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Feasibility Study (1)

Feasibility Study (1)

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Feasibility Study
Feasibility Study

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Published by: Irvir Dormile on Oct 06, 2013
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Sections

  • INTRODUCTION
  • Goals
  • Learning Objectives
  • Learning Outcomes
  • Sub-module 1: The Feasibility Study Exploring Your Business Ideas in Paper
  • I. Definition
  • II. Advantages/ Disadvantages
  • III. Uses/ Purpose
  • IV. Preparation
  • V. Components of a Feasibility Study
  • A. Market Feasibility
  • A.1 Definition
  • A.2 Purpose
  • A.3 Types of information to be gathered
  • A.4 Sources of Information
  • A.5 General Questions to be asked in the Market Research
  • B. Production/ Technical Feasibility
  • C. Organizational/ Management Feasibility
  • D. Financial Feasibility
  • D.1 Basic Concepts
  • D.2. Financial Feasibility Component
  • VI. Format
  • Sub-Module 2: The Business Plan: The Roadmap to Success?
  • II. Principles of Planning
  • III. Purpose
  • IV. Importance of Business Planning
  • V. Format of a Business Plan
  • Sub-Module 3: The Project Proposal: Where Will I Get My Money?
  • II. Purpose
  • III. Format
  • SUMMARY
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation#1
  • REFERENCES
  • Appendix

dlfonollera_48@yahoo.

com

Engr. Danilo L. Fonollera is an Agricultural Engineering
graduate from the University of the Philippines at Los
Baños, Laguna. He placed 4
th
in the Board of Licensure for
Agricultural Engineering. He has been in the teaching
profession spanning 25 years. He has taught various
subjects in various fields, to include subjects in
Agricultural Engineering, Mathematics, Statistics,
Computer Science, and feasibility study preparation. He
likewise has earned several credits in Masters of Public Administration, and Masters of
arts in Biology.




i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The writer of this module greatly acknowledges the motivational support
provided by DOST-GIA and PCARRD, through AFNR- ideas into
tangible form of which this module is the result.
The writer also acknowledges that much of the ideas used in this module are
translations of the results of the workshops done by UNESCO in relation to
Entrepreneurships in Small Business Organizations.
Acknowledgement and thanks are also extended to Dr. Renato F. Malate (Dean,
JRMSC, Katipunan, Zamboanga del Norte, for his constructive criticism and suggestions
most of which were incorporated in this module. Likewise, grateful thanks are extended
to Dr. Frede Moreno, CPADS, WMSU, Z.C, for the last minute changes and suggestions
which were highly appreciated by the writer.
ii

MODULE DESCRIPTION

The various concepts and topics discussed in this module are related to the
preparation of a Feasibility Study, a Business Plan, and a Project Proposal.
Basic concepts regarding the preparation of a feasibility study as well as its
format, and the importance of gathering data were emphasized. Emphasis was also
placed in the various financial tools used to evaluate the feasibility study.
This module also contains basic ideas regarding the preparation of a Business
Plan. Emphasized was the idea that informations found in the business plan are mostly
taken from information found in the feasibility study.
Basic guiding ideas regarding the preparation of a project proposal was also
presented in this module, although with less emphasis in its preparation.


iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................... i
MODULE DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................ ii
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................ iii
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1
Time Frame ......................................................................................................................... 2
Goals ................................................................................................................................... 2
Learning Objectives ............................................................................................................. 2
Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................................. 2
Sub-module 1: The Feasibility Study Exploring Your Business Ideas in Paper.................... 4
I. Definition .................................................................................................................................. 4
II. Advantages/Disadvantages ..................................................................................................... 4
III. Uses/Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 7
IV. Preparation ............................................................................................................................. 7
V. Components of a Feasibility Study .......................................................................................... 8
A. Market Feasibility ............................................................................................................... 8
A.1 Definition ................................................................................................................... 8
A.2 Purpose ...................................................................................................................... 9
A.3 Types of information to be gathered ............................................................. 9
A.4 Sources of Information ................................................................................ 11
A.5 General Questions to be asked in the Market Research ............................. 11
B. Production/ Technical Feasibility ......................................................................... 25
B.1 Product Description ..................................................................................... 25
B.2 Production Process ...................................................................................... 25
B.3 Plant size and production schedule ............................................................. 26
B.4 Machine and Equipment.............................................................................. 26
B.5 Plant/ business locations ............................................................................. 27
B.6 Building and facilities ................................................................................... 27
B.7 Plant layout .................................................................................................. 28
B.8 Raw materials .............................................................................................. 28
B.9 Utilities ......................................................................................................... 28
B.10 Waste Disposal ........................................................................................... 28
B.11 Production Cost ......................................................................................... 29
C. Organizational/ Management Feasibility ............................................................ 29
D. Financial Feasibility .............................................................................................. 29
D.1 Basic Concepts ............................................................................................. 30
D.2 Financial Feasibility Component .................................................................. 33
VI. Format ..................................................................................................................... 41
Sub-Module 2: The Business Plan: The Roadmap to Success? ......................................... 43
I. Definition ................................................................................................................... 43
II. Principles of Planning ............................................................................................... 43
III. Purpose .................................................................................................................... 43
iv

IV. Importance of Business Planning ............................................................................ 44
V. Format of a Business Plan ........................................................................................ 44
Sub-Module 3: The Project Proposal: Where Will I Get My Money? ............................... 47
I. Definition ................................................................................................................... 47
II. Purpose ..................................................................................................................... 47
III. Format ..................................................................................................................... 48
SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 50
EVALUATION ..................................................................................................................... 51
REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 57
APPENDIX ....................................................................................................................................... 59

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 1
INTRODUCTION
This module is intended to assist the individual in the preparation of a feasibility
study, a business plan, and a project proposal; all of which will serve as very important
tool to ensure the success of any entrepreneurial or business undertaking.

The feasibility study is an exploratory and evaluation tool used to determine
whether an intended venture/business idea is viable/ profitable or not. The business
plan is prepared
A project proposal is prepared with the intention of seeking funding support from
funding or lending institutions.

Preparation of either a business plan or a project proposal is always preceded by
the preparation of a feasibility study; both use information obtained through the
feasibility study. A business plan is prepared after preparing the feasibility study. The
project proposal is prepared after the business plan, as shown in Figure 1, below;




Discussions in this module are basically focused on the preparation of the
feasibility and the business plan, since most of the participants are expected to engage
in an undertaking once they graduate. Due to insufficient time and due to its scope, only
a brief treatment on project proposal will be presented here.
The business plan format, with slight alterations may well serve the purpose of
additional documents necessary in seeking funding or financial assistance for a business
undertaking.
Furthermore, no attempt is being claimed in this module of producing
participants whose sole business is the preparation of feasibility study and business
plans.
Formal topics on feasibility study preparation that are included in the AFNR


F e a s i b i l i t y
S t u d y
B u s i n e s s
(A c ti o n )
P l a n
P r o j e c t
P r o p o s a l
F i g u r e 1 . C o n c e p t u a l l i n k b e t w e e n a F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d y , A B u s i n e s s P l a n ,
a n d a P r o j e c t P r o p o s a l .
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 2
Time Frame: 6.0 hours

Goals

The goal of this module is to enable the participants to integrate their basic skills
and abilities in preparing a feasibility study, a business plan, and a project proposal, for
their planned entrepreneurial or business undertaking.

Learning Objectives

This training module has the following as its objectives for the participants:

1. To prepare a market feasibility study
2. To prepare a production/ technical feasibility study
3. To prepare an organizational feasibility study
4. To prepare a financial feasibility study
5. To prepare a project proposal for a given entrepreneurial/business undertaking

Learning Outcomes

At the end of the module, the participants should already have the following:

1. Feasibility study
2. Business plan
3. An outline for a Project proposal


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 3
KEY CONCEPTS AND CONTENTS

The various concepts and topics in this module are presented in the following
order:

Sub-module 1: The Feasibility Study: Testing Your Business Ideas
The Market Feasibility Study
The Market Research
The Production/ Technical Feasibility Study
The Organizational Feasibility study
The Financial Feasibility Study
The Financial Feasibility: Is it Worth the Risk?
Sub-module 2: The Business Plan: The Roadmap to Success
Sub-module 3: The Project Proposal: Where will I get the Money?

Presentation of the above topics is clarified by sample write-ups, the ideas of
-
1
. The writers felt justi -Kids
Furthermore, information contained in a feasibility study and that of the business plan
are mostly locale specific; hence, accuracy of information in the discussion of the above
topics is sacrificed at a gain of maintaining focus on the concepts, principles and
methods to be employed.

In the course of presentation of the various topics, extensive use of write-ups
was made to serve as an application sample template, pattern, or guide to follow. The
write-up is about the establishment of an Egg Farm, which is actually based on an actual
feasibility study prepared by a student in the Agribusiness Department of WMSU
College of Agriculture. Some of the information items however, included in the write-
ups, were slightly modified and altered in order that they may be used to highlight
important concepts for discussion.

Additional sample feasibility study write-up materials used in this module was
repared by F. R.
Somblingo, R. T. Baguio, and R. N. Barrera.


1
-
MN, 51102, WWW.LIFTKIDS.ORG
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 4
Sub-module 1: The Feasibility Study Exploring Your Business Ideas in Paper



I. Definition

A Feasibility Study (FS) is an evaluation tool used to determine the
viability/profitability of a certain idea. It is a tool that systematically explores whether a
given idea will work and whether it should be pursued further for implementation.
Systematic exploration is done based on information acquired regarding the various
resources that go into the undertaking associated with a certain idea. The evaluation is
done based on past and existing information that are projected into the future. The
resulting evaluation will serve as a basis of deciding whether the proposed idea is to be
pursued or not.
As an evaluation and exploratory tool, the feasibility study finds wide uses for a
variety proposed ideas; from the introduction of a new business, the adoption of new
methods, a change in organizational structure, the adoption of new technology, or to
simply choose from various alternatives.
If you are having an idea for a business venture, then the feasibility study will be
your first recourse. By conducting a feasibility study, you will be on your first step
towards putting your business ideas towards reality. Through a feasibility study, your
idea starts to become real. Things that are real are easier to deal with, than when they
are unreal.

II. Advantages/ Disadvantages

Preparation of a feasibility study offers advantages and disadvantages. The
advantages are:

A. It offers a means of determining whether valuable resources maybe
committed in an undertaking.

Any undertaking will require the use of resources (money, time, and
manpower), and generally, these resources are scarce and valuable. Through a
FS one can immediately determine whether such resources are to be committed
to an undertaking or should have been committed to somewhere else, where
expected benefits are higher.
put in paper, else they remain forever as ideas and

-dlf-
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 5
You might have already invested a large amount of your savings in a
business, worked hard on it, and spent countless hours working, only to find out
invested. You might have been better off, if you placed your money in the bank
and just wait for the interest to accumulate.

B. It reduces the potential risk of failure for an undertaking.

The feasibility study will serve as the initial guide in an undertaking. It will

You might have already bought equipment for use in your business, only
to find out later that it did not perform as expected. Deciding to sell them back
at a lower price will already entail losses on your part.
A properly prepared feasibility study, will at the onset, guide you in the
purchase of your equipment for your undertaking.

C. It allows for the identification of critical issues and critical resources in an
undertaking.

The feasibility study will enable you to identify critical issues and critical
resources that threaten the success of the business. Critical resources may not
be available at a time when they are needed in the operation of a business.
Critical issues that will greatly affect the cost of operation have not been
resolved.
The expectations that you have made regarding your income all look so
good in paper. However, will the money be available at the time when you need
it? Are your raw materials available at the time when the demand is high?

Preparing a feasibility study also poses some disadvantages, these are:

A. It requires technical knowledge.

A feasibility study is a technical paper, as such, not just any person can
make it. It requires information and skills that generally not one single individual
can provide. Specialized skills are needed in its preparation; accountancy skills,
management skills, skills and information about the undertaking itself, and
writing skills as well.

For smaller undertakings, basic understanding, of these skills can be
subject.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 6
Thinking of preparing a feasibility study on a venture with seaweeds, for
example, will require that you have some knowledge on accounting in order that
you can prepare your financial projections. Reading from the library will provide
you with an understanding on management, or your next door neighbor might
help you. And of course, you might have already an idea about growing
seaweeds plants, which you can enhance by asking an expert (surely, you must
have already given enough thought about it, since you are already in the stage of
preparing a feasibility study).

B. It requires initial expenses.

A feasibility study is a very important document. As such, it requires a
certain initial amount in its preparation. The amount spent is necessary in order
to ensure that the information found in the FS is accurate and reliable.
Preparation of the final form and the appearance of the FS will also entail
expenses. The expenses however will compensate for not investing, should the
feasibility study show that the undertaking is not viable.
Your feasibility study contains information that will serve as your guide in
making a decision on whether you should proceed or not with your planned
undertaking. You would want, as much as possible, that the information in your
feasibility study will allow you to look accurately, reliably far ahead into the
future, regarding your undertaking.
Information items like those found in your feasibility study do not come
for free! Acquiring information will require you to buy paper for your surveys,
spend
knowledgeable about the undertaking, or at the other extreme, you even have
to pay people to conduct and prepare the feasibility study for you.

C. It requires time and effort.

The information found in a feasibility study, if they are to be accurate and
reliable, requires on the part of the proponent time and effort in its acquisition.
Time and effort must also be exerted by the proponent to acquire accurate and
reliable information that will allow him to make a final decision on whether to
pursue the undertaking or not. Should the undertaking later on, is found to be
very risky, the consequences will be shouldered by the proponent himself
irrespective of who prepared the feasibility study.
Indicators in your feasibility study all point out for a high chance of
success, but remember that your feasibility study contains certain assumptions
in order to allow you to look ahead and forward. Looking ahead and forward
requires a judgment call on your part. Exercising your judgment requires
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 7
information from you. After all, it is you who will place your money in the
venture, not the people you have paid to prepare your feasibility study.

III. Uses/ Purpose

The feasibility study as an evaluative tool is used for a variety of purposes. Some
of the uses of a feasibility study are the following:

A. To evaluate the profitability of a new businesses
B. To evaluate the benefits to be gained in the expansion of a business
C. To evaluate the financial impact for changes in business location
D. To evaluate the benefits from new methods of production, technology, or
machinery
E. To evaluate changes in an organization
F. To evaluate benefits from business mergers or business acquisition

Although a feasibility study is used for a wide variety of purposes, this module
focuses on the feasibility study as a tool for explorations on the profitability/viability of a
business idea; as such it will be a business feasibility study.
If you are going to prepare a business feasibility study, then you will be
interested to know on whether your business idea is viable and if it will give adequate
returns for the money, time and effort that you have invested in the business.

IV. Preparation

Inasmuch as the feasibility study will serve as a the basis for making a decision
about the viability/profitability of a given business undertaking, then the information
contained in it must have the following characteristics:

A. Accuracy

Accurate information means that the data are not an estimate of the
writer but should be the actual information in the industry/ market. Inaccurate
information leads to inaccurate conclusions.

B. Reliability

Reliable information means that the source of the data must not come
from hearsay or persons not related to the industry or market that you are
studying, but must come from dependable sources and sources in the industry or
market.

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 8
C. Timeliness

Timely information means that your data are current and are one that
most closely reflects the present situation.
Real world situations will set limitations to the characteristics of the
information collected. However, attempts must be made in order that accurate
assumptions maybe built upon them.
You may have experienced only recently how the prices of engine fuels have
been fluctuating from high to low. If fuel price is one information that you need
in your feasibility study, then you should anticipate its impact on the feasibility
study of your business venture.

V. Components of a Feasibility Study

There are four basic components that are common to all feasibility studies,
which are: the market feasibility, the production/ technical feasibility, the
organizational/ management feasibility and the financial feasibility.

A. Market Feasibility

This portion of the study gives a thorough description of the industry that relates
to the product or services that you want to produce. The purpose of this is to fully know
and get detailed information about your market in order to devise plans and strategies
to establish a market share. The outcome of this study is sometimes sufficient to decide
ity study or
not. Gathering the necessary information that will give you a thorough description of
the industry where your products or services belong requires that you have to conduct a
Market Research.

A.1 Definition
A Market Research is simply a means of acquiring accurate and reliable
information about your market. It uses one or more tools (or instruments) for
gathering information about the market. The tools may involve the use of
research tools; such as a survey, a questionnaire, interview questionnaires, etc. It
may also acquire information through: media outlets, advertisements, the
internet, people who are also engaged in a similar line of business, as well as

At times information is acquired throu
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 9
gut feeling as a means of acquiring information should however be avoided as
much as possible; they are difficult to substantiate.

A.2 Purpose
Because a feasibility study starts with several assumptions committed on
paper; as much as possible these assumptions must be very realistic; more or
less they should be very close to real-world situations. The more realistic are
your assumptions, the more objective will you be in evaluating the potential risk
for failure and success of your proposed business undertakings. Your feasibility
get involved in the business, as well as other factors that may become an
obstacle in the future. Acquiring such information may require that you have to
conduct a Market Research.
If you cannot get your information accurately and reliably through
market research, then most probably the business idea is not viable. If your
market research and analysis cannot substantiate and support the information
that you have, then any analysis and conclusions that you will arrive at, will also
be unsubstantiated, and therefore will be unreliable as a basis for making a
business decision.
When you are planning to make a market research, you have to carefully
balance between the cost of the research, the accuracy and reliability of the
information that you have to collect, and of course the time. It is possible to
have a very accurate and reliable market research that is not expensive, but will
give you unreliable and not so accurate information. You may have accurate and
reliable information, but they are expensive. You may have expensive, accurate
and reliable information, but because of the time element in their collection they
are no longer reliable. When undertaking a market research, you have to
consider the cost, the accuracy and reliability, and the time it takes to collect the
information.
It would be effective and efficient on your part to collect as much
information as possible that you need when you will be conducting a market
research. This would mean that you have to identify before hand, what are the
information items that you will be needing in your market feasibility,
organizational feasibility, technical feasibility, and financial feasibility, and then
combine all together into one survey (so that it will become a feasibility survey).

A.3 Types of information to be gathered

Before you conduct your feasibility survey, you have to decide on the
different types of information that you will need. Some of this information can
be obtained freely such as looking for it in the internet, or going to the library, or
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 10
asking somebody. In some cases the information that you will need will entail
hire people
to conduct the survey for you.

Market research is interested in five major types of information in the
market, as follows:
2


1. Market information nature of the market, type and kind of
buyers/customers, competitors in the market, pricing system, methods of
distribution and marketing, etc.

2. Production/Technical Information sources and costs of raw materials,
machinery and equipments to be used and production methods, etc.

3. Organization and Manpower Information sources and skills needed and
available for manpower resources, standard salary and fringe benefits,
etc.

4. Financial Information sources of capital (and their associated risks.),
credit available from financial institutions, interest rate, etc.

5. Government Programs, Policies and Regulations (local, provincial,
national) that have an effect on your business; government programs
that offer financial and technical assistance to your business, especially if
it is a new business

You have to remember that not all of the above mentioned items have to
be included in your feasibility survey. Include only those items that are important
and will have an impact on your feasibility; the above serves only as a general
guide.
It is even possible to subdivide your feasibility survey into two portions.
The first portion will involve acquiring information that you can immediately use
This will be generally the financial aspects of your survey. Should the data
gathered in the first portion suggest a very small profit margin, then you might
not as well continue with the second portion, and altogether abandon the idea.
In some cases, it is the technical feasibility that will serve as a decisive factor.
However, if your initial survey does suggest that the profit margin is
large, then this suggests that it might be worth pursuing, and proceed and
conduct the second phase of the survey to further the details of the study.

2
Final Report of the Regional Workshop on Continuing Education Programmes Focusing on Small-Scale Enterprise for
Neo-
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 11
A.4 Sources of Information

Before you start preparing your feasibility survey, you should know how
to ask the right question. Knowing how to ask the right question will make your
survey short, will give you accurate and reliable information, and reduce the
time to conduct the survey. So, where will you get the information that will guide
you to ask the right questions?

1. Reading in the library
2. Using the Internet
3. Asking persons in authority
4. Interviewing people knowledgeable about the industry
5. From Television
6. Through Internet chatting
7. Through discussions
8. Through interviews
9. From local shopkeepers
10. From local sellers

A.5 General Questions to be asked in the Market Research

Having decided the kinds of questions that you will be asking, you will
need to formulate the feasibility survey that will provide you with an accurate
and reliable answer. Below are some general questions that you will be asking to
yourself that might help you to prepare your feasibility survey. The questions are
details based on the ten broad areas classified above and do not necessarily be
of the same order as in the feasibility survey (How the questions are to be
arranged and validated is the area of survey design. For our purpose, we will
presume that we have an acceptable survey tool).

1. Questions about the Market:
1.1. Questions about the demand:
a. What is the size of the demand for my product/service?
b. Is there a possibility of increasing the demand for my
product/service?
c. Is the demand for my product or services seasonal?
d. Could I possibly create a demand (such as promotion, advertising)
for my product?
1.2. Questions about the customers/ buyers:
a. What are the characteristics or socio-economic status of my
customers in terms of:
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 12
a.1. Age group (kids, youth, young adult, adult, senior citizens)
a.2. Gender (male or female?)
a.3. Income status or social bracket? (Category A, B, C, D or E?)
b.
c. What are the available choices for my customer?
d. Where do they purchase the commodity and why?
e. What type of facilities does my customer get from the local
shopkeeper?
1.3. Questions about the supply:
a. How many sellers are in the market similar to my product or
service?
b. Is there sufficient supply or quantity being sold in the market
similar to my product?
1.4. Questions about the competition:
a. Who are my competitors?
b. Where are my competitors?
c. How many competitors do I have?
d. Who are their customers?
e. What are the quantity of their goods and services?
f. What is the size of their market? Where are they?
g. What are the incentives being given by my competitors (in terms
of warranty, quantity, discounts, quality)?
h. Where is their monopoly area?
i. Where do they collect their raw materials?
j. What types of equipments do they use?
k. What kind of media do they use for advertising?
l.
competitors themselves?
1.5. Questions about the price:
a. What is the prevailing market price similar to my product?
b. What is the pricing method adopted (cost-plus pricing, discount
pricing, psychological pricing, competitive pricing, etc)?
c. Is the price for my product seasonal? What months are the price
high and months that the price are low?
1.6. Questions about the channels of distribution:
a. What are the existing marketing methods of distribution?
b. What marketing channels are available?
c. What are the buying and selling procedures?

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 13
2. Questions about the production/Technology:
2.1. Questions about your raw materials:
a. What type of raw materials do I need?
b. Where are the sources of my raw materials?
c. What is/are the price of my raw materials?
d. Do my raw materials require storage facilities in order to preserve
them?
e. Is there a risk in handling my raw materials? How could they be
handled?
f. What transportation methods are available for getting my raw
materials?
2.2. Questions about machineries and Equipments:
a. What kind of machineries do I need?
b. How much is the price of the machineries? How much will it cost?
c. What are the cheapest suppliers for my machineries?
d. Would there be a need for maintenance after sales?
e. Are there power supplies? In what forms?
f. How long can the machineries be used (Life span)?
g. Would the supplier offer warranty? How long?
h. What are the dimensions of the machinery/ equipment?
2.3. Questions about the business location:
a. What are the available locations for my business?
b. What are the costs (rental purchase)?
c. Where will be the best location for my business?
d. Are there available supply of utility (electricity, power), skilled
labor, and raw materials? Is it accessible to transportation?

3. Questions about Organization:
3.1. Questions about manpower resources?
a. What type of employees do I need?
b. How many employees would I need?
c. How much wages should I pay for my employees? What is the
prevailing salary level in the locality? In the Industry?
d. What are the facilities needed by my employees?
e. How would I recruit/hire my employees? What would be my
recruitment and selection process?
f. What would be the responsibilities of my employees?


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 14
4. Questions about Financing
4.1. Questions about the capital and its associated risk:
a. How much money would I need?
b. What are my possible sources of credit?
c. What are the prevailing interest rates for loans/credit?
d. Aside from credit, where, who, and how will I get additional
capital? What are the terms and conditions?
e. In what months or years in my business operation will I need
credit? How much?

5. Questions about government programs and policies:
5.1. Questions about government programs:
a. What government programs are available for my kind of business?
b. What are the assistance given in terms of financing and
technology?
c. What government agencies are involved?
d. What are requirements to avail of the program?
5.2. Questions about government policies and regulations:
a. What are the existing government policies and regulations that
affect my business (local, provincial, or national)?
b. What are the governing marketing and production rules and
regulations?

The above serves only as a guide that will be of help in formulating the
right questions that you could possibly include in your market research, or
questionnaires. They do not necessarily all have to be included as questions in
your market research. Only the relevant questions shall be included.
Having decided the kinds of questions to ask, your next problem is who
can answer your questions. The following are suggested possible sources for
answers to your questions:

1. Observations of the enterprise
2. Through data collection
3. Through your competitors
4. Through discussions
5. Through shopkeepers
6. Through consumers
7. Through media

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 15
Most of the information that you have gathered through the market research
will be used as information to complete the four components of a market feasibility
study; these are:

1.1 Market description a brief description of the market to describe the buyers and
users of the product/ service and the areas of dispersion. See Sample write-up 1
below.





Sample write-up 1. Market Description

Interviews from 3 egg producers in the Zamboanga City indicate that buyers and
users of eggs in Zamboanga City are broken down as shown in Error! Reference
source not found.Error! Reference source not found.
Sample write-up Table 1. Interview data obtained from 116 respondents on their weekly
egg buying and using pattern.

Egg buyers and user's
Sample
Size
Ave.
Trays
Sold/wk
Min Ave.
Trays/wk
Max.
Ave.Trays/wk
Trays per
year (@ 48
week/ year)
Ave. Egg
Consumed
Per/year
1.Intermediate Buyers


a. Wholesalers 7 20.8 18 23.6 24,960 748,800

c. Retailers 20 2.3 1.5 3 448,200 13,446,000

TOTALS 27 23.05 19.5 26.6 473,160 14,194,800
2. Institutional buyers/ User's


1. Hotels 3 8.9 5.7 12.1 2,990 89,712

2. Restaurants 5 8.3 6.3 10.3 3,984 119,520

3. Bakeries 5 13.3 12 14.5 11,448 343,440

4. Catering 3 6.0 5 7 1,440 43,200
3. Household users
100 0.15 0.1 0.2 1,224,183 36,725,486

TOTALS 116
36.6 29.1 44.1
1,244,045 37,321,358


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 16

A. Intermediate Buyers buyers who buy eggs in volume and sell them for
retail, commonly in trays (with one tray having a capacity of 30 eggs).

1. Wholesalers - are buyers who buy directly from the egg producer in
volume. Of the seven egg wholesalers in Zamboanga City interviewed,
their average weekly sale is 20.8 trays with an average minimum of 18
trays and an average maximum of 23.6 trays. Of the 7 wholesalers in
Zamboanga City, all require that the eggs be delivered to their outlets by
the local egg producers. Furthermore, the 7 wholesalers are located
inside a circle whose radius is approximately two kilometers, with the
exception of one establishment which is located at a distance of
approximately 5 kilometers from the center.

2. Retailers these are buyers who buy eggs in small quantities and resell
-
- terviews with 20 randomly
-
sold, with a minimum average of 1.5 and a maximum average of 3 trays
per week.

B. Institutional Buyers/ Users these are buyers who buy in bulk and are end
users themselves.

1. Institutional buyers (hotels, restaurants, bakeries, and catering), also
require that the eggs be delivered directly to their establishments by the
egg producers themselves. Institutional buyers vary in their buying
patterns as shown in the Write-up Table 1.

One should note in the above table that the household sector could
have either bought their eggs from wholesalers or retailers.

The large difference between the minimum and maximum trays sold
per week by the caterings services/ houses arises due to the nature of
their services, which is highly dependent on the occurrence of special
occasions.

An ocular survey by the proponents indicates that the various
institutional buyers of egg in Zamboanga City are widely dispersed. The
hotels and restaurants are located within approximately a circle with a
radius of 5 kilometers from their center. Bakeries and catering services
are very widely dispersed, extending from the East to the West Coast of
the City.

2. Households households are buyers who are end users themselves. They
-
a 100 random sampled houses indicate that an average family size of 5
consumes an average of 0.15 trays of eggs per week.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 17

















1.2 Demand data about the consumption in the past five years; major users of the
product; and the projected consumption for the next five years (See Sample
write-up 2 below).
























The flow of egg produced until it reaches the end user is shown in the diagram below:

Sample write-up Figure 1. Flow of eggs from producers to users.
E g g
P r o d u c e r
H o t e l s
R e s t a u r a n t s
B a k e r i e s
H o u s e h o l d s

W h o l e s a l e r s
R e t a i l e r s
Sample write-up 2. Demand

Data on egg consumption in Zamboanga City by the various egg buyers and
users for the past 5 years are not available. However, projections can be made by
assuming that egg consumption will proportionately increase with population increase
in Zamboanga City.
Egg is one important source of protein for human diets; hence any increase in
population will likewise create an increase in the demand for eggs.
At present, projections made by the Statistics Bureau indicate that the rate of
population growth in Zamboanga City is 7.2% per year, with Zamboanga City having
170,025 households at an average 5 heads per household. On this assumption, the
demand situation for eggs in Zamboanga City for the next five years is shown below:

Sample write-up Table 2. Five year projected demand by household egg users in
Zamboanga City

Egg buyers
and user's
No. of
House-
holds
Ave. Egg
Consumed
Per/year
%
Increa
se/
year
Year



2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Household
users
170025 36,725,486 7.20% 39,369,721 42,204,341 45,243,054 48,500,554 51,992,594

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 18












































Demands created by the retailers were projected based on the information
provided by DTI. Their data indicate that there are 830 new entrant retailers (including
-
years. This information indicates that 5 years ago up to the present, the number of new
entrants will total to 4150 (= 5 x 830). The projected demand that will be created by the


Sample write-up Table 3. Demand projections for egg by retailers in Zamboanga City

Egg
buyers
and user's
Estimated
Number
Ave. Egg
Retailed
Per/year
%
Increase/
year
Year

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Retailers 4150 13,446,000 7.20% 14,414,112 15,451,928 16,564,467 17,757,109 19,035,620

The 7.2% increase in demand was also used on hotels, bakeries, restaurants and
caterings to arrive at a five year projected demand. The results are summarized below:

Sample write-up Table 4. A summary of the five year demand projection for the different
buyers and users of eggs in Zamboanga City

Egg buyers
and user's
Ave. Egg
Consumed
or sold
Per/year
(pcs)
%
Increase/
year
Year
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
1.Intermediate Buyers
a. Wholesalers 748,800 7.20% 802,714 860,509 922,466 988,883 1,060,083
c. Retailers 13,446,000 7.20% 14,414,112 15,451,928 16,564,467 17,757,109 19,035,620
TOTALS 14,194,800 15,218,836 16,314,448 17,488,945 18,748,005 20,097,717
2. Institutional buyers/ User's
1. Hotels 89,712 7.20% 96,171 103,096 110,518 118,476 127,006
2. Restaurants 119,520 7.20% 128,125 137,350 147,240 157,841 169,206
3. Bakeries 343,440 7.20% 368,168 394,676 423,092 453,555 486,211
4. Catering 43,200 7.20% 46,310 49,645 53,219 57,051 61,159
3. Household
users
36,725,486 7.20% 39,369,721 42,204,341 45,243,054 48,500,554 51,992,594
TOTALS 37,321,358 40,008,496 42,889,108 45,977,124 49,287,477 52,836,175

GRAND
TOTAL
51,516,158 55,227,332 59,203,556 63,466,068 68,035,481 72,933,892

The above projection was substantiated through further interviews with egg
producers regarding their experience and their projections on the industry. They believe
that the above assumption is justifiable enough and the resulting projection is close
enough to what they anticipate for the next five years.
The Grand total in the above table should however be interpreted with caution.
The relationship of the intermediate buyers with the household users as shown in
Error! Reference source not found., suggests that satisfying the demand of the
intermediate buyers will have the consequent effect of decreasing the demands by the
households on the producers.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 19
In cases where data and information are not available to make
projections, making assumptions becomes unavoidable: reality imposes its
limitations. However, should assumptions be made, it either has to be a rough
estimate that has to be accurately verified later on before the end of the study,
or it is an assumption that you will have to justify as a basis for making a
projection.
It is also in this portion of the study that the methods by which the
projections were made must be made clear, for each method has its own
advantages and disadvantages. A number of statistical tools are available for
making reliable projections; linear regression is one of such tools. A much
simpler approach would be to use a graphing paper and a ruler. A common
approach is to use the mean (or the average) as used in Sample write-up Table
3).

1.3 Supply data about the product or services being provided by other businesses
engaged in the same industry for the past five years (broken down as to source
whether imported or locally produced); projected supply situation for the next
five years; and the factor affecting trends in the past and future supply (See
Sample write-up 3 below).
























Sample write-up 3. Supply

Data from the Agriculture Bureau regarding egg producers in Zamboanga City
provided the information shown below:

Sample write-up Table 5. Average and total volume of eggs produced by the major egg
producers of Zamboanga City
Number of producers 12
Average distance from ZC City Hall (km) 19.75
Average years in operation 5.4
Average no. of layers maintained/year 9,333
Average no. of eggs produced/year 2,775,200
Combined volume of eggs produced/year 33,302,400

The above information suggests that since the amount of eggs sold by the
intermediate buyers who buy directly from the producers has an average of 14,194,800
eggs per year (see Write-up Table 4), the remaining of the combined volume produced
per year, must have been directed to the institutional buyers/users and the households.
The combined demand caused by the institutional users has an average of 595,872 eggs
per year with the remainder of 18,511,728 (=33,302,400 14,194,800 595,872) being
sold directly to the households. The remainder constitutes 55.5%
(={18,511,728/33,302,400} x 100) of the total average volume of eggs produced by the
major suppliers in a year.

Of the 12 major egg suppliers in Zamboanga City, only 3 obliged to supply the
proponent for information regarding their egg production volume for the last five years.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 20












































Sample write-up Table 3. Volume of egg production for the last 5 years of 3 major egg
suppliers in Zamboanga City
Name
Year
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
1 2 3 4 5
1 Ritchie's Egg Farm 2,401,920 2419200 2409600 2400480 2448000
2 Miller Farm 2,280,000 1960800 1965600 2414400 2736000
3 BOA Farm 2,688,000 2352000 2496000 2376000 2409600
Totals 7,369,920 6732000 6871200 7190880 7593600
Average 2,456,640 2,244,000 2,290,400 2,396,960 2,531,200

Based on the past records of the three major egg suppliers, a simple average is
used to determine the projected supply situation. It is done as follows;

1. Compute for the difference of the totals between two succeeding years starting
from the earliest years to the next year. Thus the first computation will involve years
2004 and 2005 and equals -212, 640 (= 2,244,000 2,456,640). The resulting
computations for the other years are shown below;

Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Index 1 2 3 4 5
Total eggs produced/year 2,456,640 2,244,000 2,290,400 2,396,960 2,531,200
Difference -212,640 46,400 106,560 134,240
% Change from previous year -8.65 2.07 4.65 5.67
Average % change/year 0.935

2. Compute for the % change from previous year as follows;

% change from previous year = (-212,640 / 2,456,640) x 100 = -8.65

Then do the same procedure for the other years.

3. Compute for the average % change / year as follows;

Average % change/year = [(-8.65) + (2.07) + (4.65 + (5.67)] / 4 = 0.935 %

An average of 0.935 % suggest that the supply of eggs from the major egg
producers of Zamboanga City will increase on the average by as much as 1 per 100
eggs per year.
Having determined the rate by which supply of egg increases, the projected
supply situation will be as shown below;

Write-up Table 4. Five year supply projection for Zamboanga City.

Average Volume of eggs
produced/year (pcs)
Year
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
33,302,400 33,613,777 33,928,066 34,245,294 34,565,487 34,888,674
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 21
1.4 Competition analyzed in terms of the number of similar business that you want
to engage into; the prevailing prices; quality of the product; methods of
transportation and existing rate; channels of distribution; and a description of
the existing marketing practices of competitors ((See Sample write-up 4 below)




































1.5 Proposed marketing Program
description of the proposed target market, proposed price and pricing system,
packaging, channel of distribution, and promotional activities (See Sample write-
up 6. Proposed Marketing Program below).
Sample write-up 4. Competition

Competitors: Egg Producer

Currently there are 12 major egg producers in Zamboanga City (see Write-up Table 3).
For the year 2008 alone, they supplied Zamboanga City with 33,302,400 eggs. Their average year
in operation is 5.5 years, and they are situated at an average distance of 19.9 km from the City
proper. The major producers of egg in Zamboanga City who have been in the business of
producing eggs longer than 5.5 years most presumably have already established good business
relationships with the intermediate buyers as well as the institutional egg user. Likewise, the same
can be said to the new entrants in egg production who have been in the business from 3 to 4
years already. Considering that the new entrants to the business are already operating on an
average of 9, 333 heads of layers per year is suggestive that they must have very good
connections in the distribution channel to venture in egg production.
The above discussion suggests that a high potential for failure will be encountered if the
target of the venture will focus on the intermediate and institutional market as its buyers. On the
other hand, the risk potential for failure will be lower if the main target market will be the
household buyers.

Competitors: Intermediate Buyers

The intermediate buyers serve as a direct outlet for egg produce; hence, they are also
competitors. Their strength lies in having good business relationships with the egg producers, and
on attracting customers due to the variety of products that they sell. At any given time, they
entertain a large number of customers, selling eggs to their customer either in trays or in dozens
is also their strength.
The intermediate buyers absorb only 42.62 % (=14,194,800/33,302,400), while the
institutional buyers absorb only 1.19% (= 638775//33,302,400) of the total volume of eggs
produced in the City.
Based on personal interviews with the supervisors of the egg producers, all of the major
egg producers grade their eggs into three classes: small, medium, and large. Producers prices for
small eggs range from 3.50 3.75 pesos, medium grade is priced from 3.75- 4.00 pesos, while
large grades are priced from 4.00- 4.25 pesos.
From the same interview, 4 of the 12 producers unload 2 to 3% of their eggs to
institutional buyers, using vans, directly through prior contracts at discounted prices. Forty two to
forty four per cent (42 to 44%) are unloaded to the intermediate buyers. The remaining produce
of the egg producers are sold to direct retailers within their immediate community.
The above discussion suggests that in order for the proposed venture to be competitive
with the intermediate buyers market, the proposed undertaking will have to produce eggs equal
to or lower than the price schedule offered by the competitive egg producers.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 22










































1.6 S

Sample write-up 5. Proposed marketing program

The product.
The egg, particularly chicken egg is rich in nitrogenous elements. It is one of the most
highly concentrated forms of nitrogenous food, about one third of its weight being solid
nutrient. It is also confirmed to have a low-calorie source of protein, Vitamin A, riboflavin,
Vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and other nutrients.
The average weight of an egg is about two ounces (or approximately 37.7 gm), of
which 10% consists of shell, 60% of white, and 30% of yolk.
Table egg is commonly consumed as viand. It is also used as ingredient for desserts
like pastries, cookies, pies, cakes and others. It is sometimes processed into "itlog na maalat"
or salted egg. It is also effective in some beauty regiment. In a recent study done at the
North Carolina State University, eggs may be the next source of protein for drugs, which can
create a specialty market for farmers, who can produce eggs specifically for drug companies.
(Source; http//.www.rcbral@bar.gov.ph).

Grading of eggs.
National grading standards for eggs sold, are according to size; small, medium, large,
extra large, and assorted or unclassified. Farm gate prices in 2002 and 2003 were 35.76 and
37.48 pesos per dozen respectively (2.98 and 3.12 pesos per piece respectively).
(Source; http//.www.rcbral@bar.gov.ph)
Grading can be made advantageous in two ways; grading in terms of appearance can
be advantageous where the target clientele purchases in bulk, and where appearance do not
matter; such as among institutional buyers. Grading in terms of appearance is advantageous
where households belonging to the upper segments of society, are willing to pay a price for
eggs with good appearance (such as the egg being ovate, white, and clean).
This undertaking will grade eggs as follows; AA, A, AB, B, BC, and CC. With AA being
in the heaviest category, and class CC will be in the lightest range. This will effectively
subdivide the existing retail price range of 4.75 5.50 pesos into 6 ranges, as shown below;

Class Price range
CC Below 4.75
C 4.75 4.88
BC 4.88 5.00
B 5.00 5.13
AB 5.13 5.25
A 5.25 5.38
AA 5.38 5.50

Target Market.
Targeting the institutional users and that of the wholesalers will expose the venture
to a high potential for failure. However, focusing on household egg consumers and with good
marketing strategy and efficient production process will lower the risk for failure
With 6 range price category, flexibility in giving discounts to buyer becomes easy.

Packaging
Packaging of the eggs will involve using egg trays that can carry 30 and 12 eggs in a
tray. Awareness of the existence of the product will be achieved by using light green colored
tray. Cell phone and telephone number will be imprinted on each tray to facilitate calls for re-
delivery at any time. Thirty egg trays will cost 2.00 pesos each tray package, and 1.00 peso for
a 12 egg tray.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 23











1.6 Projected Sales for the next five years considering the supply and demand
situation, the competitive position, and the marketing program.































Marketing channels
I
for delivery can be immediately responded to and re-delivery can immediately be done.
-
-
Alternative marketing channels will be utilized. Retailers located within the vicinity
- the eggs
from the farm to the retailer.
Sample write-up 6. Projected Sales

The projected sale is determined as the difference between the supply and demand for
eggs in Zamboanga City.
Based on the past records of the three major egg suppliers, a simple average is used to
determine the projected supply situation. It is done as follows:

1. Compute for the difference of the totals between two succeeding years starting from the
earliest years to the next year. Thus the first computation will involve years 2004 and 2005
and equals -212, 640 (= 2,244,000 2,456,640). The resulting computations for the other
years are shown below:

Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Index 1 2 3 4 5
Total eggs produced/year 2,456,640 2,244,000 2,290,400 2,396,960 2,531,200
Difference -212,640 46,400 106,560 134,240
% Change from previous year -8.65 2.07 4.65 5.67
Average % change/year 0.935

2. Compute for the % change from previous year as follows:

% change from previous year = (-212,640 / 2,456,640) x 100 = -8.65

Then do the same procedure for the other years.

3. Compute for the average % change / year as follows:

Average % change/year = [(-8.65) + (2.07) + (4.65 + (5.67)] / 4 = 0.935 %

An average of 0.935 % suggests that the supply of eggs from the major egg producers of
Zamboanga City will increase on the average by as much as 1 per 100 eggs per year.

Having determined the rate by which supply of egg increases, the projected supply
situation will be as shown below;
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 24












































Sample write-up Table 6. Five year supply projection for Zamboanga City

Average Volume of eggs
produced/year (pcs)
Year
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
33,302,400
33,613,777 33,928,066 34,245,294 34,565,487 34,888,674

The projection may also be done using the statistical method of linear regression.
Computational procedures for linear regression is facilitated by the use of a spreadsheet
computer application program such as MS Excel.

Using MS Excel requires familiarity with the Graphical Unit Interface of MS Excel.
However the computational procedures is as follows;
1. Open MS Excel.
2. Type your data so that it will appear as shown below;

3. Type the following formula as shown below. Observe the row and column
labels .

4. After entering the formula, and then pressing the ENTER key in each, the results will look
something similar to the one shown below;

The results of the formula are the projected supply per producer per year. Since
the formula gave an average for each producer, each has to be multiplied by 12, the total
number of producers, to get the projected total annual yearly supply for the next five
years. The final projection is shown below;

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 25












B. Production/ Technical Feasibility

This portion discusses in detail the product (quality, chemical composition,
materials used, etc.), the process and technology for its production, the raw materials
used, etc. Specifically, under this components are the following:

B.1 Product Description product specification, material/ chemical properties, and
quality.









B.2 Production Process description of the process and technology used indicating
material, equipment and energy requirements at each step (can be indicated in a
flow chart).












Sample write-up Table 9. Projected supply of eggs from the major producers in Zamboanga City.

Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Index 10 11 12 13 14
Average production per
producer per year 2,474,464 2,504,672 2,534,880 2,565,088 2,595,296
Average total production of the
12 producers per year 29,693,568 30,056,064 30,418,560 30,781,056 31,143,552

For this study and considering the available data at hand, the projected supply
shown in Sample write-up Table 8 will be preferred over the one that is arrived at when
using only the mean. Linear regression minimizes fluctuations about the mean as
opposed to the ordinary mean
Sample write-up 7. Product Description

Black pepper is a is a vine perennial plant producing berry like and aromatic pungent
Flowers are white which produce fruits when unripe and become red at maturity. Fruiting stage of
the plant occurs after three years from its initial date of planting. When dried, the fruits shrink
and maybe sold as dried black pepper, or it may be partially grounded to produce cracked black
pepper, or white pepper when finely grounded.
Sample write-up 8. Production Process

Black pepper is transplanted in a plowed and harrowed land at the start of the rainy
season. Because of their vine characteristics, their growth is guided by planting them besides a
that can be planted will be maximized. Transplanting is done during the rainy season to take
advantage of the additional moisture.
Routine management practices (application of fertilizers, control of pest and disease,
pruning) for the cultivation of black pepper is followed while they are in the growing stage.
Routine management practices (application of fertilizers, control of pest and disease, pruning) for
the cultivation of black pepper is followed while they are in the growing stage.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 26



















B.3 Plant size and production schedule rated annual/ monthly/ weekly or daily
capacity, operating days per year, expected production volume for the next five
years considering start-up and technical factors

















B.4 Machine and Equipment lists of machinery/ equipment to be purchased with
their corresponding prices, machinery and equipment lay-out (floor plan)




At fruiting stage, berry-like fruits will appear and matures in 5- 6 months when the berry-
like fruits turn to cherry red. The fruits are manually harvested during sunny days. Open basket or
sacks are used as containers tied to the waist of the harvester. Production of black pepper is
shown by the flow chart below;

Sample write-up Figure 2. Flow process in the production of Black Pepper

P R O P A G A T IO N
( 3 m o n th s )
L A N D
P R E P A R A T I O N
( 3 m o n th s )
T R A N S P L A N T IN G
( 1 m o n th )
R O U T IN E
M A N A G E M E N T
( C o n ti n u o u s )
1 . w e e d i n g
2 . . M u l c h i n g
3 . P r u n i n g
4 . C o n tr o l o f P e s t s
a n d D i s e a s e s
H A R V E S T I N ( 2
m o n th s 2 x / y e a r )
D R Y IN G
( 2 m o n th s 2 x / y e a r )
W r i t e - u p F i g u r e 1 . F l o w p r o c e s s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f B l a c k P e p p e r
Sample write-up 9. Plant size and production schedule

Ten hectares of land will be apportioned in the production of black pepper. At a spacing of
250 cm between post, 3,000 seedlings are needed per hectare or a total of 32,000 seedlings and
16,000 post. Maintenance of the seedlings will be a year round operation. The plant at maturity
will start producing on their third year. Harvesting, drying, and grinding will be additional activities
on the third year onwards. Production activities are shown in the diagram below:

The projected volume of harvest is shown in the table below:

Year of operation Estimated Yield (kls)
1
st
year 0
2
nd
year 0
3
rd
year 32,000
4
th
year 51,200
5
th
year 64,000
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 27














B.5 Plant/ business locations desirability of location in relation to the sources of
raw materials, markets, labor and other factors










B.6 Building and facilities type(s) of building and cost of construction, floor area,
land improvement such as road, drainage, etc. and their respective cost
















Sample write-up 10. Machineries and Equipment

The proposed project will be acquiring the following machineries and equipments:

Sample write-up Table 10. Machineries and equipments needs for the proposed black pepper
production.
Machineries & Equipments Purchase cost Life span
(Years)
Depreciation
Tractor 1,500,000 10 150,000
Mechanical drier 520,000 15 52,000
Farm Tools 103,000 10 10,300
Delivery Truck 800,000 10 80,000
Pulvorizer 70,000 10 7,000
Drip irrigation system 1,800,000 15 120,000
Grinder 57,000 10 5,700
Sample write-up 11. Plant/Business locations

The proposed business will be located at Barangay, Zamboanga city. It is approximately
25 kilometers from the city proper. A total of 13 hectares will be developed for the proposed
project. Water facilities are available and will be drawn from a nearby river. Adequate
transportation is also available. In fact, 70% of the road from the proposed site to the city proper
is fully concreted. (Note that this portion needs a location map). Farm labors are readily available
in the area. The site is well drained and the soil is suitable for the production of black pepper
(Much better if a map from the Bureau of Soils is included here).
Sample write-up 12. Building and facilities

The proponent will spend a total of 5,920,000 for the construction of the buildings and
land improvements. The table below shows the estimated expenses for buildings and land
improvements. (Note that this portion of the study requires that the floor plans, the lay-out of the
farm site should be attached as an Appendix).

Sample write-up Table 11. Estimated Expenses: Buildings and land Improvement

Particulars Capacity Amount
1. Irrigation system 400 l/min 1,800,000
2. Concrete water tank 36,000 gal 1,200,000
3. Barbed wire fencing and concrete posts 500 m 1,200,000
4. Storage building 300 cu.m 820,000
quarter 70 sq. m 900,000
Total 5,920,000
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 28
B.7 Plant layout description of the plant/ business lay-out, drawn to scale






B.8 Raw materials current and prospective costs, availability, continuity of supply,
current and prospective sources










B.9 Utilities electricity, fuel and water supplies indicating the uses, quantity
required availability, sources and costs













B.10 Waste Disposal description of the waste disposal method and the cost
involved








Sample write-up 13. Plant layout

A scaled lay-out of the farm as well as the various buildings for the project is included in the
Appendix. (Note that this lay-out should be drawn to scale and attached as an Appendix for
reference).
Sample write-up 14. Raw materials

The raw materials in the production of black pepper will include fertilizers, fungicides and
weedicides, and plastic bags. The raw material requirements and their costing are shown below:

Raw materials Cost Remarks
Fertilizers 800/bag Readily available for purchasing at the City
Fungicides 500/bot Readily available for purchasing at the City
Weedicides 500/bot Readily available for purchasing at the City
Sample write-up 15. Utilities

Electricity, fuel, and water consumption is shown below;
Utilities Uses Qantity Unit cost Availability Sources
1. Water Irrigation 36,000 gal/
irrigation
1.5 pesos
per gallon
(Pumping
cost)
To be pumped from
nearby river
Nearby river
2. Fuel Tractor &
hauling
operation
400 liters
per
operation
38 pesos
per liter
To be purchased
using drum
containers
Gasoline station
located 20 kms
away
3.
Electricity
Grinding &
lighting
5,000 kW/
month
5.50 / kW-
hr
Through electrical
distribution lines
Local electric
power company
Sample write-up 16. Waste Disposal

All wastes expected from the project are organic in nature. All organic waste materials
will be converted into compost. Compost making will entail a cost of labor for maintenance. The
composted material will be used as soil amendments, and the resulting benefits of the soil
amendments will not be reflected as savings or incomes. Labor cost for maintenance of the
compost is expected to approximately 200 per month.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 29
B.11 Production Cost detailed breakdown of the production costs involving direct
and indirect materials, direct and indirect labor, and manufacturing overhead


C. Organizational/ Management Feasibility

This portion discusses the structure of the organization of the business and the
justification for such a structure. It discusses the duties and functions of the different
positions in the structure. It describes how the different manpower resources and
their activities will operate in an efficient and effective manner and the costs involved
(salaries, fringe benefits, etc.).























D. Financial Feasibility

The financial feasibility study determines the amount of money required in the
realization of the project: the sources of financing and the cost involved. This portion
basically addresses money matters for the project; how much money the project
needs, how such financial requirements will be raised, and how soon the money
invested can be earned and recouped. This aspect is a very crucial component of the
feasibility study. This portion however requires an understanding of basic concepts
from accounting.

Sample write-up 17. Organization and Management



G e n e r a l M a n a g e r
A c c o u n t a n t C l e r k
F i e l d s u p e r v i s o r
L a b o r e r s
G e n e r a l M a n a g e r s J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s :
1 . A s s u m e s o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e
d i r e c t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t .
2 . I m p o s e s p o l i c i e s a n d d i s c i p l i n e s t o
s u b o r d i n a t e s .
3 . f i r e s a n d H i r e s w o r k e r s
C l e r k s J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s :
1 . F i l e s , d r a f t s a n d m a k e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .
2 . F i l e s F i e l d S u p e r v i s o r s D a i l y r e p o r t .
3 . A s s i s t t h e G e n e r a l M a n a g e r s
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s n e e d s .
A c c o u n t a n t s J o b d e s c r i p t i o n :
4 . M a k e s d a i l y j o u r n a l e n t r i e s .
5 . P r e p a r e n e c e s s a r y a c c o u n t i n g r e p o r t s . .
F i e l d S u p e r v i s o r s J o b D e s c r i p t i o n ;
1 . P r e p a r e d a i l y p r o d u c t i o n r e p o r t s .
2 . A s s i g n a n d c o o r d i n a t e t h e d a i l y t a s k o f
l a b o r e r s .
3 . R e p o r t a n y f i e l d p r o b l e m s t o t h e
G e n e r a l M a n a g e r
W r i t e - u p F i g u r e 1
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 30
D.1 Basic Concepts
D.1.1 The Balance sheet
A balance sheet is a financial statement which shows the financial
position of an enterprise as of a particular date. It consists of three (3) sections
which are the Assets, Liabilities, and .

1. Assets
Assets are what the business owns. These consist of the
properties of the business and include the building(s), machineries,
equipments, service vehicles, cash, inventories (unsold products of the
business), unused supplies, and all other things owned and used by the
business in its operations.
Assets are classified as Current assets: assets that can easily be
converted to cash usually in one year or less, and Non-Current Assets: all
other assets not classified as current and used by the business for its
operation like building, machinery, equipments, etc.
All the assets of the business have two sources for its financing:
through credit
There is no other source for the ownership of the assets of the business,
equation form:

This is the reason why this financial statement is called the
Balance Sheet because the total value of the assets of the business will
always be equal to the total liabilities of the business plus the total


2. Liabilities
Liabilities, in very simple term, are what the business owes. These
are the financial obligations of the enterprise which the business has to
pay or settle. Liabilities are incurred because of purchase of assets and
past transactions or events of the business. Liabilities are classified as
current liabilities: financial obligations of the business which are to be
settled within one year; and Non-current Liabilities: financial long-term
obligations of the business which are due and payable for more than one
year. Liabilities can be determined by deducting
equity or in equation form:


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 31

3.
is the residual claim of the owner in the assets of the enterprise after
deducting all its liabilities. It is expressed in the equation:


business (Net Income) and it is retained in the operation of the business.
It is also increased when there is additional contribution or investment by
the owner. It is decreased when there is Net Loss in the operation of the
business or there is withdrawal of money by the owner.

D.1.2 The Income Statement
An Income Statement is a financial statement which shows the financial
performance of the enterprise for a given period of time. This performance is
primarily measured in terms of the level of income/ profit earned through the
efficient utilization of its resources The Net Income or Net loss. The
relationship of the three can be expressed in the following:
1. Projected Revenue
In business, revenues are realized because of the sale of
products/merchandise or the delivery of a service. Revenue can either be
Cash Sales: sales of products or services done in cash, or Credit Sales:
sales done on credit by the buyer which will be paid in some agreed
future date. Revenue realized through the sale of a product or
merchandise is called sales income; while revenue made through delivery
of a service is called Service Income.
Sales Income is a function of the quantity/volume sold of a
product and its price. In equation from, this is expressed as:

LIABILITIES
SALES INCOME = QUANTITY X PRICE PER UNIT
LIABILITIES = ASSETS
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 32

The projected quantity of the product sold is determined by the
projected demand of the product and the projected production of the
business (found in the Market Feasibility and Production /Technical
Feasibility, respectively).
The selling price per unit for the product may be determined
through the Market Feasibility (price of similar product in the market) or
in the production/technical feasibility (production cost per unit plus a
percentage mark-up). There are many pricing strategies available to the
business for determining the selling price per unit of its product. Some of
these are:
a. Cost-plus pricing total production cost per unit plus a
percentage mark-up
b. Competitive pricing price the product according to the price
prevailing in the market
c. Psychological pricing pricing the product in odd number (ex.
P499.99/unit)
d. Penetration pricing pricing the product lower than the market
price to get a share of the market
e. Skimming pricing pricing the product high to recover research
and development cost; usually adopted in product with no
competition in the market (ex. New cell phone model with no
similar features in the market)
f. Prestige pricing pricing the product higher than the market
price to depict quality products; usually targets the higher
income class
g. Discount pricing giving discount price when purchased in bulk
or volume
2. Projected Expenses
Expenses are made by the business for the materials and labor
that are needed to produce the product. These payments are also
referred to as costs. Payments paid for labor are called labor Expenses;
payments made for the purchase of raw materials are known as Raw
Material Expenses; a rental payment is called Rental Expenses. Expense
or cost is something that your business has to give away in order that it
can produce and deliver its products, goods, and services. These
expenses are sometimes collectively called Production Expenses or Input
Costs.
The projected expenses for the study can be obtained from the
Market feasibility (marketing expense), the production Feasibility (raw
material expense, depreciation expense, labor expenses, and all other
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 33
production expenses, and organizational Feasibility (administrative
expense, supply expenses).

D.1.3 The Cash Flow Statement
A Cash flow Statement is a financial statement that provides
information about cash inflows (Receipts or sources of cash) and cash outflows
(Payments or Uses of cash) of the business for a given period of time. Cash
inflows are money transactions that go into the business while cash outflows
are cash transactions that go out of the business. Non-cash transactions are
not included in the statements.
Shown at the bottom of the statement is the cash balance for a given
period. The cash balance is the difference between the Cash Receipts/Sources
and the Cash payments/Uses.
The Projected Cash Flow Statement is used by lending institutions to
determine the paying capability of the business in some future period.
It is also used by the business to determine in what period or month
the business is in short supply of cash or in large excess of cash. In this manner,
the business can project when to borrow and in what amount of cash to
borrow to be used in its operation.

D.2. Financial Feasibility Component
D.2.1 Major Assumptions
This portion presents all the major assumptions of the project and
includes the following:
1. Projected volume of production of the project for five to ten years
2. Projected demand and sales revenue of the project considering the
volume of sales per period and the projected price per period
3. Projected production cost including the depreciation per period of
the building, facilities, machines and equipments; labor costs;
material costs; manufacturing overhead costs
4. Labor costs refer to the number of employees and the salary and
benefits paid.
5. Material costs refers pertains to the costs of raw materials, and all
other materials used in production
6. Manufacturing overhead refers to the costs in electricity and water,
and all other manufacturing costs not classified as labor or material
7. Projected non-manufacturing costs like administrative expense,
selling and marketing costs
(From the above-mentioned costs, fixed costs and variable costs can
be determined on a per unit or total cost basis. Variable costs are
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 34
costs that vary with the level of production while fixed costs are costs
that do not vary with the level of production)
8. Projected interest rate per period
9. Pre-operating expenses or organizational expenses that include
registration fees, notarial costs, and all other costs in the
establishment of the project
D.2.2 Projected Financial Statements
Projected financial statements generally cover the first five years or
more. In a business plan, the financial projections are prepared on a
quarterly basis for the first year, where assumptions are still reliable, and
yearly for subsequent years.
A sample projected balance sheet, Income Statement, and a cash flow
statement is shown below:





























Sample write-up 18. Projected Financial Statements

A. Projected Balance Sheet for the Black Pepper Project
Particulars Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
ASSETS:
Current Assets:
Cash 4,074,000 2,966,600 8,990,102 17,906,927 30,638,167
Non-current Assets
Drip Irrigation 1,800,000 1,800,000 1,800,000 1,800,000 1,800,000
Concrete water tank 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000
Concrete fencing 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000
Storage building 820,000 820,000 820,000 820,000 820,000
Living quarters 900,000 900,000 900,000 900,000 900,000
Mech. Drier 520,000 520,000 520,000 520,000 520,000
Pulvoizer 70,00 70,00 70,00 70,00 70,00
Grinder 57,000 57,000 57,000 57,000 57,000
Delivery truck 800,000 800,000 800,000 800,000 800,000
Tractor 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000
Farm tools 103,000 103,000 103,000 103,000 103,000
Bag Closer 30,00 30,00 30,00 30,00 30,00
Office furniture 30,00 30,00 30,00 30,00 30,00
Total Non-Current Assets 9,030,000 9,030,000 9,030,000 9,030,000 9,030,000
Less: Depreciation 702,367 1,404,734 2,107,101 2,809,468 3,511,835
Amortization 6,000 12,000 18,000 24,000 30,000
Total Amortization &
Depreciation
708,367 1,416,000 2,125,101 2,833,468 3,541,853

TOTAL ASSETS 12,395,633 10,579,866 15,895,001 24,103,495 36,126,332
LIABILITIES & EQUITY:
Long term liability 9,000,000 9,000,000 9,000,000 9,000,000 9,000,000
6,000,000 3,395,633 1,579,866 6,895,001 16,903,459
Net Income/loss -2,604,367 -1,493,400 5,315,135 10,008,458 13,822,873
TOTAL LIABILITY & EQUITY 12,395,633 10,579,866 15,895,001 24,103,459 36,126,332

From the above table, one can take note of the fact that the TOTAL LIBILITY & EQUITY
always equals the TOTAL ASSETS for every projected year.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 35































D.2.3 Projected Financial Performance: Financial Analysis
The projected financial statements are analyzed as to how the
enterprise will perform and to measure its performance using tools in
financial analysis like financial ratios, payback period, etc.
Financial analysis is important because it will determine the
profitability or viability of the business venture based on the projected
financial statements presented. Some of the tools in financial analysis are the
following:


B. Projected Income Statement for the Black Pepper Project.

Particulars Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Gross income 0 0 9,600,000 16,896,000 23,232,000
Less: Cash Operating expenses -1,896,000 -1,107,4000 1,176,040 1,251,544 1,334,598
Net income before Interest -1,896,000 -1,107,4000 8,423,960 15,644,456 21,897,402
Less: Depreciation & Amortization 708,367 708,367 708,367 708,367 708,367
Net Income before Tax -2,604,367 -1,815,767 7,715,593 14,936,089 21,189,035
Less: Income Tax 0 0 2,400,458 4,927,631 7,366,162
Net Income -2,604,367 -1,815,767 5,315,135 10,008,458 13,822,873

In the above table, negative values in the Net Income indicates that a net amount of money
has left the business, while positive values indicate that a net amount of money has entered the
business. Below is a sample of a Cash Flow statement, taken from the Black Pepper project,

C. Projected Cash Flow Statement for the Black Pepper Project.

Particulars
Pre-
operating
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Cash inflows:
Gross Income 0 0 0 9,600,000 16,896,000 23,232,000
Loan 9,000,000 0 0
6,000,000 0 0
Total cash inflow 15,000,000 0 0 9,600,000 16,896,000 23,232,000
Cash outflow
Cash Operating Expenses 0 1,896,000 1,107,400 1,176,040 1,251,544 1,334,598
Income tax 0 0 0 2,400,458 4,927,631 7,366,162
Principal (Loan) 0 0 0 1,800,000 1,800,000
Fixed assets 9,000,000 0 0
Organizational cost 30,000 0 0
Total Cash Outflow 9,030,000 1,896,000 1,107,400 3,576,498 7,979,175 10,500,760
Net Cash Flow 5,970,000 -1,896,000 -1,107,400 6,023,502 8,916,825 12,731,240
Add: beginning cash balance 0 5,970,000 4,074,000 2,966,600 8,990,102 17,906,927
Ending Cash Balance 5,970,000 4,074,000 2,966,600 8,990,600 17,906,927 30,638,167
Note how the beginning cash balance is brought forward to the next year. Also, the negative
values indicate a Net Cash Outflow.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 36
1. Payback Period
The payback period measures the length of time required to
recover the amount of initial investments. It is the time interval between
time of initial outlay and the full recovery of the investment.
A computation of the payback period is easy if the cash inflows
are uniform, as such it is computed as follows:
If on the other hand the periodic cash flows are not uniform, then
the payback period is computed by cumulating the estimated annual cash
inflows and determining the point in time at which they equal the
investment outlay.


2. Return on Investment (ROI)
The ROI is a measure of income or profit divided by the investment
required to help obtain the income or profit. It actually answers the
question, for every peso invested how much was the return?. The ROI is
computed as:
Payback period = (Net investments) / (Annual cash returns)
Sample computation 1. Payback period when the cash flows are not uniform.

The method shown below uses the algebraic method of interpolation to arrive at
the payback period.
For the black pepper project, the returns are shown below:
Year Net income Cumulative
1 -2,604,367 -2,604,367
2 -1,815,767 -4,420,134
3 5,315,135 895,001
4 10,008,458 10,903,459
X - 15,000,000
5 13,822,873 24,726,332

The X represents the point in time where the accumulated Net income equals the
Capital outlay. X maybe determined using interpolation as shown below:
4.30years x
0.421 x 5 4 x
9,726,332
0.421
15,000,000 24,726,332
10,903,459 15,000,000
x 5
4 x


ROI = (Average Yearly Net profit) / (Total Investment cost)
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 37

3. Break Even Analysis
The break even point is the volume level of product produced
where the profit equals zero, that is the volume of sales where there is
no profit and where there is no loss. Use of the break even analysis
requires that the fixed cost and variable cost be known per unit of
product.

4. The Net Present Value and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
These two financial evaluation tools are very popular evaluation
tools; both however require an understanding of the value or worth of
money with the passage of time. Manual computational procedures are
elaborate and will not be presented here. However, a demonstration to
compute NPV and IRR will be done using a computer application
Excel) powerful financial formula towards the end of this
topic.
In evaluating the feasibility study, one has to recognize that the
value or the worth of money is related to the passage of time, and most
of the time it is a relationship that causes the worth of your money to
lessen (such as in an inflationary economy, or if the money was borrowed
from the bank, the real interest will always be increasing, well at least we
have not heard of a bank charging a negative interest!). To put it simply,
100 pesos today cannot buy the same number of sardines a year after. So
what has it to do in the pricing and in the costing of the product of the
business? That your assumption about your fixed cost and variable cost
Sample Computation 3. Break Even Analysis.
In the case of rice trading, the variable cost per sack is 2,000 pesos. The fixed
cost amounts to 30,000 a month, and the selling price per sack is 2,500. Computations for
the break even point per month is;

Break even sales = Fixed cost + Variable cost
2,500X=30,000+2,000X
X=60 minimum number of sacks that has to be sold per month

Sample Computation 2. Computation of the ROI.

The ROI for the Black pepper project is computed as;

ROI = (24,726,332 / 5 years) / (15,000,000)=0.33 or 33%

An ROI of 0.33 indicates that for every 1.00 peso invested in the business, return
of 33 centavos will be generated each year.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 38
will no longer be as equally valid as it is after your first month of
operation! Whether you used your personal money, or you just simply
borrowed the money from the bank, it is still subject to the same
principle that it is a function of time.
If you are planning to put 100 pesos in a bank starting tomorrow
for a period of one year with an interest rate of 10%, then after one year
your money will be worth 110 pesos. The 100 pesos is referred to as the
Present Value (PV) of your money and the 110 pesos is the Future Value
(FV) of your money. If a friend has invited you to invest 100 pesos in his
business, and after one year he will give you in return 110 pesos, then
your money earned an interest of 10%. If your father promised you 110
pesos after a year, but you were given the option to get it now on the
condition that you will receive only 100 pesos, then you will have been
subjected to a discounted rate of 10%.
The concept of PV and FV are employed in two most commonly
used management investments decision tools: Net Present Value (NPV)
and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The NPV is the sum of all the PV of
the money that gets into the business (considered positive) and the PV of
all the money that gets out of the business (considered negative) at a
certain discount rate. The discount rate is set by the goals of the
business. In general a higher positive NPV is preferable.
Consider a hypothetical situation wherein all of your investments
were borrowed from the bank, then you started computing for the NPV
ive it indicates that it is
not worth pursuing after all and your business ultimately earns money to
pay only your loans. . If the NPV is zero, it suggests that you would be
better off putting your money in the bank and let the bank s interest rate
increase your money without the headaches of running the business. If
on the other hand the NPV is positive, then this is suggestive that the
business ideas are worth pursuing after all, and you can pay your loans to
the bank with some more remaining for your business.
Computations using the IRR will yield a discounted rate of return
where the NPV is zero. The IRR provides an answer to the question,
hat is the rate of return when the NPV is zero? while the NPV
answers the question, What is the present value of all the investments
when the discount rate is known?
The next two examples illustrate the use of a computer
application program (MS Excel) to compute for the NPV and the IRR of
the projected income statement of the black Pepper Project.



Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 39












































Sample Computation 4. Computation of the NPV from the Projected Income Statement of the
Black Pepper Project.
Particulars Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Gross income 0 0 9,600,000 16,896,000 23,232,000
Less: Cash Operating expenses -1,896,000 -1,107,4000 1,176,040 1,251,544 1,334,598
Net income before Interest -1,896,000 -1,107,4000 8,423,960 15,644,456 21,897,402
Less: Depreciation & Amortization 708,367 708,367 708,367 708,367 708,367
Net Income before Tax -2,604,367 -1,815,767 7,715,593 14,936,089 21,189,035
Less: Income Tax 0 0 2,400,458 4,927,631 7,366,162
Net Income -2,604,367 -1,815,767 5,315,135 10,008,458 13,822,873

Following are the steps using MS Excel
Step 1. Start MS Excel

Step 2. Type the Net Income projections from Year 1 to Year 5 so that they will appear as
shown below

Step 3. Type in the desired, desired discounted rate, for example 12%, in the location shown
below

Step 4. Type in the formula for the NPV as shown below, then press the ENTER key,

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 40












































Step 5. The results should appear to be similar to the one below


The value of 14,214,387.45 suggest that the present value of all the Net income, is


Sample Computation 5. Computation of the IRR

Computations of the IRR for the Projected Income Statement of the Black Pepper Project
using MS Excel is as follows;

Step 1. Start MS Excel
Step 2. Type the Net Income projections from Year 1 to Year 5 so that they will appear as
shown below; (The same as in NPV computation)


Step 3. Type the IRR formula as shown below;


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 41















4.1 Socio-Economic Analysis - This portion of the study analyzes the socio-
economic impact of the project/ business to the community in terms of
employment generation of uplifting the status of the community.

4.2 Conclusion of the study - This portion of the study gives the conclusion on
whether the proposed undertaking is viable/ profitable or not.

VI. Format

Feasibility study format varies and will depend upon the reader. If the business
owner himself prepared the feasibility study, and the business will be financed by the
owner himself, then much of the details may not necessarily be included. If on the other
hand, you have just hired the services of experts (or consultants) to prepare your
feasibility study, they will prepare it in a proposal format ready for submission to a
funding or lending institution. A typical format is as follows:

I. Executive summary
II. Introduction - a brief description of the business, the product or service that you
produce or deliver, and the rationally why the feasibility study is being
undertaken.
III. The Market feasibility
IV. The Production/Technical Feasibility
V. The Organizational Feasibility
VI. Financial Feasibility
VII. The Socio-Economic Impact
VIII. The Conclusion of the feasibility study on whether the proposed undertaking is
viable/profitable or not. The conclusion will provide an outline of how the
business will succeed. The discussion will be based upon the strength and the
weakness of the four components of the feasibility study. Areas for improving
Step 4. After you have pressed the ENTER key you should have something that looks similar
to the one below;

The IRR computed by MS Excel was 0.98 or 98%. Values as big as this, gives you a
second thought of revisiting your assumptions and computations
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 42
the strength will be pointed out; strategies to overcome areas of weaknesses will
also have to be pointed out.

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 43
are built based on a
-dlf
Sub-Module 2: The Business Plan: The Roadmap to Success?





I. Definition

A business plan is a written document that shows the details of the
implementation of a business or a project. The business plan is the last step towards
actualization of the project.
II. Principles of Planning
Here are some basic principles of planning which are applicable for micro and
small business:

1. Planning must be realistic. It must be based on available resources human,
financial and physical resources.
2. Planning must be based on felt needs of the people and the community.
3. Planning must be flexible. Resources, needs, and economic conditions change;
planning should be adjusted to such changes to be effective and relevant.
4. Planning must start with simple projects. Persons who have no business
experience should start with simple and micro business since it requires simple
technology, few resources (funds, materials and equipment), and has greater
possibility of success.
(Source: Entrepreneurship by Feliciano Fajardo, 1994)
III. Purpose
A written business plan is necessary or needed for the following reasons:

To project a general picture of the business project
To serve as a guide in implementing the business or project
To serve as major input to investment decisions or major expenditures
To serve as a guide for policy formulation and development
To serve as a guide for operational matters
To serve as a reference for bank loan or financing purposes
To determine /estimate the detailed technical and financial requirements
To serve as an overall guide for the proponent or entrepreneur


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 44
IV. Importance of Business Planning
1. Planning can eliminate business risks.
2. Planning can minimize cost of production.
3. Planning can detect the weakness of the business operations.

V. Format of a Business Plan
One has to remember that the primary objective in preparing a business plan is
to ensure that a business will suc
operation of the business. If the business plan is to be used by the owner himself, then
some portions of the business plan can be reduced when the business plan was
prepared by professionals or consultants, a typical format is shown below:

1. The Executive Summary
What is the purpose of your business? Who owns your business? When
was it created? Why was it created? Who manages your business? What are
your business objectives? Why will you need money? How much money will you
need? What makes you think that your business will be successful?
Note that the executive summary is to be written after you have
prepared the business plan, but is positioned at the start (How could you
summarize something which is not yet finished!).

2. The Table of Contents
These are the topics that you have discussed in your business plan
presented in outline form. It lists down the various topics with their
corresponding pages for ease in locating and cross referencing the various
topics.

3. Product or services
This portion provides a complete picture or description of the products,
services and their unique features.

4. Organization and Management
This portion of the business plan is a description of how your business is
being organized and managed. Start by giving a summarized description of the
business. Then follow it with your mission, the business model that you are using
and the strategies of the business. If possible include in this portion of the
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 45
business plan a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and
Threats).
It is also in this portion of the business plan that you discuss about your
product or services, the raw materials, the processes employed, the kind of
services that you deliver. Your sources, how you handle your inventory and how
you deliver your goods or services are also included.
You also have to describe your location here (include a map to show that
you are strategically located to your market).
Include here your management structure and the various personnel or
worker with their corresponding duties and functions in your business and their
corresponding salaries (Bonuses and other benefits). You will also explain here
your structure, and its justification for carrying out the business efficiently and
effectively.
Your accounting system, as well as the methods of recording is also
indicated here.
Insurance against theft or losses may also be included here.

5. Marketing plans and Strategy
This portion of the business plan outlines your understanding about your
market. It completely describes the various elements operating on your market.
You start by giving an overview of your marketing plans and strategies. This is
then followed by your analysis of your market (competitors, target markets,
demographics, market trends, market research). Then a marketing strategy
follows; General marketing budget descriptions, Sales and distribution strategy,
branding, pricing, packaging, advertising, sales incentives, implementation of
marketing strategies, feedback and method of assessment of the marketing
mechanism, etc.

6. Financial Reports and Documents
This portion of your business plan quantifies the things discussed in the
Organization and management part, and that of the marketing plan portion of
your business plan.
If your business plan was prepared with the additional intention of asking
for additional financing, you start this portion with a summary of how much you
need, the reasons why you need it, and the methods by which you intend to pay
it.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 46
If your business is just a new business, you have to include here your
financial projections. The projections will be quarterly for the first year (were
projections can still be made accurate), and yearly for the succeeding years
(Projections tends to become inaccurate if a longer period of time span is used).
The projected Cash Flow statement, Balance sheet, Income statement,
and Break-even analysis are all included in this portion of the business plan.
If you are seeking additional investment, and you have been in the
business for a number of years, you have to include here historical financial
records to assist the reader in evaluating your past performance.

7. Other Needed Documents
Inclusion of additional needed documents in the business plan will only
be necessary if you will be seeking additional investments for your business or if
you believe that the documents will further the stature of your business (such as
an ISO certification, your short resume indicating your qualifications and other
legal documents). Remember, you are trying to convince others to invest in your
business, so keep in mind that only documents that might be of importance to
the reader should be included here. Other documents should be kept by you, but
you should be prepared to provide them, should the reader asked for them (You


Each of the above items can still be further elaborated upon, but this module is
not intended to teach participants to prepare an elaborate business plan. Samples of
elaborately prepared business plans are available on a wide variety of sites over the
Internet. Should you be overwhelmed by the information over the Internet, then you
can always seek assistance from experts in business plan preparation (This would imply
that you have a large amount of money or you really need a large amount of money for
your business).
Finally, remember that your business plan is a detail of your business. If
somebody else might take hold of it, and implement it, then the benefits for the time
and effort that you have invested in your business plan might be reaped by somebody
else. So keep track of your business plan; retrieve it if it was disapproved by a lending
institution.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 47
Sub-Module 3: The Project Proposal: Where Will I Get My Money?

I. Definition
Project proposals are written documents prepared with the intention of gaining
funding support for the pursuit of an idea or a project. In some cases the project
proposal is prepared because an organization or a government agency asked you to
submit one (solicited project proposal). Your City Government might ask you to submit a
project proposal about waste management and collection in the city, since your line of
expertise is on Garbage Disposal.
In some cases the project proposal is unsolicited, and in this case you prepare
the proposal directed towards a possible funding agency. Proposal related to Wild Life
Conservation, Health Care, Malnutrition, and so many others, are generally submitted as
unsolicited proposals.
A business proposal is prepared with the intention of gaining a business
advantage, measured in terms of the perceived monetary reward once a business idea is
implemented. As in any other proposal, a business proposal maybe solicited or
unsolicited. Request for the submission of tenders or a bid is a kind of solicited proposal.
Offering your competitors with a merger proposal is a kind of unsolicited business
proposal.
Preparation of project proposal precedes the conduct of a feasibility study.

II. Purpose

Whatever the proposal is, there are two things that you have to remember: (1)
you have a good idea and you are going to put it in paper, and (2) you convince the
reader to accept the proposal as worthy of the time and effort to be financed or
invested.
When writing your proposal, you have to keep in mind that you are writing for
your reader with the intention of convincing them; consequently, you have to define
carefully your reader: Who are they? What is it that will interest them about my
proposal? How will my proposal meet their objectives? What is it that they would want
from my proposal?
On the other hand, you must also remember that you have a good idea to
pursue, and that you have to put it into writing, you must also be very clear about it.
You should be clear and specific about your objectives, the approach that you intend to
undertake, the anticipated results, the time and duration of the undertaking, the
personnel requirements, the resources needed and their associated cost.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 48
Because a proposal is written and intended for the reader, different readers will
have different perspectives, and consequently the same proposed idea will be
elaborated upon differently for different readers.


III. Format

There are some basic common elements that can be found in a project proposal.
These elements are:
A. PROJECT INFORMATION
This includes the project title, location, proponent, contact details,
collaborating organizations, project duration, target start date, total project
costs, amount of funding requested and form of assistance.
B. PROJECT/BUSINESS DESCRIPTION
1. Give a brief description of the project or business being proposed.
2. Give a description of the problem that the proposal intends to solve.
3. State clearly the objectives and the expected output of the proposed project.
4. Identify the sectors or stakeholders targeted to benefit from the project, and
describe the form of the benefits.
C. PROPOSAL DETAILS
PROJECT/BUSINESS VIABILITY
a. The Organizational and Management Competence of the proponents which
includes the following:
1. Past performance records.
2. Proponents Management & leadership (list of board and management
members, and a description of their management system)
3. Staffing and Management Structure
4. Financial System
5. Credit Dealings & Worthiness
b. Project Technical and Technology Description
1. Explanation on the technology that the proponent applies in
project/business operation
2. Explanation on the technical and hard and soft technology requirements
of the project being applied for support.
3. Environment hazard of the technology being used if there is any


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 49
c. Assessment of the Market
1. Supply and demand analysis
2. Products and services description
3. Customers and Competition
4. Product/service distribution network information (optional)
5. Sales Forecast (as applicable)
d. Financial Management
1. Description of financial management system
2. Financial plan (provide information on amount required to implement
the project and how and where the financial assistance shall be utilized)
3. Financial projection for at least 3 years (Documents to be submitted
include Balance Sheet, Income Statement and Cash Flow)
D. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN OR PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES (provides details on pre-
business operation and at least 1
st
year operation of the project/business after
approval)

Most of the information that gets into the project proposal will come from the
feasibility study. Furthermore, do remember that a proposal is written with the reader
in mind, so that degree of details will be determined by the reader.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 50
SUMMARY

The feasibility study is used as a means of exploring the viability of an idea. The
viability of an idea, its accuracy and its reliability depend on the information gathered
through Market Research and analysis. It is used mainly to support a project proposal or
a business plan.
A business plan serves as the implementing guidelines of the business, including
the strategies that it seeks to implement. Its main objective is to convince the business
implementer that the business is to succeed.
The project proposal seeks funding for a project, and maybe solicited or
unsolicited. Its main objective is to convince the reader of the proposal that the
proposed idea is worth the time and effort of pursuing within the stated resources and
at a given time frame.
Both project proposal and business plan depend on the information collected
during the feasibility phase of the study.
The degree of details of the feasibility study, project proposal and the business
plan depend on the objectives of the ultimate user. However, there are common
elements for each one that allows for a common format in their final preparation.
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 51
Evaluation

Evaluation#1

The evaluation instrument presented below tries to evaluate the module s
effectiveness in achieving its objectives. Participants are expected to use this module.

Instructions: Below are some questions fro you to answer with a yes or no
Questions Check)
If No, Please give a remarks or a
suggestions
Yes No
1. Was the topic on feasibility study
presented clearly?

2. Were you able to outline you
feasibility study?

3. Were you able to identify the
information that you need for your
feasibility study

4. Was the topic on Market research
presented clearly?

5. Were you able to identify the
information that will be included in
your market research?

6. Were you able to analyze your
financial projections?

7. Were you able to prepare your
business plan?

8. Were you able to prepare your project
proposal

9. Were you given sufficient time to
prepare for this training?

10. Were the materials made available to
you to accomplish what you were
required?

11. Do you think that the module is
helpful?

12. Do you have a suggestion for the
modules improvement?

13. Are the facilities sufficient when the
module is used?



Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 52
Evaluation #2

1. Which of the statements below best describes a feasibility study?

a. A requirement in a business class.
b. A study undertaken by professionals who were paid to do a feasibility study.
c. A feasibility study is an undertaking used to explore the viability or profitability
of an idea or a venture.
d. A feasibility study is collecting data through market research.
e. None of the above

2. Of what importance is a feasibility study?
a. A feasibility study reduces the potential risk of failure of an undertaking.
b. It eliminates a trial and error approach in an undertaking.
c. It allows the identification of critical issues in an undertaking.
d. It serves as means for deciding on whether to commit valuable resources in an
undertaking.
e. All of the above.

3. When do you prepare a feasibility study?
a. When a business idea or a venture has already been decided.
b. When proposed changes in a business are being contemplated upon.
c. When asking for a loan to start a new business.
d. When deciding to change the location of the business.
e. All of the above

4. Which of the following is NOT a basic component of a feasibility study?
a. Market Feasibility
b. Organizational Feasibility
c. Financial feasibility
d. Technical Feasibility
e. none of the above

5. What determines the format of a feasibility study?
a. If the feasibility study was undertaken and to be used by the owner himself, then
it can use a simple format.
b. It the feasibility study was commissioned and to be financed by owner himself,
then it will have a format that can convince the owner, that the proposed idea is
viable.
c. If the feasibility study was prepared for loan purposes, then it should have a
format that can convince the lending institution that the proposed undertaking is
worth their time and effort investing.
d. If the feasibility study was required by the top management of the business,
then it should have the format that can convince top management.
e. All of the above
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 53
Evaluation #3

1. Given the following description of a proposed undertaking;
Description: Production of Two Month Old Ornamental Plants Using Two Inches
Diameter Styrofoam cups. The plants will be used as decorations in
special occasions, such as anniversaries, graduations, birthdays, etc. The
ornamental plants to be produced are fast growing and fast flowering
with different flower colors. The small styrofoam cups can be arranged to
produce various arrangement of the colors. The cups maybe tied to a
post, a window, or on a constructed arch. The plants are expected to last
for three days with minor watering, after which they are already to be
disposed.

Required: Using the guide questions on market research, re-state and list down
the possible questions that should be included in your market research.

Example : What type of raw materials do I need?
Re-stated Question : What type of fast growing and colorful ornamental plants
do I need.

Question Re-stated question






















Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 54
Evaluation #3

1. was
58.73%. Which of the statements below correctly interprets the ROI.
a. Each 1.00 peso invested in the business gave a return of 58.73 centavos.
b. Each 1.00 peso invested in the business gave a return of 41.27 centavos.
c. Each 1.00 peso invested in the business gave a return of 58.73 pesos.
d. Each 1.00 peso invested in the business gave a return of 41.27 pesos.
e. None of the above

2.
amounted to Php 257,622.12, and the expected Average Annual income is Php
151,269.89. The computed payback period was 1.7 years. Which of the
statements below correctly interprets the payback period.
a. The payback period is the ratio of the Average Annual Income to that of the
Average Annual Investment.
b. The payback period is the length of time that a given income will be realized.
c. The Average Annual Income of Php 151,269.89 will be generated at 1.7 years
d. The Average Annual Investment of Php 257,622.12 will be recovered at 1.7
years
e. None of the above

3. In the Fea
amounts to Php 257,622.12, and the average Volume of Production was 31,191
units of product. The break-Even price for the undertaking was computed to be
Php 8.25. Which of the statements below correctly describes the Break-Even
price?
a. Producing less than 31,191 units would mean that the proposed business
activity would not be able to recover its production cost.
b. Producing more than 31,191 units would mean that the proposed business
activity would be able to recover its production cost.
c. Producing exactly 31,191 units would recover production cost, but with zero
profit.
d. Producing 31,191 units and selling each unit at Php 8.50 will bring profit.
e. All of the above

4. In the feasibility Stud
NPV for the first five years of the projected income was computed to be
560,000.00 at a discounted rate of 8%. Which of the statements below correctly
interprets the NPV.
a. The present worth of the projected five year income equals 560,000.
b. The proposed business is not profitable.
c. It is better to invest the 500,000.00 in the bank that pays an interest of 3%.
d. It is better to increase the investment in the proposed business.
e. None of the above
Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 55
5. In the
series of yearly projected income shown in the projected income statement was
computed to be 9.5%. Which of the statements below correctly interprets the
IRR of 9.5%.
a. The IRR of 9.5% indicates that at a discount rate of 9.5%, the NPV of the
annual projected income is zero.
b. The IRR of 9.5% indicates that for each peso that was invested in the business
generated 0.095 pesos.
c. The IRR of 9.5% indicates that for each peso that was invested in the business
generated 0.095 centavos.
d. The IRR of 9.5% indicates that the proposed business is not viable/ profitable.
e. None of the above
































Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 56

Evaluation #5

1. Go back to your original grouping. You identify product that you wish to engage
into.
2. Prepare a Feasibility study of that particular product.
3. Present your output using computer.


Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 57
REFERENCES

A. Pdf files
1. Becoming Enterprising. UNESCO Principal Regional Office For Asia And The
Pacific (Pdf file).
2. Cooperatives, A Tool for Community Economic Development, University of
Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives Cooperative Development Services (Pdf
file).
3. Continuing Education Programmes Focusing on Small-Scale Enterprise nor Neo-
literates through Community Learning Centers (Pdf file).
4. Starting My Own Small Business: A training module on entrepreneurship for
learners in a non-
(Pdf file).
5. Starting My Own Small Business: A training module on entrepreneurship for
learners in a non-
2006 (Pdf file).
6. Starting My Own Small Business: A training module on entrepreneurship for
students of technical and vocational education and training at secondary level,

7. Starting My Own Small Business: A training module on entrepreneurship for
students of technical and vocational education and training at secondary level,

8. Project Evaluation and Development. Edillon, R.G. Strengthening Capacities on
Provincial/ Local Planning and Expenditure Management, October 5, 2007 (Pdf
file).
9. Guidelines for the Preparation of Research Project Proposal For Funding Under
the UPLB Basic Research program, Revised April 2007 (UPLB-BRP-F1). (Pdf file)

B. Websites
10. http//:The Dynamic Business Plan, Mogen Thomsen, Business Consultant,
11. http//: Freetutes.com. System Analysis and Design.
12. http://articles.bplans.com/writing-a-business-plan/33
13. http//:about.com. Feasibility Study Course Lesson-1 What is a Feasibility
Study?. Lahle Wolfe.
14. http//:captureplanning.com
15. http//:4hb.com.Campbell, John

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 58
C. Books
16. Accounting 21e, Warren C.S, Reeve J.M, Fess, P.E. Thomson learning Asia,
Singapore. 21st ed. 2005.
17. Intermediate Accounting, vol 1, Robles, N.S, Empleo, P.M. JLA Printing Services,
Novaliches, Quezon City, 2005.
18. Intermediate Accounting, vol 2, Robles, N.S, Empleo, P.M. JLA Printing Services,
Novaliches, Quezon City, 2005.
19. Intermediate Accounting, vol 3, Robles, N.S, Empleo, P.M. JLA Printing Services,
Novaliches, Quezon City, 2005.

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 59
Appendix

Writing The Plan
What goes in a business plan? The body can be divided into four distinct sections:

1) Description of the business
2) Marketing
3) Finances
4) Management

Agenda should include an executive summary, supporting documents, and financial
projections. Although there is no single formula for developing a business plan, some
elements are common to all business plans. They are summarized in the following
outline:

Elements of a Business Plan
1. Cover sheet
2. Statement of purpose
3. Table of contents
I. The Business
A. Description of business
B. Marketing
C. Competition
D. Operating procedures
E. Personnel
F. Business insurance
II. Financial Data
A. Loan applications
B. Capital equipment and supply list
C. Balance sheet
D. Breakeven analysis
E. Pro-forma income projections (profit & loss statements)
F. Three-year summary
G. Detail by month, first year
H. Detail by quarters, second and third years
I. Assumptions upon which projections were based
J. Pro-forma cash flow

Module 1: Feasibility Study, Business Plan & Project Proposal 60
III. Supporting Documents
A. Tax returns of principals for last three years Personal
financial statement (all banks have these forms)
B. For franchised businesses, a copy of franchise contract and all supporting
documents provided by the franchisor
C. Copy of proposed lease or purchase agreement for building space
D. Copy of licenses and other legal documents
E. Copy of resumes of all principals
F. Copies of letters of intent from suppliers, etc.



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