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Introduction to Physics

Introduction to Physics

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Introduction To Physics
1.1 The Concept of Physics
Solid Liquid Gas
states

PHYSICS
Study of the natural world

Mechanical Energy Heat Energy Light Energy

Matter
investigate

Energy
investigate

forms

Wave Energy
Electrical Energy

Properties of Matter

Relationship with energy

Relationship with matter

Properties of Energy

Nuclear Energy Chemical Energy

in the fields of

Mechanics

Properties of matter

Heat

Light

Wave

Electricity & Electromagnetism

Electronics

Atomic Physics & Nuclear Physics

Career in Physics
Aeronautical Engineer Army Engineer Astronomer Audiologist Automobile Engineer Biomedical Engineer Biophysicist Building Technologist Civil Engineer Computer Engineer Electrical Engineer Electrician Electronics Engineer Ergonomist Flight Engineer Forensic Scientist Geophysicist Laboratory Technician Lighting Technologist Mechanical Engineer Medical Physicist Merchant Navy Engineer Metallurgist Mining Engineer Nuclear Scientist Optician Patent Examiner Physicist Production Engineer Radio & TV Repair Radiographer Recording Engineer Royal Air Force Engineer Royal Navy Engineer Space Scientist Structural Engineer Teacher Telecommunications Etc, etc, etc, etc ……..

2 1 2 3 4 BASE QUANTITIES A physical quantity is a quantity that can be measured.000 03 m a. There are 7 base or fundamental physical quantities in the International System of units (S.000 000 072 1000000000 55 m = 0.I.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg 6 Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes: a.I. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg 7 These extremely large and small values can be written neatly in standard form or using standard prefixes.000 000 55 m 100000000 911 kg 1000000000000000000000000000000000 d.I. Unit m kg s A K mol cd 5 Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes: 3 m = 0. A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities. Wavelength of light = = = 72 m = 0. Size of a particle = 100000 b. Diameter of an atom c. Base quantity Length Mass Time Current Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Symbol l m t I T n S. The list of base physical quantities and their units. Question 1 . Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz b. units). Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m c. Mass of an electron = 0. Distance of the moon from the earth = 383 000 000 m d. Unit metre kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela Symbol for S.1.

000 000 072 m 0.Write the following physical quantities in standard form.000 000 55 m = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg (e) Frequency of radio wave = = 91 000 000 Hz (f) Diameter of the earth = = 12 800 000 m (g) Distance of the moon from the earth = (h) Mass of the earth = = = 383 000 000 m 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg SPECTRUM of PREFIXES . (a) Size of a particle = = (b) Diameter of an atom = = (c) Wavelength light = 0.000 03 m (d) Mass of an electron = = 0.

nm = …………… MHz = ………….37 N cm-1 = ……………. kg m–3 (d) Spring constant = 2. N cm–2 (c) density of ice = 0.. GHz A physical quantity that is written with a certain unit can be rewritten with another unit Question 3 Rewrite the following physical quantities with the unit stated. Mm (d) Radio wave frequency = 91 000 000 Hz (e) Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m (f) Distance from earth to the moon = 383 000 000 m (g) speed of computer processor = 1 600 000 000 Hz = …………….9 g cm–3 = ……….. (a) Speed of the aeroplane = 820 km j–1 = ………. km = ……………. .. mm = 0.000 000 55 m = …………….… m s–1 (b) Air pressure = 102 kN m–2 = ……….000 03 m = …………….000 000 072 m = ……………. (a) Size of a dust particle (b) Diameter of an atom (c) Wavelength of light = 0.pico p nano n micro 10 –12 10 –9 µ 10–6 mili m centi c deci d No prefix kilo k mega M giga G tera T 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 103 106 109 1012 Question 2 Write the following physical quantities using the suggested standard prefix.. µm = 0. kN m-1 .

E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height charge charge = current x time . Derived quantity area volume density velocity momentum acceleration Formula area = length x width volume = length x width x height density = velocity = mass volume Derived unit m x m = m2 m x m x m = m3 kg m 3 Name of derived unit – – – – – – = kg m −3 displacement time m = m s −1 s momentum = mass x velocity change in velocity acceleration = time force = mass x acceleration pressure = force area kg m s-1 m s −1 = m s s −1 s = m s −2 force pressure kg m s-2 newton (N) weight weight = mass x gravitational acceleration work work = force x displacement power power = work time kinetic energy potential energy 1 K. Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities.1.3 1 2 DERIVED QUANTITIES A derived quantity is a physical quantity which is derived from base quantities through multiplication or division or both.E = × mass × velocity 2 2 P.

1.4 Measurement Accuracy . perimeter.Derived quantity voltage Formula work charge Derived unit Name of derived unit voltage = resistance resistance = voltage current Note that the physical quantities such as width. thickness. height. displacement. distance. radius and diameter are equivalent to length.

seconds 4. Note that time taken for one oscillation of the simple pendulum is quite short. Your partner will carry out the same procedure. and then calculate its average value. Percentage error = absolute error ×100% actual value 7. Absolute error = ……………. The actual value or theoretical value for the time for one oscillation will be provided by your teacher. For the above measurement . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Precision 1 When you repeat a measurement several times. t / seconds 2. = …………. 8. 3. . 6. Record the readings from your measurement and the measurement of your partner in the table below. Compare your absolute error with the absolute error of your partner. Use a stop watch to measure the time taken for one oscillation of a simple pendulum. t / seconds Periodic time. Determine the percentage error using the equation below. Repeat your measurement four times to obtain a total of five readings. Write down the time given by your teacher.. Name Trial 1 2 3 4 5 Average Periodic time. seconds 5. Actual value of the time taken for one oscillation = ……. The difference between your average value and actual value is the absolute error for your measurement. Suggest how a more accurate value can be obtained. you can compare the precision of your measurement with the measurement carried out by your partner.Activity 1 1 Your teacher will set up a simple pendulum. Whose measurement is more accurate ? ……………………………………………………………………………………. A measurement with a smaller percentage error is said to have a higher accuracy.

Relative deviation of ……………………… Relative deviation of …………………………… The measurement by …………………..……………………………. In a shooting competition. You can use the reading obtained earlier. Compare the precision and the accuracy of three shooters. a metre rule which has worn ends .2 3 A measurement is said to having a higher precision if the readings have a smaller deviation with each other. Precision can be compared by determining the relative deviation as follows: Relative deviation = average deviation ×100% average value 4 Compare the precision of the measurements of your partner and you.…………………. Name : ………………. has a higher precision then the measurement by ……….……. A B C Zeor Error 1 Zero error can be found in: a.…………… Trial 1 2 3 4 5 Average Time / s Deviation / s Calculate the relative deviation in the space below..……. 5. B and C each take six shot at a target. three participants A.… Trial 1 2 3 4 5 Average Time / s Deviation / s Name : ……………………….

b. In the diagram below. If zero adjustment is not done.2 A. An ammeter with positive zero error will show ____________ current reading than the actual value. In the diagram below. A balance with negative zero error will show __________ mass reading than the actual value. 3. draw the scale of a balance which shows a zero error of –10 g. d. a vernier calliper and a micrometer screw gauge which do not show zero reading even when the jaws are closed. an ammeter and a voltmeter which do not show zero reading even when disconnected from a circuit. correcting the reading shown by the instrument Parallax error . 4. a balance which do not show zero reading even there is no object being placed on it. making the zero adjustment c.2 b. b. Zero error can be corrected by: a. If zero adjustment is not done. 0 a. the mass reading from this balance must be corrected by ________________ 10 g.2 A. draw an ammeter scale that shows a zero error of +0. c. A Zero adjustment screw a. fixing the measurement tools b. the current reading from this ammeter must be corrected by _________________ 0.

If the eye is at Y there will not be any parallax error. Random errors can be reduced by repeating a measurement and calculating the average value. Systematic errors can be eliminated by (i) Using a proper instrument or repairing / correcting the defective instrument. When a quantity is measured a few times. X Y Z 0 2 3 4 5 When the position of the eye is at X. Parallax errors can produce readings that are bigger or smaller than the actual value. the reading will be smaller than the actual value. On the other hand. 2 3 Example: zero error. Systematic error 1 Systematic error occurs when (i) an instrument is not perfect. 2 3 Example: parallax error. Random errors cannot be eliminated. random error will cause the readings to be sometimes bigger AND sometimes smaller than the actual value. (ii) the observer always repeats an inaccurate or wrong method. Systematic error and random error Random error 1 Random error occurs when (i) an observer cannot perform well during measurement. An efficient observer will get readings without or with small parallax errors. (ii) Correcting an inaccurate or wrong method. 4 4 Vernier calliper . (ii) the instrument used is not precise enough. when the eye is at Z the reading will be bigger. Systematic errors will cause the repeated readings for a quantity to be EITHER always bigger OR always smaller than the actual value. (iii) Correcting the readings obtained.1 Parallax error happens when the view of the observer is not perpendicular to the scale of the instrument that is being read.

internal diameter of a pipe or tube 2 A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of ………. 4 A B 5 P 0 5 Q 10 Distance AB = ………… cm Distance PQ = …………. (a) 6 7 0 (b) 7 5 10 8 0 5 10 . cm External diameter of pipe = ………… 5 Write the reading of the vernier callipers shown below. external diameter of a cylinder or pipe d. cm Vernier calliper reading = ……………. depth of a hole c. cm.1 A venier calliper is used to measured : a. Main scale in cm 3 Length of vernier scale = ……… cm Vernier scale divided into 10 divisions Length of the divisions = ………. cm 0 1 0 5 10 Vernier scale 4 The diagram below shows a vernier calliper when measuring the external diameter of a pipe. a small object b.

= 0 .... The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws...... The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.... 5 6 0 5 10 What is the thickness of one piece of cardboard? Vernier calliper reading = …………………… The corrected reading = …………………. = …………… The thickness of 40 pieces of cardboard The thickness of one piece of cardboard Micrometer screw gauge 0 5 = . 0 1 0 5 10 Zero error = ………… cm b.......(c) 6 7 0 5 10 6 Vernier calliper with zero error a....

Diameter of the ball bearing = ……………. The above diagram shows a micrometer screw gauge scale when a ball bearing is measured. One division on the spindle scale represents 0. the sliding jaw moves a distance of 0. The scale on the spindle consists of 50 divisions. diameter of a wire c. When the spindle is turned one complete rotation. 4 a. mm 6 Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.01 mm 50 0 5 40 35 5.1 A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure : a. b. b. objects that are small in size b.01 mm. (a) 0 5 10 35 30 (b) 0 25 20 .50 = 0.50 mm. The screw in the spindle has a thread distance or pitch of 0.50 mm. Screw in spindle Pitch 3 a. diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings 2 The micrometer screw gauge can give readings to an accuracy of 0.

. mm b. The following diagram shows a micrometer screw gauge when the jaws closed.7 Micrometer screw gauge with zero error. The following diagram shows the micrometer screw gauge when it is measuring the thickness of a piece of glass. 0 20 5 15 What is the thickness of the piece of glass? 8 Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges. a. . 0 0 45 Zero error = ……….

.mm Corrected reading = ……….mm .0 5 0 Zero error = ………mm 0 5 20 15 Reading shown = ………..

to respond more quickly towards changes in the physical quantity that is being measured.02 A ammeter. b.Sensitivity 1 A more sensitive measuring instrument is able: a. 1 2 3 cm Measuring tape 1 2 3 cm Meter rule Measuring tape 1. b.1 A ammeter. Draw the scale of a 0 –3 A ± 0. Meter rule 5 a. Compare and constrast the differences between these two measuring instruments: a measuring tape and a meter rule. 2 3 A measuring instrument which has smaller scale divisions is more sensitive. to detect very small changes in the physical quantity that is being measured. . 2. Draw a scale of a 0 – 1 A ± 0. 3..

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