h o u rs be re q u ire d to co m p le te the w o rk to g ether. T h e n ,    = — . C h e c k th e o p tio n s to ( * + 4 .5 ) (jc + 8 ) x see w h ic h one fits the eq u atio n . 27. A + B =
24. F o r question 2 3 , i f b u rn e r A had been opened o n ly 25% and burner B h ad been opened 5 0 % , the am ount o f heat a v a ila b le fo r c o o k in g w o u ld be (a ) 820 k c a l (c ) 750 k c a l (b ) 8 0 0 k c a l (d ) C an n o t be d eterm in ed
25. Fo r question 2 4 , the am ount o f tim e re q u ire d to fin is h a fu ll gas c y lin d e r w ill be (a ) 90 0 m in utes (c ) 800 m in u tes
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(b ) 8 3 3 .3 3 m in u te s (d ) N o ne o f th ese
1.2
= 4 1 .6 6 %
(w h ere A and B re p re se n t the w o rk p e r h o u r o f p ip es
Hints and Solutions
II
A and B re s p e c tiv e ly ). S o lv e u s in g o p tio n s to see w h ic h one fits the re m ain in g co n d itio n s o f th e p ro b le m . F o r e xa m p le , i f w e c h e c k o p tio n b (4 h r s ), then w e get th at the w o rk o f the fa ste r p ip e (s a y A ) = 2 5 % . T h e n B = 1 6 .6 6 % . T h e n B w a s open fo r 4/2 = 2 h o u rs and A w a s open fo r 6/3 = 2 h o u rs. W o rk done = 2 5 % x 2 + 1 6 .6 6 % x 2 = 8 3 .3 3 % = ~ • u , 1 6 o f w o rk . H e n ce , th is o p tio n is c o rre c t. 2 8 . L e t the d isch arg es p er p ip e be A and B litre s/h r. Then i.e . 1 7 (A + B ) =<425 A + B = 25
2 . Th ey d rill at p lan ned rate fo r 3 d a ys (s a y x )
3 x + 5 (x + 8 ) = 2 8 0
5. W ork le ft = l/7 th o f o rig in a l w o rk . A w o u ld h ave done it in z/3 h o u rs. 610. F irs t set o f ten p ip es o perate at 10% /m in (f illin g ) L e , F illin g done b y 1 p ip e = 1 % /m inute Second set o f fiv e p ip e s o perate at 1 2 .5 % /m in u te (fillin g ) i.e . F illin g done b y 1 p ip e = 2.5 % /m in u te S